Risø National Laboratory · Technical University of Denmark November 2007Risø Energy Report 6Future optionsfor energy technologiesEdited by Hans Larsen and Leif Sønderberg PetersenRisø-R-1612(EN)ISBN 978-87-550-3611-6ISBN 978-87-550-3612-3 (internet)ISSN 0106-2840
Risø Energy Report 6Edited by Hans Larsen and Leif Sønderberg Petersen,Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of DenmarkReviewed byProfessor Priyadarshi R. Shukla, IndiaProfessor, D.Sc. Peter Lund, FinlandConsultantScience Journalist Charles ButcherDesign: Kühl+co A/S · 10338Printing: Schultz GrafiskCopyright: Risø National Laboratory, Technical University of DenmarkRisø-R-1612(EN)ISBN 978-87-550-3611-6ISBN 978-87-550-3612-3 (internet)ISSN 0106-2840Risø Energy Report 6 Risø National LaboratoryRisø National Laboratory · Technical UnivRisøEnergyfutureEdited by HanRisø-R-1612(EN)ISBN 978-87-550-3611-6ISBN 978-87-550-3612-3 (internet)ISSN 0106-2840
11 Preface 32 Summary, MAIN conclusions and recommendations 53 Energy challenges 74 Energy efficiency policy 135 Energy technology for transport 216 CO 2 capture and storage 257 Energy supply technologies 317.1 WIND 317.2 FUEL CELLS 367.3 HYDROGEN 407.4 PHOTOVOLTAICS 447.5 BIOETHANOL FOR TRANSPORT 497.6 THERMAL FUEL CONVERSION – PYROLYSIS,GASIFICATION AND COMBUSTION 547.7 NUCLEAR ENERGY 587.8 FUSION ENERGY 637.9 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY 677.10 HYDRO, OCEAN, WAVE AND TIDAL 698 INNOVATION INDICATORS AND Future options 719 Index 7810 References 79
Risø Energy Report 6 Preface 1PrefaceFossil fuels provide about 80% of the global energydemand, and this will continue to be the situation fordecades to come. In the European Community we arefacing two major energy challenges. The first is sustainability,and the second is security of supply, since Europeis becoming more dependent on imported fuels.These challenges are the starting point for the presentRisø Energy Report 6. It gives an overview of the energyscene together with trends and emerging energytechnologies. The report presents status andtrends for energy technologies seen from a Danishand European perspective from three points of view:security of supply, climate change and industrialperspectives. The report addresses energy supply technologies,efficiency improvements and transport.The report is volume 6 in a series of reports coveringenergy issues at global, regional and national levels.The individual chapters of the report have been writtenby staff members from the Technical University of Denmarkand Risø National Laboratory together with leadingDanish and international experts. The report is based onthe latest research results from Risø National Laboratory,Technical University of Denmark, together with availableinternationally recognized scientific material, andis fully referenced and refereed by renowned experts.Information on current developments is taken fromthe most up-to-date and authoritative sources available.Our target groups are colleagues, collaborating partners,customers, funding organizations, the Danish governmentand international organizations including the EuropeanUnion, the International Energy Agency and theUnited Nations.Hans Larsen and Leif Sønderberg Petersen,Risø National Laboratory, Technical Universityof Denmark
Risø Energy Report 6 Summary, main conclusions and recommendations 2 Summary, main conclusionsand recommendationsHans Larsen and Leif Sønderberg Petersen, RISØ DTUThe world depends heavily on fossil fuels, which currentlycover about 80% of global energy demand, andwill continue to do so for several decades. In the EuropeanCommunity we are facing two major energy challenges.The first is sustainability as EUs CO 2 emissionsare forecast to rise by approximately 5% by 2030. Thesecond is security of supply as Europe is becoming moredependent on imported fuels. Today these account for50% of our energy consumption, but the 2030 figure isforecast to be around 65%. The Council of the EuropeanUnion recently agreed that Europe should develop a sustainableand integrated climate and energy policy.Building on Denmark’s traditionally strong environmentalprofile, the Danish government earlier this yearput forward the document “A Visionary Danish EnergyPolicy for the period up to 2025”. This aims to stabiliseenergy consumption at its current level, and calls for aconsiderable increase in the use of renewable energy.IPCC states that CO 2 must peak soonIn its Fourth Assessment Report the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate Change (IPCC) says that if we want tostabilise CO 2 at the low level – around 500 ppm – neededto limit the global average temperature rise to 2.5-3.0°C,CO 2 emissions must peak soon and then decline. TheIPCC states that we must take action now if we are tostabilise CO 2 at a low level.With the global expansion of intermittent renewable energytechnologies comes the pressing need to solve theproblem of long-term variability.It is feasible to save more energyEven though energy efficiency has improved considerablyin recent decades, it is technically and economicallyfeasible to save even more energy, for instance in buildings.This potential plays a prominent role in the newEuropean Energy Action Plan. Energy demand for transporthas been rising for many years. Transport consumesapproximately 20% of the world’s energy, and the transportationsector is largely based on fossil fuels. Longtermsolutions include the development of a hydrogeneconomy, and economical electrical cars with long operatingranges. Biofuels are also a relevant option.Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) has movedto centre stage in the last few years as a serious option forlarge scale CO 2 emissions mitigation.Wind energy has seen an average annual world marketgrowth of 17% over the last five years in terms of installedcapacity. European countries are leaders in thedeployment of wind energy: half of all the new windturbines installed in 2006 were in Europe.Fuel cells are within the next five years at the entranceto their break-through. They will be used in three mainapplications: stationary power generation, transport,and portable equipment.Solar cells (PV) represent one of the fastest-growingrenewable energy technologies, with a global annualgrowth of more than 40%. Polymer solar cells are apromising new technology. The falling cost of PV systemswill eventually make PV electricity competitive inDenmark.Bioethanol is promising as a transport fuel. The bestalternative is second-generation bioethanol from wastematerials such as straw. Other liquid transport fuels arebiodiesel, synthetic gasoline and diesel produced fromgasified biomass. Biomass can also be used for heating,replacing oil or natural gas that can be used as motorfuel.Coal has, as the most abundant fossil fuel, gained renewedinterest. Most of Denmark’s electricity comes fromthe combustion of pulverised coal, and Danish coal-firedpower plants lead in the world in energy efficiency. Nevertheless,coal will only be an option for the future ifwe can cost-effectively reduce CO 2 emissions from coalcombustion. This can be done in three ways: increasethe energy conversion efficiency; switch to a fuel witha lower fossil carbon content (including biomass); andcapture and store CO 2 produced during combustion.Nuclear fission is a major source of carbon-free energy.It provides 15% of the world’s electricity and 7% of ourtotal energy. 15 countries are currently building newnuclear power stations, and a further 25 plan to do so.In contrast to previous prognoses, the IEA now assumesthat nuclear power will increase by 15% by 2030.Nuclear fusion has great potential as a carbon-free energysource with abundant fuel reserves. An internationalpartnership that includes the EU is building the ITER fu-
Risø Energy Report 6 Summary, main conclusions and recommendations2sion power demonstration plant, which will start operatingin 2017. The first commercial fusion power plantmay be in operation around 2045.Geothermal energy has been shown to have a huge potentialin Denmark. With the present high oil prices, thenumber of towns embarking on geothermal projects isincreasing. It is, however, difficult to predict the share ofgeothermal energy in the future Danish energy system.Wave power has gained renewed interest in Denmark.Examples are Wave Dragon and Wave Star. These demonstrationprojects are very successful as a starting pointfor the commercial development of this technology.Energy science system indicators for assessingenergy technologiesA new way to assess the prospects of new and emergingenergy technologies is a technique we have called energyscience system indicators. The indicators calculated inthis report show that the EU is very strong in wind energy,and strong in PV and nuclear. For these three technologiesthe EU has a significant share of both marketsand knowledge production. For both geothermal energyand biomass for heat and electricity, Europe has a fairshare of installed technology and knowledge production;in biomass for heat and electricity, especially, Europe ishome to several world-leading firms. Brazil and the USAare world leaders in biofuels technology, but Europe isquite well placed in this area too. However, the EU lagsbehind Japan and the USA in the emerging technologiesof hydrogen and fuel cells.RecommendationsTo reach a sustainable energy system there is a strongneed for energy-efficient appliances and energy conservation.Denmark should maintain its long tradition of developinglow-energy solutions. This requires new policy initiativesand strong coordination of existing programmes.There are important niche areas for Danish R&D in cuttingthe electricity consumption of private households. Examplesare methods of visualising power consumption of equipmentin standby and idle modes, energy-efficient lightingtechnology such as LEDs, and energy-efficient circulationpumps for heating and cooling systems.With plenty of wind power and a highly-diversified energysystem, Denmark can play a key role in developing futureflexible energy systems. The growing wind energy industryis increasingly able to support its own R&D costs.But generic long-term research, and research of commoninterest to society and industry, still needs public supportfor research projects and prototype development.In PV, Denmark can gain an important role in research,development and the production of new types of solarcells for buildings and mobile applications. Encouragingthe use of PV in new public buildings would help to reachthis goal.Denmark’s strong position in R&D on second-generationbiofuels is attractive to Danish industry. Comprehensivesystems analyses are required to clarify the future role ofbiofuels in the Danish energy system.Fossil fuels will be extensively used for many decades to come,so it is important to minimise their CO 2 emissions. R&D activitiesto support this include improving the efficiencyand decreasing the operating costs of biomass and wastecombustion systems; tools to minimise operationalproblems; and methods for burning biomass and wastein high-efficiency suspension-fired and fluidised-bedboilers. Denmark’s strength in various technologies for veryhigh-efficiencycoal combustion and CO 2 capture has excellentmarket potential, and should therefore be pursued.R&D in carbon capture and storage (CCS) should be strengthenedand followed up with demonstration projects.Greater use of geothermal energy in Denmark depends on supportfor R&D and demonstration projects, and on trends inenergy prices.To give Danish industry a chance to lead the developmentof competitive wave technologies, a public-privatepartnership is needed. Danish manufacturers and consultingfirms also have ample opportunities to contribute tooffshore wave power projects around the world.To exploit the great potentials, new and renewable energytechnologies should be analysed in a systems context, and asmall scale demonstration programme set up for fuel cells.A national centre for testing fuel cell and hydrogen technologiesshould also be created.These steps would help Denmark to become a key internationalplayer in selected areas of research, innovation andproduct development related to the hydrogen economy.The energy system indicators show that Denmark coulddo better in commercialising its research results. A researchinitiative in innovation and innovation policy couldcreate new and more direct links from R&D to commercially-availableenergy products.Hans Larsen andLeif Sønderberg Petersen
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy challenges 3 Energy challengesPoul Erik Morthorst, Risø DTU; Jørgen Henningsen, FORMER PRINCIPAL ADVISER, DG FOR ENERGY AND TRANSPORT, EUROPEAN COMMISSION“Energy is essential for Europe to function. But thedays of cheap energy for Europe seem to be over.The challenges of climate change, increasing importdependence and higher energy prices are faced by allEU members.”– European Commission 3.1 Danish and European energy challengesThe European Community faces three major energychallenges :• Sustainability. Current energy and transport policiesimply that EU CO 2 emissions will rise by approximately5% by 2030. Global emissions are expected toincrease by 55% in the same period if no actions aretaken.• Security of supply. Europe is becoming increasinglydependent on imported fuels. Existing trends implythat the present import share of 50% will increase toapproximately 65% by 2030. This will make Europe’senergy system more vulnerable to external factors thatare difficult to control, including terrorism.• Competitiveness. Rising energy prices could jeopardisejob creation in the EU. Investing in energy efficiencyand renewable energy could promote innovation andindustrial development, with corresponding benefitsfor employment and the economy.Faced with these challenges, the Council of the EuropeanUnion recently agreed to pursue actions on energy.A sustainable integrated European climate and energypolicy is to be developed, including a target of a 20% cutin greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 compared to 1990.However, the EU is willing to increase its reduction targetto 30% by 2020, if other developed countries committhemselves to comparable figures. As approximately 80%of CO 2 emissions stem from fossil fuels, new measures toregulate the energy field are called for. To that end theEuropean Council has decided to adopt an energy actionplan for the period 2007-2009 .For more than a quarter of a century Denmark has hadan energy sector with a strong environmental profile,and since the beginning of the 1990s climate change hasbeen the most important driver for Danish energy policy.Denmark has been one of the countries pushing the EUfor strong and binding targets in climate policy. Recentlythe Danish government put forward a new energy planfor 2025; this would stabilise energy consumption at itscurrent level, and calls for a considerable increase in theuse of renewable energy for power and transport . Table1 compares energy consumption, CO 2 emissions andpopulation for Denmark, the EU and the world.3.2 Developments in Europe3.2.1 The new EU targets for CO 2The last couple of years have seen the combined challengeof energy and climate rise to the top of the EUpolicy agenda. The 2007 Spring Council took importantdecisions on greenhouse gas emission reductions,renewable energy technologies, biofuels and improvedenergy efficiency. However, the important task of decidinghow these burdens should be shared between theMember States is still to be completed. And viewed overthe longer term – since 1990 – the EU has achieved onlymoderate results in energy policy. We can summarise thesituation as follows:Along with security of supply climate change has nowbecome a key driver for energy policy. The commitmentto reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020compared to 1990 is in line with previous EU policydecisions, such as the sustainable development policyagreed at the June 2001 Gothenburg Council. Similarly,the EU’s worldwide negotiating position of a 30% CO 2cut is comparable to its proposal of a 15% reduction by2010 for the 1997 Kyoto negotiations, if we take into accountthe fact that the EU enlargement has brought significantemission reductions in most of the new MemberStates into the EU greenhouse gas emissions accountingscheme, and that the 2020 target will allow the useof flexible mechanisms. In addition, the new MemberTable 1: Gross energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and population for Denmark, the EU and the world, 2004World EU Denmark Denmark/World(0/00)Denmark/EU(0/00)Gross energy consumption, EJ 490 73 0.8 1.6 11.0CO 2 -emissions, GT CO 2 26 3.9 0.06 2.3 15.4Population (million) 6000 462 5.4 0.9 11.7
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy challenges 113%Wind power as percentageDKK/MWh140of power consumption600120100806040500400300200System priceDenmark – west price20100001 49 97 145 193 241 289 337 385 433 481 529 577 625 673 721 1 67 133 199 265 331 397 463 529 595 661 727Hours in January 2007Hours in January 2007Figure 5: (Left) Wind generation as a percentage of total power consumption in western Denmark; (right) Electricity spot prices for the same areaand time period.ity can be accommodated at reasonable cost. The averagebalancing cost for wind power is 0.20 c€/kWh, oraround 5-7% of the overall cost of wind power. This isconsidered acceptable, and the cost of short-term variabilityis not seen as a major barrier to the expansion ofwind power. However, it should be taken into accountthat only Denmark at present has a high share of windpower in the system. If other Nordic countries were tohave the same amount of wind power in their powersystems as Denmark, this would expectedly increase balancingcost.Long-term variability is harder to cope with, and couldrequire a complete redesign of the power system. For example,if the wind does not blow for a week in the winter,when power demand is at its peak, the resulting tightcapacity balance in the power system will lead to highprices, and perhaps technical problems.If no spare capacity is left in the system, the only remediesare investment in new capacity or reduced demandfor power. New capacity in this context typically meansplants based on gas turbines; these have low capital costsbut high variable costs, particularly for fuel. Strong interconnectorsto neighbouring countries and more integratedpower markets might also help solve the problem.Another possibility is energy storage systems suchas very large batteries. Although these are commerciallyavailable, they are currently expensive.Eventually, closer interplay between the power systemand the district heating system may be a solution topower balancing. Hot water is a cheap way to store energy,so it can be used as a buffer in an optimised heatand power system.Another possibility is demand side management, whichmakes it possible to temporarily reduce demand for powerwhen generating capacity is short. Power interruptionsof demand lasting several hours or days may be difficultto implement, however, without serious discomfort topower consumers.Against the costs and disadvantages of the various optionsfor power balancing in systems with a large amountof wind capacity, it is important to remember that investmentsin new capacity and demand managementsystems can help the efficient management of the powersystem, apart from its role in integrating wind power.The problem of long-term variability is closely related tothe long-term development of the power system, so thesame solutions may benefit both wind power and theoperation of the system as a whole.Danish research institutions are now starting to addressthe problem of long-term variability. Denmark has a specialadvantage: not only does it have the world’s highestshare of wind power, it is also a small country wherenational-scale demonstrations are relatively easy to carryout. As a result, Denmark has a unique chance to takethe lead in overcoming one of the most important barriersto the large-scale deployment of wind power.3.6 Danish opportunitiesFor more than 20 years Denmark has engaged in developingnew and renewable energy technologies. At presentwe are the world leader in wind power, but we also havea strong position in biogas, biofuels for transport, fuelcells and systems integration. Collaboration between researchinstitutions, private companies and governmentbodies could further develop these technologies, leadingto increased employment and strengthened innovationin the private sector.The more wind power expands worldwide, the morepressing it is to solve the problem of long-term variability.The need is for a flexible energy system based ontechnologies including power demand management,smart grids, heat pumps for local and district heating,storage for heat and eventually power, strong grid interconnections,and perhaps links to transport, where astrong growth is envisaged in the coming years. Withplenty of wind power and a highly diversified energysystem, Denmark has the opportunity to play a key rolein resolving the problems of integrating wind power ona large scale, also bringing added business opportunitiesto Danish companies.
12 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy challenges3As mentioned above, significant growth is expected intransport, and extra effort is needed to minimise the environmentalimpact of this sector. Long-term solutionsinclude the widespread use of hydrogen as an energycarrier – which also will benefit the integration of windpower – the development of economical long-range electriccars, and biofuels. The new Danish energy plan setsa target of 10% of transport needs to be met by biofuelsby 2020, and extra funds are being provided for biofuelresearch and demonstration plants. From an industrialviewpoint, the development of biofuel plants in Denmarkis very attractive. Finally, Denmark has a strongposition in the development of other new energy technologiessuch as fuel cells and biogas.3.7 RecommendationsDenmark has a unique chance to take the lead in developingflexible energy systems. This complex task shouldbe addressed through intensive projects to develop anddemonstrate existing technologies in private publicpartnerships including collaboration with the transmissionsystem operator, and also through research in newtechnologies. In both research and demonstration facilities,we should be ready to risk considerable amounts ofmoney.A new era of electric cars seems to be approaching. Wemay still have to wait several years for commercially-viableelectric cars, and Denmark has limited experiencewith this technology. From an energy system point ofview, however, electric cars are so interesting that Denmarkshould take the lead in integrating them into theenergy system, setting up demonstration projects to dothis.The new energy plan emphasises new energy technologiessuch as fuel cells, and renewable technologies includingbiogas. Denmark already has a good groundingin the development of such technologies. Now theyshould be reviewed in terms of their potential to formpart of a future energy system, and a small demonstrationprogramme for fuel cells should be started.Danish researchers and industrialists also have a strongposition in biofuels. There are still uncertainties aboutthe CO 2 emissions associated with biofuels, however,and the part biofuels will play in Denmark’s future energysystem. Resolving the latter point will need comprehensivesystem analyses.Achieving a sustainable energy system will also requiremuch work on developing energy-efficient appliancesand energy conservation. Denmark has a long traditionof energy saving, and should take care to maintain thisthrough the coordination of existing programmes aswell as suitable new policies.
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy efficiency policy 194In an effort to make this type of information more useful,the Danish Energy Association has launched a userdrivenproject that uses information technology to improvecommunications between electricity companiesand consumers. The FEED-BACK project uses opticalfiber networks, many of which are provided by electricitycompanies, to collect information on electricity consumption,put this into useful form and make it availableto individual consumers. Some of the families inthe pilot project are only informed of their total powerconsumption, while others receive more detailed informationabout individual electrical devices. They haveall been involved in defining the ways in which the informationis provided, so each family learns about itsconsumption in a way that makes most sense for its particularlifestyle.Learning how best to present information of this kindshould open the way to significant energy savings in thefuture, as well as reducing electricity companies’ billingcosts. As a supplement to the FEED-BACK project, theDanish Energy Association has also started to develop animproved meter that shows customers the energy consumptionof several devices at once.Another area of interest in behavioural research is the developmentof energy service companies (ESCOs), whosejob is to organise, carry out and finance energy savings atend-users. The initial focus is on standard solutions thatcan reduce transaction costs for ESCOs, and on measurementand registration methods that can reliably andcost-effectively document the energy savings achieved.4.13 Electricity consumption in Danish householdsIn 2005, electricity consumption in Danish privatehouseholds was 9,838 GWh . The main applicationareas were: refrigeration/freezing (20%), lighting (17%),washing/drying/dishwashers (16%), heating (13%),cooking, including microwave ovens (9%), TV/video(8%), PCs (7%), and other appliances (11%).A large proportion of household electricity is used byappliances manufactured by multinational companiesand sold in countries where electricity is cheaper thanin Denmark. The relatively small size of the Danish marketmakes it difficult to persuade manufacturers to maketheir devices more energy-efficient.4.14 RecommendationsAs shown in figure 7, energy conversion losses accountfor 33% of the primary energy consumption in the EU.These losses can be cut significantly by introducing combinedheat and power (CHP) generation. To date, onlyaround 13% of all electricity in the EU is generated usingthis technology , and it is recommended to increasethis fraction to approach the Danish figure of 50% electricityproduction by CHP .The largest savings potential in end-use energy is inbuildings. It is highly recommended that the principlesof the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive(EPBD)  are followed everywhere for both newand existing buildings. By doing so in all EU countries,it is estimated  that 28% energy savings in this sectorcan be achieved by the year 2020 corresponding toa reduction of the total EU final energy consumption by11%.Although energy savings are profitable at both nationaland consumer levels, these savings are not happening.In order to overcome the barriers against improving energyefficiency it is recommended that a wide range ofpolitical instruments are employed, including: Dynamicstandards, reliable labelling, white certificates and behaviouralresearch.There are important niches for Danish R&D in monitoringand reducing the electricity consumption of privatehouseholds. Examples are methods of visualising thestandby power consumption of equipment, energy-efficientlighting technology such as LEDs, energy-efficienthot water circulation pumps for one-family houses, andintegrated heating systems – heat pumps, solar cells andventilation – for houses and holiday homes.
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy technology for transport 215Energy technology for transportMikael Sloth, H2 Logic, DENMARK; Allan Schrøder Pedersen, Risø DTU5.1 BackgroundWorld energy demand for transport has increased significantlyfor many years. This trend is projected to continuein the years to come, one reason being that large andrapidly developing economies bring increasing demandfor the transport of both goods and people, includingrising transport demand due to greater integration of developingcountries in the international trade.Transport not only accounts for approximately 20% ofthe total world energy consumption, but is almost entirelybased on limited and expensive fossil energy resources.As a result, fuel prices have soared, while clearevidence of global climate change is ascribed to the emissionof greenhouse gases, notably CO 2 from the burningof fossil fuels. This has put huge political emphasis onsustainable alternatives to fossil fuels for transport; thetrend in European transport policy is to encourage reductionof fossil fuel use.The main focus for new traction technologies is roadtransport. Railways and ships are gaining more attention,whereas almost no activity is found in air transport.This chapter therefore focuses on road transport, thoughthe same technologies may well be useful in rail and marineapplications.5.2 Internal combustion engines5.2.1 Existing technologyInternal combustion engines (ICEs) convert thermalenergy to mechanical energy with an efficiency that isunacceptably low compared to other technologies. Theoverwhelming dominance of ICEs in today’s transport,however, will make any phase-out a long-term project.In addition, at least up to now, governments in Europe,including Denmark, have been reluctant to structure cartaxes in ways that significantly encourage the use of vehicleswith low CO 2 emissions. In fact, emissions fromEuropean cars are unlikely to reach the EU target of 120g CO 2 /km by 2010 (Figure 12). The car manufacturersclaim it is not their fault that the targets have not beenmet . The European Automobile Manufacturers Associationblames “strong customer demand for larger andsafer vehicles and disappointing consumer acceptance ofextremely fuel-efficient cars”.Certainly the car industry in Europe continues to improvethe fuel efficiency of conventional vehicles by reducingweight. In the power train this is done by replacingcast iron with lighter alloys based on magnesium andespecially aluminium, while bodywork and structuralelements are lightened by using plastics and compositesinstead of steel. These efforts are strongly supported bythe EU, and in principle they will cut CO 2 emissions. Asdescribed above, however, their benefit is wiped out byconsumers’ preference for ever-larger vehicles.5.2.2 Compressed Natural GasUse of natural gas in ICEs has the potential to decreaseCO 2 emissions because of the relatively low carbon contentof this fuel compared to higher hydrocarbons. Insome European countries such as Italy and Spain, naturalgas is widely used in passenger cars (in Italy 370.000vehicles in 2005 ), whereas in Denmark the technologyis almost non-existent. This is surprising, becausenatural gas is a straightforward and inexpensive way tocut CO 2 emissions.5.2.3 BiofuelsICEs may be operated with no net production of CO 2 byburning biofuels derived from plant and animal material.Biofuels have become extremely popular in Europeand other parts of the world; they are already significantin transport, and there is little doubt that their importancewill increase in the near future.It is sometimes argued that the production of biofuelsraises food prices because rich countries are prepared topay high prices for crops to be converted into fuel. Thisaffects people in poor economies, who have to spend agreater part of their income on food. This ethical argu-Figure 12: The average CO 2 levels targeted by the three main car manufacturers’associations (European Automobile Manufacturer’s Association(ACEA), Japan Automobile Manufacturer’s Association (JAMA) and KoreanAutomobile Manufacturer’s Association (KAMA)) have fallen overtime, but if current trends continue, the ACEA will miss next year’s targetof 140 g CO 2 / km by 13 g CO 2 / km, and in 2009 JAMA/KAMA will missthe same target by 20 g CO 2 / km or more .Grammes CO 2equivalent p2202001801601401201001995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2010KMA JMA trend/ACEAtrend/KMA trend/JMA ACEAtarget ACEA target MNJASKSJ EJtarget 2010
22 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy technology for transport5ment against biofuels will weaken, however, with thecommercialisation of second-generation biofuel technologiesthat use agricultural waste rather than wholecrops as their raw materials.Another argument against biofuels is that their productionwill demand more cultivated land than is currentlyavailable. This could lead to the loss of even more of theworld’s precious forests, subsequently affecting plants,animals and, indirectly, people.If market forces control the future of biomass as an energysource, combined heat and power (CHP) is likelyto be a bigger user than the biofuel industry. It is moreenergy-efficient to burn biomass in a CHP plant than toconvert it to biofuel, so CHP plants will be able to payhigher prices for biomass. In the absence of subsidies,this may prevent the widespread use of biomass for fuelproduction.Altogether it is difficult to predict the long-term roleof biofuels in transport, there is little doubt that in theshort term, biofuels will form a significant source of energyfor transport.5.2.4 Synthetic fuelsSynthetic fuels based on fossil sources have been utilisedworldwide for decades, but do not solve the problem ofCO 2 emissions unless combined with capture and storage.However, several synthetic transport fuels can beCO 2 -neutral if they are made from non-fossil sources.Hydrogen, the simplest synthetic fuel, is being consideredfor use in ICEs by car manufacturers like BMW.More complex liquid fuels including ethanol and dimethylether (DME) have the advantage that they can bedistributed and sold through the infrastructure alreadyused for gasoline and diesel. These fuels can be producedfrom biomass but also from other sustainable energysources, so they may well be used alongside biofuels. Thetechnology exists, and only economic reasons preventthe wider use of sustainable synthetic fuels.In conclusion, sustainable and environment-friendlytechnologies are indeed available to produce clean liquidfuels for ICEs. These offer substantial advantages comparedto switching to new technologies such as hydrogen,which would require a completely new infrastructurefor storage, distribution and refuelling. Because ofthe fundamental drawbacks of ICEs, even CO 2 -neutralversions are likely be out phased at some point. Basedon current policy, investments and price projections foralternative propulsion systems, however, we should expectto see ICEs for at least the next 15–20 years.5.3 Hybrid propulsionHybrid cars are powered by a combination of an ICE andan electric motor. The ICE in a hybrid car is small comparedto that in an ordinary car, because at times of peakpower demand it is backed up by the electric motor. Inaddition, energy use is controlled more carefully than ina conventional vehicle, and energy released during brakingis used to charge the battery so that it can be re-usedduring acceleration. Taken together, these techniquesresult in fuel consumption much lower than in today’sstandard cars (Table 3).Hybrid cars are already marketed by several car manufacturers.Examples are the Toyota Prius and the HondaCivic Hybrid, both of which use batteries and gasolineengines. Table 3 shows selected details of the Prius [4, 5].Gasoline engineDisplacementPower outputElectric motorPower outputVoltageTraction batteryTypePower outputMileageEPA estimated – city/highwayTable 3: Traction systems of the Toyota Prius.1497 cc76 hp / 57 kW67 hp / 50 kW500 V maxNiMH28 hp / 21 kW55 mpg / 23.4 km/lHybrid technology has proven viable, and as Table 3shows, it gives considerable savings in fossil fuel consumptionand CO 2 emissions.Hybrid cars are gaining market share in areas such asCalifornia, where ownership is encouraged by benefits– apart from the lower fuel costs – such as permissionto use special highway lanes during rush hours, and toenter or park in big cities.In Denmark – again, at least until now – the situationhas been just the opposite. Under the Danish tax system,hybrid cars are considerably more expensive than similarly-sizedordinary cars, and there are no official incentivesto buy them. This situation is unlikely to changeunless there is political will to do so.Future hybrid cars may replace ICEs with fuel cells; thisis discussed in more detail below.5.4 Renewable electricity carriersFor renewable energy fully to meet the long-term needsof transport, electricity must form part of the transportenergy mix. This implies the ability either to store electricityor to convert it to another storable form of energy.Besides meeting part of the direct energy needs ofthe transport sector, storage of renewable electricity willhelp the power grid to handle an increasing percentageof renewable electricity, which by its nature is subject tofluctuations in availability.The main challenge in using electricity for transport isto store enough energy, quickly enough, on board anelectric vehicle to give an operating range and refuellingtime that is comparable to that of a vehicle powered bygasoline or diesel.
