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266 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGshow few limitations imposed by water chemistry, and widevariability in infiltration rates.Lv, Enguo [179] see Guo, WuLynch, Sean (University of Alberta)[220] Portable-XRF Characterization ofArchaeological Obsidian from the MiddleJomon and Okhotsk Periods on Rebun Island,Hokkaido, JapanOngoing excavations on Rebun Island in Northern Japan havedemonstrated prehistoric use of obsidian persistently from theMiddle Jomon to Okhotsk periods. Since obsidian does not occurnaturally on Rebun or the neighboring islands of Rishiri andSakhalin, only the transportation of raw material and/or finishedtools over great distances accounts for their presence there. Thenearest sources of obsidian are located on Hokkaido Island some200 km away from Rebun, including separation by a 50 km stretchof the Sea of Okhotsk. Previous research in this region has shownthat movement of obsidian from various sources on Hokkaidoplayed a vital role in the entire lithic industry since the Paleolithic.As human mobility patterns varied in Northern Japan from theMiddle Jomon and Okhotsk periods, the patterns of sourceexploitation are also believed to have changed. This expectation istested by evaluating the sources of archaeological obsidianrecovered from three archaeological sites on Rebun Island(Uedomari 3, Kafukai, and Hamanaka II) through portable-XRF.This method provides new insights into the dynamics of resourceprocurement and distribution among Middle Jomon and Okhotskhunter–gatherers on Rebun Island.Lynch, Daniel [276] see Becker, RoryLyons, Patrick (Arizona State Museum)[67] The Davis Ranch Site: ArchaeologicalEvidence of Kayenta Immigrants inSoutheastern ArizonaThe Davis Ranch Site, located in the San Pedro River Valley ofsoutheastern Arizona, was excavated by Rex Gerald in 1957,under the auspices of the Amerind Foundation. Although a draftreport was completed in 1958, the data have never beenpublished. This site, as well as the nearby and contemporaneousReeve Ruin, yielded abundant and compelling evidence ofimmigrants from the Kayenta region of northeastern Arizona andsoutheastern Utah. Indeed, the evidence supporting a Kayentapresence at the Davis Ranch Site surpasses, both in quantity andquality, that recovered from the Maverick Mountain phase depositsat Point of Pines (the US Southwest's "classic" case study of howto reliably infer ancient migrations). In this paper, I report on arecently completed multi-year reanalysis of the Davis Ranch Sitedata. I also place the Davis Ranch Site – identified by Hopi culturaladvisors as a kùuku (ancestral Hopi village, literally "footprint") – inthe wider context of late-prehispanic ancestral Hopi migrations andthe Salado phenomenon.M. Kemp, Brian [38] see Lenci, EricMa, Xiaolin [219] see Pechenkina, EkaterinaMabry, Jonathan [291] see Ballenger, JesseMac Sweeney, Naoise (University of Leicester)[287] Conceptualizing CommunitiesIn archaeology, we have struggled with definitions of community.The community has been conceptualized as a natural social unit,the human correlate of the site; or as a form of social identity,actively constructed through social practice and unrelated togeography. Imprecise terminology and modern political rhetoricfurther complicate the issue. I argue that communities inarchaeology should be thought of as both geographic and social –as identity groups constructed through social practice, rooted inthe landscape. Residential proximity and shared space are notdeterminants, but factors which enable a specific form of groupidentity to crystalize. This emplaced group identity become salientonly at specific times for specific historical reasons, and must beenacted in social practice in order to crystallize. The socialpractices have been variously termed affiliation dramas,enactments of community, and practices of affiliation. They vary inform, but there are several recurring key features which constructcollectivity rather than distinction, unity rather than internaldifferentiation. To date, studies of identity have focused on theboundaries of identity and the construction of the Other. However,the notion of the collective “Us” is also relevant and must also besocially constructed.Macario, Raquel (Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala /CEMCA-Guatemala )[140] The Conceptualization of Space at the K’iche’Capital, Q'umarkaj, GuatemalaThe Late Postclassic of the Guatemalan Highlands ischaracterized as a period with strong social and political dynamics.The social complexity at the end of this period is well documentedin the indigenous texts from the 16th century as well as throughthe supremacy of one of the major social groups of this time, theK’iche’ Vinak.The social and political complexity detailed within thesedocuments offer another dimension to the archaeologicalinterpretation. Realized from the investigations at Q'umarkaj(2003-2007), the K’iche’ capital, it was observed that the eliteK'iche’ lineages had a special handling and meticulous use ofspace in the construction of structures belonging to these lines;reflecting a systematic social and political ordering based on acomplicated hierarchy. One of the most important architecturalpatterns from Q’umarkaj (Nim Ja and a temple) often differs insize, as well as in the level of their bases in relation to the level ofthe Plaza Principal, and their distance to the plaza. These dataoffer a chance to consider that at Qúmarkaj, the symbolism in thehorizontal and vertical space added to the social and politicalsettings of these tumultuous times in the Postclassic Highlands.MacDonald, Brandi Lee (McMaster University), Martin Cooper(Archaeological Services Inc.), Fiona McNeill (McMasterUniversity) and Joanne O'Meara (University of Guelph)[51] Elemental Characterization of Pigments Usedin Pictographs across the Lower CanadianShield, CanadaThe Canadian Shield Woodlands area boasts rich concentrationsof pictographs, and extensive efforts have been made to locateand document regional-scale rock art traditions. Research onthese pictographs has focused primarily on interpretation ofimagery and metaphor, and to situate them within a broadercontext of landscape archaeology (Arsenault 2004; Dewdney1970; Rajnovich 1994). However, there has been a lack ofresearch focus on the pigments that were used to create thepictographs. By analyzing the raw materials used we are able toglean further information on the activities surrounding the creationof pictographs and pigment procurement. We present the findingsof a preliminary survey of the pigments used for rock paintingconcentrations in the Lake Temagami, Lake Obabika and FrenchRiver areas of Ontario, Canada. By determining the geochemicalsignature of red ochre pigments, it is possible to identify variabilityin pigment sources used, and in some cases, to trace thosepigments back to their geologic origin. We used non-destructiveportable x-ray fluorescence equipment to geochemicallycharacterize the paintings. Results show that multiple, distinctchemical groups of ochres were used within and between theseareas.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 267MacDonald, Danielle [98] see Stemp, WilliamMacdonald, Danielle (University of Toronto)[98] The Effect of Use Duration on SurfaceRoughness Measurements of Lithic ToolsPrevious experimental research has shown that laser scanningconfocal microscopy has the potential to be a useful quantitativetool for the study of prehistoric stone tool function. This researchhas demonstrated that basic roughness parameters cancharacterize use-wear on lithic surfaces, distinguishing betweendifferent contact materials. However, further exploration is neededinto the effect of use duration on worn lithic surfaces. Does wornsurface texture produced by different contact material vary withduration of use? Understanding the changing nature of wornsurfaces will help move the field of lithic use-wear quantificationforward. This presentation will focus on a current program ofexperimental research that addresses how the length of useaffects the surface characteristics of lithic tools. In this study, toolswere used on several contact materials at increasing timeintervals. Surface roughness characteristics were measured ateach interval using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Theseexperiments allow for the comparison of surface parameters overtime on the same tool, tracing changes in wear on the tool surface.In this paper the results of this study are presented and avenuesof future research that can contribute to the development ofapplied method in quantitative lithic microwear analysis arehighlighted.[98] ChairMacDonald, Robert (University of Waterloo)[257] Public Issues Anthropology as a Framework forTeaching Archaeology and Heritage ResourceManagementFor humans, heritage is the nexus which connects the past withthe future. A key component in the construction of identity—bothindividual and cultural—heritage is constantly being created andinterpreted from information about the past. Archaeologicalanthropologists have traditionally focused on what thearchaeological record can tell us about the people who originallycreated it and how we can use this knowledge to contribute to oursocial science. We have paid much less attention to how thisinformation may affect living descendants of those ancientcultures. Increasingly, however, particularly where indigenouspeoples are involved, we find ourselves confronted by descendantcommunities which view the archaeological record as an importantpart of their cultural patrimony and not the exclusive domain ofprofessional archaeologists. This paper explores how thedeveloping field of public interest/issues anthropology is beingused at the University of Waterloo as a framework for teaching anexpanding variety of professionals how to approach archaeologyand heritage in ways that are holistic, transdisciplinary, respectful,and socially engaged.MacFarland, Kathryn (School of Anthropology, University ofArizona)[153] The Anthropology of Unconventional IdeasHow well does archaeological inquiry incorporate historicaldescription? Popular books such as J.W. Buel’s 1889 Sea andLand, in which man-eating plants and women-stealing orangutansare described in great detail, are easily ignored as “weird.”Descriptions of various historical groups, such as the Scythians,provided by Herodotus in The History (ca. 450 BCE) could beviewed with similar skepticism. For example, Herodotus describedScythian weather as so strange that feathers fall from the sky.Herodotus had apparently never seen snow. This description offoreign weather, while unconventional, is still useful toarchaeological inquiry and, when contextualized, can help betterorient archaeological study of a region. Unconventional ideas helpanthropologists identify and delineate conceptual metaphors,symbolic systems and general ideas that the writer has about theworld or protohistoric subjects. Historical description is crucial inidentification of material signatures of religious belief andlandscape usage of historic and proto-historic peoples, andidentification of social complexity, not obviously visiblearchaeologically. I propose that any culture’s unconventionalideas, expressed in written documents and large scale patternedbehavior, constitutes a robust line of evidence for anthropologicalinquiry, particularly when researching elements of socialcomplexity, such as religious beliefs.[153] ChairMacFarlane, Gina [219] see Littleton, JudithMacgregor, Oliver (Australian National University) and AlexMackay (Australian National University)[150] Distinguishing Artifacts from Naturally FlakedMimics, Using Flake Scar SizeCollisions between rocks as they are transported by naturalprocesses can create impact fractures that have Hertzianinitiations and conchoidal shapes. These fractures are created bythe application of force on a small area, and to this extent thefracture process is identical to the fracture process created byhuman knappers. Distinguishing natural flaking from human flakingis problematic, as natural collisions create flaked rocks that mimiccores. During a collision between two rocks, the energy availableto initiate a fracture event is proportional to the mass of the rocksinvolved, as this affects their momentum and inertia. As aconsequence of this, on rocks which are naturally flaked the sizeof flake scars should be correlated with the mass of the rock. Weexamine assemblages of flaked rocks from two environments inAustralia where high-quality flakeable stone is abundant andground surfaces are periodically flooded. Flake scar sizes arepatterned according to the mass of the rocks they are on, and theassociation between these two archaeologically visible variablescan be used as a means of distinguishing assemblages ofnaturally fractured rocks from artifactual cores.Machado, Juliana (Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina)[60] Places of People: Women, Plants,aAndExchange Networks on the Amazon DeltaFor the riverine of Caviana Island, on the Amazon delta,landscape is a social place and keeps the memory of the relationbetween the indigenous past and the riverine present. This paperdeals with the relationship between plants and people. Planting ispart of a set of practices, from obtaining the vegetal within theforest until its transformation into plant in the domesticenvironment. The forest is inhabited by enchanted beings andnon-human mothers of places, beings capable of activating aprocess of transformation of the human to the one who charmedhim. In this instability of the human condition, plants play a keyrole because they provide the healing of this spell, the reversal ofthis process, ie the possibility of permanence of their existence. Byselecting and planting the women transform spaces into “places ofpeople” through the exchange of plants and medicines amongrelatives, neighbors and friends. Exchange is an act of caring,which reaffirms the social bonds between humans andnonhumans engaged in reciprocal relations while binds them tospecific places, reinforcing their sense of territoriality andbelonging within the island.Machicado, Eduardo (University of Cambridge) and AnnaBrowne Ribeiro (The Ohio State University)[60] The Many Faces of Amazonia:Reconceptualizing Scale, Dimensions, andCultural BoundariesAmazonia, a region almost the size of Western Europe, hashistorically been treated as homogeneous. Archaeologists haveattempted to create a Pan-Amazonian narrative, relying chiefly on

268 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGlinguistic and ceramic data. These attempts have been hinderedby the lack of solid chronological, stylistic, and spatial dataavailable for this macro-region.Every new research endeavor challenges our partitioning. As anexample, recent work in the Llanos de Moxos, Bolivia, has shownmore local diversity in settlement patterns and ceramic styles thanpreviously known. Similarly, work in the Central Amazon hasshown internal nuances in settlement and ceramic data, as well asconnections to more distant parts of Amazonia.Intensive research has created the conditions for comparing andconnecting these distinct sub-regions in the realms of subsistencepractices and foodways, landscape transformation andmanagement, spatial organization, and symbolic systems.In this session we explore historical and cultural connectionsacross portions of Amazonia. Moving toward a new, dynamicsynthesis of the culture history of the region, we draw upon locallydeveloped data, creating a “mid-regional” scale that is defined bysocio-cultural phenomena and chronological data, rather than bypolitical, geographical, or other arbitrarily defined spatialboundaries.[60] ChairMacho, Gabriele[215] Moving West: The Dispersal of A. afarensis.The first unambiguos hominins are dated to about 4.2 Ma (Au.anamensis), and may perhaps be extended to 4.4 Ma(Ardipithecus ramidus). The hominin status of earlier finds, i.e.Orrorin tugenensis and Sahelanthropus tchadensis, is morecontentious and these species are not commonly accepted asbelonging to the hominin clade. Global environmental fluctuationsand local habitat changes are thought to underlie the evolutionarypathway of hominins, as well as other mammalian groups, theirmovements and biogeography. The fossil remains of A.bahrelghazali from Chad at 3.0-3.5 Ma are limited and it is notcertain that they are a separate species or merely a subpopulationof A. afarensis. Regardless, the western extension of this homininis remarkable and requires closer inspection, especially so as thisdispersal into Central Africa does not seem to be paralleled byother mammalian taxa, e.g. cercopithecines and carnivores. Asour knowledge of Pliocene climate and vegetation in tropical Africahas improved considerably over the last few years, a new look atthe dispersal of hominin is warranted. Here I will bring together theavailable information of climate, ecology and mammalianbiography and appraise the selective forces that may account forthe dispersal of A. afarensis.landform age at a majority of sites.MacIntosh, Sarah (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) andLevent Atici (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)[3] Antlerworking at Körtik Tepe (SE Turkey)during Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA)Recent archaeological projects in southeastern Anatolia (Turkey)have shed new light on Neolithic archaeology and contributed toour understanding of the revolutionary changes in human lifewaysduring the Terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene in the region.Körtik Tepe is one of the relatively new Pre-Pottery Neolithic A(PPNA; 10th millennium BP) sites excavated in the region withextraordinary findings. A most exciting and a rather unique aspectof Körtik Tepe is its fascinating mortuary practices. Körtik Tepehas not only yielded a large number of burials (currently over 400)with rich and diverse grave goods and sophisticated symbolism,but also round architectural structures (currently over 115). Thispaper presents the preliminary results of analysis on antlertechnology to add new data to ongoing zooarchaeological andarchaeological research at Körtik Tepe. The antlers are bothutilitarian and symbolic and ritual in nature, and we specificallyseek to document antler use and technology during a period ofrapid social, ideological, and economic change at the end of thePleistocene.Mackay, Alexander (Australian National University) and EmilyHallinan (University of Cape Town)[28] Provisioning Responses to EnvironmentalVariation from MIS 4-2 in the Western Cape,South AfricaThe Western Cape of South Africa witnessed recurrent turnover oftechnological systems in the period from 75-20,000 years beforepresent. This is also a period of rapid environmental change. Inthis paper we use data from open and shelter sites to examinedifferences in technological organization between industries suchas the Still Bay, Howiesons Poort, post-Howiesons Poort andRobberg. We find that technological differences are underpinnedby marked reorganization of provisioning systems, and discusshow these can be viewed as broad responses to localenvironmental variation through the late Pleistocene.Mackay, Alex [76] see Nightingale, SheilaMackie, Quentin [137] see Orchard, TrevorMacInnes, Breanyn (Central Washington University) and BenFitzhugh (University of Washington)[233] Controlling for Landform Age when Determiningthe Settlement History of the Kuril IslandsArchaeological investigations of human settlement patterns can bestrongly biased by evolution of the Earth’s surface in a dynamiclandscape, such as the Kuril Island volcanic arc. Recentarchaeological work in the Kurils established a chronology ofhuman settlement heavily biased towards the later Holocene,necessitating inquiry into whether these settlement ages havebeen dictated by the age of the landform on which they rest. Thebulk of earliest Kuril settlements date to the Late Holocene,younger than 4500 14C years B.P. Landscape-modifyinggeological forces that were active during settlement includeeustatic sea level fall, tectonic emergence, volcanic eruptiveprocesses (including lava, pyroclastic, and debris flows), coastalaggradation, and dune formation. In our analysis, we consider theimpacts of these processes on archaeological records in the Kurilsby comparing site occupation histories, using basal ages andpottery typology, with estimated landform ages. Out ofapproximately 100 sites analyzed, 30% were likely created since~4500 years BP, 15% were earlier Holocene, 40% werePleistocene or older, and 15% were of indeterminate age. Theseresults show that while some minor bias can be expected, themigration record into the Kuril Islands is not constrained byMackie, Quentin (University of Victoria), Jenny Cohen(University of Victoria) and Daryl Fedje (Parks Canada)[137] Kilgii Gwaay: New Data from a 10,700-Year-Old Water-Saturated Site on the NorthwestCoast of North AmericaKilgii Gwaay is a water saturated intertidal archaeological site insouthernmost Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, which dates to abrief window around 10,700 cal. B.P. Joint excavations betweenthe University of Victoria and Parks Canada in 2001 and 2002recovered a large assemblage of stone tools and faunal remains,and a more limited but informative assemblage of perishabletechnologies made of wood, split root, and bone. The overallassemblage suggests interpretation as a summer base camp ofpeople fully fluent in marine resources. Further work in thesummer of 2012 has added significantly to the paleobotanical,lithic, and organic evidence from this site. These new data are thefocus of this paper. We contextualize the new finds within theknown faunal and lithic assemblages, and we discuss theimplications of this wet site, one of the earliest of its kind in theAmericas, for the early occupation of the Northwest CoastMacLellan, Jessica (University of Arizona)[78] Early Households and Domestic Rituals atCeibal, Guatemala

