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Beyond Factory Farming: report - Compassion in World Farming

Beyond Factory Farming: report - Compassion in World Farming

CONTENTS05 EXECUTIVE

CONTENTS05 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY19 INTRODUCTION19 Feeding the world in 205019 Animal production and global resources20 Animal production and climate change20 Why factory farming must end by 205021 PART 1. FACTORY FARMING, RESOURCE USE AND CLIMATE CHANGE21 1. Global economics and resources21 1.1 New resource pressures21 1.2 Peak Oil and the coming energy crunch22 1.3 A combination of risks23 2. The 20th-century revolution in livestock production23 2.1 Changing diets and the globalisation of industrial livestock production24 2.2 Another livestock revolution?24 2.3 The animal welfare impact of factory farming25 2.3.1 Loss of farm animal genetic diversity25 2.3.2 Selective breeding and animal health26 2.3.3 Cloning and genetic engineering of farm animals26 3. Climate change: Livestock’s impact on greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions27 3.1 GHG emissions from animal production27 3.2 Deforestation for soybean plantations28 3.3 Climate impact of doubling meat production28 3.4 The reductions needed in livestock-related GHG emissions29 4. Diet and greenhouse gas emissions30 5. Climate mitigation strategies and animal welfare30 5.1 Manipulating the animals’ digestion30 5.2 Intensification31 6. Climate change and global resources: The inefficiency offactory farming32 6.1 Feed crop efficiency33 6.2 Land efficiency33 6.3 Water efficiency2BEYOND FACTORY FARMINGSustainable Solutions for Animals, People and the Planet

35 6.4 Fuel energy efficiency36 6.5 Food energy efficiency37 7. Food production at a time of climate change37 7.1 Land demand and availability38 7.2 Climate-induced sea level rise39 7.3 Crop yields during climate change40 7.4 Water scarcity42 7.5 Energy use to produce animal feed43 7.6 Biofuels in competition for land44 7.7 Conclusions on resource use for factory farming45 PART 2. THE COSTS OF FACTORY FARMING45 8. Factory farming’s impact on the environment45 8.1 Soil degradation and desertification46 8.2 Water pollution and depletion47 8.3 Loss of habitat, biodiversity and extinctions49 9. Factory farming and health49 9.1 Pollution hazards to farm workers and the public50 9.2 Increased risk of animal diseases50 9.2.1 Impact of climate change on animal disease and food safety51 9.2.2 Highly pathogenic avian influenza (bird flu)52 9.2.3 Swine influenza53 9.2.4 Foot and mouth disease (FMD) and animal production viruses54 9.2.5 Emerging zoonotic diseases54 9.3 Food quality and nutrition54 9.4 Food safety and food poisoning55 9.5 Antibiotic resistance and factory farming56 9.6 ‘Downer’ cows and BSE56 9.7 Human nutrition, health and disease prevention57 9.7.1 Obesity and diet57 9.7.2 Diet-related disease risks59 PART 3. SUSTAINABLE ALTERNATIVES TO FACTORY FARMING FOR 205059 10. The global benefits of ending factory farming59 10.1 Savings in energy and water use60 10.2 Protecting soil and climate60 10.3 Reduced dependence on synthetic fertilisers61 10.4 Better animal welfare61 10.5 Better allocation of resources and lower external costsSustainable Solutions for Animals, People and the Planet BEYOND FACTORY FARMING3

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