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy technology for transport 235At the moment, only two technologies are capable of doingthis, and the big question is about which one will win.The first technology is batteries, which in their currentform are widely judged to give both insufficient range andslow refuelling. The second is fuel cells powered by hydrogen,which are claimed to be inefficient and costly.Until now battery cars have had little real market success,due to their high prices, long recharge times andshort ranges. However, recent developments in lithiumbattery technology, including electronic control systemsfor charging and discharging individual cells in a battery,have significantly improved working life and capacity. Toyota  plans to use lithium batteries in its Vitzvehicle, which is designed for automatic and smoothstop and restart of the engine when appropriate. Suchapplications may well increase market acceptance of batterycars despite their previous bad press.The nearness of fuel cells to commercial application inelectric vehicles can be judged from the cost of the basicfuel cell assembly, or stack. One leading manufacturer,Ballard Power Systems, says that today’s price for a massproducedstack is $73/kW, and expects to reach a commercialprice of $30/kW in 2010 . Other stack manufacturersworldwide are making similar predictions.Once the basic stack has become affordable, the nextchallenge is the price of the complete fuel cell system.At present this is $5,000-10,000/kW – many times thecommercial target of $100-200, depending on the application.Technology development and innovation alonecannot create this reduction in price. The key is productionvolume, which in the absence of a market creates a“chicken and egg” problem. As with any new technology,establishing a market for fuel cells will be costly andrisky.At the moment fuel cells are being targeted at two mainearly market applications – emergency power backupsystems and fork lift trucks – where higher prices andlower technical performance are acceptable. Both totalsales and the numbers of high-volume orders in theseapplications have increased significantly during the last12 months.In August 2006 fuel cell manufacturer Hydrogenicssigned an agreement with backup power specialist DanishAPC to supply up to 500 fuel cell modules, and inMarch 2007 Dantherm Air Handling ordered 300–400fuel cell stacks from Ballard Power Systems, also for usein emergency power supplies .This growth in early markets is likely to support newmarkets such as bulk transport. In May 2007 Plug Powercompleted the acquisition of two leading fuel cell systemcompanies in the materials handling sector: Cellex Power and General Hydrogen . The deal, worth morethan $50 million, shows the potential of this market.Hydrogen fuel cells for vehicles require the ability tostore large amounts of hydrogen on board. The recentlyrevealedHonda FCX concept car uses a combination ofhigh pressure and solid-state storage to achieve a claimedrange of 560 km between refuelling stops . This ispromising, even though no hydrogen storage systemsyet satisfy the energy density targets set by the US Departmentof Energy.Another obstacle to the use of hydrogen for transportis the creation of a suitable infrastructure for manufacturing,storing and selling hydrogen. In 2006 the totalnumber of hydrogen filling stations worldwide was only140 , though there is a trend towards larger filling stationsserving larger vehicle fleets. The CEP Berlin project,for instance, includes numerous cars , while Hamburgnow operates nine hydrogen fuel cell buses .The concept of a “hydrogen highway” is aiding the transformationfrom isolated filling stations to an integratednetwork. A hydrogen highway is a chain of hydrogenequippedfilling stations and other infrastructure alonga strategic road, allowing hydrogen-powered vehicles totravel long distances. Hydrogen highways are under developmentin California  and Florida  in the USA,British Columbia in Canada , and Scandinavia .Hydrogen highway activities in Scandinavia are groupedunder the Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership(SHHP), which aims to make hydrogen vehicles usable ina large part of Scandinavia by 2012. This is an importantmilestone towards the ultimate goal of a large-scale commercialrollout of hydrogen vehicles and infrastructureafter 2012. SHHP is made up of the national hydrogennetwork bodies in Norway (HyNor) , Denmark (HydrogenLink)  and Sweden (HyFuture) . Each ofthese in turn represents a consortium of interested partiesincluding industry, local government, universitiesand end-users. SHHP plans to align these several hundredinterests to create a large EU-supported demonstrationproject involving several hydrogen filling stationsand several hundred hydrogen-fuelled vehicles throughoutScandinavia.Though batteries and hydrogen are sometimes consideredcompetitors, recent developments suggest that bothtechnologies will be important in the future. Both tech-Figure 13: TH!NK hydrogen cars have a hybrid traction system based onboth Danish-designed hydrogen fuel cells and batteries. They promisefuel efficiency of up to 65%.
24 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy technology for transport5nologies have their strengths; used separately or combinedin tailor-made hybrid systems, they should be ableto match users’ requirements closely.Hydrogen and fuel cells are good for large vehicles thatneed long ranges or short refuelling times. Batteries areideal for small city cars, where customers are typicallysatisfied with short operating ranges and long rechargetimes. Batteries are also energy-efficient, especially whenthey are used to store energy recovered when using theelectric motor to slow the vehicle down (regenerativebraking), and when used in hybrid designs they can increasethe lifetime of fuel cells by enabling these to operateat a steady load. The combination of both technologiescan therefore give a good balance between range,refuelling time and efficiency, so hybrids could well bethe key to the economic and widespread use of electricityfor transport.Hybrids of batteries and fuel cells have recently seen abig increase in activity. In December 2006 Think TechnologyAS (Norway) and H2 Logic A/S (Denmark) agreedto launch up to seven TH!NK hydrogen city cars on Norwegianroads in 2008, based on a combination of a fuelcell system from H2 Logic with a standard battery .This hybrid configuration gives the vehicle a range of300 km at an efficiency above 65% (Figure 13, see previouspage). In early 2007 Ford Motor Company andGeneral Motors continued this trend with the release ofrespectively the EDGE  and VOLT  fuel cell/batteryvehicles.5.5 RecommendationsTechnology development and economic incentives arekey areas in bringing clean energy to the transportationsector.Technology development must aim to make each linkof the energy conversion chain, from the production ofsustainable electricity to powering the vehicle wheels,cheaper, cleaner and more efficient. It should be drivenby public-private partnerships, with a funding balancethat reflects the nearness of each technology to commercialapplication. Onboard storage, for instance, stillneeds basic research, whereas fuel cells are already competitivein certain markets.For consumers, fossil fuels are certain to remain thecheapest option for transport as long as energy pricesdo not reflect the cost of environmental damage. To reduceCO 2 emissions from transport, we therefore recommendgovernments to set up strong economic or otherincentives to encourage customers to opt for low-carbonvehicles or public transport. As well as reducing environmentaldamage, such measures could generate money tosupport research and development in clean energy technologies.
Risø Energy Report 6 CO 2 capture and storage 256CO 2 capture and storageAmit Garg and Lars R. Appelquist, Risø DTU; Erling H. Stenby, Technical University of Denmark6.1 What is CO 2 capture and storage?Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture and storage (CCS) is aprocess in which CO 2 is separated from sources such asboiler and vehicle exhaust gases, and held in long-termstorage instead of being released to the atmosphere. CapturedCO 2 may be stored in geological reservoirs such asoil wells or aquifers, or on the ocean floor; or it may bechemically fixed, by converting it into solid substancesknown as inorganic carbonates (Figure 14).CO 2 capture can be divided into post-combustion andpre-combustion (Figure 15). In post-combustion capture,carbon-containing fuels are burned as usual; specialmaterials absorb CO 2 from the flue gas and then releaseit for collection and storage. In pre-combustion carboncapture, the fuel is first “de-carbonised”, either by gasificationor a process known as reforming, to yield a hydrogen-richstream that can be burned in an engine or fuelcell, and a CO 2 stream for storage (see chapters 7.3 and7.6 for further details).Not all CO 2 arises directly from burning fuels. CO 2 isalso generated by industrial processes such as the manufactureof steel or ammonia, and carbon capture canbe used with these processes too. The choice of capturesystem depends on the concentration of CO 2 in the gasstream, the pressure, and the fuel type (solid or gas).The higher the concentration of CO 2 in the flue gas, theeasier the removal process. Ordinary flue gases consistmostly of nitrogen derived from the air used for combustion;substituting pure oxygen for air (oxy-fuel combustion)yields a flue gas that is almost pure CO 2 , and so iseasier to treat.After CO 2 is removed from the gas stream, it can betransported by onshore or offshore pipeline, tanker ortruck. Pipeline or tanker transport is preferred for largeCO 2 producers such as power plants. Commercial CO 2pipelines already exist, mainly in the USA, based on thetechnology used for natural gas pipelines .Figure 14: CCS involves removing CO 2 from exhaust gases, transportingit by tanker or pipeline, and storing it in underground reservoirs, deepbeneath the sea, or as solid carbonates .Figure 15: The three main processes for CO 2 capture .N 2Post-combustionCoalGasBiomassPower & heatCO 2separationPre-combustionOxyfuelIndustrial processesCoalGasBiomassGasificationGas, oilAirAir/O 2SteamCoalGasBiomassCoalGasBiomassCO 2Reformer H 2CO 2sep.Power & heatCO 2compressionAir& dehydrationPower & heatO 2CO 2Air Air separationProcess+CO 2sep.O 2CO 2N 2O 2CO 2Raw materialGas, ammonia, steel
26 Risø Energy Report 6 CO 2 capture and storage6The four main options for geological CO 2 storage are insaline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs, active oilwells, and coal mines. The last two of these, known respectivelyas enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhancedcoal bed methane (ECBM), are especially attractive becauseCO 2 is used to increase the amount of oil and naturalgas that can be economically recovered from existingreserves.Ocean storage can take place either by dissolving CO 2 inseawater, typically at depths below 1,000 m, or by creatinga lake of liquid CO 2 on the seafloor at depths below3000 m. CO 2 can also be stored in the form of solid inorganiccarbonates . While some projects are alreadydemonstrating the feasibility of large-scale geologicalstorage, ocean and carbonate CO 2 storage is still in theresearch phase.6.2 Economics of CCSCapturing, transporting and storing CO 2 carries an energypenalty: a plant with CCS will consume roughly 10–40% more energy than a similar plant without CCS .The net reduction in CO 2 emissions to the atmospheretherefore depends upon the fraction of CO 2 captured,the increased CO 2 production necessitated by the energypenalty, and any CO 2 leakage during transport and storage(Figure 16).Capture is the most energy-intensive process in thewhole CCS chain. With almost all the other CCS subsystemshaving already reached commercial maturity,capture accounts for 60-80% of the total cost of a CCSsystem (Table 4), and reduces the competitiveness ofCCS compared to other near-zero CO 2 emission tech-ReferenceplantPlantwith CCSFigure 16: The energy needed to capture, transport and store CO 2 meansthat a power plant equipped with CCS (lower bar) has to produce moreCO 2 per unit of product than a plant without CCS (upper bar). With effectiveCO 2 removal, however, there is a net reduction in CO 2 emissionsto the atmosphere .CO 2produced (kg/kWh)EmittedCO 2avoidedCapturedCO 2capturednologies. Costs vary considerably between countries andtechnologies, in both absolute and relative terms. Thecost of CCS in tandem with combined-cycle gas (CCGT)or gasification (IGCC) systems is even less certain, sincethese have not yet built at full commercial scale; howeverthe latter is less expensive than the former from aCCS point of view. CCS costs are projected to fall, however,with further R&D and economies of scale as moreplants are built.The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report states that additionalCCS could reduce cumulative global CO 2 emissions byup to 10 Gt during the period 2000-2030, and by up to600 Gt during 2000-2050 (Figure 17).Figure 17: Cumulative emission reductions from a range of mitigation measures for the periods 2000-2030 (left) and 2000-2050 (right).The various predictions for each mitigation measure derive from four different climate models (AIM, IMAGE, IPAC and MESSAGE). In each case, theshorter (darker) bar shows the CO 2 reduction needed to reduce radiative forcing to an intermediate level of 4.5 W/m 2 , while the longer (lighter) barshows the extra CO 2 reduction needed to achieve a lower level of 3.0-3.6 W/m 2 .Note that AIM and IPAC do not consider mitigation through forest sink enhancement, and AIM does not include CCS. “BECCS” refers to CCS appliedto bio-energy plants, which would produce net negative CO 2 emissions .Energy conservation& efficiency2000-2030 2000-2050Fossil fuel switchRenewablesNuclearCCS (incl BECCS)Forest sinks4.5 W/m 2 3-3.6 W/m 2ImageMessageAIMIPAC (4.5 W/m 2 only)Non-CO 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 500 1000 1500 2000Cumulative emission reduction GtCO 2Cumulative emission reduction GtCO 2
Risø Energy Report 6 CO 2 capture and storage 2766.3 Leakage risks and environmental impactCaptured CO 2 can leak into the atmosphere at manypoints in the CCS chain: during transport, injection andlong-term storage. Transport of CO 2 is one of the bestestablishedtechnologies in the chain, and the reportedleakage rates are very low. The median value is 1.4 t/yCO 2 lost per km of pipeline  – similar to that reportedfor hydrocarbon pipelines.For appropriately chosen and managed geological reservoirs,data from existing engineered systems, natural analoguesand mathematical models suggest that the fractionof CO 2 retained is very likely (90-99% probable) toexceed 99% over 100 years, and likely (66-90% probable)to exceed 99% over 1,000 years . Since the number ofexisting CO 2 storage sites is still very low and the technologyhas been in existence for only a few years, thesefigures rely on the identification and characterisation ofboth short-term and long-term leakage pathways. Weneed more observations to increase the reliability of theestimates.Large-scale injection of CO 2 into the ocean could makethe seawater more acidic, with damage to local marinelife. And if a large quantity of CO 2 were to escape fromgeological storage or a sea-floor lake of liquid CO 2 , concentrationsof CO 2 greater than 7-10% by volume in airwould pose immediate danger to human life and health.6.4 European CCS researchThe European Community is active in CCS R&D, andmany European research institutes and energy companiesare taking part in international research programmes.The Fifth and Sixth Framework Programmes(FP5 and FP6) of the European Commission have fundedseveral projects involving public research institutes andthe energy industry. Table 5 shows projects supportedunder the first round of FP6; most of these are still inprogress.Project EU funding Coordinator(million €)ENCAP 10.7 Vattenfall, SwedenCASTOR 8.5 Institut Francais du Petrole,FranceCO 2 SINK 8.7 GeoForschungsZentrumPotsdam, GermanyCO 2 GeoNet 6.0 British Geological Survey, UKISSC 2.0 University of Stuttgart,GermanyTable 5: CCS projects funded under the first round of FP6Source: Modified from European Commission, 2004 .In 2005 the EU established the European TechnologyPlatform for Zero Emission Power Plants (ZEP). ZEP aimsto develop a portfolio of technologies that will allowzero-emission fossil-fuel power plants to be operatingin Europe by 2020. Among other technologies, ZEP willprepare a strategic research agenda and a roadmap forCCS. ZEP has 25 members from industry, research institutes,authorities and NGOs [5, 6].The CCS and coal is an important combination, e.g.IGCC, as it is less expensive to extract CO 2 upfront fromthe gasification stage than from the flue gas as in case ofCCGT. US Future-gen initiative and the CO 2 pumping inthe Texas oil fields are interesting developments internationally.Energy systems of some large developing countriessuch as China, India and South Africa have strongcoal dependence and therefore CCS could play a criticalrole in mitigating their GHG emissions while maintainingtheir coal dependence in future.Europe is currently a world leader in many energy technologies.The US and Japan are expected to create significantcompetition in the future, however – not leastbecause of their high levels of government support,Table 4: Current costs of CCS system components. Source: updated version of a similar table from IPCC, 2005 .CCS system component Cost range NotesCapture from coal- or gas-firedpower plantsCapture from plants manufacturinghydrogen or ammonia, orprocessing natural gasCapture from other industrialsources15-60 US$/tCO 2 net captured Net costs of captured CO 2 , compared to the sameplant without capture5-50 US$/tCO 2 net captured High-purity CO 2 sources requiring only simple dryingand compression25-115 US$/tCO 2 net captured Range reflects a number of different technologiesand fuelsTransport 1-8 US$/tCO 2 transported Per 250 km of pipeline or ship transport for flowratesof 5 (high end) to 40 (low end) MtCO 2 /yGeological storage 0.5-8 US$/tCO 2 injected Excluding potential revenues from EOR or ECBMGeological storage: monitoringand verification0.1-0.3 US$/tCO 2 injected Including pre-injection, injection, and post-injectionmonitoring; depends on regulatory requirementsOcean storage 5-30 US$/tCO 2 injected Including offshore transport of 100-500 km, excludingmonitoring and verificationMineral carbonation 50-100 US$/tCO 2 net mineralised Range for the best case studied. Includes additionalenergy use for carbonation
28 Risø Energy Report 6 CO 2 capture and storage6which exceed those allowed under the present Europeancompetition rules .The future CCS research environment also depends onEuropean emission policies. A working group on CCSunder the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP)recently recommended that CCS should be recognisedunder the EU emissions trading scheme. The EuropeanCommission is planning to address this in the thirdquarter of 2007 .At the global level, several European countries are activein the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum .At the moment these nations are Denmark, Germany,France, Italy, Norway, the Netherlands, the UK and theEuropean Commission.6.5 European research goalsAs with any technology that is moving towards widespreadcommercial use, CCS involves many sub-technologiesat different stages of maturity. Of these, the biggesteconomic challenge – and the one that is likely todetermine the commercial future of CCS compared toother CO 2 mitigation options – lies in capturing the CO 2in the first place.Much European CCS research therefore aims to reducethe costs of post-, pre- and oxy-fuel combustion capturetechnologies. Many of the projects listed in Table 6 aimto halve capture costs over the next 4-5 years, reducingcapture costs to US$30-40/tCO 2 and making CCS muchmore competitive with other technologies.On the storage side, European demonstration projectsare underway in various types of geological formation:saline aquifers, basalts, carboniferous sandstones, coalmines and depleted oil fields (Table 7). Ocean storage isnot being explored much.6.6 Danish CCS researchThree research institutions and energy agencies in Denmark– DONG Energy, GEUS and DTU – are active inglobal and European initiatives on CCS (Table 8).The construction of the world’s largest post-combustioncapture test facility at the Danish coal-based power plantEsbjergværket has received much national and internationalattention. The facility has been in operation sinceMarch 2006 and consists of an absorber, a desorber/stripper,a reclaimer and support systems. It has a capturecapacity of about 1 t/h of CO 2 . The facility is set up toexamine the performance of new absorbents and determineways to improve performance and efficiency. Theoriginal absorbent was MEA (monoethanolamine); subsequentlytwo new absorbents have also been tested.6.7 ConclusionsCCS has moved to centre stage over the last five or sixyears as an important technology for large-scale CO 2emissions mitigation. However, CCS currently carriesan energy penalty of around 25% – and a correspondingincrease in operating costs – due to the additionalenergy required to capture, transport and store the CO 2 .Reducing the cost of CO 2 capture is the technologicalcrux, since this stage contributes around 60-80% of thetotal cost of CCS. Many global research initiatives arecurrently attempting to reduce the costs of capture, especiallythrough finding better and more energy-efficientadsorbents. Global research is gradually moving towardspre-combustion carbon capture, which offers potentiallylower costs.6.8 Recommendations for DenmarkCCS is a promising technology for greenhouse gas mitigation,so investing in CCS R&D could prove to be goodfor Danish industry in the short and medium term.There are opportunities to market CCS globally, includingin large developing countries like China and India.Denmark’s strength in technologies such as very-high-efficiencycoal combustion for power generation, researchon new adsorbents for CO 2 capture, and pre-combustionCO 2 capture through solid oxide fuel cells and oxygenmembranes all have excellent market potential, andshould therefore be pursued.For developing countries, CCS adsorbents that can handledirty flue gas containing SOX and NOX could also bean interesting research opportunity.Collaboration with large consumers of coal, such as theUSA, China, India, Australia and South Africa could providegood business opportunities, since a less expensiveCCS could make an attractive GHG mitigation option.
Risø Energy Report 6 CO 2 capture and storage 296Project Country Goals/resultsCASTOR EC Develop post-combustion absorption liquids with thermal energy consumptionof 2 GJ/tCO 2 at 90% CO 2 recovery. Cost would be €20-30/t CO 2 avoided, depending on fuel type.CO 2 Capture Project UK Develop technology to halve the cost of CO 2 capture from $60-80/t to$30–40/t. Best technologies: chemical looping, BIT and HMR.ENCAP Sweden Develop technologies to capture at least 90% of the CO 2 in a gas stream,at a cost below €20/t.AZEP (Advanced Zero EmissionsPower Plant)Hammerfest natural gas powerplant with CO 2 and NOX captureSwitzerlandNorwayDevelop an oxy-fuel gas turbine.Construct and operate a 100-MW gas-fired power plant with CO 2 capture.RWE IGCC power plant Germany Commission a CCS power plant with a capacity of 400-450 MW and acapital cost of just under €1 billion by 2014.ADECOS (Advanced Developmentof the Coal-fired Oxy-fuelProcess with CO 2 Separation)GermanyDesign and evaluate oxy-fuel coal-fired power plants of 1,000 MW and600 MW capacities.Table 6: European CO 2 capture research initiatives .Project Country Goals/resultsCASTOR EC Storage in depleted oil field in Spain (0.5 million t/y CO 2 ), depleted gasformation in Austria (potentially 0.3 million t/y), saline aquifer in NorwegianSnøhvit field (0.75 million t/y) and enhanced gas recovery in theNetherlands (0.4 million t/y).CO 2 Sink Germany Injection of 30,000 t/y CO 2 into saline aquifer.CO 2 Store Norway Monitoring of CO 2 injection into saline aquifer in the Sleipner field in theNorth Sea (around 1 million t/y CO 2 ).Salah Project (BP/Sonatrach/ Statoil) Algeria 1 million t/y CO 2 injection into carboniferous sandstone reservoirs.Weyburn II Canada and EC Oilfield injection of 1.8 million t/y CO 2 has the potential to increase oilrecovery by up to 60%.Snøhvit LNG Project Norway 0.7 million t/y CO 2 extracted from natural gas will be stored in a sandstoneformation.EU GeoCapacity Denmark Assessing European capacity for geological storage of CO 2 .RECOPOL Poland Assessing feasibility of CO 2 storage in the Silesian coal basin.Table 7: European CO 2 storage research initiatives .Project Dates Core technology Danish participationCENS2001- Post-combustion capture and CO 2 pipeline DONG Energy, with Kinder Morgan.(CO 2 for EOR in the North Sea)infrastructure in the North Sea for EOR.GESTCO 1999-2003 Research on storage in Europe. GEUS: surveys in Denmark.CO 2 Store 2002- Research on storage; case study in Kalundborg,Denmark.Dong Energy: operates Asnæs powerstation near Kalundborg.GEUS: Feasibility studies.NoCO 2 2003- CO 2 capture and storage technologies. DTU: Absorption with alkanolamines.CASTOR 2006- Research on post-combustion captureand storage.GeoCapacity 2006- Assessing European capacity for CO 2 storage;setting up collaboration with China.Assessment of CO 2 storagepotential in Indian subcontinentDesign of CO 2 capture unitsusing aqueous alkanolaminesTable 8: Danish participation in some major CCS initiatives .DONG Energy: Capture research;hosts the world’s largest postcombustioncapture test facility atEsbjergværket.GEUS: geological surveys in eight EastEuropean countries.GEUS: Project coordinator.2006- Potential for CCS in Indian subcontinent. UNEP Risø Centre: Production offlowsheets and CCS economics forthe Indian subcontinent.2007- CO 2 capture technology. DTU: New research.