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 269Ceibal is a large Maya center located in the lowlands ofGuatemala. The site was first occupied around 1000 B.C., at thebeginning of the Middle Preclassic period. Structure 47-Base is alarge platform near the site core. The platform supports aresidential group and was first investigated by Gair Tourtellot inthe 1960s, as part of his survey of the periphery of Ceibal. Duringthe 2012 field season of the Ceibal-Petexbatún ArchaeologicalProject, extensive excavations were carried out at Structure 47-Base. In addition to later material, Middle Preclassic houseplatforms, burials, caches, and activity areas were uncovered. Theresults provide new information about early domestic rituals andcraft production. In particular, one Early Middle Preclassic (LateXe ceramic phase) burial of multiple individuals is important to ourunderstanding of mortuary practices at early Ceibal. Futureinvestigations at Structure 47-Base will likely yield additionalvaluable data about the households of this era.MacNeilage, Peter[11] On the Evolution of the Relationship betweenSpeech Production and Body/Hand ControlSpeech and skilled right hand action are the two signatures ofhuman output. Both are usually controlled by the left hemisphereof the brain. Manual gestures are increasingly implicated inlanguage evolution scenarios. While considered unique tohumans, both functions may be offshoots of a vertebrate-widetendency for left hemisphere control of the body under routineconditions (MacNeilage et al., Scientific American, July 2009). Inboth functions, the evolutionary progression has been towardincreasingly fine control of the terminal components of the twosystems, the articulatory component of speech and the hand/fingercomponent of the manual system. For speech the progressionmay have been evolution of syllable “frames” from the mandibularclose-open oscillation of chewing, via monkey “lipsmacks”,followed by programming of the oscillation with consonants(closing phase) and vowels (opening phase) (MacNeilage,Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1998, 21, 499-511). Two stages inmanual evolution may have been have been an early rightwardwhole body asymmetry, evident in marine mammals and theearliest primates (prosimians), and then right handedness, seen infine skill components of manipulation, and bimanual coordination(e.g., in tool use), and gestural communication in higher primates(MacNeilage et al., Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1987, 10, 247-263).MacRae, Ian (Wilfrid Laurier University)[259] Diversity and Difference: InterpretingNaturalistic Miniatures in Dorset ArchaeologicalArtDorset art objects make up one of the premiere Canadianmuseum collection in any mode, form, or genre. These arepriceless, irreplaceable artworks that deserve to be better known,appreciated, and understood. The contemporary context for theinterpretation of Dorset carving begins with Swinton and Taylor’stwinned, seminal papers in 1967, which championed “The Magico-Religious Basis” of Dorset Art. This remains the mainline of ourunderstanding of what is in fact a highly differentiated materialculture. This paper is based on research in major Dorset and Inuitmuseum collections in Canada and the United States. It suggeststhat such an interpretive paradigm, in which Dorset art is related to“shamanistic religious practices,” that is, to totemism andsympathetic (primarily hunting) magic, often at least partiallythrough ethnographic analogy with the historical Thule Inuitculture, works to reduce and overdetermine a marvelouslycomplex field. Through analysis of an already recognized butunder-interpreted mode in Dorset carving – the “zoomorphicseries” of naturalistic carvings, particularly bears and seals – thispaper posits alternative, possibly vernacular or quotidian,interpretations of a material culture that is often judged to beamong the outstanding arts that the world has ever known.Macy, Kimberly (University of Washington), Ben Marwick(University of Washington), Becky Song Hanyu (University ofWashington), Cyler Conrad (University of Washington) andAlex Mackay (Australian National University)[184] Identifying Changes in Sediment Sources inMiddle Stone Age Deposits Using ICP-AES atKlipfonteinrand, South AfricaIn this poster we present sediment chemistry data fromKlipfonteinrand rockshelter, South Africa and nearby landscapelocations. The aim was to determine characteristic elementalprofiles for the major geological provinces surrounding the site andidentify these profiles in the archaeological deposit. This allowedus to identify shifts in the source of sediments in the depositionalhistory of the archaeological site. We used a modified EPA aciddigest protocol to extract analytes for determination of elementalconcentrations using ICP-AES. A series of clustering techniquesfollowed by linear discriminant analysis were used to identifycharacteristic elemental profiles in the sediment samples and linkthe landscape samples to the archaeological samples. We found aclear shift in sediment sources during MIS 5 at Klipfonteinrand andsuggest some links to other geoarchaeological data from the siteand regional climate patterns.Madden, Gwyn [38] see Karsten, JordanMadden, Gwyn (Grand Valley State University), ElizabethArnold (Grand Valley State University), Jordan Karsten(SUNY Albany) and Stanley Ambrose (University of Illinois,Champaign-Urbana)[186] Using Isotope Analyses to Examine Origins ofAgriculture and Neolithic Farmers in WesternUkraineVerteba Cave is associated with the Trypolie culture in Ukraine,also known as the Cucuteni in Romania and Moldova. The cave,formed of gypsum, measures 8555 meters in length (Nikitin et al.2010) with at least four areas from which human remainsassociated with the Trypolie have been found. Human activity atthe site dates between 3951-2620 cal B.C. (Kadrow et al. 2003),with a peak in activity around 3500 B.C. in the area where theskeletal materials analyzed were recovered (Nikitin et al. 2010). Ithas been suggested that this peak in activity was associated witha decline in the local population. It is theorized that during thisperiod immigrants were moving into the area bringing with themnew technologies causing conflict or that local populations beganwarring over agricultural resources. Stable carbon and strontiumisotope analyses were conducted on tooth enamel from threeindividuals in an attempt to identify possible migrants. Preliminaryresults show remarkably similar isotopic values and suggest thatall individuals were from the same locality and shared a similardiet. Current analysis of shell samples is being conducted toestablish a local baseline signature.Magaña, Evelia [37] see Cucina, AndreaMagill, Clayton (The Pennsylvania State University), GailAshley (Rutgers University) and Katherine Freeman (ThePennsylvania State University)[172] Plant Biomarker and Isotopic Perspectives onEarly Human Habitats at Olduvai GorgeSedimentary organic matter preserves a spectrum of ecologicaland environmental signals from the past. Yet these signals occuras a heterogeneous and complex mixture of molecular structuresderived from many sources, including plants and microbes.Distinctive molecules derived from only ancient leaves – plantbiomarkers – afford a means to circumvent this complexity, andare well preserved in lake sediments and ancient soils (paleosols).Plant biomarker properties reflect the combined influence ofbotanical source, growth conditions and climate. Abundance anddistribution patterns of plant biomarkers in modern plants arefunctions of both plant type (e.g., C3 vs. C4) and growth form (e.g.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 273[96] Emergence of Social Hierarchy in Europe (ca.4600 B.C.): Just before Varna, Salt Cakes andFlint BladesAlthough signs of durable social hierarchy are clearly visible in theKaranovo VI / Varna period, a number of economic and symbolictraits emerge earlier and are archaeologically visible in thepreceding period. The Balkan Chalcolithic is characterized both bytechnological innovation (copper metallurgy, gold-working,graphite decoration, lever pressure debitage, salt cake productionetc.) and by upheavals of economic and social nature(regionalized production, long-distance exchange, durable andhereditary hierarchy). Cemeteries on the Bulgarian coast, andespecially Varna, concentrate products in ostentatious andspectacular manner, suggesting particularly large-scale patterns ofcirculation.Well-established for the Varna Culture, these changes do notappear suddenly at this time. They are in fact the outcome oftransformations that gradually emerged during the previous period(Karanovo V / Hamangia IV). Our aim here is to compare twospecial productions, very long flint blades and moulded salt cakes,both of which are well-documented in terms of sources andmanufacture. The confrontation will examine modes of production,as well as the economic and/or symbolic value of the goods, withina chronological framework that is sufficiently broad to enable adynamic approach to change in north-east Bulgaria in the first halfof the 5th millennium.Mans, Jimmy L.J.A. [292] see Siegel, PeterMant, Madeleine (McMaster University)[42] Bioarchaeology and Perimortem TraumaPerimortem trauma is difficult to identify unequivocally and hasbeen a challenging topic for physical anthropologists since theearliest studies of skeletal trauma. Use of the bioculturalperspective in conjunction with the inclusion of forensic and clinicaltechnology and methodology increasingly gives bioarchaeologistsgreater means to develop a comprehensive picture of trauma inthe past. New types of technology, such as 3D scanningmicroscopy, provide a way forward for studies of perimortemtrauma in bioarchaeology through the production of digital imageswith precise morphological information. Further, incorporatinghistorical and cultural information into trauma research throughinvoking the biocultural approach allows for deeperunderstandings of individuals’ lived experience to be interpreted. Itis also worth noting how bioarchaeology employs ethics along withrespect for the individuals being studied, making this field a primecontributor to studies of perimortem trauma in past communities.By incorporating historical and cultural context with data derivedfrom contemporary technology bioarchaeology is uniquely suitedto contribute to investigations of perimortem trauma in pastcommunities.[42] ChairMant, Madeleine [42] see Lockau, LauraManzanilla, Linda [17] see Casar, IsabelManzanilla, Linda (U Nacional Autonoma de Mexico)[17] Funerary Patterns, Sex and Age Profiles, andActivity Markers of the Teopancazco Individualsat TeotihuacanIn this paper, Luis Adrián Alvarado and Linda R. Manzanilla willreview the different funerary patterns, age and sex profiles,andactivity markers of the 116 burials at Teopancazco, a multiethnicneighborhood center of Teotihuacan, located in the southeasternsector. The intermediate elite that headed this neighborhoodcenter fostered caravans to the Gulf Coast to obtain 12 varieties offish, crabs, turtles, crocodile; cotton cloths, pottery and otheritems. Other individuals were incorporated into the caravancoming back to Teotihuacan, when stopping in the corridor of sitesin Hidalgo, Puebla and Tlaxcala.The Teopancazco individuals display patterns that are not found inapartment compounds of the metropolis: a third of the burials aredecapitated individuals (most of them in a termination ritual datedin AD 350); another third are infants (mostly new-born babies).The adults are mainly males, with less than 10% of females, whichemphasizes that Teopancazco is not a residential compound,where males and females are equally represented.The activity markers studies by Luis Adrián Alvarado relate someof the individuals with manufacturing activities such as sewing,fiber-working, other activities such as walking for long distance orcarrying heavy weights are attested.[17] ChairMarabea, Christina [288] see Gilstrap, WillMarciniak, Arkadiusz (Institute of Prehistory, University ofPoznan)[32] The Nature of Household in the Upper Level atÇatalhöyük: Smaller, More Dispersed, andMore Independent Acquisition, Production andConsumption UnitsThe nature of household and farmstead in the upper levels atÇatalhöyük: smaller, more dispersed and more independentacquisition, production and consumption units. The finaloccupation phases at Çatalhöyük East mark a significantdeparture from the hitherto dominating neighborhood communityas an organizing principle of the local society and signal theemergence of autonomous differentiated households. The paperwill address multiple lines of evidence to explain the emergence ofthis new social system, its nature and mechanisms, and itsconsequences for the development of fully-fledged farmingcommunities in the region and beyond. High resolutionarchaeological and archaeobiological data permit tracing changesin procurement, production and consumption during this period. Inparticular, new strategies for the acquisition of clay for mudbrickproduction and wood for fuel and fodder reveal changes in landuse around the site. These patterns are supported by therecognition of new modes of caprine herding evidenced throughoxygen isotope analyses. Changes in the consumption regimeswill be investigated by wood use, house building, and eatingpractices.[32] ChairMarcone, Giancarlo[61] Feasting and Burials in Local Communities atthe Onset of the Andean Middle HorizonDrawing from ethnohistorical sources, many Andean scholarshave modeled Inca expansion as a highly ritualized politicalprocess, where feasting and ritual performance constitute itsprincipal components. This model had been projected onto allAndean societies assuming that feasting activities played a similarpolitical role and importance in older societies. Other voicespropose that burial practices and ancestor veneration were also ofcentral political importance in the Andean states’ expansionistprojects. Ancestor veneration was thought of as the ideologicalbase that upholds these entire systems. Increasingly, new voicesare proposing that ancestor veneration and burial practices needto be understood in relation to feasting practices. It is only in thisrelational way that we can fully understand their political and socialmeanings. I propose that this is particularly true in the caseswhere local communities interact with expansionist polities. Wepropose from the evidence of Lote B, a small rural settlement inthe Lurín valley, that the increase of feasting activities is related tothe suppression of funerary practices or vice-versa. This inverserelation could inform about the nature of an expansionist project,

274 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGbut also the compromise that takes place between localcommunities and expansionist polities in turn.[108] DiscussantMarcucci, Derrick (Landmark Archaeology, Inc.) and SusanGade (Landmark Archaeology, Inc.)[92] The Archaeology of a World War II BombingRange in Southeastern New HampshireCultural resource management support was conducted byLandmark Archaeology, Inc. for a major environmental restorationprogram at the New Boston Air Force Station. The Station,located in south-central New Hampshire, encompasses over 2,800acres and comprises one of the state’s most archaeologically richareas. It includes pre-Contact indigenous sites, the remains of afarming community spanning the 18th to early 20th centuries, anda wealth of materials related to its use by the U.S. Army Air Forceas a practice bombing and strafing range during and after WWII.The military chose New Boston for its strategic location and uniquelandscape features, which provided an ideal setting for trainingfighter pilots. Munitions and unexploded ordnance prohibited theuse of traditional archaeological survey methods. We employed acombination of UXO-escorted survey, photography and GPS todocument existing cultural resources and record military use of thestation. Analysis of our spatial data using GIS provided insight tothe ways that the natural and cultural landscape was used andaltered by military training activities and allowed for identification ofunrecorded archaeological sites reflecting the station’s agriculturaland military history.examined according to the status of social groups - inferred fromboth archaeological and ethnohistorical data. Settlement patternsreflect variable situations, which could have resulted from differentenvironmental conditions and different degrees of stratification ofsocial groups, related to the historical trajectories of chiefdoms.Marichal, Ana [260] see Brownlee, SarahMariela, Carpio [168] see Scheinsohn, VivianMark, Robert [18] see Billo, EvelynMark, Robert (Ruperstrian CyberServices) and Evelyn Billo(Rupestrian CyberServices)[18] Using iPads for Rock Art DocumentationAs part of a Bureau of Reclamation project to documentpetroglyphs at the Watson site in eastern Oregon, we developedand tested procedures for the use of iPads. The centerpiece wasthe development of a Filemaker Pro database, deployed withFilemaker Go on the iPads. The database implemented therecording form, as well as panel images and maps. It included amug board for DSLR photography. We also used the TheodoliteHD application to capture images with GPS location and panelorientation in the photograph. Tests were also conducted withdrawing applications to trace over photographs.Marean, Curtis [10] see Fisher, ErichMarek-Martinez, Ora (Navajo Nation )[174] Scales of Consultation: Multiple Stages ofListening and Learning in the Navajo NationAlmost all federal undertakings on the Navajo Nation initiate theSection 106 process, which includes consultation with theNNTHPO (HPD). Rarely will this consultation go beyond theNavajo Nation’s regulatory department- HPD. Variousmechanisms are used by other departments to consult with Navajocommunities which have a diverse range of opinions, but rarelyare community concerns heard when consulting strictly with theTHPO (HPD). This lack of communication between the centralgovernment and Navajo communities has created a ‘top-down’attitude and process when managing cultural resources thatsometimes creates conflict with local residents. Additionally, eachcommunity views archaeology and CRM through different lenses,which can complicate consultation and project efforts. In this paperI will discuss my experiences consulting with Navajo communities,what has worked and what hasn’t, and to providerecommendations to ensure that the voices of tribal communitiesare heard.Marguerie , Dominique [137] see Steelandt, StéphanieMaric, Tamara (Laboratoire de recherches EthnologiePréhistorique ArScAn (UMR7041))[274] Examples of Settlement Patterns in Pre-European Tahiti (Society Islands, FrenchPolynesia)Ancient Tahitian society was considered one of the most stratifiedamong Polynesian societies. And while several ethnohistoricalanalyses describe the complex social classes and inter-relatedchiefdoms of the islands, very little archaeological data concerningsettlement patterns on the island of Tahiti are known. Thispresentation examines different cases of settlement patterns onthe largest island of the archipelago, in littoral zones, valleys andhigh mountains. These settlement patterns are drawn fromarchaeological data from the south-western zone of Tahiti (Teva iUta chiefdom), and from the Papeno’o valley in the northern partof the island. Distribution of lands and natural resources will beMarkens, Robert[145] Ceramic Imagery and Political Power at EarlyMonte Albán, Valley of OaxacaThe basis of political power during the first centuries of MonteAlbán, one of Mesoamerica’s earliest urban centers, is a difficulttopic to address. Apart from the Danzante Wall and the Viborónsculpture, early public monuments and their imagery haveremained inaccessible beneath later stages of construction. Thereis, nevertheless, another extensive source of information that canshed light on the matter and which has received little systematicattention until now (Markens 2010). These are the numerous tomband grave offerings dating to the Middle and Late Preclassicperiods that Alfonso Caso and his colleagues (Caso and Bernal1952; Caso, Bernal and Acosta 1967) excavated decades ago atMonte Albán. The many ceramic offerings, their novel imagery andtheir distribution in tombs and graves appear to relate to emergingsocial differences and the exercise of power. Here I report onsome aspects of this imagery, its meaning and relationship topolitical power during the first centuries of urban life at this ancientZapotec center.[145] Chairmarkens, robert [252] see Winter, MarcusMarks, Theodore [11] see Enloe, JamesMarquez Morfin, Lourdes [46] see Storey, RebeccaMarquez-Grant, Nicholas (Cellmark Forensic Services, UK andUniversity of Oxford, UK)[135] Forensic Case Studies from the UK:Archaeological Contributions to the Search,Location, Excavation, and Recording ofClandestine GravesA number of case studies in forensic archaeology particularly fromEngland are provided here. In particular, the role of the forensicarchaeologist in the search, location, excavation anddocumentation of clandestine graves is discussed. The integrationof archaeology with anthropology and other environmental

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 275sciences (palynology, sedimentology) in death investigation arealso highlighted and it is hoped that these case studies anddiscussion can contribute towards promoting the discipline offorensic archaeology.Marquez-Morfin, Lourdes (Escuela Nacional de Antropologiae Historia INAH)[46] The Epidemics of Typhus and Cholera in theCity of Mexico in the Nineteenth Century: AReflection of Social InequalityStudying infectious and epidemic diseases are an excellent tool toanalyze and evaluate the relationships between society andhealth. The impact of infectious diseases was differentialdepending on the socio-economic and ethnic groups. In the caseof outbreaks of 1813 typhus and cholera in 1833 that afflicted theinhabitants of the city of Mexico, its effects were not similar amongthe entire population. Social stratification as a product ofinequalities had a decisive role in the way in which ethnic groupsbecame ill and died. This paper describes the factors involved incausing individuals to get sick and die differentially, with respect totheir material conditions of existence, to health servicesavailability, and their biological conditions. From archivaldocuments as primary sources of information, we discuss thecity's infrastructure in relation to health, networks of water andhygiene, and the distribution of the ethnic groups in the city. Wepresent results on differential morbidity and mortality, according tothe distribution of these groups in the city, for each of the twoepidemics. Data reveal the negative impact that the precarioussocio-economic conditions of indigenous people and poor groupsof the city had before the onslaught of these two epidemics.Marsh, Ben [65] see Kealhofer, LisaMarshall, Amanda (Kleanza Consulting) and Jennifer Lewis[262] Salvaging the Past, Bridging the Present atCedarvale, BCThis paper will present the results of salvage excavation of a largeprehistoric site located on the Skeena River, near Cedarvale, BC.This excavation was undertaken in conjunction with the GitxsanFirst Nation, and involved a team of people from diversebackgrounds: students, community members, volunteers andconsulting archaeologists. This presentation will discuss thesignificance of this site, both scientifically, as well as culturally.The unique educational and team-building aspects of the projectwill also be discussed, and suggestions will be made for howsimilar projects may have an important role to play in the future ofconsulting archaeology in BC.Marston, John (Boston University)[183] Agricultural Adaptation to Highland CentralAnatolia: New Data from the Iron Age City ofKerkenesAdapting agricultural systems to new environments poseschallenges to societies of all scales. High altitude environments inparticular offer significant constraints to agriculture, with shortergrowing seasons, cooler temperatures, and differential rainfallaffecting the success of certain crops and farming strategies.Comparative analysis of agricultural societies moving into highaltitude regions for the first time offers a valuable perspective onsocial processes of economic adaptation and on theenvironmental impacts of human land-use strategies acrossdifferent climatic zones.Archaeological plant remains from new excavations at the IronAge city of Kerkenes, in central Anatolia (modern Turkey), providethe first data on agricultural adaptation to high elevation conditionsin that region. Preliminary analysis of remains recovered over twofield seasons suggests a reliance on bread or hard wheat as theprimary crop, in contrast with more diverse economic system seenat contemporary sites at lower elevations. There is little evidencefor the use of dung fuel and a greater reliance on wood for fuelneeds, leading to different harvesting pressures on local woodlandresources. This poster explores the implications of thesepreliminary data for future work in this region and for thecomparative study of agricultural adaptation to new environmentsworldwide.Martin, Fabiana María (CEHA-UMAG), Francisco Juan Prevosti(División Mastozoología, Museo Argentino de Ciencia),Charles R. Stern (University of Boulder-Colorado), ManuelSan Román (CEHA-UMAG) and Flavia Morello (CEHA-UMAG)[26] New Late Pleistocene Faunal Evidences fromCerro Benitez, Ultima Esperanza, ChileA recent archaeological survey at Cerro Benitez, UltimaEsperanza, Chile, revealed abundant evidence about thearchaeology and paleontology at the end of the Pleistocene. Sixnew sites were added to four that were already known. A tephraidentified at four of these sites, which are located at differentaltitudes, was previously fingerprinted to an explosive eruption ofthe Reclús volcano dated ca. 12,600 radiocarbon years ago. A richfauna, dominated by Mylodon darwini -which is present at the tensites- Hippidion saldiasi, Panthera onca mesembrina and camelidswas recorded immediately below, and sometimes embedded inthe tephra. At least two of these sites can be interpreted as extinctcarnivore dens. Human presence was identified above this tephra,in one case with dates around 10,500 radiocarbon years andassociated with extinct fauna.Martin, Fabiana [26] see Morello Repetto, FlaviaMartin, Lucius (University of Oklahoma), Liana Staci Hesler(University of Oklahoma) and Andrew Gourd (University ofOklahoma)[169] Success and Challenge: A Survey of TribalHistoric Preservation Offices within OklahomaThe 1992 Amendments to the National Historic Preservation Actestablished the Tribal Historic Preservation Program and gavetribal nations the authority to take over aspects of the StateHistoric Preservation Office regarding historic preservation ontribal lands. As of May 2012 there were 131 formal tribal historicpreservation officers in the United States; as of September 2012,12 of Oklahoma's 39 federally recognized tribal nations hadundertaken this role. We surveyed the Tribal Historic PreservationOffices within the state of Oklahoma in order to get an idea of theircurrent state of affairs and their interactions with FederalAgencies, CRM Firms and Archaeologists. We will report on theprocess and results of that survey here.Martin, Lana (University of California Los Angeles)[217] Modeling Political Organization and FoodProduction in Middle-Range Societies: A CaseStudy from PanamáExplaining the nature and development of political organization inpre-Columbian chiefdoms (ca. AD 300 to 1500) of Central PacificPanamá (Gran Coclé) and Western Caribbean Panamá (GranChiriquí) has been the aim of archaeologists working in theisthmian region. One model of economic development andregional interaction portrays Gran Coclé as a central core flankedby peripheral Gran Chiriquí settlements. Another model proposesthat different societies at different levels of political organization(tribes and chiefdoms) co-existed in both Pacific and Caribbeanwatersheds. Current approaches to modeling the Panamanianinteraction sphere rely on untested assumptions about plant fooduse in middle-range societies, implying demographic variabilitywas driven by regional differences in rainfall, biogeography, andpotential maize yield. This paper reviews these models in light ofavailable settlement, subsistence, and paleoenvironmental data. Inaddition, this paper considers models of political organization andfood production applied to other middle-range agricultural societies

