He Oranga Hapori: A model for raising Maori ... - Te Puni Kokiri

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He Oranga Hapori: A model for raising Maori ... - Te Puni Kokiri

following his visits, the survival of Mäori as a people became less certain. Their physical survivalwas threatened following the signing of Te Tiriti o Waitangi in 1840. By the mid 1890s, the Mäoripopulation had fallen to 42,000 from the estimated 90,000 in 1840. Disappearance was predicted;the designers of public health policy preached the smoothing of the pillow of a dying race.Exactly the reverse occurred. The population of Te käkano i ruia mai i Rangiätea multiplied 15times to 600,000 as we entered the 21st century. Physical survival is now assured. Survival as apeople is not.Mäori will be surviving when a large and growing number of Te käkano i ruia mai i Rangiätea areliving according to kaupapa tuku iho (inherited values) and tikanga (ways of expressing thesevalues) that distinguish Mäori in the global cultural mosaic.In 1835, 60 years after Cook they declared to the world their independence; five years later theybuilt on this with Te Tiriti o Waitangi. In 1858 the Kingitanga was established and in 1868 Mäoritook up representation in Parliament. Since then there has been a re-emergence of Mäori sociopoliticalbodies, Mäori religious bodies, Mäori educational institutions, Mäori sports bodies acrossmany codes, Mäori regional and national cultural festivals, Mäori broadcasting organisations andso on. These examples of Mäori responses to the approaching cultural threshold are affirmationsthat Mäori are determined to maximise their chances of survival and enrich their distinctiveworldviews.Competing WorldviewsIt is important to understand there are two streams of knowledge that influence our currentthinking and behaviours in Aotearoa - western science epistemology and the Mätauranga Mäoricontinuum. In the former, there is no place for the kaupapa and tikanga framework to explainMäori behaviour.Western science epistemologyFundamental aspects of western science epistemology derive from the work of Galileo articulatedin the 16th century.European scholars used mathematics to describe and explain the workings of the physicalworld. They insisted on the physical truth of their mathematically derived explanations, and theysearched for physical causes to account for the mathematics.Galileo Galilei 8 was a chief architect of this thinking. An Italian physicist, mathematician,astronomer, and philosopher he played a major role in the Scientific Revolution 9 . Galileo madeoriginal contributions to the science of motion through an innovative combination of experimentand mathematics. Albert Einstein referred to him as “the Father of modern science”. 10Galileo was perhaps the first to clearly state that the laws of nature were mathematical. Moretypical of science at the time were qualitative studies 11 . His mathematical analyses are a furtherdevelopment of a tradition employed by late scholastic natural philosophers.Though he tried to remain loyal to the Catholic Church, his adherence to experimental resultsand their most honest interpretation led to a rejection of blind allegiance to authority, bothphilosophical and religious, in matters of science. This aided the separation of science from bothphilosophy and religion; a major change in human thought patterns. Concurrently, on the otherside of the globe, tüpuna Mäori were shaping their own worldviews in which kaupapa tuku ihowould fill distinctive roles.8 15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642.9 5th - 16th century.10 Einstein (1954, p.271). “Propositionsarrived at by purely logical means arecompletely empty as regards reality.Because Galileo realised this, andparticularly because he drummed it intothe scientific world, he is the fatherof modern physics—indeed, of modernscience altogether.”11 Qualitative researchers aim to gatheran in-depth understanding of humanbehaviour and the reasons that governsuch behaviour. The qualitative methodinvestigates the why and how of decisionmaking, not just what, where, when.Hence, smaller but focused samples aremore often needed, rather than largesamples.7

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