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 317.1Energy supply technologiesThis chapter presents the status of current R&Dfor selected energy supply technologies. Eachtechnology is examined in terms of security ofenergy supply, effect on climate change andindustrial potential, in each case from Danish,European and global perspectives.7.1 WindPeter Hjuler Jensen, Povl Brøndsted, Niels Gylling Mortensenand Flemming Øster, Risø DTU; Jens Nørkær Sørensen, Instituteof Mechanical Engineering, Fluid Mechanics Section, TechnicalUniversity of Denmark7.1.1 General statusRenewable energy can help to solve several importantproblems for society: improving security of energy supply,reducing CO 2 emissions, and providing sustainableenergy to lift people in developing countries out of poverty.There is a pressing need for renewable technologies in allregions of the world. Strong and continuing economicgrowth in Asia has created an energy deficit. The USAwants to move away from the dominance of the petroleumindustry. In Europe, the European Commissionhas set a target of 20% renewable energy by 2020. Manyother countries are setting their own renewable energytargets.As a result, worldwide prospects for renewable energyseem unlimited. There is great demand for technologiesthat are either ready for the market or will be commerciallyavailable within a short time. Wind energy is onesuch mature option with great potential.7.1.2 The Danish caseToday, more than 15% of Denmark’s energy originatesfrom renewable sources. Wind turbines in 2006 producedpower equal to 17% of the total Danish electricitydemand (Figure 9). Biomass and waste incineration alsocontribute significantly, and in total the Danish dependenceon oil has been reduced to about 40%.Natural gas provides 23% of the country’s energy supply,and coal accounts for 20%. The degree of energy selfsufficiencyis more than 150%, and Denmark is a netexporter of oil and natural gas from its resources in theNorth Sea.No other country approaches Denmark’s use of windenergy, so Danish experience in managing such a highproportion of wind power is unique.Installed wind capacityPower from windWind generation as a percentage ofnational electricity demand*3,137 MW6,108 TWh16.8%Table 9: Key wind energy statistics for Denmark, 2006.*2006 was a poor wind year in Denmark. In other years with stronger winds, thesame installed capacity would have generated more than 20% of Danish electricitydemand.At the end of 2006, the Danish government adopted newpolitical initiatives to promote renewable energy and reduceCO 2 emissions. For wind energy, these initiativessupport the national objectives set as a result of a politicalagreement reached in 2004: construction of newoffshore wind farms, and a second repowering scheme toreplace poorly-sited wind turbines with new turbines inbetter locations. The agreement also introduced a market-orientedpricing system for wind power, and moreR&D and demonstration projects for advanced energytechnologies.The 2006 initiatives are more ambitious and more specificabout the use of renewable energy in Denmark. By2025, the goal is to double – from 15% to 30% – renewableenergy’s contribution to Danish energy, at the sametime reducing the use of fossil fuels by 15%. Wind powerwill make up a large part of this increase, providing anestimated 50% of Danish electricity by 2025. To stabiliseDenmark’s overall energy consumption at its currentlevel, the target for energy reduction will be increased to1.25% annually. A doubling of total Danish investmentin energy R&D and demonstration projects by 2010 willcreate new technologies and energy-saving opportunities.The Danish government has stated that new wind energycapacity, both onshore and offshore, should havea firm economic foundation. Other factors that will beconsidered when planning new wind capacity includephysical location and impact on the environment, includinglandscape; the criteria used to assess these willbe updated periodically.In December 2005, the Danish Energy Authority undertooka new plan for siting the next generation of offshorewind farms between 2010 and 2025. A working group
32 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.1was formed to look at future Danish offshore wind turbinedevelopment. Two other working groups were alsoset up: one to identify sites for future onshore turbines,and the other concerned with the siting of prototypeturbines for field testing. All three working groups willlimit their deliberations to wind turbines above 150 min height.The Danish municipalities have recently been reorganisedinto larger units, and the former regional authoritieswill be handing over their responsibility for windturbine planning to the new, larger municipalities. Thisreorganisation has influenced the following recommendationsfrom the working group for siting on land:• a large concentration of turbines at selected locationsis favoured over a broad scattering of turbines acrossevery type of landscape;• the new, larger municipalities should maintain a leadingrole in the planning process;• consideration must be given to wind turbine neighboursand to various technical and planning matters, such asthe supply of power, energy, and climate policy;• national authorities must provide background information,planning tools, and knowledge about windresources and natural constraints.The two working groups for offshore siting and positioningof prototype turbines published their final reportsearly in 2007. They identified some important issues:YearInstalledGWIncrease%CumulativeGWIncrease%2001 6.8 (52)æ- 24.9 (35)æ-2002 7.2 6æ- 32.0 29æ-2003 8.3 15æ- 40.3 26æ-2004 8.2 -2æ- 47.9 19æ-2005 11.4 42æ- 59.4 24æ-2006 15.0 30æ- 74.3 25æ-Averagegrowthover 5years 17.1% 24.4%Table 10: World market growth for wind power from 2001 to 2006 .• the number of test sites on land for very large turbinesis limited, so these sites must be used continuouslywith different turbines. The test period for each turbinevaries from a few months to several years.The working group that is identifying offshore sites isconsidered to be an update of a group formed underDenmark’s 1997 Action Plan for Offshore Wind Power.Since 1997, however, many conditions have changed.The working group must identify several sites that havethe potential for more than 4,000 MW offshore windpower to be installed between 2015 and 2025. It is estimatedthat this amount of wind power can supply abouthalf of Denmark’s future electricity consumption.• manufacturers have a strong need for sites with realisticwind conditions where they can test new turbine designsproperly before launching them commercially;• testing turbines on land is cheaper than offshore testing,and works well for many phases of offshore turbinedevelopment;• turbine testing is especially important in Denmark, becausethe country exports wind turbines to many differentmarkets with varying requirements;Figure 18: Growth in global installed wind power from 1983 to 2006– annual and cumulative .MW per year160001200080004000Installed wind power in the world– annual and cumulative –Cumulative MW8000001983 1990 1995 2000 200660000400002000007.1.3 International developmentToday’s global installed wind power capacity is about75 GW (Figure 18 and Table 10). For some years, worldwind capacity has been doubling every three to fouryears, and this is expected to continue until at least 2011.Over the past 30 years wind energy has proved itself asa viable and increasingly economic means of generatingelectricity. It is particularly interesting to look at Spainand Germany, where market incentives were introducedin the early 1990s. Spain now has a capacity of 10 GWand Germany has 20 GW, together amounting to about40% of total capacity worldwide.Wind now provides about 8% of Spanish electricity, andhas created a new manufacturing industry. The Spanishgovernment plans to double installed wind capacity, to20 GW, by 2010. Germany now has by far the highestinstalled wind capacity of any country in the world, andgets 7% of its electricity from wind. These are remarkablefigures, especially considering that offshore wind hasbeen slow to get off the mark in Germany and repoweringof old, small, turbines has not yet started.The power of market incentives is apparent from thesuccess stories of Spain and Germany, and also from theoscillatory market experienced in the USA in line withthe availability of the Production Tax Credit (PTC). ThePTC is an important incentive for US investment in windNatural Gas
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 337.1power, but it tends to be renewed only for short periodsand has frequently lapsed.It is clear that a market for wind turbines can be createdthrough economic incentives, and that industry willrespond in terms of both production volume and technologicalinnovation. Production volume has increasedover time, but the size of wind turbines has grown evenmore dramatically, from 50 kW in the late 1980s to about5 MW today (Figure 19). At the same time the costs perMW and per kWh have fallen, and both availability andquality have improved.Figure 19: Global annual wind power development with a forecast to2011 .MW40000Annual wind power developemtActual 1990-2006 & Forecast 2007-2011World market shares for the manufacture of wind turbinesin 2006 were approximately: Denmark 35%, Germany22%, Spain 18%, USA 15%, India 7%, and China3%. The world’s largest wind turbine manufacturer is theDanish company Vestas, with a market share of 28.2%in 2006.7.1.4 Trends and perspectivesDespite this technological development, and rapidgrowth in a few countries, wind today provides only asmall percentage of the world’s electricity.As Figure 20 and Table 11 show, European countriesand the EU as a whole are leading the deployment ofwind energy. 51% of all new wind turbine installationsin 2006 took place in Europe. Not coincidentally, manyEuropean countries lead the world in their concern forsecurity of energy supply and climate change.3000020000100000EuropeUSAAsiaRest of WorldExisting1990 1995 2000 2006 2011GW 2006 2011 2016 2020 2030Europe 48.6 111 211 - -America 13.6 42 116 - -Asia 9.0 38 98 - -Other 3.1 12 31 - -World 74.3 203 456 1200 2700% ofelectricitydemand 0.82% 2% 4% 12% 23%Figure 20: Predicted development of installed wind capacity by continent.12000010000080000600004000020000020000016000012000080000400000Global wind power forecastCumulative MW by end of 2006 & forecast 2011EuropeGlobal wind power projectionsCumulative MW forecast 2011 & prediction 2016Europe2006 (74,306 MW)2011 (203,151 MW)USA Asia Rest of World2011 (203,151 MW)2016 (455,852 MW)North America Asia Rest of WorldTable 11: Forecasts for wind energy development.Today the industry produces wind turbines that takean active part in the control and regulatory functionsof power systems, in contrast to older turbines that didlittle to support the stability of the grid. Turbine manufacturerswill continue to develop these capabilities inresponse to new requirements in the grid codes – therules that govern how generating equipment interactswith the transmission grid – for “fault ride-through” andpower quality, and the increasing importance of shorttermwind forecasting.It is important to differentiate between onshore andoffshore development. There are logistical limits to thedevelopment of large turbines for land use. Visual intrusionand environmental considerations make it difficultto build very large wind farms on land. Offshore sitesavoid these disadvantages and provide better wind conditions,but are more expensive to build.Economically, wind turbines are approaching the pointwhere they can compete economically with conventionalpower production. This is the case for grid-connectedMW-class wind turbines, especially taking into accountthe external costs – including environmental and healthcosts – of fossil-fuel and nuclear generation. Huge numbersof smaller turbines, from 500 W to 50 kW, are usedfor local electricity production, pumping water or desalination,mainly in areas where the cost of conventionalenergy is very high. Despite their numbers, though,
34 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.1these small turbines have a total capacity estimated tobe less than 1% of their larger relatives.An important way to remove trade barriers and disseminateresearch results is to establish internationalstandards for wind technology. Both national andEuropean R&D programmes have supported this approach,and Denmark places a high priority on activeparticipation in new standards through the IEC andCEN/CENELEC.For wind energy to meet its anticipated target of 4% ofthe world’s electricity by 2016, a number of R&D projectswill have to produce successful results. The followingsections set out these R&D targetsTurbine technology and integrationDevelopments in turbine technology, control systemsand power transmission will include:• gearless direct-drive turbine designs based on variablespeedand direct-drive multi-pole generators;• high-voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems,energy storage technologies, compensation unitsand control technology for wind power plants;• “intelligent” wind turbines that use computer controlsto optimise their operation to suit local conditions andinteract with other energy sources;• systems to control variables such as rotational speedand power output according to wind, grid and marketconditions; and• control systems for large-scale integration of wind turbinesinto the grid.Meteorology, siting and power forecastingThe increasing sizes of wind turbines and wind farmswill require new meteorological methods and models,especially:• measurements at great heights, such as by LIDAR fromsatellite and ground stations;• better forecasts of wind power production several daysahead;• understanding of the nature of wind and turbulence,and how this affects the siting of turbines offshore, inremote and steep areas, and in complex terrain; and• wake modelling for large wind farms.AerodynamicsImproving the efficiency of wind turbines calls for developmentsin aerodynamics, including:• aerodynamic and aeroelastic wind turbine control;• methods and standards for optimising blade design;and• new materials and designs for very large rotor blades.Structure and materialsNew composite materials will be developed for turbinecomponents, including glass, carbon and natural fibresembedded in polymeric resins, and new designs withoptimised weight/performance ratios. New methods forproduction, characterisation and numerical modellingwill also be needed for the new blade materials. Propertiesof materials will be optimised in relation to theirfunctions. Important research areas are:• production processes for polymer composites;• mechanical properties (strength, stiffness, fatigue lifetime)and damage mechanisms;• modelling at microscale and continuum mechanicallevels;• characterisation and qualification using both destructiveand non-destructive techniques;• structural monitoring and state surveillance usingacoustic emission; and• new material combinations, such as natural fibres withorganic resins, and hybrid combinations.From the beginning of modern wind turbine developmentin the early 1980s, full-scale testing has been centralto the development of new blade designs. Now basicmaterials knowledge, mathematical modelling andtesting of sub-assemblies have reached the point wherethey are able to replace some or most of the full-scaletests, which are time-consuming and expensive. Thenew methods mark an important step forward, and areexpected to lead to considerable changes in turbine technology,with lighter, more efficient machines as a result.Future developments will include:• predicting the performance of turbines built with newmaterials;• combined simulation and test methods for very largeturbines; and• full-scale blade testing (flapwise, edgewise, combinations,static tests, fatigue tests) will be replaced bycomponent and specimen testing (buckling strength,shear, sandwich constructions, beam bending, fracturemechanics, bending tests, basic materials tests), and bynew micro- and nano-scale design of new materials.7.1.5 International R&D plansGlobally there are many plans for wind energy R&D.Here we will focus on two: one European and one fromthe USA.UpWind is an EU-supported Integrated Project (IP), andthe largest EU initiative in wind energy R&D to date. Up-Wind looks towards future wind power, including verylarge turbines (8–10 MW) standing in wind farms of severalhundred MW in total, both on- and offshore. Thechallenges inherent in creating such power stations necessitatethe highest possible standards in design; completeunderstanding of external design conditions; the
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 357.1use of materials with extreme strength to weight ratios;and advanced control and measuring systems – all gearedtowards the highest degree of reliability, and, critically,reduced overall turbine mass. Wind turbines larger than5 MW and wind farms of hundreds of MW necessitatethe re-evaluation of the core unit of a wind energy powerplant, the turbine itself.UpWind will develop the accurate, verified tools andcomponents the industry needs to design and manufacturethis new breed of turbine. The project will focuson design tools for the complete range of turbinecomponents. It will address the aerodynamic, aero-elastic,structural and material design of rotors, and criticalanalysis of drive train components.In 2006, European companies supplied about 75% of theglobal market for wind power technology. UpWind willhelp to maintain this position and meet EU renewablestargets.In the USA, the Department of Energy (DoE) has laid outa five-year plan for wind energy R&D that follows threepaths:Onshore power, with a focus on low-wind-speed technologyand machines in the range 2-6 MW. The mainbarrier is power transmission, and the goal for 2012 is$0.03/kWh at sites with a mean wind speed of 13 mph.Offshore power, focusing on both shallow and deep water,with turbine sizes of 6 MW and larger. The main barriersare cost and regulation, and the goal for 2012 is$0.05/kWh.Emerging deployment: here the focus is not on windalone, but also on hydrogen and clean water. The barriersare cost and infrastructure. The goals for 2020 areturbine designs optimised for electricity, hydrogen productionand desalination.7.1.6 Horns Rev II and Rødsand II offshore wind farmsLarge offshore wind farms, such as the pioneering installationsat Horns Rev and Nysted (Rødsand) in Denmark,have played a leading role in the development of largewind turbines. Horns Rev, which has 80 Vestas wind turbinesof 2 MW each, was completed in 2002. This wasfollowed by Nysted, with 72 turbines of 2.3 MW eachfrom Bonus (now Siemens Wind Power), which wascompleted in 2003. These were followed by mediumsizedoffshore wind farms in Ireland and Great Britain.Many countries now have offshore projects in the planningand construction phases, including turbines of upto 5 MW capacity and rotor diameters of 125 m.In Denmark the two existing large offshore farms willbe followed by two neighbouring developments, each of200 MW and taking up an area of about 35 km 2 . Tenderingfor Horns Rev II and Rødsand II is now complete.Horns Rev II will be located about 10 km west of the existingwind farm, and will be commissioned during 2009.The tender fixed the price of electricity from this farm atDKK 0.518 ($0.096) /kWh for the first 50,000 full-loadhours, corresponding to about 12 years of operation.Rødsand II will be about 3 km west of the existing Nystedsite, with commissioning expected during 2010. Thetender fixed the price of electricity from Rødsand II atDKK 0.499 ($0.090) /kWh for the first 50,000 full-loadhours, corresponding to about 14 years of electricity production.7.1.7 ConclusionsWind energy has developed rapidly over the past 25years. Some companies have stayed in the marketthroughout this period, but many large new players haveentered only recently. Wind energy has developed intoa very significant player in the post-Kyoto era of CO 2reduction.The growing wind energy industry is increasingly ableto support its own R&D costs, but generic long-term researchand research of common interest for society andindustry still needs public support.7.1.8 Recommendations for DenmarkIn January 2007 the Technical University of Denmark(DTU) merged with a number of research institutions,including Risø National Laboratory. Some years agoRisø formed a consortium with DTU, Aalborg Universityand DHI (the Danish Hydraulic Institute) to strengthenDanish competence in all aspects of wind energy R&D,including offshore wind turbines. The new merger maybring organisational advantages to the consortium.It is important that research institutions, industry andpublic programmes, both now and in the long term,continue to support wind energy through incentivessuch as support for research projects, prototype developmentand, together with the energy supply companies,demonstration projects. The latter, in particular, shouldreceive emphasis that reflects the importance Europe attachesto wind energy, as well as the interests of Danishindustry. Public support is moving in this direction,with the traditional energy research programme beingreplaced by a combined R&D and demonstration programme.The Public Service Obligation Programme forEnvironmentally Friendly Energy Technologies recentlyunderwent a similar change.In short, Denmark’s public R&D system needs to masterthe complete chain: from knowledge, through theory,research and development, to innovation.
36 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.27.2 Fuel cellsSOFCe - e-Søren Linderoth, Risø DTU; Helge Holm-Larsen, Topsoe FuelCell, Denmark; Bengt Ridell, Grontmij, SwedenO 2H 27.2.1 IntroductionFuel cells (FCs) are expected to be important as futuresources of both power and heat. Fuel cell technology isdeveloping rapidly around the world. Fuel cells will behighly efficient, clean, quiet, scalable, reliable, and potentiallycheap. They will be able to use different kindsof renewable fuels, efficiently and in small as well as largeplants. Integration of high-temperature fuel cells and gasturbines would be interesting for larger power units.Various kinds of fuel cells are being developed worldwidefor commercial use in portable, transport and stationaryapplications (Figure 21 and Table 12). Most current R&Dfocuses on two types: polymer electrolyte membrane fuelcells (PEMFCs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs).Danish industry and universities are significant infuel cell R&D, all the way from fundamental research,through component development and manufacture, tosystems and integration. Denmark is especially involvedin PEMFCs and SOFCs.7.2.2 PEMFCsLow-temperature fuel cells, notably PEMFCs, are usefulfor converting high-purity hydrogen into electricityH 2H 2 O2-H 2OFigure 21: Principle of a fuel cell. The electrochemical reaction betweenthe fuel (in this case hydrogen) and oxygen (air) takes place via an oxygenion membrane. The reaction yields free electrons which provide asource of electric power. USAAsiaand heat. Electrical efficienciesRest of Worldreach nearly 50% usingExistinghydrogen. Today the PEMFC seems the type of fuel cellmost likely to replace car engines. PEMFCs are alreadybeing used in commercial uninterruptible power supplies(auxiliary power units, APUs), such as those made by theDanish company Dantherm. PEMFCs are very sensitiveto impurities, especially carbon monoxide (CO).Other varieties of fuel cells known as high-temperaturePEMFCs (HT-PEMFCs) and phosphoric acid fuel cells(PAFCs), operating at temperatures above 120°C, canbetter handle these problems. PAFCs have been proanodeelectrolytecathodeO 2O 2H 2OO 2-e -Table 12: Fuel cells fall into two types: low-temperature, which operate at temperatures below 400°C, and high-temperature for temperatures aboveabout 400°C.Fuel cell typePolymer electrolytemembranePhosphoric acid andhigh-temperaturePEMFCMolten carbonateSolid oxideShort name PEMFC PAFC/HT-PEMFC MCFC SOFCElectrolyteProton-conducting H3PO4 K-Li-CO3 Doped Zr2O3polymerOperating temperature 50-80°C 120-180°C ~650°C 600-1000°CAdvantagesWorks at ambienttemperatureReliabilityTolerates >1% COInternal reformingFuel flexibilityInternal reformingFuel flexibilityDisadvantagesHigh power densityQuick to start upSolid electrolyteVery sensitive to COWater managementLimited durabilityLow-temperaturewaste heatLong experienceRelatively low efficiencyLimited durabilityLoss of phosphoric acidelectrolyteHigh-temperaturewaste heatNo noble metalsRequires expensivealloysCorrosive liquid electrolyteCO 2 needed in the airto the cathodeLow power densityHigh-temperaturewaste heatSolid electrolyteVery durableNo noble metalsPlanar format: sealingproblemsTubular format: lowpower densityThermal cyclingSlow to start up
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 377.2duced for decades by companies including UTC in theUSA, but cost and durability issues have hampered theircommercial break-through.HT-PEMFCs, which are a kind of PAFC with a polymermatrix, are gaining much interest. They may experiencesimilar problems to those of PAFCs, but their cells andstacks may be easier to assemble. Their higher operatingtemperatures make HT-PEMFCs potentially more interestingthan low-temperature PEMFCs for cars, becausethe heat exchange becomes simpler.Methanol may also be used directly as a fuel for PEMFCs,which are then sometimes referred to as DMFCs (directmethanol fuel cells). NEC and Toshiba expect to commercialiseDMFCs, primarily for portable applicationssuch as laptop computers and personal digital assistants(PDAs). DMFCs are ideal replacements for batteries inportable equipment. Their energy density is four to fivetimes that of batteries, and they can be refuelled easily.In Denmark, the company IRD Fuel Cells has advancedknowledge of DMFCs.The ability of methanol to cross existing polymer membranes,plus higher losses at the electrodes, means thatDMFCs have lower electrical efficiencies than ordinaryPEMFCs: typically less than 30%, compared to standardlithium-ion batteries, which have equivalent efficienciesin the 90% range. Fuels other than hydrogen and methanolneed processing before they can be used in PEMFCs,and this extra step reduces the electrical efficiency to35% or less.7.2.3 SOFCsHigh-temperature fuel cells (solid oxide fuel cells, SOFCs)are fuel-flexible, highly efficient and environmentallyclean. They can run on fuels such as natural gas, biogasand methanol, thanks to their ability to reform hydrocarbonswithin the cell itself. An SOFC operating on naturalgas could be termed a direct natural gas fuel cell.Other attractive features of SOFCs include CO tolerance(because CO is simply another fuel), no liquid electrolytes,no water management issues, and high-temperaturesurplus heat that is suitable for CHP or energy recoveryusing steam turbines.Recent years have witnessed substantial improvementsin the performance and durability of SOFCs, mainlythrough advances in manufacturing technology. Theinternal resistance has been reduced significantly, allowingthe operating temperature to be decreased from1000°C to 750°C. This, in turn, has made it possible touse cheaper materials. Risø National Laboratory is one ofthe leading developers of SOFCs, in collaboration withTopsoe Fuel Cell A/S for stack development and commercialisation.In the USA the major SOFC R&D programme is the SolidState Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA), which bringstogether government, industry and research institutions.There are six industry teams with the goal of developing3-10 kW e SOFC prototypes by 2010. SECA is managed bythe National Energy Technology Laboratory and PacificNorthwest National Laboratory, with an annual budgetof approximately €50 million. The long-term goal ofSECA is to develop a commercial SOFC at a cost of €400/kW that can be used on its own as an APU and also as abuilding block for large coal-fired power plants. SECA’sambitious goals have influenced R&D standards in otherparts of the world.Europe has been somewhat behind the USA in formulatingan overarching SOFC strategy. However, the EU’sSeventh Framework Programme (FP7) is expected topromote SOFCs as an important part of its strategy forhydrogen and fuel cells. Europe also has a number ofnational strategies, notably in Denmark, Germany andthe UK, working on both SOFCs and PEMFCs. Europe istrying to set up a Joint Technology Iniative (JTI) on fuelcells and hydrogen technologies in order to improve theEU competitiveness in this field.7.2.4 ApplicationsThe many application areas for fuel cell fall into threemain markets: stationary, transport, and portable.The stationary market includes small (1-5 kWe) CHP unitsfor single households; 10-100 kWe CHP units for apartmentbuildings, office buildings, and uninterruptiblepower supplies (UPSs) for banks and data transmission;100-1000 kW e CHP units for district heating; and multi-MW units for power generation, possibly combined withgas or steam turbines to increase electrical efficiency.For the foreseeable future, stationary fuel cells will havehigh investment costs, which will need to be balancedby high efficiency and fuel flexibility. This means thatthe first markets for stationary fuel cells will be in applicationsthat run for a large proportion of the year, suchas CHP systems in hospitals, offices, breweries and otherindustrial applications.In the transportation sector, auxiliary power units (APUs)for trucks, cars and boats are seen as an important marketfor fuel cells within the next 5-10 years. One attractiveapplication is in long haul trucks, where fuel cellscould supply heating and electricity for refrigeration,ventilation, lighting and entertainment systems duringovernight stops.Fuel cells may become important elsewhere in the transportationsector, though they will face competition fromefficient diesel engines. A likely area of application is inhybrid cars, buses, trucks and trains, which are driven byDC electric motors powered by fuel cells and batteries.Various types of fuel cells may be used here, dependingon the application and the available fuel.Portable applications are close to the market, and severalproducts have been demonstrated for use in portablecomputers, mobile phones and PDAs. The fuel cellsof choice are PEMFCs fuelled by hydrogen or methanol,though there is also extensive R&D to develop SOFCs forbattery replacement, where their fuel flexibility wouldbe valuable.