276 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGin the New World, and presents a theoretical framework that drawsupon the "historical processualism" paradigm, "historical ecology"research program, and "chiefly cycling" model. This frameworkoffers potential for analyzing multiple lines of evidence andaccounting for the ecological and social factors that led tovariability in the chiefdoms of ancient Panamá.foundation for successful interaction, consultation participantsmust first remove various communicative, verbal and non-verbal,hindrances before any collaborative work plan can beaccomplished. Participants must examine their preconceivednotions of the “other side” in order to “set the tone” for effectiveconsultation.Martin, Debra (University of Nevada/Las Vegas)[273] Can We Feel (Measure) Pain from the Bones?A Bioarchaeological PerspectiveThe human experience of pain and suffering is difficult to measureon living, breathing humans who can articulate what hurts and howmuch it hurts. And, new research in neurophysiology suggeststhat pain receptors can be altered by life history, lived experience(culture) and individual anatomy. Given these challenges, usingthe empirical data cleaned from human remains, the mortuarycomponent, site reconstruction and other features of thearchaeological context can reveal openings where it is possible todiscuss the ways that pathology and trauma limit and challengethe quality of life and hence aspects of the human experience. Tonot try and make linkages between the corporeal body and thelived experience of individuals and communities limits our ability tosay anything of value to policy makers, the general public, andstudents. Examples of integrating theory, method and data to linkindicators of stress on the body with levels of disability, daily orintermittent pain, and diminished capacity to adapt and respond todaily demands are briefly presented as ways forward in thearchaeology of human experience.Martindale, Andrew (University of British Columbia)[170] Quantification of Village Patterns in TsimshianTerritoryTypologies of complex site forms such as villages are ofteninfluenced by judgmental use of hierarchical or selectiveparadigmaticsorting to accommodate the wide range of potentiallyrelevant variables. In this paper I present data from the DundasIslands and Prince Rupert Harbour (n=76 villages) to quantifypatterning in a suite of spatial variables derived from structuredepressions, shell terrace features, architectural syntax, andtopography. These data are used to evaluate proposed villagetypologies some of which derive from seminal publications andhave long traction in Northwest Coast (NWC) archaeology, andsome of which Ken and I made up in the pub. I propose that whilethe most widely recognized forms of village typology have merit,the range of variability in village form is greater than currentlyrecognized. These results have considerable significance for thereigning progressive trajectories widely proposed for NWCsettlement history.[170] ChairMartindale Johnson, Lucas [62] see Brandt, StevenMartinez, Desiree (Cogstone & Harvard University )[174] Communicating with a "Good Heart": Strategiesfor ConsultationWith the increase in federal, state and local projects in recentyears, consultation with tribes, as required by cultural resourcelaws and regulations, occurs more frequently now than everbefore. However even with these increased interactions, there stillare no coherent consultation definitions and processes; whoshould be contacted, how it should be done, and how to makesuccessful consultation more likely. This results in confusion andfrustration for all parties involved. Drawing upon personalexperience and ethnographic research, this presentation willdiscuss effective strategies Native and non-Native personsworking with Native American cultural resources can use duringconsultation. Using data collected through interviews and meetingobservation of two inter-agency and inter-tribal groups based inthe Columbia River Basin, it is argued that order to build aMartinez Taguena, Natalia (The University of Arizona)[169] Comcáac Archaeology: The Ethnography ofCollaboration and Historical Data IntegrationIn collaboration with members of the Comcáac (Seri) community ofthe central coast of Sonora, México, an archaeological researchproject developed that sought to integrate humanistic and scientificforms of inquiry, responsive to Comcáac ontology and oraltradition, to obtain a holistic understanding of the Comcáac past asit is embedded in the landscape, and its relationship with relevantcontemporary issues like heritage preservation and landmanagement. This paper describes failures and solutions tointegrating ethnographic, archaeological, documentary, and oralhistorical data throughout the project’s collaborative production ofknowledge. It employs a reflexive approach to explore theeconomic, social, political and ecological dimensions that haveconditioned the creation of these historical narratives, as well asthe present day social processes that promote their recreation.With the overall goal of stimulating discussion on howarchaeologists can best innovate methods to bring together themultiple voices of the past and present.Martínez Yrízar, Diana [234] see Zurita-Noguera, JudithMartínez-Fuentes, Antonio [254] see Matheson, Carneymartínez-lópez, cira [252] see Winter, MarcusMartinon-Torres, Marcos [216] see Massa, GiovanniMartirosyan - Olshansky, Kristine and Boris Gasparyan(Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of Armenia)[208] Reconnaissance in the Arpa River Valley ofSoutheastern ArmeniaThe Arpa River Basin (Vayoc Dzor Province, Armenia) served ascorridor for human movement from at least the Achaemenid periodthrough the Middle Ages. Today, the highways running through theprovince follow the mountain passes and connect Armenia’snorthern provinces to those in the south, and the southernprovince with the Lake Sevan Basin in central Armenia. This paperpresents results from a survey conducted in August of 2011. Thesurvey identified 38 sites belonging to the Paleolithic, Neolithic,Bronze Age, Early Iron Age, Antiquity, and Early Medieval periods.Analysis of the settlement pattern of these sites indicates a distinctset of socio-political and economic settlement determinants foreach period.Maruyama, Masashi and Hiroki Kikuchi[228] Domesticating Sacrifice: Changes in AnimalSacrifice in Ancient JapanIn this paper, I introduce shifting patterns in animal sacrifice fromthe Jomon period to the Heian period (B.C. 10,000 ~ A.D. 1200) inJapan. The hunting of wild animals was thriving during the Jomonperiod (B.C. 10,000 ~ B.C. 400). Subsequently, when rice paddyagriculture begins in the Yayoi period (B.C. 400 ~ A.D. 300)incipient pig feeding practices emerged. However, domesticatedpigs did not spread rapidly, and it is not until the Kofun period(A.D. 300 ~ A.D. 700) when horses and cattle were introducedfrom the Korean Peninsula that livestock production flourished. Inthe Jomon period, deer and wild boar were hunted for sacrificeand food. In subsequent Yayoi period sites in western Japan, it isdebated if drilled mandibles of wild boar were utilized as victims of

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 277sacrifice, or as hunting trophies. In the Kofun period, customs ofsacrificing horses spread from China via the Korean Peninsula.Ancient texts describe the praying for rain rituals, where horsesand cattle are sacrificed. In this way, I evaluate the driving forcesinvolved in shifting sacrificial practices through zooarchaeologicaland textual evidence. I argue this shift was the result of theintroduction of the concept of “sacrifice” that emerged with thespread of domesticated game in Japan.Marvin, Judith (Foothill Resources, Ltd.) and RebeccaKellawan (Far Western Anthropological Research Group, Inc.)[270] With all Dips, Spurs, and AnglesAs the old adage goes, “Gold is where you find it.” But where doyou find it? As part of a federal project, Far WesternAnthropological Research Group, Inc. and Foothill Resources, Ltd.conducted an intensive survey of BLM lands in the Californiafoothills in the spring and fall of 2012. The project area largelyconsists of tributary creeks, rivers, and shorelines, witharchaeological resources exemplifying the breadth and diversity ofhistoric mining enterprises characteristic of California’s MotherLode region. All of the identified mining resources were locatedon, adjacent to, or downstream of the Mother Lode Vein, indicatingthe importance of pre-field archival research in maps, documents,and mineralogists' reports in the development of a researchstrategy for survey and recordation within the region. This posterwill detail the methods used in preparation of the research designand the results of the survey.Marwick, Ben [7] see Van Vlack, HannahMarwick, Ben (University of Washington)[150] An Experimental Study of Trampling atMalakunanja II, Northern Australia: Implicationsfor the Timing of the Human Colonization ofAustraliaPrevious excavations at Malakunanja II established as a sitecontaining evidence relevant to the timing and character of the firsthuman the human colonization of Australia. Since that time criticshave argued that stone artifacts found in the oldest layers of thesite were not recovered in their original deposition context, buthave been relocated from younger layers by post-depositionalprocesses. In 2012 we conducted new excavations atMalakunanja II. During excavations we conducted an experimentwith experimentally-produced replica artifacts placed on thesurface of the sediment recovered from the lower layers of the siteand walked over in three episodes of five minutes each. Theposition and orientation of the artifacts were recorded before andafter each episode to measure the vertical and horizontaldisplacement of the artifacts. We investigate the relationshipbetween the Zingg shape classifications of the artifacts andtrampling displacement in sediment resembling the originaldeposit. We find support for claims of artifact relocation anddescribe the implications for interpreting early deposits at sites innorthern Australia.[7] ChairMasao, Fidelis [11] see Ranhorn, KathrynMaschner, Herbert [26] see Misarti, NicoleMaschner, Herbert (Idaho State University), Jennifer Dunne(Santa Fe Institute) and Spencer Wood (Stanford University)[106] Food-Webs as Network Tools for InvestigatingHistoric and Prehistoric Roles of Humans asConsumers in Marine EcosystemsHumans lived on Sanak Island, Alaska, for over 6000 years. Thisfact motivated us to assemble a food-web describing the trophicinteractions among species in the marine ecosystems of theSanak Archipelago, integrated over thousands of years, based ona combination of field observation, experimentation,zooarchaeology, and ethnographic data. The food web isconstructed of 513 taxa, 6774 feeding links, and an average of 13links per taxon. We show that the humans are super-generalists,feeding directly on 122 taxa in the marine web. People are alsosuper-generalists, extremely connected to other species, andhighly omnivorous. They are #2 in path length and #5 in omnivory,and have short path lengths from all other species (1.76 links onaverage). 491 of 513 (96%) of species are within 2 links ofhumans. By feeding on many taxa across all trophic levels,humans have the potential to influence the persistence andstability of marine ecosystems. We present the largest food webever created with humans as a key component of the total foodweb and will discuss these results and ways that food-webanalyses can inform research on the ecology of humans in marineecosystems.[170] DiscussantMasele, Frank (University of Alberta)[8] Middle Stone Age Fauna from Loiyangalani andMagubike, TanzaniaThe open air Middle Stone Age site (MSA) of Loiyangalani islocated in the Serengeti National Park in northern Tanzania, whilethe Magubike rockshelter is in Iringa Region in the south. Bothhave produced MSA faunal assemblages in association withnumerous stone tools. These MSA assemblages were probablyproduced by anatomically modern humans, well before the Out ofAfrica 2 dispersal. These faunal assemblages are currently understudy for my PhD and will be used in order to determinesubsistence practices, dietary choices, as well as other aspects ofMSA behavior guided by optimal foraging theory. This will bedone through the identification of animal species composition,mortality profiles and bone surface modification.Mason, Andrew[192] DiscussantMason, Owen [206] see Darwent, JohnMassa, Giovanni (UCL ), Marcos Martinon-Torres (UCL) andMark Aldenderfer (University of California - Merced)[216] Chemical Compositions and TechnologicalTraditions: A Study of Funerary Metal Artifactsfrom Samdzong (Upper Mustang, Nepal, ca.400-600 C.E.)This paper concerns the study of metallic artifacts recovered fromshaft tombs at the site of Samdzong in Upper Mustang, a region ofNepal, dated to c. 400-600 CE. This region includes the KaliGandaki valley, where a complex population history with multiplemigration events is the subject of ongoing investigations.The collection of objects includes copper vessels, copper beads,brass bracelets, iron daggers, a high tin bronze mirror and aunique gold and silver mask. The archaeometallurgical studysought to contribute to the broader aims of investigating theconfluence of material and cultural traditions in the UpperMustang.Following a visual assessment of the assemblage in situ andscreening analyses by portable pXRF, a selection of samples wereexamined by metallography and SEM-EDS. The combination oftechnological and chemical data shows cold-hammering andjoining of metal as the dominant tradition, while the presence ofiron, cast bronze and brass indicate different craftspeople andmost likely, geographic origins. It is hoped that ongoingcomparison with metallurgical styles, traditions and techniques in

278 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGthe broader region will help our understanding of exchange ormigration paths around the Himalayan arc.Masse, W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory), RubelliteKawena Johnson and H. David Tuggle[280] Relative and Absolute Dating of Hawaiian MythA significant percentage of Hawaiian myths and their detailedstorylines are embedded in royal chiefly genealogies, providing arelative chronology for these myths. The stories containremarkable supernatural elements with varying degrees ofassociated mana. By applying a natural sciences approach, it ispossible to demonstrate that many evocative stories represent theobservation of spectacular natural events including volcaniceruptions, total solar eclipses, and the passage of great comets.The myth storylines can be matched with historic records ofspecific celestial events observed in Asia, the Middle East, andEurope, or in the case of total solar eclipses, with reconstructionsusing astronomy software. Similarly, genealogically embeddedmyths about the creation of named lava flows can be matched withradiocarbon dates from burned vegetation under these flows. Thedata illustrate the richness and general reliability of Hawaiiangenealogical oral tradition. The earliest absolutely dated myth isdemigod chief Mauiakalana snaring the Sun, which encodes aunique Samoan sunset total solar eclipse in AD 761. The Kanalugenealogy begins with an event that may encode a majorHawaiian tsunami with a calibrated radiocarbon date range of AD440-670, and if so, raises the possibility of Hawaiian colonizationbefore the 8th century AD.Massey, Jason (University of Minnesota - Twin Cities), JohnSoderberg (University of Minnesota -Twin Cities) and KieranMcNulty (University of Minnesota - Twin Cities)[94] Approaching Human Figure PetroglyphVariability through Geometric MorphometricsJeffers Petroglyphs includes many human figures. They are foundacross hundreds of meters of the rock surface and in a range ofdifferent styles, sizes, and postures. The Jeffers scanning projecthas acquired three-dimensional models of these figures. Thispaper analyzes shape differences among these figures usinggeometric morphometrics. Geometric morphometrics is acomprehensive method for examining differences and similaritiesin shape. Landmark-based analyses are used here because theyare quite effective in quantifying relationships among shapes,allowing for a degree of independent verification for theassessments of shape that form the basis of interpretations. Thismethod has been applied throughout the anthropological sciencesto study skeletal ontogeny, human and primate phylogenetics,stone tool standardization, and phytolith assemblages. Here,landmarks consistent among all figures will be collected and ageneralized procrustes analysis will take out information pertainingto orientation, position, and size. A principal component analysiswill be performed on the shape of the figures to determine if anyspecific groups can be visualized. If so, these groups will beplaced in a discriminant analysis and each figure will bescrutinized using a cross-validation method determining itssignificance within its defined group.Massey, David (The Ohio State University)[149] Unmanned Aerial Vehlicles for ArchaeologicalSurveyingAerial photography has long been used by archaeologists for thedocumentation, observation, and surveying of archaeological sites.However often acquiring this imagery can be an expensive andtime consuming process. Increasingly, archaeologists have turnedto Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to document archaeologicalsites not only because of their increased availability andaffordability but also their speed and reliability. A UAV prototypewith GPS triggered vertical photo shooting for orthorectification isbuilt and tested to examine the challenges and implementationissues for other archaeologists.Massigoge, Agustina [117] see Otárola-Castillo, ErikMaster, Daniel [79] see Alex, BridgetMata-Míguez, Jaime [140] see Overholtzer, LisaMatheson, Carney (Lakehead University), Felicia Joseph(Departmen tof Biology, Lakehead University), IvanRoksandic (Department of Anthropology, University ofWinnipeg), Roberto Rodríguez Suárez (AnthropologyMuseum, Faculty of Biology, Universit) and Antonio Martínez-Fuentes (Anthropology Museum, Faculty of Biology,Universit)[254] A Reevaluation of Genetic Evidence for theHuman Migrations into CubaThis paper focuses on re-evaluating the ancient and moderngenetic evidence for migrations into Cuba. Modern genetic dataprovides little resolution for the origins of indigenous Cubans.Ancient and modern genetic data from Cuba, the Caribbean, NorthAmerica, Central America and South America, has been analyzedwith consideration for the historical and linguistic context of humanmigrations into Cuba. The genetic data supports the traditional andmost widely accepted migration of humans from South Americahowever it also provides evidence of human migrations fromelsewhere, suggesting that human migrations from other locationlike Florida, the Yucatan Peninsula and Central America as viablelocations for the origins of some indigenous Cuban people.Mathews, Bethany[128] Spatial Analysis of the Western Pluvial LakesTradition in the Southern Columbia Plateau andNorthern Great Basin of North AmericaThe Western Pluvial Lakes Tradition was proposed relatively earlyin the history of Great Basin archaeological research to accountfor an apparent early Holocene adaptation to lake environments inthe western Great Basin. Basin-specific studies have sinceestablished lake-centered foraging patterns across the early GreatBasin landscape. Many studies of early Great Basin huntergatherersrely on the proximity of relict lake features to knownarchaeological sites to confirm this early Holocene lake-centeredsubsistence-settlement pattern. Were Paleoindian subsistencesettlementstrategies focused on pluvial lakes, or is a lakecenteredpattern produced by the region’s archaeological researchhistory? Spatial analyses of cultural resource management surveylocations in eastern Oregon reveal that pluvial lakes areoverrepresented in regional archaeological surveys, biasing sitediscovery. Analyses of archaeological site distributions suggestthat early subsistence-settlement practices were focused onpluvial lake sub-basins. Sites containing fluted and crescentbifaces are strongly associated with lake margins, while sitescontaining stemmed bifaces are associated with a variety oflandscape features within pluvial lake sub-basins.Mathews, Darcy (University of Victoria)[190] Funerary Ritual, Tradition, and AncestralPresence: The Late Period Production ofPower in the Salish SeaThe Coast Salish peoples of southwestern British Columbiaradically changed their mortuary practice around 1500 BP,transitioning from shell midden inhumations to formal cemeteriesof above-ground arrangements of stone and soil. These funerarypetroforms, previously termed cairns and mounds, wereconstructed in a variety of patterned shapes and sizes whileutilizing different types and proportions of stones and sediment.This remarkable change in funerary practice is exemplified at theRocky Point mortuary complex on southern Vancouver Island,where 550 funerary petroforms are distributed between twoneighboring village sites. Quantitative analyses of featuremorphology and a multi-scalar spatial analysis of feature

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 279placement are framed within an ethnographic thematic analysisand body of social theory. The results indicate that this emergingmortuary landscape was not the passive reflection of hierarchy; itwas the very process in which power relations were created andnegotiated. The Rocky Point cemeteries are the unintendedmaterial and spatial consequence of active ritualizing. Funeraryritual at Rocky Point created places of inclusive and exclusivememory, contributed to the ethnographic pattern of familial historyas the basis for tangible and intangible privileges and assets, andultimately resulted in increasing power asymmetriesdepersonalized and legitimated by the ancestors.Mathews, Jennifer (Trinity University) and John Gust(University of California, Riverside)[277] Hidden History: Daily Life in the Sugar andRum Industry of the Costa Escondida,Quintana Roo MexicoThis paper examines our research into the history of thedevelopment of the sugar and rum industry in a remote region ofnorthern Quintana Roo known as the “Costa Escondida” from the1870s to the mid-twentieth century. This project was inspired byPaul Sullivan’s 2006 book Xuxub Must Die: The Lost Histories of aMurder on the Yucatan, which investigates a mass murder thattook place on October 12, 1875 at a remote sugar plantationknown as San Antonio Xuxub. Since 2009, we have beenconducting archival and archaeological research of Xuxub andseveral nearby plantations to acquire material evidence of whatdaily life was like for the people who lived at these sites andworked in the industry. Foreigners often managed these smallscalebusinesses on small ranches using relatively primitivetechnology. Despite the remote locations of these sites, we haverecovered a surprising number of artifacts imported from the U.S.and other countries, including luxury goods and constructionmaterials. This paper will present an overview of our findings onthis poorly understood period, examining in particular the role thatcoastal trade played in the lives of these isolated populations.[277] ChairMathien, Frances and Sharon Hull (Department of GeologicalSciences, University of Manitoba)[252] Turquoise in the Chaco WorldIn the early 1900s George Pepper recovered over 20,000turquoise artifacts from Pueblo Bonito, the largest site in ChacoCanyon, New Mexico. These artifacts have been the topic ofresearch for many archaeologists because the implications of thisdiscovery are numerous and lead to many models affecting socialorganization in the southwestern United States. Many of thesemodels are based on large regional scales such as theinterpretation of Chaco Canyon as the northernmost node in along-distance trade network extending into central Mexico, whileothers are focused on much smaller regions and propose little ifany interaction with Mesoamerica. In this presentation we focus onthe Chaco World in an attempt to better understand how thissociety was organized to procure, manufacture, and utilize thesebeautiful blue-green stones.Mathieu, James (University of Pennsylvania Museum)[211] Exploring Political Landscapes and ComplexityOne Year at a TimeThe use of geographic information systems (GIS) byarchaeologists has resulted in new and interesting interpretationsof archaeological remains. However, much of this research ischaracterized by a limited utilitzation of the dimension of time. Inorder to illustrate the potential GIS may have for producingsignificant diachronic, anthropological, and historicalinterpretations, this paper will present the results from a timesensitiveGIS study undertaken on an historically well-knowndataset. The spatial, temporal, and functional patterning ofmedieval England’s royal buildings during the period A.D. 1066-1650 are analyzed to identify specific historical correlations,assess causality, and understand the development of the politicallandscape and complexity.Mathwich, Nicole (University of Arizona) and Lee M. Panich(Santa Clara University)[119] Excavations of a Native American Dormitory atMission Santa Clara, CaliforniaThe 2012 Santa Clara University archaeological field schoolsampled interior and exterior spaces associated with an adobestructure that housed native peoples at Mission Santa Clara deAsís in Alta California. This structure was in the heart of themission’s neophyte ranchería, which included several adobebarracks as well as native-style dwellings. This project examinesthe ties that Native Americans living at the mission had tocommunities outside the mission walls, and considers how nativepeoples were able to maintain and re-create distinct indigenousidentities during the colonial period. This poster details the fieldmethodologies and preliminary findings. We discuss therelationship between pre-excavation GPR survey and featuresdiscovered in situ, including American-period trash pits, missionerastone foundations and roof fall, as well as a large mission-erapit. All mission-period deposits were wet-screened in order torecover micro-artifacts like glass beads, shell beads, flakes, andsmall animal bones; flotation samples were taken from everymission context. We offer the results of ongoing analyses ofarchaeological remains such as stone tools, pottery vessels, glassbeads, as well as faunal and floral remains. This researchaugments the growing study of the life of indigenous peoplesoutside the walls of the mission quadrangle.Matisoo-Smith, Lisa [47] see Prost, StefanMatisoo-Smith, Lisa (University of Auckland), Jose MiguelRamirez (Universidad de Valparaíso), Michael Knapp(University of Otago), Olga Kardailsky (University of Otago)and Andrea Seelenfreund (Universidad Academia deHumanismo Cristiano)[47] Redrawing the Polynesian Triangle?In 2007 we published radiocarbon evidence for pre-Columbianchicken bones recovered from an archaeological site on the coastin south central Chile which, combined with ancient DNA data, weargued was evidence for a likely Polynesian introduction (Storey etal 2007). Based on this data, we began looking for furtherevidence of Polynesian contact with the Americas. Whileexamining collections at the Concepcion Museum in 2009, wediscovered human remains from the island of Isla Mocha, located30km off the coast of Chile, which had numerous characteristicssuggestive of Polynesian ancestry. Craniometic analyses of theseremains confirmed the association with Pacific Island populations(Matisoo-Smith and Ramirez 2010). We are currently undertakingarchaeological and ancient DNA research on Isla Mocha lookingfor chronologically secure archaeological evidence of Polynesianpresence on Isla Mocha. This paper will describe our biologicalresults to date.Matson, R.G. [69] see Cooper, CatherineMatson, R. (Univ of British Columbia)[170] The Evolution of Northwest Coast Houses andVillagesThe Northwest Coast is well-known for its large villages of bigrectangular planked houses, particularly in its central and northernparts. Recent investigations show that this pattern evolved fromvery small isolated structures which were occupied in the winter. Inareas without abundant salmon resources this small house patterncontinued into the last 2000 years. Since large planked-houseexisted by this time, winter villages of large rectangular housesexisted in areas adjacent to areas apparently without "villages"

280 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGand very much smaller houses. This paper focuses on describingthe accumulating evidence of these small houses and theirrelationship to earlier and later habitations.Matsumoto, Yuichi[19] Paracas in the Highland? InterregionalInteractions between the Peruvian South Coastand South-Central HighlandsThe emergence of the Paracas culture has been discussed basedon the stylistic similarities between the ceramics from the site ofChavín de Huántar and those from the Peruvian south coastduring the Early Horizon. Although it has been widely acceptedthat religious influence from Chavín reached the south coastduring the time that the Paracas culture developed, recentadvances in the archaeology of the south coast and ourexcavations at the ceremonial center of Campanayuq Rumi in thesouth-central highlands enabled a reconsideration of the formationof Paracas culture and its unique ceramic style. These new datareveal the complex nature of inter-regional interactions among thesouth coast, south-central highlands, and Chavín de Huántarduring the Initial Period and Early Horizon. Although it seemscertain that the influence of Chavín reached these regions at thebeginning of the Early Horizon, the emergence of Paracasculture/style was not a unidirectional process and it is necessary toreconsider this issue based on regional perspectives that changedthroughout the Initial Period and Early Horizon. Stylisticcomparisons of regional ceramic assemblages on the south coastand south-central highlands make it possible to describe thisprocess of interaction as historical entanglements of regionalagencies.Matsumoto, Go (Dumbarton Oask Research Library andCollection)[136] Eating and Drinking with the Dead: CommensalHospitality for Integrating People in theMultiethnic Society during the Middle SicánPeriod (ca. 900-1100 C.E.)The archaeological site of Sicán in the mid-La Leche Valley on thePeruvian North Coast was the center of a state-level society thatemerged after the political demise of the preceding Mochica (ca.750-800 C.E.) and reached its height of prosperity during theMiddle Sicán Period (ca. 900-1100 C.E.). The society is currentlythought to have been a multiethnic state that consisted of at leasttwo (or perhaps four) culturally distinct groups of people. Recentexcavations within the Great Plaza at the focal point of the site,surrounded by major platform mounds and burials, revealed aseries of material traces of multiple activities that probably tookplace side by side (e.g., making and repairing funerary bundles,chicha pouring into a ritual canal, and large-scale foodpreparations and consumptions) and got involved many peopledifferent in social status and/or cultural identity. Focusing on foodpractices among others, this paper will discuss the integrative roleof food consumptions and closely associated ancestor venerationpractices within the plaza. I will argue that those practices helpedto mitigate an inherent tendency toward factionalism orsociopolitical tensions within the society with a complex ethnic andsocial composition and inequality under the name of ancestorveneration.Mattes, Matt and Anna Antoniou (University of Michigan)[205] Region Perspectives on Prehistoric Wealth,Demography, and Village Life in the MiddleFraser Canyon, British ColumbiaResearch into the lifeways of pithouse-dwelling First Nationsgroups in the Middle Fraser Canyon of the British ColumbianPlateau has been informed by extensive anthropological studiesand documentation, ranging from James Teit’s 19th centuryethnographies to decades of archaeological investigations. Theopportunities to study social inequality, environmental interaction,and village formation at the levels of the household, the village,and the region are seemingly innumerable and enabled by theserecords, as well as by actively engaged First Nations groups,generally well preserved and discrete archaeological contexts, andample radiometric dating. These data have illustrated pictures ofextended kin groups living in multi-family pithouse residences,thriving on riverine and terrestrial resources, organized under thetenets of complex socio-political systems. Of particular importancenow, after these decades of study, is the investigation ofsocioeconomic and political patterns within these systems on aregional level, as they are well documented elsewhere in theFraser Canyon but remain hypothetical in the Middle Fraser. Ameta-analysis of past archaeological reports was designed toaddress this research question, and among several data sets, themeasures of material wealth disparities relative to populationchanges over time augments current knowledge and theory aboutlarge village formation.Matthews, Christopher (Montclair State University)[100] DiscussantMauldin, Raymond (UT San Antonio), Robert Hard (UT SanAntonio), Cynthia Munoz (UT San Antonio) and Jennifer Rice(Our Lady of the Lake University)[41] Stable Carbon (δ13Ccollagen, δ13Ccarbonate)and Nitrogen (δ15N) Isotopes fromRadiocarbon Dated Hunter-Gatherer Remainsat Hitzfelder Cave, TexasThe prehistory of much of Texas reflects a long sequence ofhunter-gatherer adaptations. While agriculture was practiced to thenorth, south, east, and west, it was not present in Central Texasuntil historic contact. This prehistoric sequence providesresearchers with an opportunity to investigate processes of huntergathererstability as well as intensification on non-agriculturalresources. One method that, until recently, has been under-usedin those investigations is a focus on human isotopic data. Here wepresent stable isotope results for directly dated ulnas that reflectdifferent individuals from Hitzfelder Cave, a vertical shaft siteexcavated in the 1960s in Central Texas. The isotopic shifts overtime identified in our analysis provide a detailed look at diet, withspecimens from 19 individuals dating from about 4475 BP, theclose of the Middle Archaic, to 1660 BP, near the end of the LateArchaic, and a 20th specimen dating to 470 BP (Late Prehistoric).Focusing on the Middle and Late Archaic materials, the stablecarbon and nitrogen isotopic patterns at Hitzfelder are distinct fromthose shown previously in the region for this period, suggestingthat substantial subsistence diversity, and possible multipleadaptive trajectories, characterized the Central Texas Archaic.Mauldin, Raymond [281] see Munoz, CynthiaMaxwell, Robert (University of Sydney)[49] Concrete Ideals: Dissonance and the NewBrutalismA theory of difference recognises that the material and the socialcan become disengaged over time. Dissonance, or socio-materialfriction, can occur due to changes in ideology, sociality, orascribed function, often leading to the failure of a site orsettlement. The architecture of The New Brutalism is a keydiagnostic indicator of dissonance in the archaeological 20thcentury. Much loathed and consequently highly endangered, itsemergence describes a material response to key ideologicalpressures of the Cold War period. Now, through its fabric andinertia in the landscape, we are challenged. It is a new century. Dowe retain the problematic materials of yesterday, or do we removethem? Difference theory offers a new way of looking at this issueand offers an expanded conception of ‘value’ in archaeology.Maxwell, David (Simon Fraser University) and JonathanDriver (Simon Fraser University)[116] New Approaches to Old Data: Plains Bison KillPopulation Dynamics Revisited

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 281Catastrophic and attritional mortality profiles found their first majoruse in archaeology in the interpretation of Plains bison kill sites.More recently, Mary Stiner and others have advocated the use oftriangular graphs comparing frequencies of young, prime-age, andold animals. In this paper, we provide comparisons of triangulargraphs with traditional x-y graphs of bison population structuresfrom several sites on the Great Plains, ranging from Paleoindian toLate Prehistoric in age. Preliminary analysis suggests that most ofthese best fit the expectation of mass kill events occurring after ayear or more of attritional mortality. We also offer a comparisonwith a modern analog to prehistoric Plains bison herds: the Africanwildebeest. We present wildebeest population and mortality datain the same fashion as bison data, allowing for a comparisonbetween these large, mobile, herd animals.Maxwell, Timothy D. [252] see Hull, SharonMay, Sally and Paul Taçon (Griffith University)[163] Taken for Granted? Comparing the Depiction ofSoutheast Asian and European Watercraft inthe Rock Art of Northern AustraliaFar from the generally accepted notion of an isolated shoreline,the north Australian coast was teeming with watercraft and theircrew engaged in trade for hundreds of years before Europeanexploration and settlement. Most commonly referred to as‘Macassans’, these early traders came to harvest trepang and formaterials such as turtle shell and iron wood. Across the north ofAustralia, Aboriginal groups used rock art to document theseinteractions– depicting the watercraft, crew and associatedmaterial culture. Likewise, with later (and, for a while,contemporary) European exploration and settlement, artistscontinued to use rock art to document and interpret their changinglives and experiences. During our 5 year (and ongoing) study ofcontact rock art in Australia, we found that ships dominate rock artmade during the last 500 years. Yet, our western andnorthwestern Arnhem Land case study areas produced somefurther perplexing results. For example, despite the longer periodof interaction with ‘Macassans’, it is the later English watercraftthat significantly outnumber any other rock art subject-matter. Inthis paper, we place our exploration of the historical and localizedimpacts of these coastal interactions within wider theoreticalunderstandings of rock art and social or maritime identity.May Ciau , Rossana [171] see Bey, GeorgeMayburd, Miriam (University of Iceland)[55] Landscapes of Death and Otherness: IcelandicTerrain and Medieval Attitudes about the DeadThis paper investigates the unique features of Icelandicgeographical terrain and its impact upon the cognitive reality ofmedieval Iceland, departing from conventional literaryinterpretations of Icelandic sagas that tend to reduce landscape'srole in the narratives to a set of stylistic motifs self-consciouslyinserted by authors within their creative fiction. Focusing onIceland's western coast, I examine sagas' depictions of Viking-Ageindividuals passing into their local mountains when they die (abelief unique to that area), arguing that this does not constitutedeath in the conventional sense of ceasing to be, but atransformation into ambiguous “other” entities that continue toinhabit the landscape in an altered state. The textual analysis willbe brought in dialogue with archaeological data concerningplacements of mounds and burial sites in the same region andtime frame, aiming to illuminate the role of the landscape as astage shaping medieval Icelandic beliefs and attitudes regardingtheir dead. Instead of dichotomous opposition between this-worldand other-world, I propose that the Icelandic landscape wasperceived as both at the same time, not as a bridge from one tothe other but as a very tangible space where such boundaries areconfused and do not apply.Mazzucato, Camilla[9] GIS Practice at Çatalhöyük: From Excavationto Digital RepresentationSince 2009, close collaboration between the newly createdGeographic Information System (GIS) team and various membersof the Çatalhöyük Research Project has led to the creation of theÇatalhöyük GIS geodatabase. The Çatalhöyük Research ProjectGIS is now routinely used for spatial data analysis, map making,excavation and survey data management and storage. The broadrange of data collected and stored (excavation, survey data,modern and historical maps, aerial photographs, computer visiondata, geophysical data and environmental data) makes it -together with the site database to which it is dynamically linked -the main storage and analytical tool of the project. Since 2012 theÇatalhöyük GIS team has been working on the integration of 3Dcomputer vision models created during the excavation season.The close collaboration between archaeologists and specialistsinvolved in the implementation of computer vision techniques onsite provided the opportunity to further develop the ÇatalhöyükGIS as the main tool for storing, visualization and analysis of sitedata.Mazzucato, Camilla [32] see Tung, BurcuMcAlister, Andrew [62] see Sheppard, PeterMcAllister, Martin [135] see Griffel, DavidMcAllister, Martin (ADIA), David Griffel (ADIA), James Moriarty(ADIA) and Larry Murphy (ADIA)[135] Archaeological Crime Scene Investigation:Training the Investigative TeamArchaeological crime scene investigation is mentioned in at leastone general college textbook on criminal investigation, but is notpart of any regular college curricula on the forensic sciences orarchaeology. However, due to over 100 years of combinedexpertise in this area, the staff of the firm of ArchaeologicalDamage Investigation & Assessment (ADIA) has taught classeson archaeological crime scene investigation to almost 8,000government and tribal law enforcement officers andarchaeologists. Several federal prosecutors have also attendedthese classes. ADIA currently has four standard classes dealingwith the various aspects of this topic, including violations involvingsubmerged resources. The importance of this educational effort inprotecting heritage resources is demonstrated by the fact that anumber of the graduates of these classes have been involved incases that have resulted in successful detection, investigation, andprosecution of violators.McAnany, Patricia (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)and Maxime Lamoureux St-Hilaire (Tulane University)[65] Detaching from Place in TheoryA process replete with recursivity, complexity, and equifinality,detachment from place remains an under-theorized topic that,nonetheless, is central to the hermeneutics of archaeology.Mobility is deeply rooted within human DNA and often cited as afactor in the success of our species; but among peoplescharacterized as “sedentary”, detaching from place is more oftencharacterized as societal failure. Adopting an agent-focusedapproach to detachment from place, we examine cycles ofhabitation, detachment, re-attachment elsewhere, changingperception/use of earlier places of habitation and, finally, thearchaeological hermeneutics of this process. Two triggers arethought to stimulate detachment from place: stressors andenablers. Next, the process is negotiated with family andcommunity. Whether abandonment is total or partial, agents

282 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGnegotiate change in reference to the prevailing stressors andenablers. A prime concern of abandoners is establishment at adifferent locale, which initiates a new cycle of community.Abandoners alter their perception of a previously inhabitedlandscape in reference to the motivation for abandonment as wellas the frequency of re-visitation. Popularly known detachmentsfrom place are discussed to facilitate deeper archaeologicalengagement with the hermeneutics of this process.[165] ChairMcAnany, Patricia [165] see Rowe, SarahMcardle, Angela[126] An Iconographic Approach to Lithic Analysis inMesoamericaThis paper examines depictions of flaked stone and ground stonein the contexts of Mesoamerican iconographic and epigraphicrepresentations, particularly concerning the cross-cultural use offlint symbology. Although it is difficult to observe the detailedmorphology of stone in most depictions, and thus problematic indistinguishing typologies and constructing technologicalsequences, it is possible to discern the significance altered stoneheld in Mesoamerican cultures in both function and symbolicmeaning. It is possible to ascertain this significance based uponthe spatial placement of stone in artwork and text, its prevalence incertain scenes and absence from others, its association withspecific actions and personages, and its symbolic transference ofintrinsic attributes that imbue associated non-stone entities withmeaning. Analyzing the way in which Mesoamerican peoplesutilized images and textual references of stones in their painting,writing, and sculpture can provide a clarifying framework in whichto approach the functional analysis of the tangible lithic artifactsarchaeologists encounter.McBeth, Sally (University of Northern Colorado)[75] The Return of the Native: Northern UteRemoval From and Return to ColoradoAncestral HomelandsThrough the lens of an applied cultural anthropologist, thispresentation will examine Ute perspectives on connections tolandscape and place. Based on historic accounts and recentfieldwork with the Ute, I will investigate Ute loss of ancestralhomelands in western Colorado. In 1881 the Northern Ute bandslost possession of their Colorado Territory homelands—a vastterritory of over one-third of Colorado. The situation for the Utes inthe 1850s and beyond was somewhat unique in the AmericanWest—the peaceful and prosperous Utes had rights to a vastterritory of over one-third of Colorado—roughly 16-20 millionacres. Ute rights were established by the 1868 treaty (sometimescalled the Kit Carson Treaty) which has been called “the mostfavorable Indian treaty in the history of the country.” It wasnegotiated by multilingual statesman Ouray, named by the federalgovernment in 1868 as spokesman for all Colorado Utes. Historicaccounts from western newspapers (1882-1912) will be combinedwith emotional reflections collected during twenty-first centuryreturn visits to their Colorado ancestral homelands. Northern Utetribal members discussed the cultural significance of removal,connection to place, and rationale for their ignominiousdisplacement from Colorado to Utah.McCafferty, Geoffrey (University of Calgary) and SharisseMcCafferty (University of Calgary)[136] Sacasa Striated Shoe-Pots of PacificNicaragua: Function and MeaningSacasa Striated urns are among the most distinctive artifacts fromthe Postclassic period in Pacific Nicaragua (AD 800-1520). Theytend to be ovoid in shape with the orifice at the top of one end, andthey often feature decorative appliques on the upper section of theopposite end. This unique shape has often been described as“shoe-shaped,” and “shoe-pots” have been recoveredarchaeologically from numerous sites in Pacific Nicaragua,particularly as mortuary urns. This essay will consider thetemporal and spatial distribution of Sacasa Striated shoe-pots asthey may have functioned as cooking vessels as well as burialurns, and how their archaeological contexts and decorativeelements provide evidence of their symbolic meaning for pre-Columbian Nicaraguans. Specifically, we consider decorativeelements appliqued on the exterior of the 'toe,' burial contexts, andgeneral morphology to argue that these were effigy cacao pods,and that cacao was an essential regenerative symbol associatedwith female gender and the life/death cycle.[210] DiscussantMcCafferty, Sharisse [136] see McCafferty, GeoffreyMcCafferty, Sharisse (University of Calgary) and GeoffreyMcCafferty (University of Calgary)[287] Communities of Practice? Garden Cities ofPacific NicaraguaPacific Nicaragua featured a remarkably high population densityupon first-contact with Europeans in 1522. “Urban” centers weredispersed, however, and have become known as ‘garden cities’because residential clusters were generally surrounded by fieldsand orchards. Intensive excavations at several EarlyPostclassic/Sapoa period centers since 2000 provide a glimpse oflife and social organization in these garden cities. Santa Isabel onthe shore of Lake Cocibolca featured a dense cluster of residentialmounds, and offers a rich cross-section of domestic materialculture. Tepetate, located about 50 km up the lakeshore, was aregional center with possible civic-ceremonial architecture thatadds a socio-political dimension to community organization.Nearby El Rayo also provided insights on commoner domesticpractice, but was most notable for the variation in mortuarypractice found in two discrete cemeteries. Contemporary in time,relatively close spatially, and all provisioned by lacustrineresources, these three sites offer varying insights on ancientChorotega culture, raising the question of the degree to whichtime/space/environment participate in the production of culturalsimilarities, and the significance of variation. This paper willconsider both the commonalities and dissimilarities that have beenencountered to argue for the consideration of the ‘cultural mosaics’of ancient agencies.McCall, Grant [11] see Enloe, JamesMcCarthy, Elizabeth (Univeristy of Missouri), RichardKennedy (University of Missouri), Jason Christy (University ofMissouri) and Alisa Walton (University of Missouri)[147] Stones and Bones: A Revisit of theDifferentiation of Chert and Obsidian Made CutMarksPrevious research has shown that cut marks made with a range ofmaterials, such as stone and metal, can exhibit differentmorphological characteristics. This presentation is a continuationof a study attempting to differentiate lithic materials. In anexperimental setting, cow long bone shafts were cut using bothobsidian and chert flakes with a consistent angle and pressure.Ten morphological characteristics were analyzed for each markand given a point if the characteristic was “obsidian-like”. The datasuggested that obsidian and chert could be differentiated based onthe total scores of the cut marks on an assemblage level. Currentresearch consists of two supporting studies. The first had twoindividuals, one with experience and the other a novice attaphonomic analysis, look at the original set of cut marks andscore them. These scores were then compared to the original dataset and suggest that with some training, the marks could bedifferentiated using this method. In the second study, anotherresearcher was also able to differentiate between the chert andobsidian made marks by replicating the original experiment.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 283McClelland, John (Arizona State Museum)[286] Integrating Biodistance and Mortuary Behavior:A Search for Patterns at PPNB Beidha,Southern JordanThe Pre-Pottery Neolithic site of Beidha in southern Jordan isunusual among Levantine sites for its sequence of evolvingarchitectural forms, most likely reflecting parallel changes in socialstructure. Mortuary patterns evolved in tandem. The earliest phaseheld an intramural interment of mixed age individuals, possibly afamily group. The final occupation phase was characterized byclustered intramural interments of infants, frequently in associationwith a single adult. Does this grouping of young juvenile burialsindicate reduced emphasis on family ties in the mortuary program?In this study, I examine non-metric and metric phenotypic variationin deciduous teeth to test the hypothesis that the spatialdistribution of juvenile burials was independent of kinship.Preliminary results do not support the hypothesis, suggesting thatjuvenile burial clusters are reflective of biological kinship. AtBeidha, juvenile burial clusters seem to associate houses withextended family units or lineages. This contrasts with recent workat the contemporaneous Neolithic site of Çatahöyük in Anatolia(Pilloud and Larsen 2011), where there was minimal evidence forbiological affinity related to interment location.McCoy, Mark (University of Otago)[255] The Significance of Religious Ritual in AncientHawai‘iA session in honor of Patrick Kirch’s intellectual contribution to thearchaeology of Hawai‘i would be incomplete without a discussionof his wide-ranging scholarship on traditional Hawaiian religion. Inthis paper, I focus on three themes that can be tracked from hisearly career through to the present. The first is the incorporation ofthe study of heiau (temples), shrines, and other sacred sitesdescribed in ethnohistory within the historical context of thedevelopment of Hawaiian society, most recently represented in hisbook entitled How Chiefs Became Kings. The second is hiscontribution to the interpretation of heiau architecture and ritualpractices through close attention to architectural details such asorientation, elaboration, and offerings. These works have helpeddraw us closer to understanding how Hawaiian architects woveelements of the natural and spiritual worlds together to markplaces as sacred. The final theme is his commitment to the care,preservation, and protection of sacred places through raisingpublic awareness. In the books, Feathered Gods and Fishhooks,Legacy of the Landscape, and A Shark Going Inland is My Chief,he has brought to a broad audience a message of respect for all ofHawaii’s archaeological sites, but especially religious sites.[255] ChairMcClure, Sarah B. [68] see Zavodny, EmilyMcConaughy, Mark (PA Historical and Museum Commission)[6] Reassessing Peter’s Creek and Linn Mounds,PennsylvaniaPeter’s Creek and Linn (36WH36) Mounds are located inWashington County, Pennsylvania. Dragoo (1955, 1963) believedboth mounds were related to Cresap phase Adena groups basedon artifacts recovered from in or near the mounds. A recentreexamination of the artifacts by the author and radiocarbon datingof various mounds types from western Pennsylvania suggestPeter’s Creek and Linn Mounds should be placed in theFairchance phase of the Middle Woodland.McCorriston, Joy (The Ohio State University)[195] Historical Metaphors and Mythical Realities inBronze Age World SystemsWorld Systems Theory assumes a technologically advanced coredominates periphery cultures. This is unsubstantiated either interms of political economies or in the archaeological records of OldWorld prehistory. Critics have called for models that betterdescribe peer relations and social contexts of long-distanceeconomic exchanges. But World Systems Theory continues todescribe large-scale, long-term economic cycles that framecultural interactions over a large part of the Old World and henceremains an important heuristic device in world history andprehistory. This paper draws upon the well-documented contactsbetween Europeans and Hawaiians in the famous study of CaptainCook’s death at Kealakekua Bay in 1779. Adeptly theorized byanthropologist Marshall Sahlins, whose analysis of the apotheosisof Captain Cook has broad implications, the incident providesimportant guidelines for understanding cultural exchangeselsewhere. In the ancient Near East, where trading ships fromMesopotamia and the Indus Valley landed on the shores of theArabian Peninsula more than five thousand years ago, thehistorical metaphors and mythical realities of structural historyprovide important clues to the social contexts of an archaeologicalrecord of sustained cultural interaction.[195] ChairMcCoy, Mark [5] see Messersmith, MalloryMcCray, Brian (Vanderbilt University) and John Janusek(Vanderbilt University)[50] Fringe Benefits? Analysis of Microterracing inthe Icla Valley, Eastern BoliviaThe study of productive systems is an important component ofarguments evaluating sociopolitical structure and ethnogenesis.This study analyzes canal and terracing systems in the Icla Valley,along the eastern slopes of the Bolivian Andes, toward evaluatingthe sociopolitical structure of the resident population. Extensivesections of the Icla Valley, along Cerro Salli Salli, containremnants of unique agricultural systems characterized by canalsand narrow terraces less than 1 m in width. Similar terraces(without canals) are present above the nearby site ofChullpamoko-Kochipata. Test pits reveal rich soil directly undergravelly eroded soil currently only supporting xerophyticvegetation. These terraces reflect significant investment, but initialsurvey could not determine clear associations between the SalliSalli terraces and specific settlements or settlement clusters. TheChullpamoko-Kochipata terraces, conversely, have an obvious siteassociation. Creative approaches to agriculture along the easternslopes led to the apparently unique productive systems of the IclaValley. GIS analysis will compare the two regions, and traceassociations between hydrological catchment areas, terrace andcanal systems, and the pathways connecting the productivesystems and contemporary sites. This study analyzes possiblesociopolitical implications of this unique agricultural strategy in acontext of interregional interaction.McCray, John [85] see Lail, WarrenMcCutcheon, Patrick [70] see Rennaker, PatrickMcDonald, Jo [163] see Veth, PeterMcDonald, Josephine (University of Western Australia)[163] Oh! I Do Like to Be beside the Seaside…Reflections on Landscape Use in the CoastalZone of the Sydney RegionThe rock art of the Sydney Basin is located between the coast andthe Blue Mountains, in south-eastern Australia. Stylistically the artof this region reflects a coherent social bloc. Stylistic variabilityhere is attributable to five defined language areas and to the social