38 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.2Demonstrations of fuel cells in stationary applicationsare taking place all over the world. MCFCs are furthestadvanced in this area, with demonstration programmesin countries including Japan, the USA, Germany andItaly. PEMFCs are also being tested, especially in Japan.The Danish Micro-CHP Demonstration Project, in whichconsumers will test a large number of fuel cells underreal conditions, is a prime example of such testing anddemonstration activities.As fuel cell technology approaches market readiness,real-world testing and demonstration becomes more important,as does certification of fuel cell systems. In Denmark,a national centre for the testing and certificationof fuel cell systems at Risø National Laboratory would beof great value, considering the importance of fuel cells toDanish industry and the country’s future energy economy.Such an institution would also have the potential tobecome a European centre of excellence for the testing offuel cells and related technologies.7.2.5 Market and cost developmentThe main drivers in favour of fuel cells are:• high electrical efficiency, even in small sizes;• ability to use renewable, locally-produced fuels, andthus reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels;• siting near the point of use eliminates or considerablyreduces distribution losses for both heating and electricity;• lower CO 2 emissions;• important as an enabler for other renewable energysources such as wind;• can be used to help the developing world meet its increasingdemand for energy; and• creates employment opportunities for skilled labourand a basis for export of value added goods.The first breakthroughs in commercial markets willprobably be in areas where the limitations of existingtechnologies give fuel cells a significant advantage. Likelycandidates are battery replacement, APUs and perhapsUPSs. Later, when costs have fallen to the point wherefuel cells are more competitive with other conversiontechnologies, various kinds of CHP will be commerciallyimportant.Replacing car engines with fuel cells is an idea that hascharmed many developers, but it is a big challenge. Sucha move would require a reasonable hydrogen infrastructure,and competition from today’s technologies is severe.When fuel cells do reach automotive applications,hybrid propulsion systems will appear significantly earlierthan pure fuel cell engines.7.2.6 Projections to 2030Fuel cells will not have a perceptible effect on the overallpattern of power generation until 2010 at the earliest, butsubstantial growth has already begun. By 2015 many developersforesee production capacities in the 100 MW e /yrange, and forecasts for 2025 are in the GW e /y range. Inthe very long term, if the technology progresses as currentlyforeseen, the worldwide potential for fuel cells inpower generation is more than 100 GW e /y.The first commercial fuel cells are now appearing in portableapplications and backup power systems. The marketis expected to expand into residential and industrial distributedpower systems within the next 5-10 years. Fuelcells in the transportation sector will begin with theiruse as APUs in about 2020, followed by fuel cell hybridvehicles in approximately 2025 (Figure 22).7.2.7 Contribution to CO 2 reductionThe high electrical efficiency and reduced transmissionlosses promised by fuel cells translate directly to lowerCO 2 emissions. The amount of CO 2 reduction dependson the scenario chosen, including the fuels used, but thepotential savings run into millions of tonnes of CO 2 peryear in Denmark alone.It can also be argued that the transition from central generationto distributed generation will increase consumerawareness of energy efficiency and CO 2 emissions, thusleading indirectly to a more environment-friendly attitudeto electricity generation.Further CO 2 reductions from fuel cells will require carbondioxide capture and storage (CCS). Sealed SOFCshave the advantage that it is easy to remove carbon dioxidefrom the exhaust, because the gas streams leavingthe anode and cathode remain separate. The anode gascontains water, CO 2 and unconverted hydrogen. One approachto exhaust cleanup uses a membrane to removethe hydrogen, which is then recycled to the inlet of thefuel cell. An alternative is to oxidise the hydrogen, usingoxygen extracted from atmospheric air by anothertype of membrane. In each case the result is a gas streamcontaining only water and carbon dioxide. The carbondioxide can then be separated by cooling to condenseout the water.7.2.8 Danish and European strengthsDenmark and other European countries have well-knowncapabilities for R&D and efficient industrial production.Some European research institutions are already worldleaders in some areas of fuel cell technology.Europe probably lags behind North America and Japanin PEMFC research. The US company UTC is the undisputedleader in PAFCs, while in HT-PEMFCs Europe hasa strong position through the German company BASF.MCFCs are being developed and demonstrated in MWsizes worldwide, and research on PAFCs and MCFCs isdecreasing significantly. SOFCs are now being developedworldwide, with much effort and competition inresearch, development and demonstration projects.SOFC development is dominated by 5-10 internationalgroups with global aspirations. Of these, the largest EuropeanSOFC developer is Topsoe/Risø, which employs
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 397.2more than 100 people on SOFCs. Key to the success ofthis group are the unique competences of Risø and Topsoe,plus national support via the Danish strategy for hydrogenand fuel cells.7.2.9 Promoting fuel cellsStrategies to make fuel cells commercially viable neednot differ from those for other environmental technologies.In the early phases, support for R&D is essential.Next, once a workable prototype has been developed,funding should be available for testing and demonstration;this stage weeds out the worst development bugsin a controlled environment, and subsequently allowsthe project to gain public acceptance. This phase oftenrequires several cycles of prototypes and tests. The objectiveof support during this phase is to facilitate the processfor the developer. The importance of testing and prototypingcannot be over-emphasized, and it is the abilityto support this activity on a national level that is likelyto create winning technologies.When the technology is ready for commercial application,an incentive programme should be put in place topersuade consumers to choose the new technology. Thisincentive may be phased out once production volumesof fuel cells are comparable to those of competing technologies.On a more general level, access to the electricity gridshould be made easier for distributed generators. Barriersto distributed generation – in the form of grid availability,costs or bureaucracy – will seriously hinder thebenefits of sustainable power production and lower CO 2emissions that fuel cells can provide.It is essential to demonstrate fuel cells in several applications,to show the public that the technology works.Very often fuel cells and hydrogen are linked togetherto form a hydrogen economy vision. However, a purehydrogen economy is quite uncertain. It is important tonote that hydrogen and fuel cells can be well decoupledas both have their own markets in the short and mediumterm.7.2.10 ConclusionsFuel cells are now at the point of breakthrough as themost versatile and environment-friendly energy conversiontechnology. They have strong links with otherrenewable technologies, such as wind, solar and wavepower, and they will be central to any future “hydrogensociety”, with its promise of a release from dependenceon fossil fuels. Denmark is playing a significant role inthe development of fuel cells, all the way from fundamentalresearch to consumer applications.7.2.11 Recommendations for DenmarkThe priority given to fuel cells and hydrogen in Denmarkhas created strong research and industrial teamswhose influence extends worldwide. We recommendthat these areas are strengthened even further, throughpolicies that support research, education, development,pre-commercial demonstration, and early-stage commercialisation.Denmark should quickly create a nationalcentre for the development and testing of fuel cells andhydrogen technologies at Risø National Laboratory, withstrong links to industry, end users and other test centresworldwide. Risø should participate as strong as possiblein the JTI and the Research Grouping around the JTI.Figure 22: Expected development of fuel cell system costs and entry points for different applications.Market entries and expected cost development for installed systems9000700050003000Price insensitive applicationsPortable power20001000800600400Distributed residential powerDistributed industrial powerUDS/kW installed20010080604020Transportation auxilliary power units (APU)Locomotion2006 2012 2018 2024 2030 Year
40 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.37.3 HydrogenAnke Hagen, Risø DTU; Jens Oluf Jensen, Technical Universityof Denmark and Birte Holst Jørgensen, Nordic EnergyResearch, NorwayThe growing scientific, political and public awareness hasled to increased funding of hydrogen related projects,the establishment of a number of national and internationalhydrogen platforms (e.g. European Hydrogen andFuel Cell Technology Platform: HFP), and the presentationof hydrogen strategies throughout the world. Thischapter feels the pulse of the development of a EuropeanResearch and Innovation area in hydrogen (often incombination with fuel cells) with a view on the positionof Danish research and innovation systemHydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source. Althoughit is the most abundant element in the universe,it has to be produced from compounds that contain it.The use of hydrogen in industry has a history of morethan 100 years. Today hydrogen is mostly used for theproduction of chemicals such as ammonia (fertilizer),methanol, but also for the production of iron and steel,in the electronics industry etc.Hydrogen can be produced by many technologies, basedon fossil and sustainable fuels (Table 13). Thermal andthermochemical processes use heat in combination withco-reactants to release hydrogen and are the most maturetechnologies. By far the largest process is steam reformingof mainly methane (natural gas); it accounts formore than half of the hydrogen production in the world.However, also other feedstocks can be reformed, e.g. liquidhydrocarbons as ethanol from biomass conversion.The same applies to gasification, which for example canuse coal or biomass. Thus, the degree of sustainability ofthe hydrogen production strongly depends on the feedstockused.Figure 23: Steam electrolysis on a solid oxide electrolyser cell .Electrolytic processes use electricity to produce hydrogen.The hydrogen produced has a high purity and canbe used in special applications. Evaluating this routewith respect to environmental impact, the source of electricityis of main interest, here renewable sources such aswind and nuclear power can be considered. Electrolysisis experiencing an increasing support and will thereforebe discussed later.Photolytic processes offer a challenging, long-term potentialfor a sustainable hydrogen production and haveto be further developed.ProcessThermal/thermochemicalReforming/partial oxidationGasificationHigh-temperature watersplittingExample feedstocksNatural gasEthanolCoalBiomassWaterElectrolytic Electrolysis WaterPhotolyticPhotobiological water splittingPhotoelectrochemical watersplittingWater + CO 2 *WaterWater* Simultaneous formation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (=synthesis gas)Table 13: Important hydrogen production processes.7.3.1 Water electrolysisThe concept of hydrogen as an energy carrier involvesmany technologies of which fuel cells perhaps are whatmany people think of first. Another key element is electrolysis,the technology that uses electrical energy to splitwater into hydrogen and oxygen, regardless whether theelectricity is produced by wind, photovoltaic or even nucleartechnology (if very high temperatures are available,thermal water splitting is possible, but this technology is2eHydrogen in steam(+) (-)Pure oxygenO 2-H 2OSteamPorous cathodeGas-tight electrolytePorous anode
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 417.3Type Alkaline Acid Polymer electrolyte Solid oxideCharge carrier OH- H+ H+ O 2 -Reactant Water Water Water Water, CO 2ElectrolyteSodium or potassiumhydroxideSulfuric or phosphoricacidPolymerCeramicElectrodes Nickel Pt, polymer Pt, polymer Nickel, ceramicsTemperature 80°C 150°C 80°C 850°CTable 14: Electrolysis cells and their characteristics based on .not well developed). Electrolysis will likely play an importantrole in any future non-fossil energy scenario, notonly in the hydrogen society. This is due to the option toconvert a mixture of water and carbon dioxide into synthesisgas via electrolysis followed by further conversionto a synthetic fuel, which can be larger molecules likemethanol, di-methyl ether, gasoline or diesel via wellestablishedcatalytic processes.An electrolyser is based on the same principles as a fuelcell, but the process is reversed, i.e. electricity is used(Figure 23). Typically, water is split into hydrogen andoxygen with the two gaseous products being producedat the two different electrodes. Therefore, no furtherseparation is necessary. The electrolyte separating thetwo electrodes might be either liquid (alkaline or acid)or solid (polymer electrolyte or solid oxide). It has thefunction of transporting the ionic species and has to beelectrically insulating. The high electrical efficiency ofa fuel cell (max. 83%) is often pointed out. In practicethe electrical efficiency is much lower due to differentlosses, rarely much over 50%. With electrolyser cells, theefficiency can be close to 100%, when the system is operatedat the (thermodynamically determined) thermoneutralpotential (i.e., the cell voltage where the heatproduced equals the heat necessary for the splitting ofwater). Today, the conversion efficiency of commercialelectrolysers is in the range 65-85% (based on the higherheating value).Like fuel cells, electrolysers are grouped and named aftertheir electrolytes (Table 14). The classical type is the alkalineelectrolyser cell (AEC). It is the counterpart to the alkalinefuel cells with an alkaline electrolyte of potassium hydroxide.The reason why the alkaline electrolyser has been muchmore successful than the alkaline fuel cell is a higher stability.Moreover, they can be manufactured of quite inexpensivematerials, and the oxygen formation kinetics is fair.Proton exchange membrane electrolyser cells (PEMEC)are reaching market these years as smaller units. Theycan be very compact with high current densities.Conventional low temperature water electrolyser unitswith capacities from 1 kW to 125 MW are commerciallyavailable. The Electrolyser Corporation Ltd. (Canada)and Norsk Hydro Electrolysers AS (Norway) and DeNora(Italy) are well-established manufacturers of electrolysers.Other manufacturers have also established themselvesin Europe, e.g. Hydrogenics Corporation .Another type is the solid oxide electrolyser cell (SOEC).Like solid oxide fuel cells it is based on a ceramic oxideion conducting electrolyte and therefore the workingtemperature is within the range of 600-1000ºC. Thehigh working temperature has the significant advantagesof the oxygen electrode kinetics being very fastand the temperature allowing to operate the cell at thethermo-neutral potential and thus to obtain a high electricalefficiency. The SOEC is not yet at a commercialstage.Figure 24: Syngas production and subsequent synthesis of synthetic fuel. Water and carbon dioxide are supplied to the electrolyser (SOEC stack) andhydrogen and carbon monoxide are formed. When passing over the catalyst on the way out, synthetic fuel is produced.850 °Ce -+ 2O 2- -O 2H 2+COFisher – Tropsch – catalystGasolineH 2O +Heat exchangeH 2O +CO 2CO 225°C25°CHeat exchangeO 2O 225°C
42 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.3Another interesting idea, which is only possible on hightemperature SOECs, is to produce synthesis gas, i.e. amixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which arethe starting materials for the synthesis of numerouschemicals or synthetic fuels, like methanol, methaneand synthetic gasoline. Apart from water, carbon dioxideshould then be led to the cell, and the products aresynthesis gas and oxygen (Figure 24, see previous page).With a proper catalyst different fuels can be synthesizedby the well-known Fischer – Tropsch process afterwards. This concept shows that electrolysis is not only relevantin relation to a future hydrogen society.7.3.2 Hydrogen R&DIn a world wide perspective, the United States have probablythe most significant hydrogen and fuel cell programs.Driven by the interest in reducing the dependencyon foreign oil by developing the technology neededfor commercially viable hydrogen-powered fuel cells – away to power cars, trucks, ho mes, and businesses – thatproduce no pollution and no greenhouse gases, the $US1.2 billion worth President’s Hydrogen Fuel Initiativewas launched in 2003 . Through partnerships with theprivate sector, this initiative seeks to develop hydrogen,fuel cell, and infrastructure technologies. Other partnershipslike the ‘Freedom Car’ and ‘Freedom Fuel’ supportdevelopment and demonstration of hydrogen relatedtechnologies as well. The management of funds to meetchallenges such as development of cost competitive hydrogenproduction and storage technologies is realizedby the Department of Energy (DoE) that has planned tospend a budget of $US ~290 million in 2007 and ~309million in 2008.The future role of hydrogen and fuel cells in the Europeanenergy policy is closely related to the developmentof a strategic energy technology plan and hencealso to a strong European Research and Innovation Areawithin these technologies. The development of a hydrogeneconomy, with H 2 produced from renewable energysources, is a long-term objective of the European R&Dagenda, and substantial funds have been allocated overthe years to pave the way. A Joint Technology Initiative(JTI) for Fuel Cells and Hydrogen will be established inFigure 25: CUTE project .order to realize a public-private partnership on the Europeanlevel. The budget will be in the range of 80-100million Euro/year.At EU level, research funds for hydrogen and fuel cellshave increased over the years in the Framework Programmes. Several European demonstration projectshave focused on niche markets, including hydrogen productionfrom renewables and conversion in remote locations,auxiliary back-up power for residential homes, andthe CUTE/ECTOS demonstration project of 33 hydrogenpowered buses in 10 cities with 10 hydrogen fuelling stationsand a total budget of 100 million € (Figure 25) .Various initiatives have been made to coordinate activitiesin hydrogen and fuel cell technologies at Europeanlevel to overcome fragmented R&D across countries andsectors, including European networks of excellence, thelaunch of the European Technology Platform for Hydrogenand Fuel Cells in January 2004  and the networkingof national and regional programmes in the contextof the ERAnet HY-CO .The European Technology Platform for Hydrogen andFuel Cells was one of the very first technology platformsin Europe. Though led by the industry, it is stronglysupported by the EU Commission, which encouragesthe process and closely coordinates its activities in thisarea. A Strategic Research Agenda as well as a DeploymentStrategy were endorsed by the managing body ofthe platform, the Advisory Council, in December 2004.An Implementation Panel was established in 2006, underthe direction of the Advisory Council of the HFP andin consultation with the Member States Mirror Groupto take the strategy for research and demonstration ofhydrogen and fuel cells technologies to the implementationstage by 2010-2015 . This will require an estimatedinvestment of 7.4 billion € between 2007-2015.The Implementation Plan is intended to provide recommendationsfor the core contents of a possible JointTechnology Initiative (§171) as well as form part of the7 th Research Framework Programme (FP7).The ERA-NET HY-CO was launched in 2004 with morethan 18 national and regional research funding agencies.The aim of the ERA-NET is to make a common knowledgeplatform for research funding agencies supportinghydrogen and fuel cell research and innovation and tomake common transnational calls. A number of ActionGroups have been established which prepare and launchcalls within a number of prioritised topics aligned to theHFP Strategic Research Agenda and Deployment Strategyon the one hand and relevant to the national researchneeds and strategies of the involved actors on the other.The first calls are planned in 2007.At national level, the Danish Energy Authority, togetherwith other energy research funding agencies, publisheda strategy for research, development and demonstrationin hydrogen and fuel cells in 2005. The strategy was theresult of a participative process with all key stakeholdersfrom research, the energy sector, the manufacturing
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 437.3industry and public authorities and includes the areasin which Danish knowledge producers have core competencesand where commercial prospects are perceivedto be best on global markets. The strategy estimates atotal investment of 1.5-2.0 billion DKK over a 10-yearperiod.In 2006, the Danish partnership for Hydrogen and FuelCells was established with the aim to promote the technologicaldevelopment in this area and has assembledrepresentatives from all important players.A first important step to realise this strategy has beenmade by the proposed governmental RD&D programmefor new energy technologies with an estimated publicinvestment of 477 MDKK for the period 2007-2010 .Also at operational level, progress has been made tomake a coordinated effort in the launch and implementationof research and development projects in the field.The scientific quality of all energy research and developmentprojects is assessed by the Strategic Research Council.Financiers and reviewers from the various fundingsystems meet regularly to exchange views on the goodresearch project, administrative procedures and implementation.Most importantly, a national hydrogen technologyplatform with the participation of public authorities,research institutes and private companies is steadily developingambitious research, development and demonstrationprojects in selected key hydrogen and fuel cellenergy technologies. These include for example:• Lolland Community Testing Facilities (Lolland CTF) foremerging and sustainable energy technologies, morespecifically The Hydrogen Community Lolland. Thetest facility comprises hydrogen produced by two 4kWelectrolysers made by the Canadian company Hydrogenicsand used for micro combined heat and power(PEMFC delivered by IRD Fuel Cells). The test facilityis an integrated part of a step-wise demonstration planfor micro CHP.• Hydrogen Innovation & Research Centre (HIRC), is aknowledge center that seeks to support introductionof hydrogen related activities in Denmark; for examplethe H2PIA-vision of a hydrogen based society.These framework conditions aim to strengthen the Danishknowledge communities in creating strong and internationallycompetitive competences. At the same time,they facilitate coordination and transnational cooperationwith other international bodies in and outside Europeas a national bottom-up contribution to a strongEuropean Research Area in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.technologies, with varying degrees of development andlearning curves. Hydrogen and fuel cells are not expectedto be implemented in the short-medium perspectiveand other intermediate technologies such as bio energytechnologies are expected to be promising bridges froma fossil based economy to a hydrogen based economy.However, the European hydrogen and fuel cell knowledgecommunities have over the last years worked hardto overcome fragmentation across national boundariesand to build a competitive European Research and InnovationArea in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies.Research and deployment strategies have been made byall relevant stakeholders from research, industry and theMember States, strategies which have been framed by advancednational strategies such as the Danish hydrogenresearch and demonstration strategy and which likewisehave aligned and influenced national activities.7.3.3 ConclusionsThe long-term vision of the hydrogen economy will takeseveral decades to be achieved. Initially, governmentalsupport of R&D will play a key role in order to achievethe “technology readiness” needed to allow industryto make decisions on commercialization in the 10 yeartimeframe. Key milestones for technology development,improvement, or demonstration have to be defined andrefined as technologies evolve and economics and systemsanalyses progress.A continued critical evaluation and discussion of hydrogenbased scenarios is necessary to establish a truly sustainableand economically viable energy system.Recommendations for Denmark• A broad national partnership including all importantplayers from industry, academia and politics is necessarythat continually evaluates the national and internationalachievements and adjusts Danish research effortsaccordingly;• strong support of further development of core competences,for example electrolysis;– improvement of long-term stability of electrolysiscells at high performance;– cost competitive materials and production technologies,demonstration units when research hasadvanced sufficiently;• establishment of international co-operations to complementDanish strengths within hydrogen technology;• implementation of hydrogen technologies into a renewablefuture energy system containing for examplelinks between wind, solar and hydrogen production aswell as CCS.To conclude, the future European strategic energy technologyplan is yet to be developed for the different
44 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.47.4 PhotovoltaicsPeter Sommer-Larsen and Poul Erik Morthorst, Risø DTU; PeterAhm, PA Energy A/S, DENMARK7.4.1 IntroductionPhotovoltaic (PV) devices, otherwise known as solarcells, convert light directly into electricity. PV technologyis modular and contains no moving parts.The great majority of PV systems take the form of building-integrated(BIPV) installations, which supply powerto customers connected to the public electricity grid.Such systems are integrated into residential, public andcommercial buildings, and other structures like road trafficnoise barriers.Grid-connected centralised power stations or solar farmsare the second large-scale application of PV. A third application,off-grid systems for both residential and non-residentialapplications, forms a valuable and reliable sourceof electricity in remote areas where main power is notavailable. Applications include households, telecommunications,water pumping, refrigeration and many more.Solar cells are commonly divided into at least threecategories. First-generation solar cells are made fromcrystalline silicon. Second-generation PV uses thin-filmtechnology, including amorphous silicon, CIS and CdT.Third-generation technologies combine organics andsemiconductors.First-generation solar cells are currently dominant: crystallinesilicon constitutes about 90% of the world market,and this situation is expected to continue until atleast 2015. Second-generation solar cells are increasingin market share, with high-efficiency cells produced forhigh-value applications including satellites. Third-generationcells are still mostly at the research stage, thoughthey are expected to be commercially available by theend of 2007.Energy conversion efficiency is an important figure whencomparing PV technologies. Efficiencies are typically reportedunder standard test conditions (STC): solar irradianceof 1000W/m 2 , solar reference spectrum AM1.5G,and a temperature of 25 °C.Individual solar cells are generally assembled in series tocreate modules, which are then connected in series andparallel to form panels. A full system contains one or morepanels, plus “balance-of-system” (BOS) components includingsupport structures, inverters, cables and switches.The power output of solar cells, modules and panels israted in peak watts (W p ) at STC. The energy generated bya PV system with a given W p capacity depends on factorsincluding the amount of sunshine and the orientation ofthe solar panels. An optimally-placed 1000 kW p systemgenerates an average of 850 kWh a year in Denmark and1800 kWh a year in southern Europe.The cost of solar power is continuously monitored by Solarbuzz. Lowest retail prices for PV modules are (June2007) €3.20/W p for first-generation cells and €2.20/W pfor second-generation cells. The cost of solar electricityin cents per kWh obviously depends on the capital costof the system, including installation, and on the expectedlifetime. It is often loosely stated that in sunny areas,the price of power from first-generation PV systems witha warranty lifetime of 25 years is similar to peak pricesfor grid power from the utility company, though stillconsiderably higher than average utility prices.7.4.2 Technology statusGlobal R&D effort in PV technology is concentrated inJapan, the USA and Europe. Each of these regions has anumber of technology roadmaps, R&D plans and exploitationplans. The International Energy Agency supportsthe global development of PV technology in its PVPSwork .The EU-supported PV Technology Platform  is workingon various aspects of PV technology, including research.The PV Technology Platform has a wide rangeof participants, with an emphasis on industrial partners,and is expected to advise the European Commission onfuture European-level PV RTD needs.In a European context, the status of PV technology, itspotential and R&D challenges were addressed comprehensivelyby the EU-supported publication A Vision forPhotovoltaic Technology compiled by the PhotovoltaicTechnology Research Advisory Council (PV TRAC) .These R&D challenges are analysed in more detail ina study called the PV Strategic Research Agenda (SRA),which has recently been published .PV R&D programme managers in the EU-supported PVERA-NET network are now strengthening the coordinationof national PV R&D, including transnational jointcalls for project proposals.The costs of an installed system are shared between thePV modules, BOS costs including the inverter, and installation.Prices for installed systems vary from countryto country, with a minimum of €6/W p in 2005. The industryneeds to cut costs at every point along the valuechain, but especially in the PV modules themselves,which currently account for 70% of the total cost of atypical PV system.The aim is by 2016 to have cut module production costsfrom the current €2/W p to below €1/W p . Based onthe fall in costs up to 2006, this is a realistic target. Newmanufacturing technology is expected to cut the cost ofsolar-grade silicon, the raw material for first-generationPV cells. As an example, the Norwegian REC group ,the world’s largest supplier of solar-grade polycrystallinesilicon, is building a new plant based on low-cost fluidisedbed technology and expects to start delivery by2008. The new plant will double REC’s production capacity,with considerable cost savings. There is also hugecost reduction potential in improving the production
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 457.4yield of silicon wafers and decreasing the wafer thickness.The quest for higher efficiency is another important aspectof PV R&D. As Table 15 shows, this is being pursuedin several ways. Efficiencies up to 40% have been demonstratedusing multi-junction thin-film cells and solarconcentrators. High-efficiency single-crystal cells havealso been made from ultra-pure silicon.Table 15: Highest reported PV efficiencies . Measurements are at STCexcept otherwise stated.Technology Cell Module NotesFirst-generationMono c-SiPoly c-SiMono c-GaAsSecond-generationAmorphous SiCISCdTeThird-generationDye-sensitisedOrganic24.7%20.3%25.1%9.5%18.8%16.5%10.4%3.0%22.7%15.3%15.3%8.2%13.7%10.7%Up to 6%reported*High-efficiencyGaInP/GaAs/Ge 32.0% Multi-junctionGaInP/GaInAs/Ge 39.3% Multi-junction,concentrator(179 suns)*Mono c-Si 26.8% Concentrator(96 suns)* Not confirmedConcentrating the sun’s energy allows expensive solarcells to be replaced by cheaper reflectors and lenses, andalso increases the efficiencies of semiconductor PV devices.Future solar farms may concentrate sunlight to upto 1,000 times normal solar irradiance (“1,000 suns”).The High-Performance Photovoltaic Project managed byNREL aims to achieve 33% module efficiency by combiningconcentrators with multi-junction solar cells.Compared to a monocrystalline silicon cell, a multijunctioncell harvests and converts a larger part of thesolar spectrum by stacking several p-n junctions madefrom different semiconductors (Figure 26). The theoreticalmaximum efficiency (at STC) of a single-junction cellis 31%, whereas the theoretical limit for an infinite-junctioncell is 66%. Multi-junction cells from SpectroLabInc. show practical efficiencies up to 39%.Other potential ways to increase efficiency are carriermultiplication and hot-carrier extraction. In carrier multiplication,high-energy photons absorbed by quantumdotmaterials create multiple electron-hole pairs. Thisallows photon energy in excess of the semiconductorband gap to be converted into increased current, ratherthan dissipated as heat as it is in a monocrystalline siliconcell. Hot-carrier extraction exploits the same energydifference by tapping off energetic electrons before theythermally relax to the bottom of the conduction band.Hot-carrier extraction can increase the voltage of the cellas well as its efficiency.Third-generation solar cells comprise dye-sensitised solarcells (DSSCs), which are also known as photoelectrochemicalcells (PECs), and polymer solar cells. DSSCshave a 20-year history and show efficiencies comparableto amorphous silicon cells. Manufacturer G24i expectsits 30 MW DSSC production line to be operating withinthe year .Polymer solar cells (Figure 27, see next page) are less mature,but are approaching the efficiency of amorphoussilicon cells. Konarka  is installing a production line,but has not published information on when it will beoperational. Key goals for polymer solar cells are 5%module efficiency and a working life of several years. Ifthese can be achieved, polymer solar cells will be commerciallycompetitive, thanks to their low productioncosts and ability to be produced in extremely high volumes.The production cost of polymer solar cell modulescould be as low as €0.1/W p .The German Federal Ministry of Education and Researchannounced the establishment of a research initiative fororganic photovoltaics in June 2007. The initiative’s totalfunding is 360 million € – of which 60 million € isgovernment funding. The initiative comprises industryleaders BASF, Bosch, Merck and Schott and it aims to developsolar cells made of organic polymers with a 10%degree of efficiency and a life span of 2 to 3 years thatcan be used in mobile devices such as mobile phones orlaptops. The initiative shall also contribute to the developmentof systems for stationary use with an improvedpower output.Figure 26: This triple-junction PV cell has three semiconductor layers,each of which absorbs a different part of the solar spectrum. Photonswith energies higher than the band gap of 1.8 eV are absorbed by theGaInP layer. Photons with energies below 1.8 eV pass through the GaInPto the GaAs layer below, which absorbs visible light from 1.4 to 1.8 eV.Near-infrared light passes through the GaAs and is in turn absorbed bythe bottom Ge layer. The layers are connected in series.Intensity (W m -2 nm -1 )2,01,51,00,50,00 1 2 3 4 5h (eV)
46 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.4AluminiumActive layerITOGlassSSC 6 H 13 C 6 H 13SSSC 6 H 13 C 6 H 13C 6 H 13 C 6 H 13SSSC 6 H 13 C 6 H 13Sun lightVoltFigure 27: Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell. The photovoltaic layer isa mixture of a hole conducting polymer, poly(3-hexylthiophene), and anelectron-conducting C 60 phase. Photons absorbed in the polymer createcharge separation and subsequently electron transfer to the C 60 . The holeand the electron diffuse towards the electrodes in their respective phases.7.4.3 Market developmentSolar cells were the fastest-growing renewable energytechnology market in 2005, with a global annual growthrate of more than 40%, and this trend continued in2006. Growth has been dominated by grid-connecteddistributed systems in Germany and Japan. In Germany,Figur 28: Cumulative installed PV capacity.199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006Installed PV power (MW)ROWUSJapanEU0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000subsidies have boosted the demand for solar cells to theextent that prices rose, though they fell slightly in thesecond half of 2006. Germany presently has an installedPV capacity of about 30 W p /inhabitant, compared toDenmark’s 0.5 W p /inhabitant.The global market is dominated by monocrystalline(35%) and polycrystalline silicon (45%), but thin-filmsolar cells are quickly gaining market shares, competitivenessand production capacity. Further technologicalbreakthroughs in third-generation photovoltaics areexpected, with some of these technologies expected toenter the market before the end of 2007.Learning rates (see 7.4.4) for PV have levelled out ataround 20% in the past decade. The trends for learningrates and global installed capacity show that within tenyears PV will catch up with wind power in terms of bothgenerating capacity and price. Ten years is also the timeframe within which many countries are aiming to abolishsubsidies for PV.Although the availability of high-purity silicon is presentlya bottleneck, production is expected to meet marketdemands before the end of 2007.Figure 28 shows the world’s cumulative installed PVcapacity for the period 1992-2006 . As noted above,first-generation cells still dominate the market, whichuntil now has been concentrated in Japan, the USA andEurope. China, Taiwan, Korea, and India are now emergingas both large markets and strong solar cell manufacturers.The European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA;) and Greenpeace have made projections about thePV market to 2025 and even 2040 . They predict433 GW p of installed PV capacity by 2025, correspondingto 2.5-3.5% of global electricity demand and creatinga market worth €114 billion that would employ morethan 3 million people. By 2040, according to the EPIAand Greenpeace, PV could be supplying 16-24% of theworld’s electricity.An EU White Paper for a Community Strategy and ActionPlan set a target for PV of 3 GW p installed capacityby 2010, corresponding to 1% of Europe’s electricity demand.By the end of 2006 the EU already had 2.5 GW pinstalled, and the target will be met in 2007. By 2010the EPIA wants PV installations in 7 million Europeanhomes, and 2.7 GW p of new capacity in the EU everyyear.Global PV production volume was reported to be1.5 GW p in 2005. Of this, Japan produced 55%, the USA10%, and Europe the remaining 35%. The EU market forPV technology was worth more than €5 billion in 2005.7.4.4 Cost trendsWe can estimate the future cost of PV systems using themethod of experience curves, developed by the BostonConsulting Group in the 1970s . This theory says thatevery doubling of the total number of units produced(cumulative production) decreases the costs of manufactur-
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 477.4ing and marketing a single unit by a percentage that isapproximately constant for a given product or industry.This learning rate is typically in the range 10-30%.The experience curve does not take into account changesin the market or technological breakthroughs. It merelyreflects the fact that mass production brings economiesof scale, while manufacturing costs also fall as companiesgain experience in making a particular product.The EU-supported Photex project estimated an experiencecurve for PV . Using price per kW p as the basis,the project estimated that learning rates were in therange 0.20-0.23. In other words, doubling the total installedPV capacity reduces the price per W p for new solarcells by 20-23%. The Photex estimate used data for theyears up to 2001. A more recent estimate using IEA datagives a learning rate of 0.16-0.18, which agrees reasonablywell with the Photex results.Manufacture and installation of PV systems has grownat an average annual rate of around 40% over the lastfive years, so the total PV capacity is presently doublingevery second or third year.Figure 29 shows the trend in PV module productioncosts if we assume:• a learning rate of 20%;• installed capacity growth of 40% annually until 2008,followed by a linear decline to 30% annually by 2016;and• PV modules cost $3.5/Wp in 2001.The actual price of PV modules followed the predictedprice curve nicely until 2002-2003. Since then, however,strong demand and production capacity constraints haveheld prices almost constant (the current price of a moduleis approximately $3.5/W p ). Big increases in manufacturingcapacity this year should cause prices to fallsoon; the question is whether they will drop back to theoriginal curve, or follow a “delayed” curve that is shiftedtwo or three years to the right. Bearing this uncertaintyin mind, and the fact that the experience curve is nota precise forecasting tool, we might expect PV moduleprices of $0.75-1.1/W p in 2016 (based on 2001 prices).By 2016 the total cumulative capacity is predicted to be106 GW, compared to approximately 5 GW at present.These estimations apply to the cost of modules, but not theadditional BOS costs. However, experience from a numberof countries  shows that BOS costs tend to follow thesame experience curve as the modules themselves. In generalBOS costs are around 35% of total PV system costs, sowith module prices of $0.75-1.1/W p we can expect systemcosts in 2016 to be $1.2-1.7/W p (2001 prices).7.4.5 CO 2 savingsThe energy payback time (EPBT) for PV is often claimedto be excessive compared to other renewable energy technologies.Recent estimates, however, suggest an EPBTin Europe of 2-5 years, depending on location. Of theenergy needed to manufacture and install PV systems,less than 20% is accounted for by the BOS components.The bulk of the energy is used to make the PV modules,and of this fraction, 60-70% is used in the production ofsilicon. PV systems emit no greenhouse gases during operation.The EPIA and Greenpeace projected PV capacityfor 2025 corresponds to annual savings of 350 milliontonnes of CO 2 .7.4.6 Key policy measuresOn the global scale, the objective is to create growth inthe PV industry to the point where it competes on equalterms with other generating technologies (“grid parity”).The societal benefits are energy independence, newhigh-tech jobs, and lower CO 2 emissions.Possible incentive mechanisms for PV growth are:• feed-in tariff (FIT): producers are guaranteed a price forthe electricity they produce over an extended period,typically 20 years;• net metering: producers are paid the current marketprice. A reversible electricity meter is the preferred optionfor homeowners exporting small amounts of powerto the grid; and• investment support: subsidies, tax rebates or low-interestloans. Many European countries use investmentsupport because PV technology is relatively expensive.Germany introduced the first large-scale feed-in tariffsystem in 2004 under the Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz(EEG) law. This is based on a 20-year flat-rate contract;the values of new contracts decrease by around 5% everyyear, to reflect falling market costs. Spain, Italy, Greeceand France also use FIT schemes. The typical value of FITis €0.40-0.50/kWh.Figure 29: Using experience curve analysis to estimate trends in PV pricesup to 2016.MW12000010000080000600004000020000Observed cumulative capacityEstimated cumulative capacityEstimated price accordingto learning curveShift in learning curve2001-$/w001992 1995 1998 2001 2004 2007 2010 2013 201687654321
48 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.4Net metering has become a permanent incentive in Denmark,with a current value of around €0.2/kWh. Manycountries also provide investment support or installationsubsidies, as did Denmark in the SOL-1000 project.As the long-time world leader in PV, Japan has built amarket for residential BIPV that requires no incentivesbeyond net metering. National subsidies for grid-connectedPV in residential housing stopped in mid-2006,but despite this Japan reported more than 70,000 residentialinstallations in 2006, more than half of whichhad been implemented without national subsidies. Inthe post-subsidy period Japan’s PV industry expects asetback of 5-10%, to be followed by a return to growth.In Denmark, a realistic target for installed PV capacityis 75 MWp in the period up to 2016. It is estimated thatreaching this target will require installation subsidiesto decrease gradually over a six-year period, and thatthe accumulated subsidy value will be DKK 50 million(around €7 million) on a total investment of aboutDKK 200 million (around €30 million).7.4.7 The Danish viewDenmark published its strategy for PV in 2005; Energiforskning.dkgives details of the supporting R&D programmes. The Danish Energy Authority representsDenmark in PV ERA-NET. The accumulated Danish experiencefrom a number of PV incentives such as SOLBYand SOL-1000 is well described in a recent report .Solar cells are not produced in Denmark, though severalcompanies supply and integrate systems. One companyalso has the potential to produce solar-grade silicon.Denmark has particular strengths in inverters, an essentialsupport technology that converts the DC power producedby solar cells into AC household current.Net metering is now a permanent incentive in Denmark,and this allows long-term planning of PV investments.The national installation subsidy ended with the conclusionof the SOL-1000 project, though one energy company,EnergiMidt, continues to offer customers a rebateon PV systems.Building integration is one area that has the potential tominimise PV costs through replacing existing buildingelements with solar cells. Second- and third-generationtechnologies typically have shorter lifetimes than firstgenerationcells, and this will present special challengesfor building integration.In third-generation PV, Risø DTU hosts one of theworld’s strongest research groups on polymer solar cells. Third-generation solar cells bring opportunities tointegrate PV into other products via printing and plasticsprocessing, and a number of Danish industries alreadyhave many of the skills needed to do this. The Risø groupis working on all aspects of polymer solar cells, includingmaterials, stability, and processing. A dedicated processline allows the testing of various approaches to moduleproduction. Demonstration on a larger scale is anticipatedin 2008, with subsequent commercialisation of theR&D results.The global fall in PV system costs will help to make PVelectricity attractive in Denmark. EPIA and Greenpeaceestimate that by 2025, PV electricity prices will be below€0.2/kWh in Denmark and other regions with similarsolar irradiance.It is important to maintain Danish PV industrial competenceby securing a national market for first- and secondgenerationPV. Together with R&D funding, a nationalmarket gives industry the opportunity to build up skillsand test the value of new production techniques at relativelysmall volumes. Two incentives to strengthen theDanish market are recommended below.7.4.8 ConclusionsPV is the fastest-growing renewable energy technologyin Europe though market volumes are still low. The marketis dominated by crystalline silicon solar cells, butthe competitiveness of thin-film solar cells is quicklyincreasing. Based on growing market demands, productioncapacity increases, production costs decreases, andtechnology leaps, solar electricity is forecast to reach gridparity after 2016. Even before that, falling prices willmake PV an attractive source of power in Denmark. PV isin the middle of a technological and commercial breakthrough,and new generations of technology promisea continued bright future. It is important to maintainDanish industrial competence in PV by securing a nationalmarket.7.4.9 Recommendations for DenmarkDenmark should:• follow up on the SOL-1000 project with a new projecthaving a target of 75 MW installed PV capacity by2016. The new project should use two incentives: netmetering, and a gradually decreasing installation subsidy;• encourage installation of PV in new public buildings,perhaps through requirements to the building regulationclusters;• make sure that all the relevant public R&D programmestake PV into account, and maintain the present mix offunding for demonstration, research and internationalinvolvement;• ensure that Danish R&D strategies and market incentivesin PV are ready to respond to future advances inPV technology, and the new opportunities these maycreate for Denmark. In the light of the recent 360 million€ German initiative on organic photovoltaics, theDanish R&D system must prepare for massive investmentsin highly profitably energy technologies likePV.