284 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGcontext of the art’s production. This paper looks at the rock artwithin a single language area (Guringai) and explores how acoastally oriented group with a strong maritime economy hasmapped onto the land. Subject choices in the art – andarchaeological evidence from rockshelter and midden sites -generally reflect the coastal economy. But the art is more than amenu of the important resources of the Hawkesbury River - at thisfertile coastal and estuarine interface. The rock art demonstratesthat people are using various landscapes across their territory tosignal different types of attachments to the land and differentmessages about their natural and social realms.[163] ChairMcEwan, Colin (Dumbarton Oaks)[60] DiscussantMcFadden, Lara (University of Toronto )[39] Feasting the Dead: The Significance of aFaunal Assemblage at an Ancient BurialGroundRecent excavations at an ancient burial ground, DjRw-14 on thesouth coast of British Columbia, dated 4000-3500 cal. BP, haveyielded an unusual faunal assemblage with a high frequency ofdeer remains and relatively low frequencies of marine fauna. Withlittle or no evidence of habitation at the site during the period inquestion, it appears likely that the high proportion of deer is relatedto mortuary ritual that involved consumption of deer meat.Through analysis of the deer remains, I will examine the ways inwhich deer were transported, processed, and consumed on site.This assemblage provides a rare opportunity to investigatefeasting behavior associated with mortuary ritual.McFarlane, William (Johnson Co. Community College, KS)and Miranda Suri (Queens College, CUNY)[264] Investigating Community Dynamics: RecentResearch from the Jesus de Otoro Valley,HondurasThree seasons of work in the Jesus de Otoro valley of centralHonduras have begun to illuminate the lives of this little-knownregion's Pre-Columbian occupants. We address severaldistinctive factors of life in this mountain valley, including theapparent presence of multiple contemporaneous tier-1 settlementsin a geographically constrained region, the role of the nearby LaEsperanza obsidian source in the local and long distanceeconomy, and the interplay between public and residential life atthe center of Sinsimbla. We also comment on cultural similaritiesand differences to other potential Lenca settlements withinnorthwestern Honduras, particularly with reference to buildingpractices and pottery production and exchange. In sum, the workof the Proyecto Arqueologico Valle de Jesus de Otoro reveals thepotential for small-scale and minimally intrusive researchstrategies to address complex issues at various scales of analysis.McGlynn, George [79] see Olsen, Karyn5,000 to 3,000 years ago, the homogeneity of stylistic attributesassociated with these incised stones suggests that they wereproduced by a singular, highly developed socio-cultural entity. Thesymbolic potential of these artifacts with respect to internalaffiliation, and their role as an unambiguous signal of groupidentity to outsiders, marks the rise of complex societies in thisregion.McGuire, Randall (Binghamton University) and ElisaVillalpando (Centro INAH Sonora)[97] Cerros de Trincheras and Defense in theFormative Period Trincheras TraditionVisions of peaceful people confronted by a harsh environmenthave long dominated archaeological studies of the prehistoricSouthwest. Some archaeologists argue instead that warfare drovecultural developments in the region. In Sonora, México prehistoricpeoples constructed terraces on isolated volcanic hills, and builtrooms, compounds, and other edifices on their summits to createcerros de trincheras. Advocates of a violent prehistory for theSouthwest interpret these sites as forts and as evidence forwarfare. In the spring of 2006, the Cerros de Trincheras andDefense Project conducted eight weeks of fieldwork mapping andsurface collecting cerros de trincheras in the Río Altar and RíoMagdalena. The project used Geographic Information Systemsanalysis to answer a series of questions: Is there evidence fordefense at these sites? If so, how were these sites defensive?What was the range of activities on these sites? What wasprotected? How did defense relate to other activities on the sites?And, how did these relations change over time? The projectdemonstrated that the defensive character of Formative Periodcerros de trincheras in the Trincheras Tradition changed over timeand that defense does not adequately capture the complex activitystructure of most of these sites.McIntosh, Roderick[164] A Success too Sweet: Who Sheds Tears whenLooting EndsAfter a horrific rise in looting at archaeological sites near Jennejeno(Mali, West Africa) (looting to feed the illicit international trafficin terracotta statuettes) that began in the late 1970s, lootingessentially came to a complete halt by roughly 1995. That successwas due to a concentrated effort of local public education and sitemonitoring (by the Ministry of Culture’s Jenne Mission Culturelle),to the government’s efforts to interdict objects leaving the country(orchestrated by the National Museum and by the principalheritage protection agency, the Direction National des Arts et de laCulture (DNAC)), as well as due to the effects of the Mali-US bilateralprotection accord (initiated in 1993). Since 1995, periodicsurvey circuits of the several hundred archaeological sites within aroughly 40 km radius of Jenne show negligible evidence ofrenewed looting. This would seem to be cause for celebration. Yetin sworn testimony before the State Department’s CulturalProperty Advisory Committee in 2012, art/antiquities dealers andmuseum directors argued that the Mali-US Bi-lateral accord hadfailed. What is at the root of this massive “cognitive dissonance”?McKechnie, Iain [71] see Rodrigues, AntoniaMcGovern, Jeffrey [111] see Rockman, MarcyMcGuire, Kelly (Far Western Anthropological)[12] Incised Stones and Social Identity: A CaseStudy in the Rise of Complex SocialFormations in Northern California during theArchaic PeriodOne of the largest portable rock art assemblages everdocumented in North America was recovered from a series ofarchaeological sites within and near the Sacramento River Canyonin Northern California. Obtained from components dated fromMcKenzie, Hugh and Alexander Popov (Far Eastern NationalUniversity (FENU), Vladivosto)[194] Cranial Modification from the Boisman IIHunter-Gatherer Cemetery (ca. 5300-6000B.P.), Russian Far EastCranial modification is a widely distributed cultural practice in bothtime and space, being found on every inhabited continent and in avariety of historic and prehistoric cultural contexts. As a permanentbodily modification that is applied to infants, ACM is one importantmethod of symbolizing ascribed social identities and so can beuseful for bioarchaeological investigations into inter and intragroupsocial relations. Previous research (Chiikisheva 2003) at theBoisman II hunter-gatherer cemetery (~5300-6000 BP) located on

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 285the Russian coast of the Sea of Japan has described a variety offorms of deformation in 11 of 17 observable crania, whichrepresents among the earliest – if not the earliest – examples ofthe practice in Asia. The aim of the present study is to reevaluatethis evidence.McKenzie, Dustin K. [204] see Joslin, Terrysequences including those developed from palaeo-environmentaland oral historical sources. An additional project goal is to searchfor late Pleistocene archaeological deposits. To enable this, arelative sea curve is being constructed using isolation basin coringand diatom analysis. The resulting curve, combined with LiDARdata, will help pinpoint the locations and elevations of raised relictshorelines that resulted from late Pleistocene glacial isostaticdepression, providing targets for future field investigations.McKenzie, Chantal (Texas Military Forces)[281] Military Construction and Archaeology:Exercises in Cooperative PlanningConstruction project managers on historic building rehabilitationsoften do not consider the potential impacts of construction toburied cultural resources, particularly when they are working withinthe footprints of existing features and assumed "previouslydisturbed" areas. However, failure to sufficiently plan for suchdiscoveries often negatively impacts project schedules, scopes,and costs. Cooperative and tactical planning between culturalresources staff and construction project managers is crucial foravoiding pitfalls. Working together, personnel can developstandards for investigation, protocol, and oversight early in theplanning phases of historic rehabilitation projects. By examiningTexas Army National Guard construction projects that haveencountered unknown buried cultural resources, this paper offersinsights into effective strategies for ensuring successfulconstruction project outcomes.McKinnon, Jennifer (Flinders University)[73] Community Archaeology Approaches in theCommonwealth of the Northern MarianaIslands (CNMI)In 2007 as part of a reconnaissance trip to the Mariana Islands toassess the potential for Spanish colonial archaeology research,the author was struck by the incredibly diverse heritage of theisland (Chamorro, Carolinian, Spanish, US, Japanese, German,Korean and Filipino) and a local interest in researching,understanding and protecting the past. Driven by communityinterest and agency support several projects have eventuatedincluding the recording of WWII US and Japanese underwaterheritage sites, the development of a maritime heritage trail and 3Dinterpretive film, the recording of the Indigenous maritime culturallandscapes and seascapes, a feasibility study of Spanish colonialarchaeology research and a community-based study for protectingcave shelter sites on private property. Several of these projectswere perceived and guided by community members. Further,these projects included community participation and collaborationand trainings to both build capacity on island and raise awarenessof protecting heritage. This paper will outline the communityarchaeology aspects of this research, discussing some of thechallenges and successes of working with and for a community.McLaren, Duncan (University of Victoria and Hakai Institute)[206] Uncovering Long-Term ArchaeologicalSequences and Landscapes on the CentralNorthwest CoastThe Hakai Ancient Landscapes Archaeology Project is beingundertaken on the central coast of British Columbia. The primarygoal of the project is to find and investigate archaeological siteswith long archaeological sequences. The study area ishypothesized as being unique on the Northwest Coast as sea levelhas been fairly stable over the last 11,400 calendar years. For thisreason, shell middens and other site types have evidence ofrepeated human habitation spanning the Holocene period. Insome instances the long-term accumulation of stratifiedanthropogenic deposits has resulted in landforms over five metreshigh. Site testing has been conducted using probes, augers, andexcavation units. Combined with radiocarbon dating, thecollection and analysis of lithic, bone, and water-logged materialsfrom these sites allows comparisons with other diachronicMcManamon, Francis [10] see Kintigh, KeithMcManamon, Francis (Center for Digital Antiquity)[72] Goals of a Passing Generation: Saving andSharing Archaeologists’ LegaciesThe 1960s and 1970s were full of ferment and new ideas inarchaeology. The New Archaeologists were challenging CulturalHistorians; CRM was developing as a shift from the “salvagearchaeology” approach. The “new archaeologists” and earlyCRMers are now facing the ends of their careers. Some havetaken steps to ensure the long-term access and preservation ofthe results of their work. Others are only now considering thelegacy of their careers. This presentation will examine how agingaffects the perspective of practicing archaeologists regarding thedata and interpretations that they produce during their careers.One aspect of this examination will focus on how or whetherindividuals benefit from knowing that their professional workcontributes to a larger legacy of advancing knowledge. Thepresentation also will describe the Digital Archaeological Record(tDAR), an archaeological digital repository that archaeologistsuse to save and share their professional legacies.McManus, Ellen (University of Aberdeen), Kate Britton(University of Aberdeen; Max Plank Institute for EvolutionaryAnthropology), Keith Dobney (University of Aberdeen) andRick Knecht (University of Aberdeen; University of AlaskaFairbanks)[20] A Stable Isotope Investigation of Human-DogRelationships at a Permafrost-Preserved Site inPrehistoric Western AlaskaDogs have frequently been used as analogues for past human dietin situations where human remains have not been found, or wheretheir investigation by techniques such as stable isotope analysis isnot possible. In regions such as the Arctic, where dogs haveplayed a critical role in human transport and hunting activities, theclose, interdependent relationship between humans and dogsmakes them an even more valuable source of information on pasthuman behavior and subsistence. The Western Thule village siteof Nunalleq (Yup’ik for ‘the old village’), in the Yukon-KuskokwimDelta region of Western Alaska, is the focus of a major projectcurrently being carried out by the University of Aberdeen, inpartnership with the local Yup’ik village corporation. Permafrostconditions at the site have resulted in incredible preservation oforganic material and faunal remains in house floor deposits,including canid fur, bones and teeth. Human hair has also beenrecovered from these non-mortuary contexts. This paper willexplore the relationship between humans and dogs at Nunalleqthrough stable isotope analysis, and will address how people andtheir animals lived in and adapted to this region of extreme climaticvariation and fluctuating resource availability.McManus, Ellen [138] see Britton, KateMcMillan, Alan [71] see Arndt, UrsulaMcNabb, Caitly [236] see McNabb, Caitlyn

286 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGMcNabb, Caitlyn (Washington State University) and CaitlyMcNabb (Washington State University-Pullman)[236] Water Management and Settlement Patterns inthe Lower Nepeña ValleyRecent investigations on the nature and implications of large-scaleirrigation have centered around the Moche State. Irrigationpropelled the complexity and extent of the Moche sphere, asirrigation-based subsistence strategies were employed long beforethe complexity of the state. This study examines early urbanism asa precursor to the state by modeling potential spatial, social, andpolitical dynamics of early irrigation systems in the Nepena Valley,a region argued to be a social and political periphery. By doing so,I dispel the myth that certain settlement pattern shifts were a resultof warfare. In order to examine shifts in subsistence andsettlement, potential canal trajectories are estimated for each timeperiod based on site location as well as degrees of socialcomplexity and political authority as indicated by architecturalanalysis. Ultimately, it becomes apparent that politically organizedforms of irrigation strategies were present as early as the LatePreceramic Period. Evidence suggests gradual, in-situ,intensification of irrigation systems along the river plain until thetransition to large urban centers, which reflects a transition to asubsistence strategy coupled with a socially complex politicalstructure. These results shed doubt on warfare based narrativesfor the region that rely on punctuated change.McPherron, Shannon (Max Planck Institute)[155] Modeling Trampling Damage on Flakes: AnExperimental Approach to Substrate Size, RawMaterial Type, Edge Angle, and Contact FaceVery little is known of the use of unretouched flakes during thePaleolithic. This is a considerable gap in our understanding ofancient lifeways. Studies of damage on the edges of unretouchedtools may help to address this issue. Unfortunately, there iscurrently substantial equifinality in determining the behavioralrelevance of macroscopic damage patterns. Experimentsdemonstrate that considerable damage is caused by trampling,and that this can be mistaken for use related damage. Factors thatpredict patterning in trampling damage are still poorly understood.We trampled flakes made from different raw materials on differentsized gravel substrates. We controlled the surface (interior orexterior) exposed to the gravel. Damage patterns wereinvestigated relative to variance in edge angle based on pretramplingmeasures of edge angles equally spaced around tooledges. We explore differential patterning of damage usingdigitized tool outlines. Preliminary results suggest a signature ofdamage resulting from trampling. If confirmed this will provide abaseline for identifying residual patterning resulting from use.[10] ChairMcNamee, Calla (University of Calgary), Christopher R. Moore(Savannah River Archaeological Research Program, So), MarkJ. Brooks (Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology,University of South Carolina), Andrew H. Ivester (Departmentof Geosciences, University of West Georgia) and James K.Feathers (Department of Anthropology, University ofWashington)[243] Microbotanical Analysis of Carolina Bay SandRims: Reconstructing Holocene Vegetationand Paleoenvironment through PhytolithAnalysisCarolina Bays are shallow, upland ponds that have providedimportant wetland resources to prehistoric populations dating backto the Paleoindian period. Sites are located on the bay rims(water-lain and eolian shoreline deposits), generally characterizedby visually undifferentiated sand rich sediments. Recentgeoarchaeological research by Moore and others that incorporatesOSL and 14C dating, as well as microsampling at 2.5 cmintervals, provides chronologic and stratigraphic control at threeCarolina Bay sites (Flamingo Bay, Johns Bay, and Frierson Bay)found on the South Carolina Coastal Plain. This has enabledinterpretation of Holocene palaeoenvironment based on physicaland chemical data. Due to acidic conditions and coarse sedimenttexture, sparse paleobotanical data have been recovered fromthese sites. Silica phytoliths, however, with their resistance tochemical and physical degradation, provide a reliablemicrobotanical proxy for palaeoenvironmental change in thesesettings. This study presents the results from a phytolith analysisof ten samples collected from the Flamingo Bay site (38AK469).The phytolith results are integrated with the geoarchaeologicalresults to examine changes in Holocene vegetation and climate.By investigating the types of vegetation near the site, this phytolithanalysis sheds light on prehistoric resource availability in CarolinaBay environments.McNeill, Fiona [51] see MacDonald, Brandi LeeMcNiven, Ian (Monash University, Australia)[163] DiscussantMcNulty, Kieran [94] see Greer, SeanMcPherron, Shannon [10] see Dibble, HaroldMcTavish, Rachel (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)[173] Evaluating the Aztalan Palimpsest: FaunalAnalysis of a Mixed Late Woodland and MiddleMississippian ContextArchaeological contexts at the Aztalan site (47JE0001) insoutheast Wisconsin typically reflect a mix of Late Woodland andMississippian materials. This paper examines the faunal remainsexcavated by the 2011 UWM Advanced Archaeological FieldSchool from one such culturally ambiguous context at the site. Atotal of 7,743 vertebrate and 3,343 invertebrate remains recoveredfrom a midden context outside the eastern palisade wereanalyzed. This is compared to reported assemblages from fourother Late Woodland sites in Southeastern Wisconsin. Results areused to discuss variation in Late Woodland and Mississippianpatterns of faunal exploitation.[173] ChairMeadow, Alison [111] see Rockman, MarcyMeadow, Richard (Harvard University)[245] DiscussantMeans, Bernard (Virtual Curation Laboratory)[29] Geographic Variation in New Deal ArchaeologyAcross the Lower 48 StatesAn examination of New Deal archaeology survey and excavationprojects across the lower 48 states has revealed considerablegeographic variation in the nature and extent of work reliefarchaeology projects. Some of this variation can be linked tostrong regional personalities (e.g. William S. Webb andTennessee Valley Authority archaeology), while other variationdepended on local political acceptance or resistance of New Dealprograms in general. In some cases, the nature of thearchaeological record itself influenced the amount of New Dealarchaeology conducted within a region. One challenge toexamining geographic variation in New Deal archaeology is thefact that much of this work is unpublished or is only published inlow circulation local archaeology or local historical society journals.Other challenges include the lack of specificity of the type of reliefagency that funded individual archaeology projects, which rendersit difficult to find further information. How an examination ofgeographic variation in New Deal archaeology can contribute to

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 287understanding the development of American Archaeology isaddressed as well.[29] ChairMeanwell, Jennifer (MIT)[229] A Petrographic Analysis of Domestic PotteryConsumption at CalixtlahuacaPetrographic analysis is a powerful tool, allowing the archaeologistto examine clay sources and aspects of production, such as firingtemperatures, tempering materials, and manufacturing techniques.In this study, pottery from two separate domestic contexts, onelikely elite, is examined through time to determine if potteryproduction or consumption patterns altered with the introduction ofnew ceramic forms (comals) and wares from the Aztec Empire.Earlier petrographic studies of the surface collected materialsuggest that the majority of the ceramics used in Calixtlahuacawere locally produced, although some variation in clay source andfiring temperatures was noted. The current research will allow usto evaluate whether production and consumption patterns variedeither with time (due to the Aztec conquest) or with status.[252] Archaeological Conservation: A Tool forPreserving and Researching TurquoiseArtifacts from Alta Vista, ZacatecasDuring November 2009, a group of professors and students fromENCRyM-INAH had the opportunity to participate in theconservation of one of the richest and comprehensive collection ofturquoise artifacts of Mesoamerica, mainly rings and mosaics,which are currently exhibited at the new Museo de Sitio of theArchaeological Site of Alta Vista, Zacatecas. During the diagnosisof this collection, the restorer's close and detailed observationsuncovered key aspects regarding the process of manufacture,deterioration, and conservation of each artifact. This informationdid not only provide fresh data for the documentation of thecollection, but also was essential for the decision making processregarding the restorer's intervention for preserving the values ofeach turquoise item. This paper focuses on the analysis of theseresearch achievements and the questions that derived from them,which nowadays direct an investigation about turquoise artifactsfrom the perspective of the field of archaeological conservation.Megyesi, Mary [251] see Pilloud, MarinMedina, Paulo (Boston University)[290] Architecture that Infers Violence at El Mirador:Assessing Warfare in the Preclassic PeriodThis paper presents archaeological data collected in 2008, 2010and 2011 from El Mirador to assess Maya warfare during the LatePreclassic (400 B.C. – A.D. 250). One school of thought arguesthat warfare prior to the Late Classic (A.D. 600) was largelyritualistic. If true, it would preclude the need for large scaledefensive features prior to this time. The other school believeswarfare played a major role in the rise of complexity as early asthe Middle Preclassic (600 B.C.). I document a feature called "ElMuro Perimetral," the Wall, one of the features that enhanced thedefensive posture of El Mirador. A survey of the Maya lowlandsshows that defensive features were a regular component ofPreclassic architecture. No evidence was found to support theclaim that Preclassic warfare was ritualistic. Instead, considerableevidence shows that massive expenditures were directed atmaking site cores defensible. This suggests that warfare was aserious concern during the Preclassic.Medina González, José (INAH/Zacatecas) and BaudelinaGarcía Uranga (INAH/Zacatecas)[252] La Turquesa en Alta Vista, Narrativas versusEvidenciasEn los años setenta del siglo XX , gracias a los análisis poractivación neutrónica se descubrió que varias piezas de turquesarecuperadas en diversos sitios arqueológicos en el noroeste deZacatecas pertenecientes a la Rama Suchil de la culturaChalchihuites, provienen de yacimientos mineros en NuevoMéxico en los E.E.U.U. y de Concepción del Oro en los límites deZacatecas con Coahuila en México. No obstante, ningúnespécimen de turquesa del centro ceremonial de Alta Vista-Chalchihuites fue sometido a dichos análisis. Las excavacionesrealizadas en este sitio arqueológico, obtuvieron piezas cortadas,cuentas y mosaicos de turquesa, así como algunas herramientasutilizadas en su manufactura dentro de contextos arqueológicosfechados entre 500/550 d.C. y 680/800 d.C. Estimacionesincorrectas sobre la cantidad real de turquesa y del número deherramientas antes mencionadas, condujeron a la exageradainterpretación que “Alta Vista es el taller más grande de turquesa[se calcularon 17,000 o 18,000 piezas] a la fecha encontrado en laarqueología norteamericana y mesoamericana”. En esta ponenciase expondrán datos no publicados y recientes análisis realizadosde la turquesa en este sitio con el fin de ofrecer una interpretaciónmás acorde con el registro arqueológico recuperado.Medina-González, Isabel (ENCRyM-INAH)Mehta, Apurva [253] see Walton, MarcMeierhoff, James (University of Illinois at Chicago)[92] World War II and the American Home Front: APreliminary Exploration of Three German POWCamps Near ChicagoAs Europe was being destroyed for the second time in 40 years,American cities and their hinterlands during World War II layunscathed. However, the war would come home to America in theform of hundreds of thousands enemy prisoners of war.Imprisoned in almost every State in the Union, interactions withthese prisoners were often the only link between the war raging inEurope and the American home front. The story of these men, andthe United States’ methods of housing and caring for them, islargely forgotten amid the larger and more dramatic events thatoccurred 1941-1946. This paper explores three World War IIGerman Prisoner of War camps located in the Chicago suburbs.These camps, which held over 200 prisoners each, wereestablished to utilize captive labor in civilian agricultural industrieswhile millions of American men fought in the European and Pacifictheaters of war. The initial archaeological pedestrian survey hasconfirmed that despite the apparent destruction and subsequentabandonment of these camps, the POW occupation surface stilllay intact. These camps were branch camps of larger FortSheridan, and comprised of veterans of the African Campaign whowere put to work in suburban truck farms.[92] ChairMeisnner, Nate [36] see Yacubic, MattMejia Appel, Gabriela (Dirección de SalvamentoArqueológico)[17] Eating Patterns of the Population ofTeopancazco through PIXE AnalysisThis paper is the result of interdisciplinary research, whichanalyzed the food consumption patterns in Teopancazco,Teotihuacan. The central hypothesis is that, through dietarystudies, we can understand some aspects of the cultural life inancient populations because sustenance is tied to different socialprocesses.This analysis was conducted on a sample of the neighboorhoodcenter's population with the Particle-induced X-ray Emission(PIXE) technique for the paleodietary study of trace elements. Theresults allow us to approach the multi-ethnic population that livedin Teopancazco at different stages of its occupation during theClassic period.

288 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGMelgar, Emiliano [252] see Ruvalcaba, JoseMelgar, Emiliano (Posgrado UNAM)[252] The Manufacturing Techniques of theTurquoise and Blue-Green Objects inMesoamericaIn different sites of Mesoamerica, the archaeologists have foundseveral turquoise and blue-green objects, like inlays assembled asmosaics and beads and pendants as necklaces and strings.Unfortunately, most of the studies about those objects had beenfocused on the symbolic meaning, its morphology, trade and use,but very few studies focus on the manufacturing techniques andthe organization of their production. In this paper, I will present thetechnological analysis of the manufacturing traces that I applied onturquoise and blue-green inlays, beads, and pendants, fromdifferent sites of Mesoamerica, like Chiapa de Corzo, Teteles deSanto Nombre, Monte Albán, Alta Vista, Cerro Moctehuma,Pajones, El Bajío, Xochicalco, Tula, El Salitre, Chevé Cave, EjutlaCave, Tlaxiaco, Tamtoc, Nevado de Toluca, and Tenochtitlan. Toanalyze the manufacturing traces of these pieces, I employexperimental archaeology and Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM). This methodology allowed us to identify the lithic toolsemployed in their production with great accuracy and distinguishdifferent technological styles and local and foreign lapidarytraditions.[252] ChairMendelsohn, Rebecca (University at Albany, SUNY)[185] The Effectiveness of Low-Cost 3D Alternativesfor Archaeology and MuseumsArchaeologists often overlook the use of 3D technology in culturalheritage, as they find the technology too expensive or the learningcurve for 3D techniques too steep. This study analyzes the resultsof two user-friendly and cost-effective 3D techniques for mediumand small-sized objects, and comments on their advantages anddisadvantages. The first method employs close-rangephotogrammetry. It uses a standard digital camera to captureimages of the objects and combine them in a software program tocreate a 3D image. The second method uses a low-end laserscanner to capture data points and develop them into a 3D model.The study seeks to determine, in what circumstances are low-cost3D methods the most effective? What are the limitations of lowcostalternatives? How does the size of the object impact theeffectiveness of these techniques? How feasible are thesemethods for use in the field? The study concludes with adiscussion of the myriad ways 3D models can be effectiveresearch and teaching tools in archaeology and museum studies.Méndez Melgar, César (Universidad de Chile), Omar Reyes(Centro de Estudios del Hombre Austral, Instituto d), AmaliaNuevo Delaunay (Instituto Nacional de Antropología yPensamiento L), Juan García (Universidad Católica de Chile)and Charles Stern (University of Colorado)[26] Holocene Human/Environment Dynamics alongthe Eastern Andean Flank of Central Patagonia(Aisén Region, Chile)The forest steppe ecotone at the eastern slope of the Andes in theAisén region (43°40'-49°15' S, Chilean Patagonia) provides asingular opportunity for assessing long and short term mutualresponses between prehistoric/historic occupations and theenvironment. As a demographically marginal zone, northern Aiséndeveloped an unstable dynamic equilibrium where the presenceand absence of human beings during the Holocene can beunderstood as responses to climate change. On the other hand,human presence also produced measurable effects on theenvironment, especially through fires. By integrating archaeology,paleoecology, and geomorphology, we have investigated thefollowing methodological approaches for evaluating theseinteractions. Evidence of human occupations starting at 11500 calB.P. is positioned within the regional geomorphologic frameworkand paleoclimate reconstructions for the last 19000 cal B.P., asobtained from a pollen record at Lake Shaman sediment core.Peaks/troughs of charcoal from this record, compared with seriesof 14C dates from the archaeological sites provide insightfulmeans for assessing the magnitude of human effect on theenvironment. ICP-MS obsidian sourcing and isotopic ecology areused as means for establishing mobility and space use throughtime.Menendez, Damaris [65] see Navarro-Farr, OliviaMentesana, Roberta (University of Sheffield - UK), Peter M.Day (University of Sheffield - UK) and Simona Todaro(University of Catania - IT)[288] Pottery Manufacture in Phaistos: Continuity andChange over Two MillenniaPhaistos, a site in the Mesara Plain of Central Crete, is perhapsbest known for the building of a court-centerd building or “palace”at the beginning of the second millennium B.C. The innovative andhighly accomplished polychrome pottery of the palatial period hasovershadowed the early ceramic history of this important site,which sees intense human activity from the Final Neolithic periodonwards (ca. 3600-1460 B.C.).A recent detailed study of the early phase stratigraphy and potteryhas revealed that since the first phases of occupation the site ofPhaistos was involved in periodic consumption events and that apottery production area may have operated in the western slope ofthe site.Pottery of these early phases has been analyzed with a multitechniqueapproach, consisting of PE and SEM analysis, revealingidiosyncratic ways of forming, of the combination of differentpastes and of choices and manipulation of raw materials.The longevity of these “ways of doing” lies in contrast to the majorsocial transformations that the timespan of our study encompass,notably the transition from the Neolithic to Early Bronze Age andthe establishment of the “palace,” a trait of the emergent Cretanstates.Mentzer, Susan [76] see Thompson, JessicaMentzer, Susan (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen)[224] Approaches to Integrating MultipleGeoarchaeological Analytical Methods in theStudy of Archaeological FeaturesThe micro-contextual approach to the study of archaeologicalfeatures utilizes a variety of microscopic analytical techniques todocument the internal spatial organization and chemicalcompositions of anthropogenic materials. Developed for the studyof hearths and other combustion features, this approach typicallyincludes petrography paired with molecular spectroscopy, with allanalyses conducted on one micromorphological thin section orresin-impregnated slab of sediment. Using an expanded suite ofanalytical techniques suitable for micromorphological blocks andclosely-associated loose samples, this approach can be employedin the study of many types of archaeological features andsediments. Examples presented here span the Middle Stone Agethrough the Neolithic and include: 1) the integration ofmicromorphology, elemental compositional analyses, and stablecarbon and oxygen isotopic analyses in the study of calcareousplasters; 2) radiocarbon dating and botanical analyses coupledwith micromorphology and reflectance petrology in the study ofdeposits containing charred plant materials; 3) the integration ofmicromorphology, observation of materials in grain mount,elemental compositional analyses, and the extraction of solublesalts for the study of dung and stabling deposits; and 4) the use ofmicromorphology paired with μ-XRF or μ-FTIR to aid in thecollection and interpretation of luminescence and uranium-seriesdating samples.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 289Mercader, Julio[103] Plant Microbotanical Data from Middle StoneAge Sites to Understand the Environments inwhich Early Modern Humans LivedThe detection of areas suitable for hominins during latePleistocene drought intervals is currently a priority for MiddleStone Age research. Predicting the location of populations anddispersal pathways through the East African Rift System duringthe last glacial phase is a challenging task due to scarce directarchaeo-vegetation data. We present a Mozambican phytolithrecord spanning 105-29 ka and argue for the necessity and utilityof using local plant microbotanical data from archaeological sitesto understand the past environments in which early modernhumans lived. We assess biome structure, spatial variability, andcompare phytolith-based to lacustrine environmentalreconstructions to conclude that dense wooded landscapesdominated the area over much of the last glacial phase.Archaeological and botanical data suggest the hypothesis of apalaeodispersal along a montane woodland archipelago that couldhave attracted hominin settlement and facilitated dispersalsthrough an inland bridge that connected Southern, Central andEast Africa, and the two branches of the East African Rift System.Meredith, Clayton [217] see Jerrems, WilliamMerrett, Deborah C. [38] see Zhang, HuaMesia, Christian (Museo de Arte Precolombino Casa delAlabado)[180] Feasting and Power during the AndeanFormative: Interactions between Chavin andCupisniqueEvidence for feasting activities has been identified in a middenlocated in the Wacheqsa sector at Chavin de Huantar. Depositsfrom the midden were formed from waste produced by collectiveconsumption of food and drink, in other words, suprahouseholdfeasts. Ceramic types, faunal remains, narcotic paraphernalia andexotic items together yield the evidence necessary to argue for afeasting explanation of the stratigraphy recorded in theaforementioned midden. The occurrence of feasting at Chavínthe Huántar carries implications for the interpretation of powerstrategies and corporate activities sponsored at Chavín during theAndean Formative. Feasting at Chavín de Huántar was a way tomaterialize power. It was an avenue for authorities’ propaganda, away to control ritual knowledge and entice people into the system,an opportunity for display of success. The evidence from Chavin iscontrasted with the existing evidence published for Cupisniquesites from the Peruvian north coast in order to compare scale,strategies and feasting paraphernalia between Chavin de Huántarand its ceremonial counterparts from the Peruvian north coast.Meskell, Lynn [32] see Pearson, JessicaMessenger, Lewis (Hamline University)[58] Could Tsunamis Have Influenced Ancient MayaCultures?This paper considers the tectonic potentials and geological andhistorical evidence for tsunamis in the Caribbean Basin, identifieswhat parts of the Caribbean region might have been affected, andhypothesizes the potential influence of tsunamis on the culturaltrajectories of ancient Maya peoples on the eastern coast of theYucatan Peninsula. The devastation of the 2004 Indian Oceantsunami indicated the need for tidal-warning systems and actionplans for countries bordering the Indian Ocean and led todevelopment of warning systems and action plans for othertectonically active regions of the world. Prior to this, muchdiscussion focused on the Circum-Pacific “Ring-of-Fire” area,further fueled by the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan.These recent disasters have led to reevaluation of earthquake andtsunami potentials for other parts of the world, including theCaribbean Basin. Geological conditions suggest the potential forsuch future catastrophic events in parts of the Caribbean Basin.Since the European arrival there, we have some historicalreferences to eruptions as well as tsunamis. Such geologicalpreconditions suggest that paleotsunamis may have affected theMesoamerican Caribbean littoral, thus encouraging attention topotential archaeological and geological paleotsunami indicators.Messenger, Phyllis (University of Minnesota)[257] Gender, Archaeology, and the Pedagogy ofHeritageSince the seminal article by Conkey and Spector in 1984 callingfor an archaeology of gender, a robust body of literature andtheory on archaeology and gender has developed.Gendered aspects of archaeological practice include workrelationships, divisions of labor, communication and cognitivestyles, and specializations. This paper will discuss what feministarchaeologists have to say about the use of multivocality,multilinear narratives, and active engagement and collaboration tode-center archaeologists’ knowledge claims and open space forcommunity-based frameworks of heritage work. It will also addressthe lingering impact of gender inequality in the profession, heardthrough the stories of mid-career heritage professionals. It willconclude with the lessons we can learn from these stories and thework of feminist archaeology in order to develop a pedagogy ofheritage that serves all.[257] ChairMessersmith, Mallory (University of Alabama at Birmingham)and Mark McCoy (University of Otago)[5] Airborne LiDAR Survey of Fortified EarthworkSites in Northland, New ZealandMaori constructed some +6,000 fortifications, called pa, in the preandearly post-European contact era. But, few of these sites havebeen surveyed at a level of detail necessary to evaluate thecommonplace ditch-and-bank feature as a defensive strategy. Theresearch presented here explores the utility of airborne LiDARderivedremote sensing to advance this aspect of research in NewZealand. Digital elevation models (DEMs) and digital terrainmodels (DTMs) for several known sites in the Northland region ofNew Zealand were used to measure key functional aspects ofditch-and-banks at three fortified earthwork sites (pa). Theseresults were ground truthed using traditional archaeologicalmethods (handheld GPS, and tape and compass) to evaluate theaccuracy of LiDAR surface modeling. The results support thenotion that LiDAR can provide an accurate and cost-effectivemethod for quantitative analysis of these archaeological features.Furthermore, the resulting measurements contribute to ourunderstanding of Maori fortifications. This work was funded by theNational Science Foundation’s East Asia and Pacific SumerInstitutes program.Metcalfe, Jessica (University of British Columbia) and FredLongstaffe (Western University)[219] Paleoenvironments of the Great Lakes RegionInferred from Stable Isotope Analysis ofMammoths and Mastodons: Implications forClovis PeopleThe first humans in the Great Lakes region arrived around 11,00014C yrs B.P., at a time when mammoths and mastodons stillinhabited the lands exposed by glacial retreat. In this study, weuse stable isotope analysis of mammoth and mastodon bones andteeth to reconstruct aspects of the climate and environment of theGreat Lakes region (Ontario and New York) during and prior to thearrival of Clovis-era humans. This approach allows securechronological control, since bones and teeth can be directly dated.It also provides climatic information at a “human” time-scale (i.e.,local seasonal and annual environmental changes), in contrast to