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 497.57.5 Bioethanol for transportAnne Belinda Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard Thomsen, Christianvan Maarschalkerweerd and Klaus Skytte, Risø DTU; Hans SejrOlsen, Novozymes, Denmark; Børge Holm Christensen, Inbicon,Denmark; Guido ZACCHI, Lund University, Sweden7.5.1 IntroductionBioethanol – ethanol made by the fermentation of sugarsderived from biomass such as sugar cane or grains – isby far the commonest biofuel today. Bioethanol is one ofthe most promising sustainable alternatives to gasoline(and MTBE), since it can be handled through the existinginfrastructure. The high oil prices are presently thedriving factors for pushing bioethanol into the transportsector.Ethanol can be blended with gasoline or used in its pureform, taking advantage of its higher octane number andheat of evaporation compared to gasoline. Vehicles withordinary gasoline engines can use a blend of gasolinewith 10% ethanol (E10) while modified “flexi-fuel” enginescan use E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline). Neatethanol (E100) can also be used in gasoline-type (Otto)engines with high compression ratios, and in diesel engineswith the addition of an ignition enhancer. The targetof EU is in 2020 to replace 10% of fuel consumptionin the transportation sector with bio-fuel.Bioethanol is defined as either first-generation or secondgenerationbioethanol, depending on the feedstock usedto produce it. First-generation bioethanol derives fromstarch (wheat or maize) or simple sugar-containing rawmaterials such as sugar cane or sugar beet. Second-generationbioethanol is made from lignocellulosic materialssuch as wood, straw, waste paper or household waste.Nearly all the fuel ethanol produced today is first-generation,notably the huge quantities of starch-basedbioethanol now being made in the USA. Much progresshas also been made in the last five years on the secondgenerationethanol production, however.7.5.2 Market developmentHistorically Brazil has been the only major producer andconsumer of ethanol as a transport fuel, but the last tenyears have seen rapid development in the USA, Chinaand the EU. In the USA, a range of public interventionshave significantly increased the demand for ethanol,while the supply side has been stimulated through taxcredits, grants and loans. As a result, annual productionin the USA has grown from around 3 million tonnes in1996 to around 15 million tonnes in 2006 (Figure 30), with capacity for a further 9 million t/y planned orunder construction . This makes USA the world’s largestproducer of ethanol.The situation is similar in the EU, where several MemberStates are actively supporting the introduction ofethanol, in particular in Germany. Tax exemptions – inpart or in full – and the mandated use of ethanol havestimulated demand, while a mixture of tax incentives,capital grants and access to EU Common AgriculturalPolicy provisions have encouraged the supply side .Bioethanol production in the EU has more than tripledbetween 2000 and 2005, to the current figure of around0.7 million t/y . Total EU production capacity in 2006was estimated at 1.2-3.0 million tonnes . Europeanproduction is concentrated in Spain, France, Germany,and to a lesser extent in Sweden and Poland [3, 4, 5].Brazil, the main producer of ethanol until now, has alsoshown a significant increase in production capacity. Theofficial target is a 40% increase in production between2005 and 2010 , mostly for export to Europe and theUSA. Brazilian ethanol production is very competitivebecause of the country’s low input costs, large and efficientplants, and the use of sugar cane, with its easily-convertedsugars, as the feedstock . To encouragedomestic production, however, both the EU and the USAhave imposed customs duties that significantly increasethe price of imported Brazilian bioethanol .Even though global consumption of ethanol has alreadyincreased significantly, high future growth is expected.The IEA (2006) has projected an average annual growthrate of 6.3% for liquid biofuels between 2005 and 2030,most of which will be in the form of ethanol .Figure 30: World bioethanol production.Production capacity of fuel ethanol 2006Global production = 35 million ton15 mill ton15 mill ton3 mill ton3 mill tonBrazilUSAEUOther7.5.3 Cost developmentFirst-generation bioethanol technologies have been usedfor decades and are now mature, with large cost reductionsthe last 20 years. Second-generation technologiesare still at the demonstration phase, and there is notenough historical data to predict how their costs willchange in the future.Compared to other renewable energy technologies,bioethanol has seen a steep fall in costs as productionvolumes have increased. Figure 31 (see next page) showsexperience curves (cost plotted against cumulative production)for Brazilian (first-generation) bioethanol, windturbines and photovoltaics.
50 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.5100000Cumulative ethanol volume1 1 1 0 10 100 1000 100000010001981 1985US$/kW (PV, Wind)10000100019811981PV(1981-2002)PR = 77%Wind(1981-1985)PR = 99%19851990198519902000Ethanol(1980-1985)PR = 93%1995 2000Wind(1985-2000)PR = 88%20022000Ethanol(1985-2002)PR = 71%10010Price paid to ethanol producers (US$/m 3 )10011 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000Cumulative installed capacity in MW (PV, Wind)Figure 31: Historical data points and estimated experience curves for Brazilian bioethanol, photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines. PR denotes theprogress ratio (see text) .A log-log plot of unit production cost against cumulativeproduction capacity often yields a straight line, known asan experience curve, that reflects increasing know-howand economies of scale as a technology takes off. Figure31 shows that since 1985 this line has been steeper forbioethanol than for PV or wind power.The slope of the experience curve can be used to calculatethe “progress ratio”: the new unit cost, as a percentageof the original figure, that applies when the cumulativeproduction capacity has doubled. For Brazilian ethanolproduction the progress ratio is estimated at around71% – in other words production costs fall by 29% forevery doubling of cumulative capacity. Factors behindthis sharp fall include big improvements in Brazilianagriculture, with better species of sugar cane and largeryields per hectare, as well as improvements in processtechnology.Figure 32 shows that the cost of producing ethanol variessignificantly between different feedstocks and technologies.The largest cost component of first-generationbioethanol is the feedstock. The energy and environmentalbalance of bioethanol is very sensitive to the source offeedstock and could even lead to negative balances.Feedstock cost (delivered) accounts for 60-70% of thetotal manufacturing cost of corn-based ethanol in theUSA, and this proportion will rise following the dramaticincrease in corn prices during 2006. As a result, severalnew US bioethanol projects have been postponed. CornFigure 32: Production costs for gasoline and bioethanol from various sources (figures from Europe, USA and Brazil). Each fuel shows a low and a highcost scenario. Cost figures are on a volume basis, which partly disguises the cost gap between ethanol and gasoline (ethanol contains around onethirdless energy than the same volume of gasoline) .Gasoline highGasoline lowBioethanol strawBioethanol straw 2010Bioethanol wheat highBioethanol wheat lowBioethanol corn highBioethanol corn lowBioethanol surgar beet highBioethanol surgar beet lowBioethanol surgar cane highBioethanol surgar cane lowBiomass costO & M costOther cost0,00 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50 0,60 0,70
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 517.5and wheat prices in the EU are normally higher than inthe USA because of the EU intervention price of about€100/t. Current EU wheat prices of more than €140/t(delivered) could spoil the economics of many new firstgenerationbioethanol plants .Making bioethanol from straw would cut feedstock costsas well as allowing the grain to be used for food. Onecubic metre of ethanol from grain requires about 2.7 tof grain, which at €140/t costs €378. One cubic metreof ethanol from straw needs about 5 t of straw if onlythe C 6 sugars from the cellulose are converted, or about3 t if the C 5 sugars from hemicellulose are converted aswell; with straw at €50/t, the feedstock costs are €250and €150 respectively per cubic metre of ethanol. At themoment, however, the extra process complexity of makingethanol from straw more than offsets the saving infeedstock costs.7.5.4 Technological statusFirst-generation bioethanolIn 2003, about 61% of the world’s bioethanol derivedfrom sugar crops: sugar cane (Brazil), sugar beet (France)and molasses. The remaining 39% was produced fromgrain, predominantly corn (USA) . Thanks to intensiveresearch on new enzymes to produce ethanol fromstarch, however, by 2006 nearly half the world’s bioethanolwas being produced in the USA from corn. Corn isalso the main feedstock in Canada and China, whereasin Europe wheat, rye, barley, and triticale are used.The first-generation bioethanol industry is characterisedby large plants. Economies of scale for corn-based bioethanolplants have caused individual plant capacities togrow from about 75,000 m 3 /y to 150,000-300,000 m 3 /yover the last ten years. Most corn-based plants are locatedin the USA, but the largest plant, with a capacity of600,000-700,000 m 3 /y, is in Jilin, China .Ethanol is easy to make from sugar cane, sugar beet andmolasses, because these feedstocks contain C 6 sugars thatcan be fermented directly to ethanol using baker’s yeast.For cereal starch, current ethanol technology is basedon either wet or dry milling. In wet milling, the grainis steeped in a solution of sulphur dioxide at 50°C for24-48 hours, followed by milling to loosen the germ andthe hull fibres. In dry milling the grain is simply brokeninto fine particles to facilitate subsequent penetration ofwater. Both processes then follow the same three stages:liquefaction (thermal enzymatic hydrolysis); simultaneoussaccharification and fermentation (SSF) using baker’syeast; and finally distillation to purify the ethanol.New plants are mainly based on dry milling, because itis more energy-efficient than wet milling. Dry milling allowsthe liquefaction stage to operate with a solids concentrationof 30-35%, compared to 20% for wet milling,and this reduces the energy required to produce one litreof ethanol by almost 50% . The Danish companyNovozymes has developed efficient enzyme systems especiallytailored for dry milling processes, and productioncosts have fallen as a result [12, 13, 14].Second-generation bioethanolSecond-generation bioethanol is also known as cellulosicethanol, since it is produced from plant sugar componentsin straw, wood chips, grasses, waste paper andother “lignocellulosic” materials. Lignocellulose has amore complex structure than starch, so it requires moreexpensive methods to release and ferment the differentkind of sugars. For ethanol production, the main componentsof lignocellulose are C 6 sugars from cellulose andC 5 sugars from hemicellulose.In 2001, second-generation bioethanol was still at theresearch stage and far from industrial application. Today,lignocellulosic processing is well advanced, and the EUhas three demonstration plants, in Sweden, Spain andDenmark (Table 16).In Sweden a fully-integrated demonstration plant atÖrnsköldsvik started up in 2004 with a capacity of 2 t/dof softwood as feedstock . Between 2002 and 2006Dong Energy built the first pilot-scale plant in Denmark; originally designed to treat 1,000 kg/h of biomass,the plant will be further developed in 2007 to handle100-4,000 kg/h. The Abengoa plant in Salamanca, Spain,produces both first- and second-generation bioethanol:around 195,000 m 3 /y from wheat and some barley, and5,000 m 3 /y from wheat straw.Outside the EU, Iogen Corp. in Canada has a pilot plantrated at 40 t/d . In the USA, six commercial-scale second-generationplants to produce a total of 492.000 m 3 /yof ethanol are scheduled to start up in 2009-2010 .Table 16: Demonstration plants for second-generation bioethanol.Plant operator Location Capacity (t/dfeedstock)Iogen Canada 40 Dilute sulphuric acid+ enzymesAbengoaEtek EtanolteknikSalamanca,SpainÖrnsköldsvik,SwedenHydrolysis method Raw material Reference30-40 Steam pretreatment+ enzymes2 Dilute sulphuric acid+ enzymesDong Energy Denmark 2.4-24 Hydrothermal treatment+ enzymesWheat/oat/barley strawBarley strawSoftwoodWheat straw, householdwaste etc.www.iogen.cawww.abengoabioenergy.comwww.etek.sewww.dongenergy.dk
52 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.5Second-generation bioethanol processes start with pretreatment,followed by enzymatic hydrolysis, fermentationof cellulose (C 6 ) and hemicellulose (C 5 ) sugars, andfinally distillation. The nature of the pretreatment stepdepends on the raw materials (Table 16, see previouspage).The challenge in second-generation bioethanol is to increaseyield while reducing energy demand, operatingcosts and capital costs . Important research tasks include:• pretreatment and depolymerisation of sugars for fermentationwith minimum generation of inhibitorsand without the use of chemicals;• reducing enzyme costs and developing novel technologyfor operation at high solids levels;• developing microorganisms to ferment C 5 sugars thatare more tolerant to inhibitors and ethanol;• process integration to reduce the number of processsteps and to reduce water consumption; and• recovery of lignin, a waste product that can be used asa fuel or as a source of chemicals.All the demonstration and pilot plants mentioned abovehave pretreatment units that use a combination of hightemperature and high pressure to open the tight structureof lignocellulosic materials, a necessary step beforehydrolysis by enzymes. A side-effect of pretreatment,however, is the release of “fermentation inhibitors”– compounds that are toxic to the fermentation organismsor hinder enzymatic hydrolysis . More researchis needed to minimise the production of inhibitors duringpretreatment, preferably without the need to addchemicals.A low-cost method with minimal consumption of enzymesis needed for a breakthrough in second-generationbioethanol. The US National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL) has made a full review of process designs andeconomic models for ethanol from biomass . The resultingresearch projects have aimed to reduce the cost ofthe cellulase enzymes needed to convert plant waste materialinto fermentable sugars. The award of $17 millionto Novozymes and Genencor International for enzymeresearch reflects the importance of this target.Novozymes has reported that it has reduced enzymecost per unit of ethanol by a factor of 30, as definedby NREL, using dilute acid pre-hydrolysis as a pretreatmentstep . Other researchers have developed a newmethod to handle high solids concentrations, based onhot water pretreatment . As a result, second-generationbioethanol is now a practical proposition, but it stillneeds more research to reduce enzyme costs and increaseefficiency.Tolerant yeast strains exist that can ferment C 6 sugarsfrom cellulose, but further development is needed to reducethe effect of inhibitors, and especially to fermentC 5 sugars under real process conditions, including highethanol concentrations. High ethanol yield and the abilityto handle a range of feedstocks are other importantgoals. Promising candidates include the geneticallymodifiedyeast TMB 3400  and a thermophilic bacterium.Bioethanol production uses large quantities of water,which need to be removed and requires energy. Wateruse can be minimised by operating at high solids levels,to reduce the amount of water that has to be removedat the end of the process, and by re-using water withinthe process. Risø DTU has a patented process that producesbiogas from the waste products and inhibitors inthe fermentation broth. The resulting purified liquid isthen recycled as process water .The residue from the SSF stage is lignin, a complex polymerwith a high calorific value. The energy obtained fromburning lignin is similar to that needed for pretreatmentand fermentation . In the long term, lignin couldalso be used as a source of chemicals .Integration and co-productionOne way to reduce the cost of bioethanol is through integrationand co-production with other biofuels. In Sweden,the heat and electricity needed to produce ethanolfrom wheat are supplied by a CHP plant fuelled by biomass;including the fuel used for agriculture and transport,this system produces twice as much bioethanol asthe amount of fossil fuel it consumes .In Brazil, bioethanol from sugar cane is produced atprices competitive with those of gasoline. Most plantsuse bagasse, the lignocellulosic residue from sugar caneprocessing, to produce process heat and electricity. Inthis case fossil fuels are used only in harvesting andtransporting the sugar cane, and the resulting ratio ofethanol to fossil fuels is about 8 in energy terms . Bagassecan also be used as feedstock for second-generationbioethanol plants .Denmark’s second-generation pilot plant uses the IntegratedBiomass Utilisation System (IBUS), in whichbioethanol is produced alongside CHP from co-firingcoal and straw. Straw handling and storage systems originallydesigned for CHP production serve the bioethanolplant as well. Surplus heat is used to evaporate wastewater,leaving behind byproducts such as carboxylic acidsand unconverted sugars that can be sold as animal feed.Co-production of first- and second-generation bioethanol,as done for the first time at the Abengoa plant inSpain, creates further opportunities for process integration.The ultimate plant will combine first- and secondgenerationbioethanol with CHP. Agricultural residuessuch as straw are attractive for bioethanol production,but the fact is that such residues are already in short supply– and relatively expensive – in some EU countries.Few places in the EU could provide the 750,000 t/y ofstraw needed to run a 150,000 m3/y ethanol plant, sofuture plants need the flexibility to handle a wide range
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 537.5of feedstocks, including straw, grain, energy crops, wastewood and household waste.7.5.5 Emission reduction and energy securityThe net consequences of bioethanol production on energysecurity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions dependvery much on the type of biomass used, the process technologyused, and of-course on the type of fuel substituted.Some combinations of these factors score well onboth points, while others perform poorly or even havenegative consequences.If bioethanol is made from waste materials, upstream energyinputs such as agricultural diesel and fertiliser canbe charged to the primary crop, and do not detract fromthe energy balance of the bioethanol. The analysis of energysecurity and GHG emissions therefore depends onlyon a comparison between the bioethanol, plus its productionresidues, with the alternative downstream fateof the feed materials.For first-generation bioethanol, on the other hand, theassessment must include all the upstream inputs for biomassproduction, plus the energy consequences of usingthe land to produce fuel rather than food, as well as thedownstream effects.First-generation ethanol processes based on grain starchshow similar characteristics, regardless of whether theirfeedstock is wheat or corn. A comparison of results fromsix representative analyses  shows that primary energy(excluding the energy in the biomass) makes up about80% of the energy contained in the bioethanol product.Thus, only about 20% of the energy in the bioethanol iseffectively renewable.However, only about 20% of the primary energy usedcomes from petroleum, while coal and natural gas makeup the rest. This means that grain-based ethanol used asa transport fuel displaces an amount of gasoline or dieselequivalent to about 84% of the energy content of thebioethanol, while increasing the use of coal and naturalgas.This may be good for energy security, but the consequencesfor GHG emissions are modest: replacing gasolinewith grain ethanol reduces GHG emission by about13% . Larger GHG emission cuts would be possibleby using renewable energy for the fossil fuels currentlyused in bioethanol production.Future second-generation bioethanol processes could bemuch more effective in reducing petroleum inputs andin particular GHG emissions . Depending on theprocess technology and degree of energy integration,replacing gasoline with second-generation bioethanolcould cut GHG emissions by 90% or more.7.5.6 ConclusionsBioethanol is a promising transport fuel that occupies afast-growing market. The USA and Brazil are currentlythe main producers, together accounting for 82% of allfuel ethanol. Only a limited amount of bioethanol isproduced in the EU, but a wide range of policy instrumentsare available to governments wishing to promoteits use.All the bioethanol in commercial production today is ofthe first-generation type, meaning that it is made fromstarch (from corn or wheat) or sugar (from sugar cane orsugar beet). The technology needed to make first-generationbioethanol from starch has developed rapidly,thanks to intensive research in enzyme technology.Second-generation bioethanol is made from materialsthat are of lower value but are more difficult to process,such as straw and wood waste. The necessary technologyis not yet commercial but is developing fast, with severaldemonstration plants operating or under construction.Plants that combine first- and second-generation bioethanolwith CHP can cut both capital and operating costs.Future European plants should have the capacity to convertcombinations of feedstock – such as straw, grain, energycrops, wood waste and household waste – to ensurea continued supply of raw materials.The reduction in GHG emissions that results from theuse of bioethanol in transport depend on the raw materialsand conversion technology used, as well as on thetype of fuel substituted. Most promising here is secondgenerationbioethanol, with an estimated 90% reductionin GHG emissions.
54 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.67.6 Thermal fuel conversion – pyrolysis,gasification and combustionFlemming J. Frandsen, Anker Jensen, Peter A. Jensen, PeterGlarborg AND Kim Dam-Johansen, TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OFDENMARK7.6.1 Main drivers in the energy marketThe perfect fuel is cheap, available locally, in hugeamounts, and easy and efficient to convert thermallyinto an energy form that may be applied in the modernday life, with only minor operational and environmentaldifficulties. However, such a fuel does not exist. Upuntil the early 1970s the world energy production wasmainly based on fossil fuels and – in some parts of theworld – on nuclear power.Anyhow, the massive energy crisis in 1973, opened thepublic eyes to the fact that the supply of fossil fuels fromthe Middle East was highly uncertain. Later, an increasinglevel of CO 2 in the atmosphere, as well as severalcases of documented environmental problems in relationto formation of acidic rain, introduced a significantenvironmental aspect in the energy supply debate. Theseaspects caused significant effort into the development ofrenewable energy sources and the thermal conversiontechniques of CO 2 -neutral fuels.Fuel 1980 2002CoalOilNatural gasNuclearRenewables25%46%19%3%7%24%38%23%7%8%Table 17: Relative world energy consumption by fuel type,1980 and 2002 .Table 17 shows that the fraction of natural gas and nuclearenergy supply to the world energy consumptionhas increased from 1980 to 2002, mainly at the expenseof oil .7.6.2 Fuels: Fossil fuels, biomass, and waste fromhuman activitiesCoal is the most abundant fossil fuel, with widespreadresources all over the world – enough to last several hundredyears with the current consumption rate. Due tothis, coal shows better price stability than oil and gas,and has gained renewed interest as an energy source overthe past decade. Most of the energy supply in Denmarkcomes from combustion of pulverized coal, and the Danishpower plants are leading in the world with respect toenergy efficiency of these plants. Nevertheless, coal willonly be an option for the future if it is possible to costefficientlyreduce the emissions of CO 2 .It is important to realise that all fossil fuels, particularlynatural gas, are limited resources, not only from a totalenergy capacity point, but also from an easy-accesspoint-of-view, i.e. some of the major resources of e.g.natural gas are located in areas dominated by politicallyunstable regimes.Biomass and waste may be used as a fuel in modernpower stations, in some industrial processes to provideelectrical power and heat, and in domestic stoves forcooking and heating purposes.Biomass has a number of characteristics that makes itmore difficult to convert thermally than fossil fuels. Thelow energy density is the main problem in the handlingand transport of these fuels, while the main difficultyin using them as fuels, relates to their content of inorganicconstituents. Thus, biofuels frequently need pretreatmentin order to reduce its storage, transport andhandling costs, or to provide a homogeneous fuel witha higher energy density, suitable for automatic fuel-feedingin combustion systems. The actual pre-treatmentprocess depends on the type of biomass as well as on thepreferred combustion technology, and may e.g. involvebaling (herbaceous biofuels), particle size reduction, and,if necessary, drying.Waste – e.g. from human household activities – are beingproduced in increasing amounts in the modern society.It is characterized by a low heating value, and by beingextremely inhomogeneous chemically and physically,which is the reason for applying grate-based incineratorsto convert the part of the waste that is not eitherdisposed or reused, thermally.7.6.3 Conversion of solid fuelsThe basic idea in thermal conversion of fuels is to transformand utilize chemical energy bound in the fuel toe.g. supersaturated steam in steam cycle, from whichelectricity may be produced upon passage of a steam turbine.Anyhow, thermal conversion of solid fuels occur– in principle – either in one strongly exothermic stepfrom fuel to fully oxidized species (CO 2 , H 2 O etc.), orin multiple steps, initiated by an endothermic step, inwhich a calorific gas is produced, followed by multipleexothermic conversion steps. The difference betweenthese extremes provides possibilities of heat and powerproduction, combined with application of gaseous productsfor production of liquid fuels. Recently, several opportuneconcepts of combined thermal conversion andfuel production have been introduced.7.6.4 Existing technologiesTraditionally, biomass in the form of wood and straw,and domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastes has beenconverted in grate or stoker type boilers. These boilersare still used today when very in-homogeneous fuels likestraw and MSW, are applied, when the boiler units aresmall, or when limited process and operation knowledgeon a particular fuel are available. During the last couple
56 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.6generate electricity by an engine. Fluidized bed gasifiersfor biomass are in the developing phase in several countriesboth for electricity and liquid fuels. Entrained flowgasifiers have been used to gasify coal for many years,but first recently have the development of pressurizedbiomass gasifiers been initiated.7.6.5 Emissions and solid residuesAs the main composition of all fuels in principal canbe presented as: C α O β H χ S δ N ε , it is obvious that all fuelsupon oxidative thermal conversion with air (N 2 +O 2 ),forms certain amounts of CO 2 , SO X , NO X , O 2 , H 2 O, andN 2 , together with minor amounts of e.g. gaseous Clspecies.The increasing CO 2 -level in the atmosphere, isknown to cause global heating, while SO X and NO X , ifemitted to the atmosphere may form e.g. acidic rain.Thus, the emission of these species must be decreasedeither directly by flue gas cleaning onsite at the plant orindirectly e.g. by substituting CO 2 -emitting fossil fuelswith CO 2 -neutral fuels like biomass.Emissions of pollutant species depends to some extenton the thermal conversion technology applied. Fluidizedbed combustion is characterized by fairly low combustiontemperatures (Table 18, see previous page), that arebeneficial for conversion of fuel-N to N 2 and for captureof sulfur on dry limestone. Combustion on a grate involvesslightly higher temperatures, but the reducingconditions just above the fuel bed facilitate conversionof nitrogen volatiles to N 2 . Due to high temperatures,NO emissions from suspension firing are potentiallymuch higher, but may be limited by the use of low-NO xburners that delay mixing of O 2 with the fuel. Concentrationsof sulfur and chlorine species in the flue gas aremainly determined by the content of these elements inthe fuel. Independent of the combustion technologythey are mostly released as SO 2 and HCl. However, influidized bed and grate combustion a significant fractionof the sulfur and chlorine may be captured by the ash orreleased as aerosols.Several techniques are available for NO X - and SO X -removalfrom flue gases, while there in principle are threedifferent ways in which a reduction in the CO 2 emissionfrom power generation by combustion can be achieved:diluted with an external recycle stream of flue gas to reducethe combustion temperature.Capturing CO 2 from a dilute stream is rather expensive,but techno-economic studies indicate that the oxy-fuelcombustion process, may be a cost-effective method ofCO 2 capture. The oxy-fuel process is shown schematicallyin Figure 33. During oxy-fuel combustion a combinationof oxygen typically of purity greater than 95% andrecycled flue gas – consisting mainly of CO 2 and H 2 O – isused for combustion of the fuel. The recycled flue gas isused to control the flame temperature and make up themissing N 2 to ensure there is enough gas to carry theheat through the boiler. The oxy-fuel process may be applicableboth as a retrofit technique for existing boilersand for new boilers. There are many new challenges tobe faced for the oxy-fuel process compared to conventionalcombustion, including:The characteristics of oxy-fuel combustion with recycledflue gas differ from combustion in air in several ways,including:• different flame temperature requiring higher O 2 concentrationin the burner to ensure ignition;• increased radiative heat transfer due to the high levelsof CO 2 and H 2 O in the furnace;• changed corrosion rates of the heat transfer surfacesdue to the changed gas atmosphere;• the emissions of NO x and SO 2 may be lower in oxy-fuelcombustion than for air firing, due to re-cycle of thesecompounds to the combustion chamber;• gas cleaning processes for e.g. NO x and SO 2 – how willthey respond to the changed gas composition.It is interesting to note that if coal and biomass is cofiredand all CO 2 is captured it is possible to obtain belowzero emission of CO 2 thereby reversing the green-houseeffect. The Swedish power company Vattenfall AB is engagingstrongly in the oxy-fuel combustion process andis building a 30 MW demonstration plant in SchwarzePumpe, Germany.Figure 33: General flow sheet for oxy-fuel combustion .• increasing the fuel conversion efficiency;• switching to a fuel with a lower fossil carbon content(including biomass);• capturing and storing the CO 2 produced by fossil fuelcombustion.Air separation unitO 2H 2O, SO X,NOparticulatesCO 2While the two first options will help reduce the CO 2 -emission in a longer timeframe, the latter will make asignificant and rather quick reduction in the CO 2 -emission.The most obvious way forward is then to performCO 2 capture from conventional suspension-fired unitsby flue gas scrubbing or doing so-called oxy-fuel combustionwhere combustion takes place in pure oxygenFuelFurnaceFlue gas recirculationFlue gastreatmentCO 2compression
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 518.104.22.168 Future challengesBiomass and waste applied for heat and electricity productionshould be converted in processes with a highefficiency and low operating costs. In addition, the processesneed to be environmentally sustainable and to providea net reduction in CO 2 -emissions. R&D activitiesmay support those objectives by supporting the followingtype of activities:• improve the efficiency and decrease the operating costsfor all types of biomass and waste thermal conversionunits;• develop tools to minimize operational problems (i.e.,with fuel handling, corrosion and ash deposits), and,remove harmful emissions and to ensure an appropriateutilization of residual products;• develop methods such that biomass and waste can beapplied for power generation on high efficiency suspension-firedand fluidized bed boilers.Another major future challenge is to develop gas-cleaningstrategies to meet the stringent requirements of gasquality. Two methods deserve to be mentioned, namelythe wet gas cleaning procedure developed by Babcock &Wilcox Volund (BWV) and the high temperature twostagegasification as developed at the Technical Univerisityof Denmark. The methods are part of the 6 MWthCHP demonstration plant (Harboøre, Denmark) and the75 kW staged gasifier (Wiking) at the Technical Universityof Denmark.Thermal conversion of biomass has been investigatedthrough several years as a possible source of renewableliquid fuels, storable and having the advantage of separatingthe fuel production from the utilisation. They cansubstitute fuel oil in any stationary heating or powergenerating application and have a heating value of about40% of a conventional fuel. Thus, biofuels may well finduse at peak loads at large power plants. The dominantuse of liquid biofuels is in the transportation sector, atleast in Europe. Oil from plants, especially rape seed, isobtained by pressing and extracting, and can be used directlyin dedicated engines. In a subsequent process, amethylated ester is produced with a quality comparableto diesel fuel. It is marketed as “Bio-diesel” or is blendedwith standard diesel.There are several incitements to provide alternative transportfuels based on biomass as a raw material. It will bea CO 2 -neutral transport fuel, it will reduce the dependenceon imported fossil fuels in the Western world and itis possible to further develop a domestic industry basedon liquid fuels. Liquid transport fuels based on biomasscan be produced by several different means such as biodieselfrom rape, ethanol by fermentation and by theGTL-technology (Gas-To-Liquid). The GTL-technologyhas a potential to obtain a high efficiency with respectto biomass to liquid conversion efficiency, and it shouldbe possible to develop the technology so that a broadrange of solid input fuels can be applied. On the downside counts that GTL-plants are relatively large and complicated.The GTL-technology uses natural gas or gas producedfrom solid fuels or from gasification of biomass, wasteor coal, whereby it is converted to a gas rich in CO andH 2 . This gas is then used for a synthesis of hydrocarbonliquids, by use of a catalyst. Depending on the catalysttype and operation conditions different products canbe made such as ethanol, DME, higher alcohols, andFischer-Tropsch gasoline or diesel. Often a pressurizedoxygen blown entrained flow or fluid bed gasifiers isused to produce the synthesis gas. The gas supplied fromthe gasifiers to the catalytic synthesis does often need tobe carefully conditioned in order to obtain an adequateH 2 /CO ratio, and to be cleaned of species that can poisonthe catalysts.The GTL-technologies are presently used in a large scaleto produce methanol from natural gas, and for manyyears Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon production havebeen applied in South Africa. Because of the relativelyhigh fossil oil prizes, GTL-technologies have gained renewedglobal attention, and in China plants for DMEproduction from coal are being erected. Large-scale commercialproduction of transport fuels from biomass withthe GTL technology is not done presently, but the increasedawareness of the need to reduce CO 2 -emissions,and the need to provide alternative transport fuels, dostrongly favour this technology.A broad band of research work need to be initiated toconsolidate the GTL-technology for commercial application,improve energy efficiency and improve the possibilitiesto integrate the technology with other energytechnologies. Possible research areas could be:• further development of pressurized gasifiers to handlebiomass and waste as well as co-gasification of biomassand coal;• work on integration of the GTL technology with powerproduction so that waste heat can be used efficientlyfor power and central heat production. Integrationwith other advanced technologies so outlet CO 2 -sequestrationcan be obtained and that the gasificationcan be integrated with combined cycle power production;• increase of plant efficiency by improving the efficiencyof both the gasification and synthesis process;• development of new catalysts, with higher tolerancetowards poisoning, and improved control over productcomposition;• development and test of motors, and distribution systems,for new fuel types.
58 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.77.7 Nuclear energyBent Lauritzen and Erik Nonbøl, Risø DTU; Seppo Vuori, VTT,Finland7.7.1 Market developmentNuclear fission is a major source of energy that is freefrom CO 2 emissions. It provides 15% of the world’s electricityand 7% of total primary energy consumption.Around 440 nuclear reactors are currently generatingpower in 31 countries, with largest capacity in Europe,the USA and southeast Asia. Non-electricity applicationsare few at present, but include process heat, hydrogenproduction, ship propulsion, and desalination.High capital costs and low fuel prices mean that nuclearenergy is used predominantly for base load electricityproduction. In Europe, for instance, nuclear accounts for20% of generating capacity but provides 31% of all electricitygenerated. Only in a few countries such as France,where nuclear provides 78% of electricity, are some nuclearplants used for load following.Most existing nuclear plants were built in the 1970s and1980s. After 1990, nuclear power faced global stagnation.In the USA and in Europe the development of nuclearpower halted, primarily because of the accidents atThree Mile Island in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986, butalso because of past poor economic performance, especiallyin the USA. Construction of nuclear power plantscontinued, however, in the far east, especially in Japanand South Korea.Since 1990 global installed nuclear capacity has increasedonly slightly to its present figure of 370 GW e . At thesame time the economic performance of nuclear plantshas continued to improve, mainly due to shorter outagetimes for fuel reloading and maintenance (Figure 34).World projectionsNuclear power has long been controversial, especially inEurope, with concerns over the safety of nuclear installations,radioactive waste, and proliferation of nuclearweapon materials. Globally, however, renewed interestin nuclear energy has been sparked by concerns for energysecurity, economic development, and commitment toreduce CO 2 emissions. Nuclear power is not vulnerableto even high fuel price fluctuations, and as it is based onuranium sources that are widely distributed around theglobe, fuel supply is not strongly affected by geopoliticalissues. In addition, because many years’ worth of nuclearfuel can be stored in a small area, the presence of localuranium resources is not a pre-condition for nuclearenergy security. In much of the industrialised world, nuclearis the only base-load option available today thatcombines low carbon emissions with the potential forlarge-scale expansion.Ambitious plans for nuclear new build have been announcedby China, India, and Russia, and many othercountries are considering introducing nuclear power. 15countries are currently building nuclear power stations,while about 25 more have plans for nuclear new build.In the USA, where no nuclear power plants have beenordered since the Three Mile Island accident, the Departmentof Energy (DOE) expects nuclear capacity in 2030to have increased by 3 GW e through plant uprating and10 GW e from new build . The industry has announcedplans for 30 potential new reactors in the USA.In its World Energy Outlook 2006 reference scenario, theIEA assumes that nuclear power production will have increasedby 15% in 2030 . This contrasts with earlierprognoses, in which nuclear was assumed to decrease after2010. The IEA bases its new view on the assumptionthat more existing units will gain lifetime extensions,and that the need to reduce CO 2 emissions, concernsover security of supply and higher fossil fuel prices willall encourage nuclear.Even more optimistic is the International Atomic EnergyAgency (IAEA), which estimates that nuclear power willexpand by 20-40% over the next 15 years . The WorldEnergy Technology Outlook 2050 (WETO-H2) study assumes in its reference scenario that nuclear will increasestrongly after 2020, with a four-fold capacity increaseby 2050 that will allow nuclear to provide 25% ofthe world’s electricity.Key issues determining the prospects for a large expansionof nuclear energy are costs, safety, waste management,and proliferation risks; all must be resolved satisfactorilyto ensure public acceptance . Political risks– in energy policy changes, regulatory uncertainties, andfinancial risks in a liberalised energy market – will alsoaffect the rate of nuclear expansion. A critical issue inmany developing countries, but important everywhere,is the need for education and training to maintain competencein building and operating nuclear power plants.In Europe, the short-term future of nuclear is uncertainand there is no common approach. Only Finland andFrance are currently building new nuclear power units. AFigure 34: Installed nuclear capacity and annual energy production. Betterplant utilisation means that production is growing faster than capacity.Installed capacity (GW e)600500400300200100ProductionCapacityGlobal nuclear energy production01980 1985 1990 1995 2000 20053000200010000Energy production (TWh/a)
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 5977.7number of mostly East European countries are consideringexpanding or introducing nuclear, while Germany,Belgium and Sweden have decided in principle to phaseout nuclear. Great Britain is likely to decide in 2007 or2008 whether to replace its aging fleet of second-generationnuclear reactors and coal-fired power plants withnew nuclear or with other technologies. Denmark decidedin 1985 not to build nuclear power stations.In a recent Green Paper on energy development in Europe, the European Commission emphasised thatthe priorities are sustainability, security of supply, andcompetitiveness. Both nuclear and renewables are acknowledgedas important energy resources, now and inthe future. The EU’s Action Plan to promote renewableenergy and combat climate change sets a greenhouse gasemissions reduction target of 20% by 2020 . Nuclear’srole in cutting CO 2 emissions is acknowledged. Themember states are free to choose their own energy mix,but it is not clear to what extent nuclear energy will affectindividual member states’ targets for CO 2 emissionsreduction.Cost trendsNuclear power is characterised by high constructioncosts and a relatively long construction period, typicallyof four to six years, but low operating and maintenanceexpenses, including fuel. The increased interest in nuclearpower in many countries has led to an increase inthe cost of natural uranium, but prices are likely to leveldown when new mines are commissioned and uraniumexploration intensified. Capital costs excluding interest(overnight costs) are $1,500-2,500/kW e [1, 5] for a firstof-a-kindunit. Costs for subsequent units of the samedesign are lower; a saving of 15-25% is the usual industryassumption.The Finnish EPR (1.6 GW e ) unit now under constructionhas been estimated to cost €3 billion, or roughly $2,000/kW e at the current exchange rate. Delays in constructionand in detailed plant design, however, have broughtabout additional costs to the vendor (Areva). Operatingcosts have varied considerably in different countries,partly because poor performance sometimes has led tolow availability. In recent years performance has generallyimproved, with availabilities of 80-90% becomingrealistic. Such availability yields O&M costs includingfuel of the order of $15/MWh and an overall power costof €28-45/MWh, making nuclear one of the cheapest optionsfor carbon-free electricity generation . A moderatecarbon emission tax of $10/t CO 2 would make nuclearcompetitive with electricity from fossil fuels.The transition to a hydrogen economy may further increasedemand for nuclear power as a CO 2 -free primaryenergy source. In the WETO-H2 hydrogen energy scenario(which assumes important technological breakthroughs,especially in end-uses for hydrogen), hydrogenin 2050 is produced predominantly by the electrolysis ofwater, of which nuclear energy accounts for 40% .Electrolysis of water is a modular technology that allowshydrogen production to be adjusted according to demandand electricity availability. The economics of theprocess are strongly influenced by the cost of electricity;costs of hydrogen have been estimated at €22-25 /GJfrom nuclear and €30-50 /GJ from wind .Hydrogen could also be produced on a large scale usingheat from high-temperature nuclear reactors, throughthermochemical reactions such as the sulphur-iodinecycle, which requires temperatures above 850°C. Hightemperaturereactors now being studied could allow theco-production of electricity and hydrogen.7.7.2 Nuclear reactorsMost nuclear power plants in the USA and Europe havesecond-generation light water reactors (LWRs), while theplants now being built in southeast Asia are of third-generationdesign. The Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR)under construction in Finland by the Areva-Siemens consortium,and the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) reactorbeing developed in South Africa, are both of typesreferred to as Generation III+. From 2020-30 onwards,fourth-generation reactors are expected to provide improvedfuel utilisation and economics.Uprating and life extensionExisting power stations have reactors with typical originaldesign lifetimes of 25-40 years. Considering the agedistribution of existing power reactors (Figure 35, seenext page) this implies that substantial replacement capacitywill be needed from around 2015.Many countries have already introduced plant life managementprogrammes aimed at increasing the capacityof nuclear plants, extending their operating lifetimes,or both. The condition for these measures is that theoverall safety level is improved or at least maintained atthe original level. For LWRs, power uprating as high as20%  can be achieved through new fuel designs withhigher enrichment allowing higher operating temperaturesand hence greater thermal efficiency, and from improvedsteam turbines.The USA has uprating projects totalling 4,000 MW e inprogress or planned. Among the European countries,Finland has increased the capacity of its four units by450 MW e , and by 2011 Sweden will have increased thecapacity of its ten units by 1,300 MW e .Periodic safety reviews have demonstrated that manyplants can be operated safely and efficiently for longerthan was foreseen when they were designed; lifetimes of60 years are likely in many cases. There is a significanteconomic advantage in doing this, since by the end ofthe original design life most plants are fully amortisedand it is much cheaper to extend the working life thanto build a new plant. In the USA, about 40 units in thelast five years have had their operating licenses extendedfrom 40 to 60 years, and 20 more units have applied forlife extensions.
60 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies77.7Generations III+ and IVThe EPR and the PBMR mentioned above are both reactorsof the general type known as Generation III+. TheEPR is characterised by a simple system design with increasedredundancy and physical separation of the safetysystems. Safety features include double containment anda core catcher at the bottom of the reactor vessel. TheEPR has high thermal efficiency due to its high secondarysystem pressure. Anticipated availability is also high,because shutdowns for planned maintenance are ofshort duration, and the reactor needs to be refuelled lessfrequently than older reactors of the same power rating.The design lifetime is 60 years.The PBMR is a high-temperature, graphite-moderated,gas-cooled reactor. It has a high thermal efficiency dueto the high operating temperature. The PBMR is characterisedby a high level of safety due to the large heatcapacity of the moderator. The flow of helium gas coolantis sustained by natural circulation if power to the circulationpumps is lost, so the potential for a destructiveloss-of-coolant accident is low.The first three generations of nuclear reactors do not representfundamental technological shifts, but rather anevolution based on experience from previous designs.Fourth-generation reactors, on the other hand, have newand demanding performance goals. These include moreefficient use of fuel, less waste, better economic performance,improved safety and reliability, enhanced proliferationresistance, and better physical protection. Meetingthese ambitious goals requires that substantial effortsare devoted to research, technological development anddemonstration of the novel concepts.The key technologies for Generation IV are fast neutronreactors with a closed fuel cycle and high or very highoperating temperatures. In 2000, the US DOE launchedthe Generation IV International Forum , with currently12 participating countries plus EURATOM, to collaborateon new designs. The Forum is focusing on sixdesigns:• Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR)• Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR)• Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR)• Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SWR)• Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR)• Molten Salt Reactor (MSR)Four of these are fast reactors, which allow for muchimproved utilisation of the uranium fuel. The sodiumcooledfast reactor is the most mature technology, andso may be deployed in the medium term. However, additionaltechnology development is needed to further improvesafety and to develop high-performance materials.The gas-cooled fast reactor is an attractive alternative tosodium-cooled reactors because of its potential for higher-temperatureapplications and hydrogen production.The very high temperature reactor, with temperaturesabove 950°C, is seen as a promising candidate for theproduction of hydrogen or synthetic fuels.The supercritical water-cooled reactor design is a furtherdevelopment of the pressurised water reactor. Leadcooledfast reactors are considered to be the most promisingfor proliferation-resistant nuclear power; Russiahas some experience with small (100 MWe) reactors usinglead alloys as the coolant. The molten salt reactor isprobably the least mature design of the six, but is valuedfor its potential to operate with a thorium fuel cycle.7.7.3 Fuel cycleIn the long term, the potential of nuclear power dependson how effectively the world’s uranium resources areused. Today’s thermal reactors with a “once-through”uranium fuel cycle use less than 1% of the energy in thefuel; most of this energy comes from the fissile isotope235U, which makes up 0.7% of natural uranium.Fast reactors – based on fast neutrons instead of thermalneutrons – operating with a closed fuel cycle may effectivelyutilize also 238 U, which makes up 99.3% of naturaluranium. In the closed fuel cycle plutonium produced inFigure 35: Age distribution of current nuclear power reactors. With a typical design life of 25-40 years, most of the reactors now operating will needto be shut down or replaced soon unless their lives can be extended.3530Number of reactors by age (as of May, 2007)25201510500 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 6177.7the fast reactor as well as unused uranium is recycled, sothat uranium reserves are used much more efficiently.Fuel can be conserved, and waste volumes reduced, byreprocessing spent fuel. When also minor actinides areeffectively recycled the heat output of the remaininghigh-level waste is reduced considerably, allowing undergroundwaste repositories to be made much smaller.Through advanced separation of radionuclides after reprocessing,and subsequent transmutation, many of theradionuclides that present potential risk to humans canbe removed. Transmutation of the separated radionuclidescan be performed in two types of reactors: fastspectrumcritical reactors and accelerator-driven subcriticalsystems (ADS). Of the two, accelerator-driventransmutation is the less mature, and its economics areless certain. The main incentive for partitioning andtransmutation, however, is to use fuel more efficiently.The potentially most dangerous radionuclides in unprocessedspent fuel are also generally those least likelyto escape from an underground repository. Whether arepository contains unprocessed spent fuel or high-levelwaste (HLW) from reprocessing therefore makes little differenceto the radiological risk to the population .Uranium resourcesThe length of time for which the world’s uranium resourceswill last depends on the technology we use (Figure36).Identified uranium resources total 4.7 Mt, at prices up to$130/kg. Used in typical LWRs this would provide about2,400 EJ of primary energy, which would be enough fornearly 100 years at the 2004 rate of use .Probable uranium reserves that have not yet been discoveredincrease the total to 14.8 Mt (7,400 EJ), whichwould cover a much longer period even if our use of nuclearpower expands considerably. There are also “unconventional”uranium resources such as phosphateminerals. In these resources uranium is a by-product andis estimated to be recoverable for $60-100/kg .With fast reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle – reprocessingspent fuel to remove the plutonium produced– reserves of natural uranium would last for several thousandyears at current consumption levels, and centuriesat higher levels of use. This recycling option increasesuranium resource efficiency by a factor of 30 , yieldingabout 220,000 EJ of primary energy reserves from conventionaluranium resources. If breeder reactors were usedto burn all actinides extracted from spent fuel, as well asrecycled or depleted uranium, the uranium utilisation efficiencywould further improve by a factor of eight .Nuclear reactors can also be designed to run on thorium,of which the proven and probable resources are about4.5 Mt . The thorium fuel cycle is more proliferation-resistantthan the uranium cycle, since it producesfissionable 233 U instead of fissionable plutonium. In additionto 233 U, the thorium cycle produces 232 U as a byproduct,which has a daughter nuclide emitting high-Total conventionalresources andphosphatesTotal conventionalresourcesIdentifiedresources8527067026001 10 100 1000 10000 100000Years of resource availabilityPure fast reactor fuel cycle with recycling of U and all actinidesPure fast reactor fuel cycle with Pu recyclingCurrent fuel cycle (LWR, once-through)8000200002100064000160000Figure 36: The number of years for which we have uranium resourcesdepends on how we use it (2004 utilisation level) .energy photons making the material difficult to handle.India has large reserves of thorium, but the commercialfeasibility of the thorium cycle will remain uncertainuntil there has been more technical development. Norwaydoes not have nuclear power but has large thoriumreserves and is currently exploring the possibilities to exploitthese resources.Proliferation and global nuclear energy partnershipThe enrichment of uranium, spent fuel reprocessing, andseparation of pure plutonium must be considered in thecontext of preventing proliferation of nuclear weapons.The Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons(NPT), which has been ratified by nearly 190 countries,operates a safeguard system to control fissile materialthat may be used in weapons. Compliance with the NPTis verified and monitored by the IAEA.Improving proliferation resistance is a key objective inthe development of next-generation reactors and advancedfuel cycles. A recent example of enhanced internationalefforts is the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership(GNEP) proposed by the USA .In a once-through fuel cycle, stocks of plutonium buildup in the spent fuel, but only become accessible when thefuel is reprocessed. Disposal of spent fuel without reprocessingtherefore limits opportunities for proliferation.Recycling through fast reactors, as we have seen above,increases considerably the utilisation efficiency of uranium,but also introduces opportunities for plutoniumto be diverted to non-peaceful purposes. Reprocessingtherefore needs careful safeguards.Waste management and disposalThe main objective of nuclear waste management is toprotect human health and the environment, now and inthe future, without imposing undue burdens on futuregenerations.Several countries have underground repositories for lowandmedium-level radioactive wastes, but as yet there are
62 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies77.7no repositories for HLW such as spent LWR fuel. Deepgeological repositories are the most extensively studiedoption, but neither the technical nor the political andsocietal issues have been fully resolved. The technical feasibilityand the long-term post-closure safety have beenextensively studied for different geological host mediaunder generic conditions. The studies show that safetytargets set for geological disposal can be met, while sitespecific safety assessments are still needed.In 2001, the Finnish Parliament agreed to site a spentfuel repository near the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant.After detailed rock characterisation studies, constructionis scheduled to start around 2013, with commissioningplanned for 2020. Sweden is currently comparing severalrepository sites close to the Oskarshamn and Forsmarknuclear power plants. In the USA, the Yucca Mountainarea has been chosen as the preferred site for a high-levelwaste repository. Extensive site characterisation and designstudies are underway, although not without significantopposition, and Yucca Mountain is not expected tobegin accepting HLW before 2017. France also sees deepgeological disposal as the reference solution for longlivedHLW, and has set 2015 as the target date for licensinga repository to be opened in 2025. France furtherexamines the possibility of transmutation of the longlivedactinides to reduce volume, heat load, and toxicityof the HLW.Figure 37: Lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from various energysources .LignitehighlowCoalhighlowco 2-sequestrationHeavy fuellow-NO xCCNatural CAS CChighlowSCRco 2-sequestrationPhotovoltaichighlowHydrohighlowBiomassIGCC, highIGCC, lowWindoffshore, highoffshore, lowonshore, highinshore, lowNuclearhighlowtons of CO 2equivalent/GWh0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400104135491522915740390187469398499245834774657106210261372Stack emissionsOther stagesFuel reprocessing does not eliminate the need to disposeof HLW, but it can reduce the amount of heat producedby the waste and shorten the length of time for whichit remains potentially dangerous. A repository for HLWfrom reprocessing might therefore be designed to lessstringent standards than a repository for unprocessedspent fuel.GHG emissionsTotal lifecycle GHG emissions from nuclear powerare below 40 g CO 2eq /kWh, which is similar to thosefrom renewable energy sources (Figure 37). Accordingto one study, even low-grade ore deposits (0.03-0.06%uranium content) need only small amounts of energyfor extraction and leaching of the uranium ore and CO 2emissions from mining are only about 1 g CO 2 /kWhgenerated .The variation in GHG estimates stems mainly from thechoice of uranium enrichment technology and the originof the power needed for enrichment. Gas diffusiontechnology consumes much more energy than the alternativetechnology of centrifuging.7.7.4 ConclusionsNuclear power does not form part of the Danish energymix and at present there seems to be little political willto change this position. As a result, Denmark has relativelylittle expertise in nuclear power, and no universitycourses for nuclear engineers. Because accidental releasesof radioactive material do not respect national boundaries,Denmark maintains limited preparations for a nuclearemergency besides monitoring for anthropogenicradioactivity in the environment.Since nuclear power provides a substantial share of Europe’selectricity, however, Denmark should ensure thatit has the expertise to advise the government and thepublic on nuclear issues. In the long term this meansrunning courses in nuclear technology, though the lackof prospects for nuclear power in Denmark will make itdifficult to attract students.Should Denmark in the future decide to introduce nuclearpower, the country would face challenges acrossgovernment, regulatory authorities, industry, researchand education. While many of these challenges mightbe solved by acquiring expertise from countries withnuclear power, Denmark would need a new regulatorysystem to address the licensing and operation of nuclearpower stations, as well as waste management.7.7.5 RecommendationsDenmark should maintain a nuclear expertise to advicethe government and the public on nuclear issues, andto ensure an adequate nuclear emergency preparednesssystem.Facing challenges of energy security and the commitmentto reduce GHG emissions nuclear power might bereconsidered as an option for Danish energy planning.