290 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGthe longer-term and/or global climate variations recorded by otherproxies. Our data support the expectation that mammoths andmastodons inhabited distinct environmental niches. Serialsampling of mastodon tooth enamel reveals regular seasonalvariations, with distinct patterns among individuals. We discuss thepotential of these data for reconstructing seasonal changes atprecise moments in time, and their implications for understandinghuman responses to environmental change.Meyer, Matthias [20] see Thalmann, OlafMeyers, Maureen[24] Exchange, Control, and Power at aMississippian Periphery: The Fourteenth-Century Carter Robinson ChiefdomExcavations at the Carter Robinson mound site in southwesternVirginia have expanded our understanding of Mississippianperipheries by providing detailed excavations of a late prehistoricfrontier chiefdom. The migrant inhabitants located themselves atthe periphery to more directly control production and movement oftrade goods. Ceramic analyses demonstrate that over timeinhabitants increased their relations with local populations,resulting in a mixture of ceramic attributes. Concomitant with thischange was an increase in craft production, and I suggest the twoare closely intertwined. This examination of a Mississippianperiphery highlights the role of exchange in border communities,and the effects of that role on local and regional populations at andbeyond the core.Meyers, Cory (Indiana University of Pennsylvania), VictoriaHarding (Graduate Student Indiana University ofPennsylvania), Ryan Spittler (Graduate Student IndianaUniversity of Pennsylvania) and Justin Daley (GraduateStudent Indiana University of Pennsylvania)[187] Rediscovering DragooThis poster presents the research conducted by the AdvancedGraduate Field School at Indiana University of Pennsylvania on aMonongahela village site in Blairsville, Pennsylvania. The primarygoal of this project was to locate the western edge of the villagebeing excavated for the Late Prehistoric Project run by Dr. BeverlyChiarulli and Dr. Sarah Neusius. During excavation we locatedevidence of Don Dragoo’s 1952 excavations at the Johnston Site(36IN2) and possibly an additional outer stockade of the westernedge of the village and an earlier occupation. Five 1 x 2 meterunits were excavated in the western portion of the site. Four of thefive units showed evidence of Dragoo’s western excavation trench.Using maps from the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburg we were ableto line up Dragoo’s findings with the features evident in our units.These five units provided a better understanding of previousexcavations at the Johnston Site and the extent of the site. Artifactanalysis supports the idea of a change in artifact use moving fromeast to west across all five units. Further excavations andresearch are needed to gain a better understanding of the entiresite and the change in artifacts.Mgeladze, Ana [226] see Varoutsikos, BastienMichel, Mark (The Archaeological Conservancy)[110] Protecting Sites through OwnershipThe United States is almost alone in the world in not protecting itsancient heritage sites no matter where they are located. Becauseof our strong national commitment to the rights of private propertyowners, privately owned archaeological sites in America have littleor no legal protection. Instead, property owners are the legalpossessors of all the artifacts and cultural materials on a privatesite. These owners are largely free to do as they like with the site– save it, loot it, or destroy it. Given these facts, the best way topreserve and protect privately owned archaeological sites is, infact, for responsible parties to own them. For more than 30 yearsThe Archaeological Conservancy has been acquiring andpermanently preserving archaeological sites throughout the UnitedStates. Acquiring land from willing sellers is a time-consumingprocess, but it is a successful one. In the Southwest, a largenumber of the region’s most important sites are now permanentlypreserved.Mickel, Allison (Stanford University)[9] Diary of the Day: Database to DisplaySince 1996, the Çatalhöyük Research Project has employed theuse of diary-writing to encourage reflexivity and dialogue amongmembers of the project. These diary entries represent anopportunity to write about hypotheses, interpretations, and findingswithout the constraints of prompts or forms. The platform wascreated to encourage dialogue between team members aboutdeveloping theories, since anyone on site could read and respondto each others' diary entries. This year, there was a renewed focuson generating discussion amongst researchers within the diaries.The database was redesigned to allow direct, linked responses tospecific diary entries, as well as tagging with keywords.Furthermore, as part of this effort, an excerpt from one diary entryeach day was posted in two visible locations on site in order toencourage debate and discussion on the database. The hope wasthat making the diary entries part of the site's visible landscapewould raise awareness about the diary database, generateexcitement about its potential, and spark conversation betweenindividuals who might not otherwise feel compelled to share theirideas. Here, I assess the efficacy of the 'Diary of the Day'endeavor and outline its particular effects on the informationcreated in the diary database.Mickleburgh, Hayley[79] Teeth Tell Tales: Dental Anthropology of thePrecolumbian CaribbeanThis paper presents a selection of results from a dentalanthropological study into diet and non-alimentary tooth use in thepre-Columbian Caribbean. The first of its kind in the region, thisstudy includes 458 human dentitions from sites spanning the mainCeramic Age occupation phases and cultural areas of thearchipelago (400 B.C. – A.D. 1500). The research combinesbioarchaeological approaches including analyses of dentalpathology, macrowear, and microwear (SEM), with evidence fromprevious archaeological, paleodemographic, paleoenvironmental,and stable isotope studies. Ethnographic and ethnohistoricsources are consulted to contextualize results.This project has revealed considerable variation in dietarypractices between sites, yet demonstrates agriculturalintensification throughout the region over time. Sex differentiationin diet and non-alimentary tooth use was found in many sites. Newinsights into LSAMAT may help understand this pattern of wear inother regions. A single case of intentional dental modification inCuba may evidence the first (forced) migration under the auspicesof the European colonial powers.For the Caribbean this study highlights the importance ofbioarchaeological research. In a global perspective, this studycontributes to the ever growing body of dental anthropologicalwork dedicated to understanding past human culture and society.Mickleburgh, Hayley [254] see Hoogland, MennoMicklin, Destiny[38] The People of Actuncan: Locals or Migrants?Excavations at Actuncan in the upper Belize River valley revealednine burials in a household patio group northwest of the civic core.Ceramic analysis dated three burials to the Early Classic period,approximating the other six to the Late and Terminal Classic. Thisposter uses isotopic analysis to explore two questions: do theindividuals interred during Late and Terminal Classic originate

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 291from different regions than those buried during the Early Classic?Do individuals buried in this location have origins differing fromthose interred elsewhere at Actuncan and the Belize River Valley?Strontium, carbon and oxygen isotope analysis supplies key datafor identifying population movement. Isotope values in the toothenamel of 13 individuals provide information on food and waterinputs during infancy and early childhood. Strontium isotopevalues from the Belize River Valley are distinct from those of thecentral and southern Maya lowlands, as well as the MayaMountains and its foothills. Carbon and oxygen isotope analysisprovides information on dietary staples and water source.Identifying the origins of the individuals at Actuncan allows forricher understanding of how the ancient Maya moved across thelandscape in this region and how this movement affected theoccupation of Actuncan.Middleton, Angela (University of Otago)[73] Mission Archaeology in the Pacific: FromMatavai Bay to the Bay of IslandsMission outreach into the Pacific began with London MissionarySociety arrivals at Matavai Bay, Tahiti, in 1797. This initiated anevangelical network extending across the islands of the PacificOcean to Port Jackson (Sydney), and Bay of Islands, northernNew Zealand. This expanding network of mission sites andpersonnel will be explored, along with an examination of thecurrent state of knowledge of mission archaeology in the Pacific.Particular reference will be made to archaeological investigationsat Hohi, New Zealand’s first mission station and first permanentEuropean settlement, and its successor at nearby Te Puna. Thesewere examples of the ‘household’ mission, modeled on theChristian family, the male missionary as household head and thewife teaching domestic arts to indigenous Maori. Consideration willbe given to how the New Zealand examples compare with otherPacific localities, and the shared and opposing characteristics ofmission engagement across the region.Middleton, William [264] see Hedgepeth, JessicaMihailovic, Dusan [80] see Boric, DusanMiksic, John[104] Highland-Lowland-Mainland Relations inSumatra and the China FactorThe highland-lowland diad has long been a staple of SoutheastAsian studies. Some scholars have posited an antagonisticrelationship analogous to that between pastoral nomads andsettled farmers. Bennet Bronson in a much-cited paper developeda theory according to which lowlanders with access to importedtechnology and information exerted economic exploitation overhighlanders. Almost all historical data on the highland groups ofSoutheast Asia originates from the lowlands. Recentarchaeological research in Sumatra suggests that the position ofthe highland dwellers of Sumatra in intra-island economicnetworks was relatively equal to that of the populations of thelowland ports and their trading partners in mainland Asia. Earliernotions of dendritic patterns and gateway cities are beingchallenged by new archaeological discoveries, particularly in theheadwaters of the Batanghari and the Batusangkar region of westSumatra. The historical stereotype of the highlanders assubordinates of the lowland polities and their overseas tradingpartners in South and East Asia is gradually being replaced by amore complex picture. This paper will discuss the implications ofrecent archaeological research in Sumatra for the reconstructionof this relationship in the premodern period.Milbrath, Susan (Florida Museum of Natural History)[166] Evidence for Astro-Agronomy among theAncient MayaVenus is closely linked with the solar cycle in Venus almanacs thatintegrate five Venus cycles with eight solar years. Use of thisalmanac spans from central Mexico to the Maya area, and itapparently originated in the Late Preclassic period. The earliestwritten reference to the Venus cycle appears on the La MojarraStela from Veracruz, where texts also refer to the annual cycle anda solar eclipse. An interest in Venus in the context of the eclipsecycle is apparent in Postclassic texts showing Venus appearing inan eclipse almanac of the Dresden Codex. Recent research on theMadrid Codex shows a similar interest in integrating the Venuscycle with eclipse events. This almanac depicts a repeatingpattern of solar eclipses linked to Venus as the evening star attimes of year that overlap with the agricultural cycle. Clearly Venusphases and eclipse events were closely watched in relation to theplanting cycle, reflecting a form of astro-agronomy that we are onlybeginning to understand.Miles, Wesley[89] Traditional Crop Production in the Middle GilaRiver Valley: An Experimental StudyThe Historic Akimel O’odham and the antecedent Hohokammaterial culture reflect an irrigated agriculture tradition spanningthe past 2000 years in the Middle Gila River Valley. Hohokamcanal systems involved the short-term management of availableriver water in addition to long-term management of agriculturalsoils across variable biotic communities and soil types. Ongoingexperimental agronomic studies of traditional crops are beingconducted on the Gila River Indian Community to betterunderstand crop productivity in relation to soil quality and irrigationwater supply. Traditional O’odham maize was grown during thesecond growing season of 2012 using ethnographically-observedplanting techniques and crop density. Soil chemistry, soil moisture,precipitation, relative humidity, and temperature data wererecorded for each experimental field plot. Grain production per plotis compared to environmental conditions, soil properties, and totalirrigation supplied over the growing season. These preliminarydata are used to refine models of ecological “risk landscapes” inthe Hohokam case study area.Millaire, Jean-Francois (University of Western Ontario),Flannery Surette (University of Western Ontario) and JordanDowney (University of Western Ontario)[19] Entangled Pots and Rags: Luxury ObjectMaking in the Virú Valley, PeruA broad-spectrum analysis of ceramics and textiles from the VirúValley reveals fascinating processes of relational and materialentanglement, allowing us to move beyond the “local-foreign”dichotomy and to question earlier, essentialist, periodizations ofthe region. Focusing on contextual data from the EarlyIntermediate period (200 B.C. – A.D. 800), this paper highlightshow shifting trade relations with neighboring societies over thelong term (Salinar, Moche, Recuay, Huari) has shaped luxuryobject making, and how these, in turn, may have shaped howforeign affairs were conducted. This focus on the entangled natureof object making also brings us to query the value of utilitarian andfancy ceramics and textiles as building blocks for archaeologicalchronologies.Miller, G. Logan (Ohio State University)[6] Lithic Microwear Analysis of Hopewell Bladeletsfrom Fort Ancient: Implications for RitualEconomyThe Hopewell horizon in eastern North America is marked by thelarge-scale production, distribution, and deposition of ritual andcraft objects. However, no clear model currently exists for theorganization of production of these objects. It is generallyassumed that they were produced at earthworks by individualswith special access to ritual knowledge and materials. If this is the

292 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGcase then were the objects produced in households, specializedworkshops, or communal spaces? Is there any evidence forchanges in the pattern of production through time? This studyaddresses these questions through a large-scale microwearanalysis of Hopewell bladelets recovered from several differentcontexts at the Fort Ancient earthworks. Results indicate thatstone and copper artifacts were produced at Fort Ancient usingbladelets. Additionally, some households, especially those in theinterior household cluster, were more involved in craft productionthan others. Radiocarbon dates suggest that craft production mayhave shifted from corporate communal spaces to householdproduction through time. All of these findings have importantimplications for the study of the Hopewell ritual economy andsocial organization.Miller, Jennifer (University of Alberta)[8] Possible Middle Stone Age Ostrich EggshellBeadsOstrich eggshell (OES) beads are some of the earliest forms ofpersonal ornamentation; they can be found at many Africanarchaeological sites and first appear in the late Middle Stone Age(MSA) or early Later Stone Age (LSA). This poster presents datafrom a newly excavated assemblage from Magubike rockshelter,which may have evidence of MSA OES beads. The site consists ofa granite rockshelter in the southern highlands of Tanzania, andthus far has yielded evidence of occupation from the lateAcheulean through modern times. The OES beads analyzed herewere excavated in the summer of 2012, and were recovered froma sequence of stratified Historic/Iron Age and Middle Stone Age(MSA) levels, with no apparent Later Stone Age component.Approximately 100 beads and bead making materials wererecovered, including 8 OES artifacts found in association with aMSA assemblage. If direct dating methods (possibly available atthe time of presentation) confirm the antiquity of these MSAbeads, they will rival beads from Enkapune ya Muto, Kenya, andMumba Rock Shelter, Tanzania, as some of the world’s oldest.These new artifacts from Magubike may provide insight into theearly use of OES beads.Miller, Naomi (Univ of Pennsylvania Museum-ISAW) and AyseGürsan-Salzmann (University of Pennsylvania Museum)[30] Plants and Politics: Preserving the HistoricalLandscape and Open-Air Archaeological Site atGordion, TurkeyVegetation management on open-air archaeological sites canmitigate the deleterious effects of environmental conditions. Plantscan also play an important aesthetic and educational role in sitepresentation. In the Gordion region of central Anatolia, more than100 Phrygian tumuli and an extensive ancient settlement areoutstanding features of the historical landscape. The tumuli date tothe Phrygian period (ca. 800 BC). They are covered with remnantsof the diverse native steppe vegetation, yet tumuli and biodiversityare both threatened by agricultural development. The excavatedsettlement mound is protected by an encircling fence, so plantsgrow unhindered. There, plant roots harm the walls of the exposedstructures, and patchy growth makes it difficult for tourists tounderstand the site plan. Vegetation management is thereforecritical for the preservation and interpretation of both types ofopen-air archaeological remains. This contribution presentsstraightforward technical solutions to a site-preservation problemwhose implementation is strongly affected by local, national andinternational entities.Miller, Melanie (University of California, Berkeley) andChristine Hastorf (University of California, Berkeley)[74] What Else Can Teeth Tell Us? Investigating theSocialization of Children through Food UsingStable Isotope AnalysesHuman teeth record the chemical signatures of foods consumedduring childhood and can provide information about the dietarychanges that a child experiences such as the age of being weanedfrom breast milk to a solid-food diet. Because food is dynamicallyinvolved in the creation and expression of social identities, suchdietary transitions are important indicators of new stages in thesocial life of a child. Through the lens of a life course approach,stable isotope data from human teeth can be used to track thesocial development and trajectory of individuals as their dietschange from infancy through adolescence. Stable isotope data(carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) from organic and inorganicfractions of human teeth from early settled inhabitants of theTaraco Peninsula, Bolivia will serve as a case study to investigatehow childhood diet may be a way to understand the developmentof particular social identities that are distinguished through diet.Miller, Myles (GMI)[218] A Millennium of Identity Formation andMaintenance in the Jornada Mogollon RegionSocial and ideological developments of the Jornada Mogollonregion of southern New Mexico and west Texas are oftenconsidered peripheral to the greater Southwest. This perspectivebelies the fact that inhabitants of the region maintained one of themore successful and stable societies in the prehistoric Southwest.The fluorescence of Jornada style iconography in rock art,ceramics, and other media during the 14th century is well known.Recent chronometric and iconographic studies show that theunderlying cosmology and ideology – the basis of Jornadaethnogenesis and identity - can be traced to as early as the 6thcentury and perhaps earlier. Over the span of several centuries,Jornada social identity was also expressed through agavefermentation and feasting, acts of ritual dedication and termination,ceramic technology, and orientations of rooms and settlements.The Jornada region offers a unique setting for the study of howidentity was formed, conserved, and maintained over periods ofseveral centuries.Miller, Christopher[224] Deposits as Artifacts: Using MicrofaciesAnalysis to Interpret Intrasite SettlementDynamicsOver the past few decades, micromorphology has become the keymethod in geoarchaeology for identifying and interpreting the rolesplayed by geological, biological and human agents in the formationprocesses of archaeological sites. In particular, geoarchaeologistscan use micromorphology to extract data and information fromanthropogenic deposits on past human activities and behaviors. Inthis sense, by using the proper methods, geoarchaeologists cantreat deposits as artifacts. A valuable concept in the analysis ofdeposits as artifacts is the microfacies concept. Originallydeveloped in sedimentary petrology, the microfacies concept hasbeen successfully applied to the geoarchaeological investigation ofseveral types of archaeological sites. Distinct microfacies andmicrofacies associations can be linked to certain past humanactivities. In particular, because microfacies have an inherentspatial component, microfacies analysis of anthropogenic depositscan be informative about the spatial arrangement of activitieswithin archaeological sites. Here, I discuss recent advances in themicrofacies concept in geoarchaeology, particularly focusing onhow it can be used to investigate intrasite settlement dynamics. Asan illustration of the concept, I present data from Paleolithic andStone Age hunter-gatherer sites from Germany and South Africa.Miller, Heather (University of Toronto)[245] DiscussantMiller, Melanie [263] see Porter, BenjaminMills, Peter [62] see Lundblad, StevenMills, Peter (University of Hawaii Hilo)

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 293[255] Current Perspectives on Hawaii's Stone ToolEconomiesPatrick Kirch's publication of Feathered Gods and Fishhooks in1985 coincided with the first detailed publication on the petrologyof various basalt adze quarries in the Hawaiian Islands by PaulCleghorn and others. Both publications emphasized the value ofstone tool sourcing studies in delineating precontact interactionspheres and the evolution of Hawaii's complex societies. Throughthe 1990s, however, sourcing studies included less than 200specimens in any given analysis, which limited the ability of theanalyses to generate well-substantiated conclusions related toadze production through nearly a millennium of Hawaiianprehistory. With the introduction of geochemically-based analysesof archaeological basalt and volcanic glass in Hawaii, first byMarshall Weisler and later by geoarchaeology labs in Oregon,Hilo, Otago and Queensland, over 21,000 samples have now beenanalyzed. A review of the expansive data set is presented.Findings point to regionally divergent patterns in adze productionand distribution, and the existence of multiple quarries that couldrival the well-known Mauna Kea adze quarry in their extent ofinterisland distribution.[73] Discussant[142] ChairMills, Barbara (University of Arizona)[106] Multiscalar Perspectives on Social Networks inthe Late Prehispanic SouthwestThe application of social network analysis (SNA) to archaeology isclosely tied to historical trajectories and interactions occurringacross widely varying social and spatial scales. Rather thanseeing this as an impediment to the application of social networkanalysis in archaeology, we show how changing the regional scaleof inquiry can lead to different yet complementary interpretationsabout the relationships among settlements. Using decoratedceramic frequency data from the Southwest Social NetworksProject we present the analysis of three different spatial scalesover time to show how the same social processes of migration inthe 13th century followed by widespread religious movements inthe 14th and 15th centuries were expressed in terms of theirnetwork characteristics. In the southern Southwest theseprocesses resulted in a highly connected network with many longdistanceconnections, while in the northern Southwest networkswere more discrete with more short-distance connections. We lookat several network measures to better understand how thesedifferent network “textures” emerged and compare them toindependently documented differences in ceramic production,population density, and migration histories.[161] Discussant[106] ChairMinc, Leah, Jason Sherman (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee), Christina Elson (Science Visualization), CharlesSpencer (American Museum of Natural History) and ElsaRedmond (American Museum of Natural History)[178] Clay Survey and Ceramic Provenance in theValley of Oaxaca: Mapping Out PotteryProduction and Exchange in the Late toTerminal FormativeThe Oaxaca Clay Survey was initiated to map trace-element andmineralogical variation in clay composition as a basis fordetermining ceramic provenance. Natural clays have now beensampled from more than 250 locations throughout the valley, andanalyzed using INAA in combination with ceramic petrography.Spatial averaging was used to create a series of smoothed “topomaps” showing how element concentrations vary over space, andto generate a regular reference grid of concentration valuesagainst which ceramics could be compared. Here we apply thiscontinuous spatial model to the task of sourcing pottery (N=430)from the Late and Terminal Formative periods (500 B.C.E. - 200C.E.). We focus on the Valle Grande (Ocotlán-Zimatlán region), inorder to examine the regional organization of pottery productionand extent of ceramic exchange among key regional and localadministrative sites during the era of early state formation. Byproviding a robust means for monitoring exchange at the intravalleylevel, the clay survey and ceramic provenancedeterminations allow us to revisit long-standing models for craftproduction and market system development, and force us toreexamine the relationship between political and economicprocesses in the Valley of Oaxaca.Minturn, Penny [251] see Esh, KelleyMiranda, Paula [168] see Scheinsohn, VivianMisarti, Nicole (Water and Environmental Research Center),Luis Borrero (CONICET-IMHICIHU, UBA), Manuel San Roman(Universidad de Magallanes), Herbert Maschner (Idaho StateUniversity) and Bruce Finney (Idaho State University)[26] Marine Paleo-Food Webs from SouthernmostPatagonia: Tracing Human Resource Use byGeographic Area through Stable IsotopeAnalysisThe archaeological records of the coastlines of southern Argentinaand Chile are well preserved and provide data critical tounderstanding the effects of climate change on humans and themarine ecosystems they relied upon. Preliminary isotopic analysis(C and N) of 290 bird, fish and sea mammal samples fromarchaeological sites spanning 7000 years in both regions provideevidence of changes in marine ecosystems based on geographiclocation. This affects how researchers should interpret differentialresource consumption by humans across these areas. Speciesanalyzed include southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens), southernfur seal (Arctocephalus australis), cormorant (Phalacrocorax sp.),penguin (Aptenodytes patagonica and Eudyptes chrysocome), gull(Larus dominicanus), fish (Eleginops maclovinus and Salilotaaustralis) and human (Homo sapien).Misarti, Nicole [45] see Barnes, KelliMitchell, Patricia (kp environmental, LLC)[92] Camp Young RevisitedCamp Young (CA-RIV-1117) was the first divisional camp forGeneral George S. Patton's Desert Training Center/California-Arizona Maneuver Area (DTC/C-AMA) during World War II andserved as his headquarters. It was one of the more permanentfacilities and contained the most improved quarters of thedivisional camps. The entire Camp has not been physicallyinspected to determine what does or does not remain, andalthough the main living quarters for the camp were located northof Interstate 10 in the 1970s, it is the outlying ranges andassociated resources located south of the freeway that have hadfocused fieldwork conducted in the past decade. Since the workwas required by CEQA or NEPA only the resources located withinthe footprint of each project have been documented. kpenvironmental revisited the site in the spring of 2011 for the 110-mile Desert Southwest Transmission Line Project and expandedon the southern boundary use area of Camp Young. Thispresentation provides a historical view of Patton's headquartersand the projected reconstruction of the divisional camp andDTC/C-AMA activities derived from those studies.Mitchell, Myles [165] see Guilfoyle, DavidMixter, David (Washington University in St. Louis) and LisaLeCount (The University of Alabama)