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 637.87.8 Fusion energyPoul Kerff Michelsen, ASSOCIATION EURATOM – Risø DTU; NiekLopes Cardozo, ASSOCIATION EURATOM – FOM-instituut voorplasmafysica Rijnhuizen, THE NETHERLANDS and Søren BangKorsholm, ASSOCIATION EURATOM – Risø DTU7.8.1 IntroductionThe immense amount of energy radiated from the sunand other stars is created in the interior of these stars. Atthe high pressures and temperatures in the centre of thesun, fusion processes turn hydrogen into helium, simultaneouslyreleasing huge amounts of energy. Althoughthe solar fusion reactions depend on the sun’s huge gravitationalpressure, quite similar fusion processes can beused to produce energy on earth.Of the terrestrial fusion processes, the most accessible isthe fusion of two heavier isotopes of hydrogen: deuteriumand tritium. A fusion reactor would “burn” theseisotopes at moderate pressure and at a temperature of150 million Kelvin – a very high temperature indeed,but one that is easily achieved in modern fusion experiments.The real challenge lies not in achieving thehigh temperature, but in sustaining this temperature efficiently.Only then can a fusion reactor produce morepower than it consumes.For the last 50 years many countries have had fusionresearch programmes. Scientists realised early on thatbuilding a reliable fusion power plant would be extremelychallenging. On the plus side, however, the prospectof fusion power is very attractive. Fusion offers a safe,clean, zero-CO 2 energy source, burning fuel that is abundantlyavailable everywhere.7.8.2 Fusion power plantsLike any other thermal power plant, a fusion powerplant is based around a heating unit which turns waterinto steam. The steam drives turbines, which producethe mechanical power to turn the generators that createelectricity.The fusion reactor itself is inherently safe. The primaryfuels, deuterium and lithium, are not radioactive. At anytime, the reactor contains only enough fuel to feed thefusion processes for the next few seconds, and any irregularitieswould cause the fusion processes to stop immediately.Most of the energy from the fusion processes is releasedin the form of fast neutrons. Around the fusion chamberitself is a blanket of material that absorbs the neutrons,converting their energy into heat that is carried away bycirculating cooling liquid.Some of these neutrons, however, will create radioactiveisotopes in the reactor wall. To minimise disposal problems,materials for fusion reactors therefore need to bechosen so that the isotopes created have short half-lives.With the right materials, it is estimated that after abouta hundred years the waste will be less radiotoxic than theash from a coal-fired power plant of the same size. Afterstorage for 50-100 years, the material could be reused innew power plants, and there is no long-lived radioactivewaste.The main cost of fusion energy will be in constructingthe power plant, while the cost of fuel is negligible. Fusionpower will therefore be most economical when runas base load, though it can easily contribute to a sustainableenergy mix. Fusion plants will also be safe enoughto be built in or near large cities, making it easy to usethe surplus heat for space or process heating. Several detailedstudies have concluded that the cost of electricityfrom fusion is likely to be comparable with that fromother environmentally-responsible sources .The fusion fuel, deuterium, can be extracted from water:1 m 3 of water contains approximately 35 g of deuterium.The extraction process is cheap compared to the amountof energy the deuterium can provide.The other necessary material, tritium, can be producedat the fusion power plant by bombarding lithium withneutrons from the fusion process. Lithium is a light metalthat is common in the earth’s crust and also occurs atlow concentrations in seawater. Compared to the largeamounts of energy released from the fusion processes,the cost of the fusion fuels will be negligible, and onlysmall amounts are necessary. Denmark’s total energyconsumption for a year would require only a few tonnesof deuterium and lithium. Existing resources of lithiumwould be able to power the world for a million years, anddeuterium reserves would last for 50 billion years.At the burn temperature of 150 million K, the fuel is inthe form of a plasma: the atoms are ionised and separateinto free electrons and ions. In the reactor, strong magneticfields are used to shape and confine the plasma.The magnetic field also reduces the thermal conductivityof the plasma by some 12 orders of magnitude, turning itinto a better thermal insulator than Styrofoam and thusgreatly reducing the power needed to sustain the highoperating temperature. This amazing effect of the magneticfield will eventually enable net power generationin a fusion reactor.Confining the plasma in a toroidal magnetic field is anold idea that still shows great promise, especially in thereactor design known as the tokamak, which has been developedquite successfully over the last 35 years. Currentpilot plants include the world-leading Joint EuropeanTorus (JET), sited near Oxford, UK, which came into operationin 1983, as well as other experiments around theworld. These tests have demonstrated the stable confinementof fusion plasmas at temperatures up to 400 millionK, which is well above the optimum temperature fora fusion power plant. To achieve net power production,the reactor needs to be doubled in size (in linear dimension)compared to JET. This step is now being carried out
64 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.8mated from Figure 38. Although large, the ITER reactorwould fit comfortably inside the combustion chamber ofa coal-fired power plant.Figure 38: The ITER reactor.through the ITER multi-partner fusion experiment. ITERmeans “The way” in Latin. Formerly interpreted to standfor International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor,but this usage has been discontinued.7.8.3 ITER: ten times power multiplicationBased on the success of tokamak experiments during the1970s and 1980s, it was decided in 1985 – during a summitmeeting between Mikhail Gorbachev and RonaldReagan – to design and build a new, large tokamak fusionreactor, in an international collaboration involving theUSA, Russia, Europe and Japan.After years of design work, followed by several years ofnegotiations over where to site it, the ITER project wasformally launched. In the meantime, the partnership inthis international research collaboration has grown toan unprecedented level. The current partners – Europe,Japan, USA, Russia, China, South Korea and India – representmore than half the world’s population.ITER is designed to generate 500 MW of fusion power, tentimes the power needed to sustain the high temperaturein the reactor, for periods of up to 1,000 s (16 minutes).A future fusion power plant will be designed to generate50-100 times the power used for heating, having a totalfusion power about 6-8 times that of ITER. According tothe present plan, ITER will start operating in 2017 withthe goal of “demonstrating the scientific and technologicalfeasibility of fusion power for peaceful purposes”. Asa research and development device, ITER is not equippedwith generators to produce electricity. The ITER websitegives more technical information .Fusion releases the energy captured by the strong forcesthat keep nuclei together. Since this binding energy istypically a million times larger than that in the chemicalbonds on which combustion processes rely, fusion is avery compact power source. The size of ITER can be esti-7.8.4 European strategy for fusion energyIn Europe, research for fusion energy is coordinated byEURATOM in collaboration with the Fusion Associatesestablished in most European countries. A series of studieswithin the European fusion programme have examinedthe safety and environmental aspects as well as economicpotential of fusion power, and have given inputand support to European long-term planning.The next step after ITER is likely to be a demonstrationfusion power plant called DEMO. Europe has recentlytaken the first steps towards defining the strategy forsuch a demonstration power plant. DEMO will be thefirst experimental fusion power plant to deliver electricityto the grid. To make use of the results from ITER,the construction of DEMO will probably not start untilsome years after ITER starts operating, that is probablynot before 2025.At present, the expectation is that if ITER is successful,several DEMOs will be built simultaneously. Apart fromEurope, the USA, Japan, China and India have all assignedan important role to fusion in their energy strategies.“China wants to be among the first countries togenerate electricity from fusion,” stated the Chinesegovernment when it joined ITER. The USA says: “ThePresident has made achieving commercial fusion powerthe highest long-term energy priority for our nation.”But it is important to note that Europe is leading thedance in the field of fusion, both scientifically and technologically.The strategies of all these countries plan to deliver thefirst fusion electricity to the grid around 2035, and thefirst generation of commercial fusion power plants maybe in operation around 2045.Figure 39 shows a possible scenario for the developmentof fusion power; this plan could be acceleratedif adequate funds were available. Fusion may thereforebe ready to make a large contribution to world energyproduction in the second half of this century, at a timewhen oil and gas reserves are likely to be running outand climate change and other environmental problemsare reaching their full enormity.To make progress as planned, in parallel to ITER it is necessaryto carry out a strong programme of development,testing and qualification of materials for the DEMO reactor.This requires a test facility in which materials ofconstruction can be subjected to high fluxes of “fusion”neutrons (neutrons with an energy of 14 MeV). As a resultof the ITER negotiations, Europe and Japan reachedan agreement on a strategy known as the “Broader Approach”(BA). This includes the design, followed in duecourse by construction and operation, of such an experimentalmaterials centre: the International Fusion MaterialsIrradiation Facility (IFMIF).
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 657.82007 2017 2027 2037 2047 2057 2067ITERConstructionOperationDEMO(s)DesignConstructionOperationFirst commercial power plantsDesign ConstructionOperation2007 2017 2027 2037 2047 2057 2067Fusion power delivered to the grid(GW)0,1 GW1 GW10 GW100 GW1000 GWFigure 39: A possible scenario for the development of fusion power.A conceptual power plant study (PPCS) was recently carriedout in Europe by a group of fusion experts, togetherwith a large number of experts from industry. The studyconsiders reactors with a power of 1,500 MW e , and evaluatesthe cost efficiency and other aspects of fusion energy.Earlier there was a common perception that futurefusion plants would be gigantic in scale. More recentinvestigations like that of the PPCS have shown that1,500 MWe is a realistic size for a fusion plant.7.8.5 European and Danish strengthsOver the last five decades, most developed countrieshave put significant effort into fusion energy research.Thanks to a focused research programme coordinatedby EURATOM, Europe is a world leader in the field, butJapan and the USA also have significant fusion experiments,and China, India and South Korea are rapidlyclosing the gap.The world’s largest fusion experiment at the moment isthe Joint European Torus (JET) in Oxford, UK. Thanks toexperience with JET and its extensive and coordinatedfusion research programme, Europe is the ideal host forITER, In this role Europe will contribute approximately45% of the €4 billion construction costs. The bulk ofthis budget will be tendered among European industry,which in some cases has been involved in fusion technologydevelopment for decades.As a part of the European fusion research programme,Denmark makes significant contributions to the field.Two areas in particular stand out: modelling and predictionof turbulence and transport in fusion plasmas, andthe unique technique of collective Thomson scattering(CTS) for measuring fast ions in the plasma.7.8.6 ChallengesBefore the first commercial fusion power plant can bebuilt, a number of physical and technological problemsrelating to plasma have to be solved, and some existingsolutions need to be refined.Among these are understanding the behaviour of plasmawhen a large number of alpha particles is present; thecontrol of erosion where the hot plasma touches the wallof the combustion chamber; the development of materialsfor the inner wall capable of withstanding the neutronflux; development of tritium breeding blankets andtritium recovering systems; and technology for large superconductingcoils, if possible based on high-temperaturesuperconductors. These challenges will be addressedin both ITER and DEMO.ITER will be the first experiment to use a plasma containinga large number of high-energy alpha particles fromthe fusion processes. These energetic particles may causenew instabilities in the plasma, possibly increasing theenergy loss rate. Many plasma instabilities have alreadybeen investigated experimentally and theoretically, andin the present tokamak experiments the plasma can becontrolled and maintained extremely well. However,these known instabilities limit the maximum plasmapressure relative to the magnetic field pressure. Otherinstabilities give rise to turbulence in the plasma whichincreases the energy loss from the plasma to the walls.Since the magnet coils are very expensive to build andoperate, a good understanding of plasma instabilitiesand turbulent transport is extremely important in orderto make fusion power plants as economical as possible.The inner wall facing the plasma, called the first wall, isa technological challenge. ITER expects to use a first wallconsisting of blanket modules of stainless steel coveredby a layer of copper and a layer of beryllium. For DEMO,however, a tungsten-coated stainless steel wall is underconsideration. The IFMIF facility mentioned earlier isnecessary so that these materials can be studied. Propertiesto be measured will include the degradation of materialsdue to the neutron flux from the plasma.
66 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies7.8Whether fusion power will be able to contribute significantlyto our energy supply in the long term dependsnot only on finding satisfying solutions to the technicalchallenges mentioned above, but also on how economicit proves to be, and whether it will be accepted by society.The goal of the ongoing worldwide development programmeis to demonstrate the technical and economicalfeasibility of fusion, so that our children will have thechoice when they need it.7.8.7 Spin-offs and opportunities for industryDeveloping a practical fusion power plant will require abroad range of technologies, many of which will havepotential applications in other fields. These includelarge, high-field superconducting magnets, particle accelerators,a wide range of measuring techniques, advancedremote handling, special materials and more. Fusion researchhas already created spin-offs: a laser-based plasmadiagnostic device used by Risø, for example, inspired anew technique to measure small-scale turbulence in thedesign of wind turbine blades. Similar spin-offs from fusionresearch will doubtless occur in the future.The construction of ITER will demand significant contributionsfrom industry. Many of the tasks will be largeand complex, requiring companies to operate as consortiarather than alone. This collaboration, plus the hightechnature of the work, should strengthen the generalcompetence of the firms involved and the competitivenessof the countries they represent.7.8.8 Recommendations for DenmarkFusion energy has great potential as a safe, clean, CO 2 -free energy source, with fuel that is abundantly availableeverywhere.Through their engagement with the international ITERproject, Europe, Japan, the USA, Russia, China, SouthKorea and India have all shown that they are willing tomake significant investments in developing this longtermenergy source. Europe has taken the lead, mainlythanks to its strong research coordination and supportfrom EURATOM, but also with considerable nationalsupport from several countries.Risø DTU is the only place in Denmark where this researchis taking place. The team at Risø is small, but byconcentrating their efforts in a few areas its members aremaking their presence felt at European and internationalscale. Besides this scientific and technological contributionRisø also participates in the European coordinationof ITER, with representatives in several of the decisionmakingbodies.In 2005 Risø began a project to inform Danish companiesabout ITER and inspire them with the possibilitiesof becoming suppliers to the project. A strong Danishpresence in the fusion research programme is likely tobring benefits through technology transfer, thanks tothe highly advanced and international nature of ITER.Participation could also help Danish industry to winlarge orders for ITER and the following generation of fusionpower plants.A national strategy for Danish fusion energy research,and increased national funding, would strengthen thesebenefits and make it possible to include other scientificfields in the European fusion programme. Examples ofthese are superconductors, high-temperature materials,robotics and system analysis, where Danish scientistshave special expertise. This expansion of the scientificcontribution is particularly relevant after the merger ofRisø and the Technical University of Denmark, althoughgroups from other universities could also be included.And since EURATOM’s funding mechanism is based onnational co-financing, increased national support willattract larger EURATOM funding.
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 677.97.9 Geothermal energyJørgen Fenhann and Hans Larsen, Risø DTU; Ida Lykke Fabricius,E&R, Technical University of DenmarkThe interior of the earth contains high temperatures andhuge quantities of heat. Some of this geothermal energyprobably dates back to the formation of the earth, butthe rest is continuously created by the nuclear decay ofnatural radioactive isotopes ( 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th and 40 K).This means that on a timescale of a million years geothermalenergy is renewable, though in some situationsit is possible to temporarily exhaust the energy availableto a given geothermal plant. At least 76 countries usegeothermal heating, and 24 countries produce electricityfrom geothermal energy.7.9.1 Geothermal powerAs heat from the interior of the earth escapes throughthe continental crust, it creates an average temperaturegradient of 20-30°C per kilometre, depending onthe thermal conductivity of the rocks and sediments atany particular point. In some areas of the world, heat istransported to the surface by convection of hot or evenmolten rocks. This heat transport mechanism is muchmore effective than heat conduction, so in these localitieshigh temperatures may be found at shallow depths.In Europe, high temperatures occur at shallow depthsin Italy, Turkey, Iceland, and oceanic islands includingthe Azores. Installed geothermal generating capacity inthe EU has grown from 370 MW e in 1970 to 893 MW ein 2005, mostly in Italy and Iceland (Table 19). Portugalplans to double its existing 10 MW e , which is located inthe Azores.Western Italy has a long belt of land extending from Tuscanydown to Campania, near Naples, in which temperaturesoften exceeding 200°C can be found close to thesurface. All three Italian geothermal power plants are locatedin this region, which is also home to Europe’s firstgeothermal power plant, installed at the Larderello fieldin 1904. The Larderello hot springs have been knownfor thousands of years, and were used by the Etruscansfor bathing. Geothermal capacity in Italy is expected toincrease by 100 MW e by 2010 .Table 19: Installed geothermal capacity in Europe .MW 1970 2000 2005Italy 368 590 665Portugal 0 10 10Iceland 2 170 203Turkey 0 15 15Europe 370 785 893Mtoe1,0000,9000,8000,7000,6000,5000,4000,3000,2000,1000,000Production of geothermal heat in EuropeTurkey Italy Germany Hungary AustriaIceland France Switzerland Romania DenmarkFigure 40: Geothermal energy for heating in Europe, 2005.The 203 MWe of installed geothermal power in Icelandproduced 1,658 GWh in 2005, or 19% of the country’selectricity production. An additional 210 MW e was installedin 2006, and a further 200 MW e is under construction.In its Alternative Policy Scenario, the InternationalEnergy Agency (IEA) assumes an installed capacityof 3,000 MW e in OECD Europe by 2030 . Up to6,000 MW e is possible according to the president of theEuropean Geothermal Energy Council, speaking at theEuropean Renewable Energy Policy Conference in January2007.7.9.2 Geothermal heatingIn areas where heat flow from the earth’s interior is controlledby diffusion, so that near-surface temperaturesare relatively low, geothermal energy may still have goodpotential. When heat pumps are used, small temperaturegradients can be transformed into useful energy. As anexample, geothermal plants in the city of Lund, southernSweden, extract heat from water at 21°C pumped fromboreholes 800 m deep. At present, the geothermal plantssupply 40% of the district heating demand in Lund .The main requirement for geothermal energy is thusnot high temperatures but rocks that allow the flow ofwater, which in turn carries heat. The water may flowthrough fractures in the rock, or through porous sediments.Deep wells may reach really hot water (125°C at adepth of 4 km), but sediment porosity tends to decreasewith depth, so both temperature and permeability mustbe taken into account. In Denmark, porous sedimentswith potential for geothermal energy are widespread, butup to now only two geothermal plants have been built:one in Thisted and one in Copenhagen .European production of geothermal energy for heatinghas increased from 0.3 Mtoe in 1970, through 1.9 Mtoein 2000, to 2.3 Mtoe in 2005. Most geothermal heat isproduced in Turkey and Iceland (Figure 40). The renewableheating action plan for Europe  drawn up bythe European Renewable Energy Council sets targets of4 Mtoe in 2010 and 8 Mtoe in 2020.
68 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies77.9Rock temperaturesat 5000 m depth> 240°C 160-180°C 80-100°C200-240°C 140-160°C 60-80°C180-200°CPriority areas for120-140°C100-120°C
Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies 697.107.10 Hydro, ocean, wave and tidalJørgen Fenhann and Hans Larsen, Risø DTU7.10.1 HydroOECD and non-OECD countries currently produceroughly equal amounts of hydroelectricity (Figure 42).Little growth is expected in OECD countries, where mosthydro potential has already been realised: on average,capacity has increased by just 0.5% annually since 1990.The OECD nations produced 1,343 TWh of hydroelectricityin 2003, the largest contributors being Canada(338 TWh), the USA (306 TWh) and Norway (106 TWh).Hydropower has little potential in the low-lying terrainof Denmark.Large hydro remains one of the lowest-cost generatingtechnologies, although environmental constraints, resettlementimpacts and the limited availability of sites haverestricted further growth in many countries. Large hydrosupplied 16% of global electricity in 2004, down from19% a decade ago. Large hydro capacity totalled about720 GW worldwide in 2004 and has grown historicallyat slightly more than 2% annually. China installed nearly8 GW of large hydro in 2004, taking the country tonumber one in terms of installed capacity (74 GW) .With the completion of the Three Gorges Dam, Chinawill add some 18.2 GW of hydro capacity in 2009 .The socio-economic benefits of hydro include improvedflood control and water supply. The socio-economic costof hydro includes displacements and submergence. Furtherhydro can improve peak-capacity management.Small hydropower has developed for more than a century,and total installed capacity worldwide is now 61 GW.More than half of this is in China, where an ongoingboom in small hydro construction added nearly 4 GWof capacity in 2004. Other countries with active effortsinclude Australia, Canada, Nepal and New Zealand.Figure 42: Regional share of hydroelectricity production in 2003 .9%11%Primary energy consumption EU25 (1750 Mtoe) in 20057%3% 2%20%1%47%OECDLatin AmericaChinaFormer USSROther AsiaAfricaNon-OECD EuropeMiddle East7.10.2 Current powerOcean currents, some of which run close to Europeancoasts, carry a lot of kinetic energy. Part of this energycan be captured by submarine “windmills” and convertedinto electricity. These are more compact thanthe wind turbines used on land, simply because water ismuch denser than air.The physical characteristics of sea currents are wellknown. The available power is about 1.2 kW/m 2 for acurrent speed of 2 m/s, and 4 kW/m 2 for a current of3 m/s . Potential sites for exploiting current power arethose where the current speed is faster than 1.75 m/s.The main European countries with useful current powerpotential are France and the UK.7.10.3 Tidal powerOcean tides are driven by the gravitational pull of themoon. With one high tide every 12 hours, a tidal powerplant can operate for only four or five hours per cycle,so power from a single plant is intermittent. A suitablydesignedtidal plant can, however, operate as a pumpedstorage system, using electricity during periods of lowdemand to store energy that can be recovered later.The only large, modern example of a tidal power plant isthe 240 MW La Rance plant, built in France in the 1960s,which represents 91% of world tidal power capacity. An18 MW tidal barrage was commissioned in 1984 at AnnapolisRoyal in Nova Scotia, Canada, and two systemsof about 0.5 MW each have been built in Russia andChina. Numerous studies have been completed for potentiallypromising locations with unusually high tidalranges, such as the 8.6 GW scheme for the Severn estuaryin the UK, but no decision has been made to buildthese .7.10.4 Wave powerWave energy can be seen as stored wind energy, andcould therefore form an interesting partnership withwind energy. Waves normally persist for six to eighthours after the wind drops, potentially allowing wavepower to smooth out some of the variability inherent inwind power.Wave power could in the long term make an importantcontribution to the world’s energy demand, if it can bedeveloped to the point where it is technically and economicallyfeasible. A potential 2,000 TWh/year, or 10%of global electricity consumption, has been estimated,with predicted electricity costs of €0.08/kWh . Wavepower is an energy source with a low visual and acousticimpact.Oceanic waves – those found far offshore – offer enormouslevels of energy; power levels vary from well over60 kW per metre of wave front in the North Atlanticto around 20 kW/m at the foreshore . A study of thearea available for wave power along the coast of Portugalshowed that a total length of 335 km could be used
70 Risø Energy Report 6 Energy supply technologies77.10Figure 43a: Artist’s impression of the AWS Ocean Energy plant.Figure 43b: The Wave Star generator is now being tested in Denmark asa 1:10 scale model. The full-size version will generate 6 MW.without causing problems for fisheries, navigation, environmentalprotection or military zones .Wave power is being investigated in a number of countries,particularly Japan, the USA, Canada, Russia, India,China, Portugal, Norway, Sweden, Denmark and the UK.At present, the front runners are Portugal and the UK.In contrast to other renewable energy sources, thenumber of concepts for harvesting wave energy is verylarge. More than 1,000 wave energy conversion techniqueshave been patented worldwide, though they canbe classified into just a few basic types: oscillating watercolumns (OWCs), overtopping devices, heaving devices,pitching devices, and surging devices.The 400 kW OWC plant on the island of Pico in theAzores was constructed in 1999, and recently refurbishedby the new Wave Energy Centre in Portugal .Based on a device known as the Pico, this “wave energybreaker” project is now being developed commercially.The device will be integrated into a caisson breakwaterhead now under construction on the Douro estuary inOporto, Portugal.A 2 MW prototype of the Archimedes Wave Swing (AWS)heaving device was tested for seven months off the coastof Portugal in 2005. The AWS Ocean Energy company is now developing a new model (AWS II). A 1.2 MWpre-commercial demonstrator will be installed in 2008(Figure 43a).The world’s first commercial wave farm project is beingled by a Scottish firm, Ocean Power Delivery , and installedduring 2006 off the coast of northern Portugal.It consist of three 750 kW Pelamis wave energy converters,each 120 m long and 3.5 m in diameter, developedby OPD. This 2.25 MW scheme is the first stage of aplanned 24 MW plant. It was located in Portugal becausethe Portuguese government has established a feeder marketthat pays a premium price for electricity generatedfrom waves compared to more mature technologies suchas wind power . A full-scale prototype has been testedat the European Marine Centre (EMEC) in the OrkneyIslands, Scotland. As well as the wave test facility, whichstarted in 2003, a tidal test facility is now being built inOrkney.The Wave Dragon is a wave power device developed inDenmark. It has been tested at the Danish test site at NissumBredning since 2003 as a 1:4.5-scale prototype. Thefirst full-scale version (4-7 MW) is expected to be builtin Wales in 2007 as the first part of a planned 77 MWplant.A 24 m-long 1:10 scale model of another wave generator,the Wave Star, was installed in April 2007, also at NissumBredning (Figure 43b). The active parts of this device canbe lifted out of the water to provide protection fromstorms, thus reducing the construction costs. A 120 m-long half-scale unit will be tested during 2008-2009 inprotected water, and then in 2009-2010 inside a Danishoffshore wind farm, where it can take advantage of theexisting cable for power export. The full-size model willbe 240 m long and will generate 6 MW .7.10.5 ConclusionsDenmark has been active in developing wave power technologysuch as the Wave Dragon and Wave Star. Thesedemonstration projects are excellent starting points forthe further development of this promising technology.7.10.6 RecommendationsTo give Danish industry a chance to lead the developmentof competitive wave technologies, a public-privatepartnership is needed. Danish manufacturers and consultingfirms should also have ample opportunities tocontribute to offshore wave power projects around theworld.
Risø Energy Report 6 Innovation indicators and future options 718Innovation indicators and future optionsPer Dannemand Andersen, Risø DTU8.1 IntroductionA number of internationally-recognised organisationshave constructed scenarios to help examine the futureof new and emerging energy technologies.The best-known source for future trends in energy is theannual World Energy Outlook (WEO) from the InternationalEnergy Agency (IEA), which is part of the OECD. The WEO is based on medium- and long-term energyprojections using a World Energy Model (WEM).The 2004 European Commission report European Energyand Transport: Scenarios on Key Drivers developed five scenarios:baseline; high oil and gas prices; low gas availabilityfor Europe; de-linking of oil and gas prices; andsoaring oil and gas markets . In contrast to the IEA’sWEO, this report was produced not in-house by theCommission but by a consortium led by energy expertsfrom the Technical University of Athens. These expertshave developed a global sectoral model of the world energysystem known as POLES.A third authoritative source is the Annual Energy Outlook(AEO) series drawn up each year by the US EnergyInformation Administration (EIA) . The AEO includesforecasts of energy supply, demand and prices throughto 2030. These projections are based on the EIA’s NationalEnergy Modelling System (NEMS).In all three of these scenario-based projections, the expectedperformance of new energy technologies is an inputto the model, not an output. It is therefore necessaryto use independent methods to predict how these technologieswill develop. Often this is done by canvassingthe opinions of experts in energy science and technology;a drawback to this approach is that experts often areunrealistically optimistic about their own areas of work.In this chapter we will further analyse the potential of aFigure 44: EU countries’ exports of energy technology as a percentage oftotal exports in 2005, and the relative change (as a percentage of energytechnology exports) from 2000 to 2005 .Increase of export of energy technology ‘00-’0540%20%0%-20%Catching upCentre of gravityNLUKEU15 DEFR SE ATBE/LUESFIPTMoving aheadDKITIRFalling further behindLoosing momentum-40%0 2 4 6 8 10range of technologies to contribute to these challengesin a Danish as well as a European context.Based on the analyses presented in previous chapters, foreach technology we will give an overview of:• indicators from the innovation system (science, technologyand markets);• expectations for future development; and• timescales for these expectations.8.2 Innovation system indicatorsIndustrial innovation, competitiveness, new jobs andexports are high on the political agenda in Europe andin other parts of the world. Energy is big business. TheIEA estimates the cumulative investment in energy supplyinfrastructure in its reference scenario at $21 trillion($21,000 billion) in the period 2005-2030. Europe’sshare of this is $2,395 billion . For comparison, theEU’s ambitious new energy policy assumes an extra costof €80 billion in the same period, or, depending on exchangerates, around 3% of total energy investment.As job creation is such an important topic, several energytechnology actions plans and roadmaps have takenemployment into account. The European GeothermalEnergy Council (EGEC), for example, in its GeothermalHeating and Cooling Action Plan for Europe assessedthe effect of increased geothermal development on energycosts, investment needs and jobs . According tothe EGEC, an investment in equipment of €21 billionbetween 2001 and 2020 would create the equivalent of70,000 full-time jobs by 2020. Other industry organisationshave put forward corresponding figures. Froma macroeconomic point of view, however, job creationis not the aim of government science and innovationpolicy, and we will not discuss employment further inthis chapter.Exports are also of political interest in many countries,for two reasons: one concerned with macroeconomics,the other relating to technology transfer, often to developingcountries. Europe is a net importer of energy(hence the concern over energy security) but it is a netexporter of energy technology. Energy technology exportstatistics are scarce, but according to one recent study,energy technologies accounted for an average of rathermore than 5% of total exports from the EU-15 countries,including mutual trade (Figure 44) .For countries such as Italy and Denmark, energy technologiesprovide almost 8% of total exports, while Danishexports of oil and gas amount to a similar percentage.Both Denmark and Italy also experienced significantgrowth in their exports of energy technologies in 2004
72 Risø Energy Report 6 Innovation indicators and future options8and 2005. At the other end of the scale is Ireland, withvery low – and declining – exports of energy technologies.Belgium/Luxembourg, Spain and Portugal seem tobe falling further behind the EU average, while the Netherlands,and to some extent the UK, are catching up.Growth in jobs (or industrial productivity) and exportsare affected by general national industrial competitiveness,and for new businesses areas and technologies alsoby the nature of the national innovation system. An innovationsystem can be defined as “the elements and relationshipswhich interact in the production, diffusion and useof new and economically useful knowledge” . Innovationstudies recognise the concepts of national innovationsystems (NISs) and also technology innovation systems(TISs). Energy technologies have in several cases beenthe subject of TIS studies .When such importance attaches to innovation, it is naturalto set up indicators that measure the effectiveness ofinnovation systems. The European Environmental TechnologiesAction Plan (EU ETAP) has involved a variety ofwork on defining and measuring “eco-innovation” .From the definition of an innovation system above, wecan see that it is about:• knowledge creation;• actors (industry, markets, institutions); and• the actors’ mutual interactions.Based on models of technology innovation systems andthe chain-linked model for innovation in firms, we cansuggest a set of indicators for industrial innovation. Thefollowing paragraphs deal first with knowledge creation,and then with actors and their relationships.8.2.1 Knowledge creationFor knowledge creation three indicators are significantbecause they are relatively easy to measure: governmentexpenditure, publications and patents.Government expenditureGovernment expenditure on R&D within specific areasof energy technology can be found in the IEA’s EnergyTechnology R&D Statistics, which is based on informationsupplied by individual IEA member countries .The quality of this data can be questioned, but it is thebest available today.For most energy technologies the IEA data goes backto the 1970s, but in the charts that follow we have includedexpenditure only for the period 1996-2005, andfor newer technologies such as fuel cells and hydrogen,data has only been available since 2004 (and for fuel cellsin Denmark, only for 2005). In the following figures EUcomprises data for the individual member countries andnot EU’s framework programmes.Bibliometric search profilesBibliometric searches are carried out in Science Citation Index and Derwent World Patents Index. Both of which are hosted online via STN International. Thesearch has been carried out by Line Nissen and Susanne Munck.Wind: Science citation index: wind power(5w)plant? or wind(5w) turbine?Derwent world patents index: wind power(5w)plant? or wind(5w) turbine?Fuel cells: Science citation index: fuel cell#/ti,stDerwent world patents index: fuel cell#/tiPV: Science citation index: (photovoltaic# and (cell# or power or energy or conversion)/ti or (solar cell#)/tiDerwent world patents index: (photovoltaic# and (cell# or power or energy or conversion)/ti or (solar cell#)/tiNuclear: Science citation index: (nuclear power or nuclear energy or nuclear reactor# or fission power or fission energy or fission reactor#)/tiDerwent world patents index: (nuclear power or nuclear energy or nuclear reactor# or fission power or fission energy or fission reactor#)/ti or X14-A01/mc orX14-A02/mcFusion: Science citation index: (tokamak or iter or thermonuclear or fusion)(3w)(reactor# or fuel# or power or energy)Derwent world patents index: (tokamak or iter or thermonuclear or fusion)(3w)(reactor# or fuel# or power or energy) or X14-A03/mcGeothermal: Science citation index: Geothermal and (energy or heat? or power or electricity or air condition? or ventilation or cooling)Derwent world patents index: Geothermal and (energy or heat? or power or electricity or air condition? or ventilation or cooling)Tidal: Science citation index: (tidal and power)/ti,st or (tidal and energy)/ti,stDerwent world patents index: tidal and (power? or energy)Wave: Science citation index: Set 1: (wave energy or wave power) and (plant# or generator# or turbine# or converter# or conversion). Set 1 combined with(engineering(s)(ocean or civil or mechanical or machanics or marine or manufacturing)/cc or energy/ccDerwent world patents index: (wave or waves) and F03B0013?/IPC (adaptions of machines for special use)Hydrogen: Science citation index: (hydrogen fuel? or hydrogen production or hydrogen energy or hydrogen power?) or (hydrogen and (economy or society orstorage))/tiDerwent world patents index: (hydrogen fuel? or hydogen production or hydrogen energy or hydrogen power? or hydrogen storage)/tiBiofuel: Science citation index: (biofuel? or bio fuel? or biodiesel or bio diesel or biomass fuel? or bioethanol or bio ethanol)/ti,st or (biomass and (ethanol ordiesel))/ti,stDerwent world patents index: (biofuel? Or bio fuel? Or biodiesel or bio diesel or biomass fuel? Or bioethanol or bio ethanol or biomass ethanol or biomassdiesel) and H06/dc or (biofuel? Or bio fuel? Or biodiesel or bio diesel or biomass fuel? Or bioethanol or bio ethanol or biomass ethanol or biomass diesel)/tiBiomass for heat and electricity: Science citation index: (biomass and (energy or heat? or combust? or power) not (hydrogen or bioethanol or bio ethanol orbiofuel?)) and (energy? or agricultural(w)engineering)/cc or biogasDerwent world patents index: ((biomass and (energy or heat? or combust? or power) not (hydrogen or bioethanol or bio ethanol or biofuel?)) or X15-E/mc orbiogas.
Risø Energy Report 6 Innovation indicators and future options 738It is important to remember that only OECD/IEA memberscontribute to these statistics, so countries such as China,India, Russia and Brazil are not included. This is a significantshortcoming in view of the considerable energy R&Defforts these countries have made in recent years.Publications and patentsThe number of publications and citations in particularareas of energy technology can be extracted from variousdatabases (bibliometrics).We included all papers andcitations published in international journals between1996 and 2006, though without checking the individualreferences for validity.Patents are another relatively accessible indicator of innovation.We counted patents from the period 1996-2006, again checking only the titles or texts of the patentsfor relevant keywords.The notes to this chapter give more details of the databasesand search terms we used to gather our statistics.(See textbox page 72). Choosing the right search terms isa challenge when reviewing both bibliometric and patentdata, and we enlisted the help of experts in particularscientific and technical fields to help with this.Private sector R&D budgets and venture capitalSeveral studies have tried to assess private-sector expenditureon energy-related R&D, but the shortage of comparabledata makes this very difficult. Venture capital isalso an interesting indicator, but again, reliable figuresare hard to come by.In hydrogen and fuel cell technology, an internationalsurvey of R&D expenditure and company equity foundthat North American companies dominated the area.Out of a total of 23 publicly-traded companies, the 16North American firms had raised $3.3 billion, or 93%of the total equity, whereas the six European firms hadraised only $0.13 billion (3.6% of the total). The picturefrom R&D expenditure was similar. . In general Europeanfirms’ expenditures on energy-related R&D seem tohave decreased during the recent years.8.2.2 Actors and marketsThe literature on innovation measurement suggests severalways to measure the performance of actors and markets.Here we will concentrate on two indicators: marketfigures, and cooperation between the various actors in aparticular technology.Figur 45: Indicators for wind energy technology100%80%60%40%20%0Figur 46: Indicators for fuel cell technologies100%80%60%40%20%0Figur 47: Indicators for energy technologies related to hydrogen100%80%60%40%20%0Papers (No.)Citations (No.)Patents (No.)Gov. R&D (M€)Installations (GW)ManufacturingNo data Japan ROW EU USAFigure 45: Indicators for wind energy technology .Figure 46: Indicators for fuel cell technologies. Government expenditureon R&D is for 2004-5 only. Since portable applications account for mostof the present fuel cell market, these are not included here. Manufacturingdata is for 2005 only, and is taken from a recent market survey .Figure 47: Indicators for energy technologies related to hydrogen. Governmentexpenditure on R&D is for 2004-5 only. Data for hydrogen fillingstations is for 1995-2006  and figures for USA includes all ofNorth America.Market size and growthFor most commercial energy technologies, trade publicationsshow cumulative installed capacity in MW, plusthe number and size of new projects for the previousyear. With suitable breakdown by country, region ortechnology type, these figures can be an excellent sourceof market data.Markets can be broken down into two types: energy markets(such as bioethanol) and technology markets (suchas equipment or plants to produce bioethanol). From anenergy technology perspective the latter figures are ofcourse the most important, provided that they are available.But energy market data is useful. As indicated bythe European Environmental Technologies Action Plan(EU ETAP) there is a need for – and a large commercialpotential in – developing new services and businessmodels in the energy sector .
74 Risø Energy Report 6 Innovation indicators and future options8Figur 48: Indicators for photovoltaic (PV) energy technologies100%80%60%40%20%0Figur 49: Indicators for biofuel energy technologies100%80%60%40%20%0Figur 50: Indicators for biomass technology100%80%60%40%20%Figur 52: Indicators for fusion energy100%80%60%40%20%0Figur 53: Indicators for geothermal energy100%80%60%40%20%0Figur 54: Indicators for ocean energy100%80%60%40%20%0Figur 51: Indicators for nuclear (fission) energy technology100%0Papers (No.)Citations (No.)Patents (No.)Gov. R&D (M€)Installations (GW)Manufacturing80%60%40%20%0Papers (No.)Citations (No.)Patents (No.)Gov. R&D (M€)Installations (GW)ManufacturingNo dataROWUSAJapanEUFigure 48: Indicators for photovoltaic (PV) energy technologies. “Installations”refer to cumulative installed capacity up to the end of 2006 ;as the market is developing rapidly, this is quite a good proxy for theannual PV technology market over recent years.Figure 51: Indicators for nuclear (fission) energy technology. Installedpower reflects operational reactors by May 2007 .Figure 52: Indicators for fusion energy.Figure 49: Indicators for biofuel energy technologies. The data for publicationsand patents cover all biofuels, but bioethanol predominates.Production data is for bioethanol only .Figure 53: Indicators for geothermal energy. Installations refer to globaldirect use of geothermal energy in 2000, measured as cumulative installedthermal power (MWt) .Figure 50: Indicators for biomass technology for heat and power production.The IEA figures for government R&D expenditure cover only 2004and 2005, and lack data from important countries including the USA.Installed capacity refers to electricity, and is cumulative as of 2004 .Figure 54: Indicators for ocean energy (tidal and wave).
Risø Energy Report 6 Innovation indicators and future options 758A related indicator is the number and size of companiesoperating in a selected energy technology. Again, tradeliterature often lists the “top ten” firms in each technology,though the increasing internationalisation of industrialproduction can make it difficult to assign thesefirms to specific countries.Several consultancies publish regularly-updated reportson markets and technology for individual energy technologies,often in considerable depth. BTM Consult, forinstance, provides an annual market update for windpower , while Johnson Matthey plc publishes an annualsurvey of fuel cells . The cost of these reportsmay put them beyond the reach of academic reviewers,however.8.2.3 InteractionsTo assess the degree of cooperation between differentactors in particular energy technologies, indicatorssuch as co-authoring and co-patenting might becomeuseful tools in the future. Useful information can alsobe gathered from databases of research projects involvingboth academia and industry, as this is generally thecase with projects supported by the EU’s FrameworkProgrammes.8.2.4 Indicators for individual technologiesFigure 45 to Figure 54 show the indicators discussedabove – publications, citations, patents, governmentR&D expenditure, installed capacity and annual manufacturedcapacity – for the various energy technologiesexamined in this report.“Installations” refers to cumulative installed capacity.“Manufacturing” refers to the home countries of theleading manufacturers.8.3 Timeframes for new energy technologiesTable 20 (see page 77) gives an overview of the timeframesfor the energy technologies discussed in this report.Associated with each energy technology are several statementsor hypotheses, each of which is assigned a likelydate range.8.4 ConclusionsThe previous sections have assessed regional strengths inresearch and development for each of the various newenergy technologies, based on estimates of publications,citations and patents, government expenditure, installedcapacity and market share. Together, these indicatorsgive quite a good overview of Europe’s relative positionin each new technology.8.4.1 Energy technologiesAs Figure 45, Figure 48 and Figure 51 show, the EU isvery strong in wind energy and strong in both PV andnuclear technology. In each of these technologies, theEU has a significant share of market and knowledge production,as well as global industrial players.EU Energy Technology Market Indicator0,60,3HydrogenFusion BiofuelsOcean00 0,3 0,6Figure 55: The EU’s Energy Science System Indicator plotted against EU’sEnergy Technology Market Indicator for a range of energy technologies.Market figure for hydrogen are based only on filling stations. Market figuresfor fuel cells are based on manufacturing capacity, not on markets.No market data are available for ocean power, and no market exists forfusion.For the established but still not mature technologiesof geothermal energy and biomass for heat and power,Europe has a fair share of both installed capacity andknowledge production. Especially in biomass for heatand power, Europe is the home of several world-leadingfirms.Brazil and the USA are world leaders in biofuel technology,but Europe seems to be quite well placed in biofuelsresearch. Bioethanol dominates by large the globalbiofuel production but Europe has a strong position onthe smaller market of biodiesel. Together, this is a goodplatform from which appropriate policy can be used toexpand European biofuel activities.The EU seems to be lagging behind Japan and the USA intwo important emerging technology areas: hydrogen andfuel cells. As well as being short of R&D, Europe seems tolack global players in these areas. DaimlerChrysler is theonly European firm among the leading vehicle manufacturerswith advanced plans for fuel cell cars within tenyears; the other manufacturers are American (Ford, GM)or Asian (Honda, Toyota and Hyundai) . It is importantto remember, however, that these technologies arestill emerging and that commercial markets are in theirformative phases.Ocean energy is also still in the formative phase withrespect to both technologies and markets. Here Europeseems quite well placed to benefit, as long as marketscan be developed within Europe to test and develop thetechnology.Figure 55 summarises the relationship between Europeanscience and markets for the energy technologies we havediscussed. EU Energy Science Indicator is constructed asEU’s average score in the three indicators: papers, citationsand patents. EU Energy Technology Market Indicatoris based on the installations indicator if nothing elseis mentioned.PVNuclearFuel cellsGeothermalEU Energy Science System IndicatorWindBiomass for H&P
76 Risø Energy Report 6 Innovation indicators and future options812%10%8%6%PapersCitationsPatents4%2%0%WindFuel cellsHydrogenPhotovoltaicsBio fuelBiomass for H&PNuclearFusionGeothermalOceanFigure 56: Energy science system indicators for Denmark. The bars show Denmark’s percentage of the global total.8.4.2 The Danish positionDanish markets for energy technologies and servicesare important for demonstration purposes and as an advancedmarket for the user-driven aspects of modern industrialinnovation. Apart from this, however, the Danishmarket for energy technologies is insignificant in aglobal context. Our focus is therefore on science systemindicators (Figure 56).It comes as no surprise that Denmark has a very strongposition in wind energy. Denmark also seems to have arelatively strong position in bioenergy – both bioethanoland biomass for heat and electricity – and in fuel cells.In ocean energy Denmark has a small but interesting positionthat is relatively strong in patents. This may reflectthe fact that ocean energy depends on careful design andpractical testing, rather than on scientific breakthroughs.Both tidal and wave energy are represented in the figures,but Danish wave technology surprisingly has thestronger position, with 8.3% of all patents. This area is,however, currently very small compared to PV or windpower – let alone established fossil based energy technologies.
Risø Energy Report 6 Innovation indicators and future options 778TechnologyStatementBefore 2010Period in which the statementwill first be true2010-20152016-20202021-20252026-20302031-20352036-2040After 2040Wind 1 Wind power delivers 12% of EU electricity demand2 North Sea offshore wind turbines produce electricity at €0.04/kWh (tendering fixed price for Horns Reef 2 is €0.07/kWh)3 First use of HVDC for long-distance (>2,000 km) transmissionof wind power to EU population centres4 Wind provides 12% of global electricity demandFuel cells 5 First commercial use of natural-gas-fuelled SOFC CHP systems6 First commercial use of fuel cell APUs for trucks, cars andmarine applications7 Fuel cell stack price falls to $30/kW8 Annual installations of fuel cells for power generation reach1 GWHydrogen 9 Hydrogen produced solely from renewables or nuclearconstitutes a significant part of the energy system10 First nationwide network of hydrogen filling stations allowscommercial rollout of hydrogen vehicles11 Commercial use of SOEC electrolysis to produce hydrogen,methanol or methane12 First mass production (>10,000 annually) of H2/FC carsPhotovoltaics13 PV provides 3% of global electricity demand14 Price of PV modules falls to $0.75-1.1/Wp (present price is$3.5/Wp)15 Cost of electricity from PV below falls to €0.2/kWh in areaslike Denmark16 Second- and/or third-generation PV technology overtakesfirst-generation technology in the marketBiofuels 19 Second-generation bioethanol plants reach commercial scale20 10% of EU transport fuel replaced by biofuels such asbioethanol and biodiesel by 2020Biomass 21 Biomass is widely used throughout the EU for district heatingand electricity productionNuclear 22 15% increase in the use of nuclear power compared tocurrent figures23 Nuclear reactors with passive safety are in practical use24 Fourth-generation reactor technology commercially availableFusion 25 Plasma confinement technologies for nuclear fusion are inpractical use26 Operation of first commercial fusion power plantGeothermal27 Installed capacity of geothermal energy in OECD Europereaches 3 GWOcean 28 Practical use of ocean energy technologies (tidal and wave)Table 20: Overview of timeframes for a number of energy-producing technologies.
78 Risø Energy Report 6 IndexIndexbatteries 11, 22, 23, 24, 37biodiesel 5, 57, 72, 75, 77bioethanol 5, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 72, 73, 74, 76, 77biofuels 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 21, 22, 49, 52, 54, 57, 74, 75,77biogas 9, 10, 11, 12, 37, 52, 72biomass 5, 6, 8, 9, 13, 22, 31, 40, 49, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56,57, 72, 74, 75, 76carbon capture 6, 25, 28CCS 5, 6, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 38, 43, 78climate change 3, 7, 21, 31, 33, 59, 64, 75coal 5, 6, 10, 13, 14, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 37, 40, 52, 53,54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 63, 64DEMO 64, 65direct methanol fuel cells 37distributed generation 14, 38, 39district heating 9, 11, 15, 16, 37, 67, 68, 77emissions trading 10, 28energy conservation 6, 10, 12, 14, 15energy consumption 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 21,29, 31, 54, 58, 63energy efficiency 5, 7, 9, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, 38, 54, 57energy security 53, 58, 62, 71energy storage 11, 34ethanol 22, 40, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 57, 72fault ride-through 33feed-in tariff 47fossil fuel 5, 8, 10, 14, 21, 22, 52, 54, 56, 58fuel cells 6, 10, 11, 12, 22, 23, 24, 28, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41,42, 43, 72, 75, 76, 77fusion energy 63, 64, 65, 66, 74geothermal 6, 67, 68, 71, 74, 75, 77GHG emissions 27, 53, 62, 78greenhouse gases 14, 21, 42, 47hybrid cars 22, 37hydro 8, 69hydroelectricity 69hydrogen 5, 6, 10, 12, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39,40, 41, 42, 43, 58, 59, 60, 63, 72, 73, 75, 77hydropower 69innovation 6, 7, 11, 23, 33, 35, 40, 42, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76ITER 5, 63, 64, 65, 66JET 63, 65Joint European Torus 63, 65Kyoto 7, 13, 35low-energy buildings 10, 15, 16, 17methanol 37, 40, 41, 42, 57, 77natural gas 5, 9, 21, 25, 26, 27, 29, 31, 37, 40, 53, 54, 55, 57nuclear energy 54, 58, 59, 61, 72ocean energy 74, 76, 77offshore wind 31, 32, 35, 70, 77oil 5, 6, 9, 13, 14, 18, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 42, 49, 54, 55,57, 64, 68, 71PAFC 36, 37PEMEC 41PEMFC 36, 38, 43phosphoric acid fuel cells 36polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells 36proton exchange membrane electrolyser 41renewable electricity 8, 22renewable energy 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 16, 17, 22, 31, 38,42, 46, 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 59, 62, 70renewables 8, 9, 10, 35, 42, 59, 77renewable technologies 9, 10, 12, 31, 39SOEC 41, 77SOFC 36, 37, 38, 77solar cells 5, 6, 19, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48solar thermal 16solid oxide electrolyser cells 40, 41solid oxide fuel cells 28, 36, 37, 41synthesis gas 40, 41, 42, 57synthetic fuels 22, 42, 60thin-film solar cells 46, 48tidal power 69transport fuels 5, 22, 57UpWind 34, 35wave power 6, 39, 69, 70, 72white certificates 10, 18, 19wind power 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 46,50, 69, 70, 72, 75, 76, 77
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Risø Energy Report Series 6 Risø Energy Report Series 83Risø Energy Report SeriesNew and emerging technologies:options for the futureRisø Energy Report 1Edited by Hans Larsen and Leif Sønderberg PetersenRisø National Laboratory, October 2002, 64 p.,ISBN 87–550–3082–3Risø-R-1351(EN) (515 Kb)All over the world, increasing energy consumption, liberalisation of energymarkets and the need to take action on climate change are producingnew challenges for the energy sector. At the same time there isincreasing pressure for research, new technology and industrial productsto be socially acceptable and to generate prosperity. The result is a complexand dynamic set of conditions affecting decisions on investment inresearch and new energy technology. To meet these challenges in thedecades ahead, industrialists and policymakers need appropriate analysesof energy systems, plus knowledge of trends for existing technologiesand prospects for emerging technologies. This is the background for thisfirst Risø Energy Report, which sets out the global, European and Danishenergy scene together with trends in development and emergingtechnologies.New and emerging bioenergy technologiesRisø Energy Report 2Edited by Hans Larsen, Jens Kossmann and Leif SønderbergPetersenRisø National Laboratory, November 2003, 48 p.,ISBN 87–550–3262–1Risø-R-1430(EN) (1 Mb)Three growing concerns – sustainability (particularly in the transport sector),security of energy supply and climate change – have combined toincrease interest in bioenergy. This trend has been further encouraged bytechnological advances in biomass conversion and significant changesin energy markets. We even have a new term, “modern bioenergy”, tocover those areas of bioenergy technology – traditional as well as emerging– which could expand the role of bioenergy. Besides its potential tobe carbon-neutral if produced sustainably, modern bioenergy shows thepromise of meeting a considerable part of the world’s energy needs,increasing the security of energy supply through the use of indigenousresources, and improving local employment and land use. To make thesepromises a reality, however, requires further R&D.Hydrogen and its competitorsRisø Energy Report 3Edited by Hans Larsen, Robert Feidenhans’l and Leif SønderbergPetersenRisø National Laboratory, October 2004, 76 p.,ISBN 87–550–3350–4Risø-R-1469(EN) (643 Kb)Interest in the hydrogen economy has grown rapidly in recent years.Countries with long traditions of activity in hydrogen research and developmenthave now been joined by a large number of newcomers. Themain reason for this surge of interest is that the hydrogen economy maybe an answer to the two main challenges facing the world in the years tocome: climate change and the need for security of energy supplies. Boththese challenges require the development of new, highly-efficient energytechnologies that are either carbon-neutral or low-carbon. Alternativefuels could serve as links between the different energy sectors, especiallybetween the power system and the transport sector, to facilitate the uptakeof emerging technologies and increase the flexibility and robustnessof the energy system as a whole.The future energy system:distributed production and useRisø Energy Report 4Edited by Hans Larsen and Leif Sønderberg PetersenRisø National Laboratory, October 2005, 62 p.,ISBN 87–550–3474–8Risø-R-1534(EN) (4 Mb)The coming decades will bring big changes in energy systems throughoutthe world. These systems are expected to change from central powerplants producing electricity and sometimes heat for customers, to acombination of central units and a variety of distributed units such asrenewable energy systems and fuel cells. Other expected developmentsinclude:• closer link between supply and end-use• closer link between the various energy carriers distributed throughgrids such as electricity, heat, natural gas and maybe hydrogen inthe future• increased energy trade across national borders.Renewable energy for power and transportRisø Energy Report 5Edited by Hans Larsen and Leif Sønderberg PetersenRisø National Laboratory, November 2006, 72 pp.ISBN 87–550–3515–9Risø-R-1557(EN) (4 MB)Global energy policy today is dominated by three concerns: security ofsupply, climate change, and energy for development and poverty alleviation.This is the starting point for Risø Energy Report 5, which addressestrends in renewable energy and gives an overview of the global forcesthat will transform our energy systems in the light of security of supply,climate change and economic growth. The report discusses the statusof, and trends in, renewable energy technologies for broader applicationsin off-grid power production (and heat). It also addresses the widerintroduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for examplethrough renewable fuels and vehicles powered by batteries, fuel cells andhybrid propulsion systems.