294 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETING[256] Dating Actuncan: Contextualizing Social andPolitical Transitions within a Long-Lived MayaCenterRecent research at the Maya site of Actuncan, Belize has revealeda long occupation history dating from the terminal Early Preclassicto the Early Postclassic periods. In the absence of hieroglyphictexts, local ceramic sequences and radiocarbon dates must beused to place Actuncan within historical context. Ceramic datingindicates that Actuncan was subject to boom and bust cycles thatcorrelate with demographic shifts in early settlements and laterpolitical power dynamics within the upper Belize River valleyregion. This paper presents the results of recent radiocarbondating at Actuncan. Our absolute dating strategy includes samplesfrom civic and household contexts from across the site as well asthose from a complex building sequence associated with a longlivedelite house. We focus on dating major milestones within thesite’s history – its initial occupation associated with EarlyPreclassic Cunil ceramics, the Late to Terminal Preclassictransition to divine kingship, the collapse of the site as a majorClassic period center, and its reestablishment as a post-royalpolitical center during the Terminal Classic period. These dateswill more securely situate Actuncan’s social and politicaltransitions and provide insight into the participation of individualhouseholds in these transitions.Miyamoto, Kazuo (Kyushu University)[216] Reconsidering Modes of Contact between theNorthern Chinese Bronze Culture and Those ofSouthwest China: The Crescent-ShapedExchange Belt ReconsideredThis paper resolves the question of the dating and chronology ofstone cist graves containing bronze artifacts in the SouthwestChina, according to the results of Sino-Japanese joint excavationsconducted on stone cist graves in Sichuan Province of Chinabetween 2008 and 2010. It is furthermore argued that theemergence of bronzes in this area might be connected withbronzes from Northwest China, suggesting that the model of theCrescent Exchange Belt would need to be modified significantly. Itwill thus be reasoned that the bronzes in this area developedindependently.Mizoguchi, Koji (Kyushu University, Japan)[106] Prestige Goods and Social HierarchizationRevisited: A Formal Network Approach to theHierarchization of Intercommunal Relations inthe Middle Yayoi Period in Northern Kyushu,JapanThis paper shows that the monopolization of contacts with theOther, signified by the monopolistic acquirement and distribution ofprestige goods, can indeed be the “prime mover” in socialhierarchization. This was demonstrated by examiningdiscrepancies between the intercommunal hierarchy simulated bycentrality analysis methods of formal network analysis and thatindicated by the differences in the contents of grave goods fromthe richest burials in the individual polities comprising the northernKyushu Yayoi cultural horizon. The former shows that the highestcentrality scores are achieved by those polities that occupy thegeographical core of the northern Kyushu region whereas thelatter shows that one of the highest-ranked burials of the region isactually located on the northwestern periphery of the network ofinteractions reconstructed by the distribution of prestige goods,such as bronze mirrors, imported from the Han Chinese outpost ofLelang. The polity where the burial existed neither had the largestpopulation concentration nor enjoyed any particular advantage infood/material production, strongly suggesting that its position atthe top of the hiearchized network was achieved by itsgeographical location, advantageous for contacts with Lelang.[161] DiscussantMoats, Lindsey (Texas Tech University) and Sarah NicoleBoudreaux (Texas Tech University)[213] Powerful Landscapes: A Glimpse of an EliteSettlement on the Dos Hombres to Gran CacaoArchaeology ProjectIn 2012, the Dos Hombres to Gran Cacao Archaeological Project(DH2GC) began the first formal excavations at N950, a mediumsizedelite group located approximately one kilometer from thelarge Maya center of Dos Hombres in Northwestern Belize. Thegroup consists of several sizable structures, the largest of whichare located on a knoll, elevated above the surrounding area. Thegroup shows extensive use and because of this the 2012excavations at N950 focused on collecting chronologicalinformation about the occupation and possible function of the area.This paper will detail the results of the 2012 excavations focusingon initial occupation data gathered from archaeologicalexcavations and laboratory analysis of artifacts recovered from thegroup. This information will then be used to make initialconclusions about the function of the N950 group and how it fitsinto the settlement patterns observed in the DH2GCArchaeological Project area.Moe, Jeanne (Project Archaeology-BLM) and Crystal Alegria(Montana State University)[269] Absaroka Agency Volunteer Project:Longitudinal Learning ResearchIn July 2011, twelve volunteers from Montana and Wyomingparticipated in excavations at the Absaroka Agency. Staff fromProject Archaeology, a national education program, designed andconducted the volunteer project. All volunteers attended a threehourtraining session before excavating. Participant evaluationsshow that the volunteers considered this project worthwhile andexpressed interest in participating in future volunteer projects.Telephone interviews conducted in the winter of 2012 indicate thatmany participants continued to learn about archaeology and Crowhistory after the field experience. This paper examines the efficacyof the learning experience and provides recommendations forvolunteer excavation projects.Mogetta, Marcello [105] see Opitz, RachelMohanty, Sudarsana [108] see Serio, JillianMohanty, Sudarsana and Jillian Serio[108] An Analysis of Burials found in YschmaDomestic Spaces at the site of Panquilma inthe Lurin Valley, PeruThe Yschma site at Panquilma yielded two burials. The mummifiedremains of two individuals were discovered in the same unit;however, they were separate and exhumed from different layers.These burials were not found within the mortuary area of the site,such as a cemetery or mausoleum, but rather in the domesticsector of Panquilma. Ancestral veneration could explain thisblurring of boundaries within the organization of Yschma society,however the contextual information associated with the find is notconsistent with typical methods of ancestor worship. The evidencelends itself to a different explanation worth investigating. Theknown burial practices of the Yschma describe notable changes intheir mortuary behaviors upon the Inka conquest, but offer littleexplanation specifying what kind of changes were adopted.Through this paper we present the archaeological context andassociated artifacts found within this unit with the intent ofdescribing the ancient rituals which lead to the final resting placeof these individuals within the domestic sector and in an attempt torelate this mortuary alteration to the effects of the Inka conquest,e.g. the shift in economic, political and religious power and controlin the region.Mol, Angus ( Leiden University, Netherlands), CorinneHofman (Leiden University) and Menno Hoogland (LeidenUniversity)[106] Remotely Local: A Network Model of the

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 295Fourteenth-Century Settlement of Kelbey’sRidge, SabaThe settlement of Kelbey’s Ridge is located on Saba in the heartof the Northeastern Caribbean archipelago. During the past 25years Saba has been the focus of intensive and extensivearchaeological fieldwork undertaken by the Caribbean ResearchGroup, Leiden University. Building on the archaeological relationaldatasets that have been collected during this period, this paper willinvestigate the role of Saba, specifically the site of Kelbey’s Ridge,in the Late Ceramic Age network of the Northeastern Antilles.Several unique feature of the island and the site testify to the factthat, although Saba itself is small (5 sq mi/13km2), its inhabitantswere taking part in patterns of mobility and interaction that tookplace at the local, regional and interregional level. Through anego-network approach the island of Saba will be shown to berepresent a microcosm of overarching, 14th century networkprocesses and dynamics. By doing so this paper will contribute tothe evolving view of Caribbean Late Ceramic Age patterns ofinteractions, approaches that seek to integrate variedarchaeological relational datasets, and discussions on the statusof “islands as units of analysis” in archaeological network studiesand beyond.[161] ModeratorSince the first fieldwork conducted by Suggs, the Marquesasarchipelago has remained at the center of discussions regardingthe colonization of East Polynesia. One among several key sites,Ua Huka Island’s Hane dune site proves particularly important.Previously excavated by Sinoto and Kellum in 1963-64, itdemonstrated a complex stratigraphy associated with rich depositsof material remains. However, the oldest dates included in Sinoto’sorthodox model of settlement for the region were later put intoquestion.Facing the problems of both the validity of the dating results andthe interpretation of the stratigraphy, it was determined that thesite demanded further investigation. In 2009, E. Conte and G.Molle directed a new fieldwork session, excavating 18 m² of thesite and documenting 10 stratigraphic layers. Based on theconsistency between the stratigraphy and associated radiocarbondates, we are now able to reconstruct a chronological sequencefrom approximately 900 to 1650 A.D. Our results are integratedinto a reflection about the colonization of the Marquesas Islands,highlighting the idea of initial settlement occurring at the end of thefirst millennium A.D. Our results are also compared to otherchronological data sets recently obtained in the centralarchipelagoes of East Polynesia.Monroe, Cara [38] see Lenci, EricMolenda, John (Columbia University)[134] Overseas Chinese Islands in the AmericanWestThis paper uses Islands as a metaphor to explore similarity anddifference in Overseas Chinese artifacts, sites, and landscapesalong the first transcontinental railroad. A multiscalar approach willbe applied to archaeological residues of Overseas Chineseactivities in the Tahoe National Forest dating from the 1860s-1880s. The author will present interpretive sketches at threedistinct scales: a single artifact, a bounded site, and the landscapeof the railroad itself to explore how differing scales of analysisallow 'the past' the 'show up' in different ways. Archaeologicalinvestigation will be presented as an engagement with aproductive tension between methodological enclosure andinterpretive disclosure.Mollard, Priscilla (California Academy of Sciences/SFSU)[272] Integrated Studies of Maya Bioarchaeology andtheir PotentialMaya archaeology is not typically known for its application of thebioarchaeological approach. Environmental factors belie thewealth of mortuary remains that are revealed through excavationin the Maya lowlands and yet, while artifacts from mortuarycontexts are smoothly incorporated into the corpus of excavationdata, the physical remains of the inhumed are often consideredseparately from their cultural contexts. An increase in integratedmortuary and bioarchaeological research would have the potentialto shed light on crucial concepts such as health, diet andpathology among the ancient Maya, and could reveal trendsassociated with multifaceted issues such as demography,environment, status, and even the factors contributing to the Mayacollapse. This work will serve as an overview of the immensepotential that such integrated research has for the field of Mayaarchaeology, and will delineate the multiple lines of evidence thatcan be revealed by incorporating studies of the body and itsmaterial-mortuary context directly into the archaeological data.Furthermore it will be shown that the Maya population, particularlyduring the Classic Period, is an ideal sample population fromwhich to both draw bioarchaeological data and to test and refinethe methods by which these data are recovered.Molle, Guillaume (CIRAP) and Eric Conte (CIRAP - Universityof French Polynesia)[27] New Investigations on Hane Dune Site (UaHuka) and the Implications for the Colonizationof the Marquesas IslandsMonroe, Cara (UCSB Anthropology and Washington StateUniversity), Eric Lenci (San Jose State University; MuwekmaOhlone Tribe), Alan Leventhal (San Jose State UniversityCollege of Social Science), Rosemary Cambra (MuwekmaOhlone Tribe) and Brian Kemp (Washington State UniversityDept of Anthro/Sch Bio)[79] Ancient Human DNA Analysis from CA-SCL-38Burials: Correlating Biological Relationships,Mortuary Behavior, and Social InequalityThe Late Period (1000 YBP—European Contact) in the SanFrancisco Bay area of California witnessed an increase in socialcomplexity as well as an emerging ceremonial and socialinteraction sphere that included similar treatment of the deaddistinct from earlier periods.These changes in mortuary treatment have been interpreted aseither a reduction in overall inequality with a shift toward anegalitarian corporate group identity based on kinship or representemerging elites that were increasingly differentiated from othersegments of the community. Neither scenario is mutuallyexclusive. The predominately Late Period earth mound cemeterysite of CA-SCL-38 (“Yukisma”) located in the Santa Clara Valley ofCalifornia suggests that the site was spatially structured accordingnot just to age and sex, but also through a dual moiety systemand/or elite status. Using an ancient DNA (aDNA) approach, wetested for correlations between the genetic relatedness ofindividuals, grave goods, and burial patterns. This will provide adirect examination of prehistoric mortuary practices and theemergence/maintenance of social inequality.Monroe, J. Cameron (University of California, Santa Cruz)[115] State and Community in Precolonial DahomeyScholars have long argued that sub-Saharan Africa in the era ofthe slave trade was dominated by ethnically distinct communitieswhose members underwent the process of cultural creolizationonly after being displaced to New World slave societies. Historicalarchaeological research across West Africa, however, ischallenging this notion, revealing how the contours of West Africancultural identity transformed dramatically in response tointersecting economic, political, and cultural forces unleashed bytrans-Atlantic commerce. This paper examines the nature ofcultural identity on the Abomey Plateau in the Republic of Bénin,the precolonial heartland of the Kingdom of Dahomey, focusing onthe relationship between settlement history, politicaltransformation, and Fon ethnic identity at Cana. Regional surveydata reveals a long-term and dynamic history of settlement across

296 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGthe region, extending as far back as the 1st millennium BC.However, urban landscape planning schemes initiated byDahomean monarchs in the Atlantic Era all but erased the localmemory of this deeply rooted history. The production of urbanspace in Dahomey was centrally important for gerrymanderingsocial identities vis-à-vis the emerging state, providing newinsights into complex intersections between space, power, and‘history-making’ in the West African past.Montenegro, Alvaro, Richard Callaghan (University ofCalgary) and Scott Fitzpatrick (University of Oregon)[47] From West to East Polynesia: A VoyagingAnalysis Using Two Complementary ComputerSimulationsThe temporal gap between the colonization of West and EastPolynesia has long been a controversy in the study of PacificIsland colonization. Here we present the results of twocomplementary computer simulations of voyaging between the tworegions with the goals of determining if environmental factors werean issue in the proposed late colonization of East Polynesia andevaluating the programs against each other. The two simulationprograms are dynamically and statistically based, respectively.Both simulations consider wind and current patterns, islanddistribution, mortality at sea, and sailor’s navigational intent. Thedynamical model, developed by the US Coast Guard, is based onfluid dynamics and deterministically computes vessel trajectory. Itoffers a representation of impact by environmental variability andis capable of accounting for the temporal and spatialautocorrelation of currents and winds. Speed and directiongenerated by the deterministic model have been validated againsta large number of derelict vessel trajectories and historicallydocumented voyages. The statistical model computes statisticalprobability of vessel trajectories under given physical conditions togenerate a description of possible voyageswhich has beenvalidated against historically documented voyages. Resultshighlight the importance of voyaging simulation studies forunderstanding human seafaring strategies and capabilities.protect these places. Next, we utilize Geographic InformationSystems (GIS) to analyze the connection between sacred placesthrough their viewsheds and orientations and to examine theinfluence of geographical variables in predicting locations of othersacred sites. The synthesis of this information begins to revealhow and why the Ute inscribed their spirituality onto thelandscape.Montiel, Rafael (Laboratorio Nacional de Genómica para laBiodiversidad, Cinvestav-IPN), Brenda A. Álvarez-Sandoval(Langebio, Cinvestav-IPN) and Linda R. Manzanilla (Institutode Investigaciones Antropológicas, UNAM)[17] Genetic Analysis in Teopancazco: Inferenceson MultiethnicityMultiethnicity in Teopancazco is represented by foreign elementsassociated with the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, Puebla, Tlaxcalaand Hidalgo, as well as by the variability observed in funeraryrituals. Studies on both stable and strontium isotopes suggest thepresence of three population groups, the locals, immigrants fromnearby areas, and immigrants from more distant areas. However,to date no systematic genetic analysis has been conducted toaddress this issue. As a first approach to understand the geneticvariability in Teopancazco, we conducted an ancient DNA (aDNA)analysis using a set of samples from different temporalities,activity areas, ages, and sexes. Estimates of both genetic andnucleotide diversity indicate high levels of genetic variability inTeopancazco, which is consistent with the multiethnicityphenomenon at the neighborhood center. Likewise, sexdetermination shows a differential ratio in the population analyzed,and the comparison of variability levels between men and womenindicate a patrilocal residence pattern.Montiel, Rafael [41] see Alvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A.Montiel Ángeles, Alma [145] see Zapien Lopez, VictorMontgomery, Barbara, Daniela Triadan (University of Arizona)and Nieves Zedeno (University of Arizona)[64] The Incidental Journeys of Three PotteryQueensWe came from different parts of the world---Montgomery from theEast Coast, Triadan from Germany, and Zedeño from Ecuador---and met at the Grasshopper Field School in the late 1980s, wherewe worked as graduate research assistants until its final year in1992. Like so many others, our experiences and work atGrasshopper started and defined our careers. We became theceramic ladies as we all did our dissertations on ceramics fromGrasshopper Pueblo or Chodistaas Pueblo. After our Ph.D.s,however, we took flight again into very different directions.Montgomery continued to work on ceramics with CRM companiesin Tucson, although she expanded into Hohokam buff wares.Triadan went across the border to Chihuahua and back to herMesoamerican roots and has been running projects at large Mayasites in Guatemala. And Zedeño has taken her interests in humanmobility and migration to the Midwest and most recently toprehistoric and historic Plains buffalo hunters in Montana. Theyears at Grasshopper were formative, inspiring and fun, and laidthe solid foundation for our careers in archaeology. Our journeysdemonstrate the wide-ranging impact the University of ArizonaField School had on the discipline.Montgomery, Christine (University of Wyoming), David Diggs(University of Northern Colorado) and Robert Brunswig(University of Northern Colorado)[75] Reconstructing a Prehistoric Ute SacredLandscape in the Southern Rocky MountainsReconstructing a prehistoric Ute sacred landscape in the southernRocky Mountains of Colorado necessitates the integration ofadditional fields of study within the archaeological work. First, Uteconsultations and ethnohistoric research strengthen theinterpretation of sacred sites and provide information about how toMontón, Sandra [95] see Cruz Berrocal, MariaMonton-Subías, Sandra (ICREA ResearchProfessor.Universitat Pompeu Fabra.)[95] ChairMooder, Karen [77] see Moussa, NourMooney, Susan Moorhead and P Gregory Hare (Governmentof Yukon)[92] The Arctic Trails Have Their Secret Tales…In November 2010, several deeply buried wooden coffins withassociated human skeletal remains were accidently uncovered byconstruction workers in Dawson City, Yukon, Canada. The graveswere located within the area of historic Fort Herchmer, the NorthWest Mounted Police post for the region, and provided evidence ofan unmarked burial ground for individuals executed during theKlondike Gold Rush at the end of the 19th Century. The recoveryand osteological analyses of these well-preserved remains offersinsight into the quality of life during the Klondike Gold Rush, aswell as the administration of justice in the Canadian frontier. Thispaper reviews salvage excavation activities and explores theidentities of some of the first individuals to be executed in theYukon Territory.Moore, Jacy (University of Guam), Jasminda Ceron(University of Philippines, Diliman) and Stephen Acabado(University of Guam)[7] Agricultural Development and SettlementPatterns in Early Ifugao SocietiesIntensive agricultural systems commonly concentrate on a

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 297particular crop to support the food requirements of a population.This appears to be the case among the Ifugao of the northernPhilippines, especially, with the existence of labor-intensive andarchitecturally magnificent, rice terraces. Recent studies, however,indicate that the Ifugao agricultural system is composed of bothintensive and non-intensive forms of agricultural production (wetricecultivation, upland swiddening, and agroforestry), a systemthat is associated with agrocultural and complementarycomplexes. Excavations in the Old Kiyyangan Village (an earlyIfugao settlement, c. 1000 YBP) provided importantpaleoenvironmental information on the development of suchsystem, specifically, changes in the crops cultivated in the region.As such, this presentation provides material evidence onlandscape changes and the role of agricultural and complementarysystems in the development of Ifugao rice terracing tradition.Moore, Jerry (CSU Dominguez Hills) and Carolina Vilchez(Proyecto Qhapag Nan, Ministerio de Cultura, Peru)[59] Techné and the Thorny Oyster: SpondylusCraft Production and the Inca Empire at TallerConchales, Huaca Cabeza de Vaca, Tumbes,PerúThe creation of objects from the lustrous shells of the thorny oyster(Spondylus princeps) and the large rock oyster (Spondyluscalcifer) was an important focus of embodied craft for over fivemillennia in Andean South America. S. princeps and S. calciferare warm water species whose southernmost natural limits arecoastal Ecuador and far northern Peru. Spondylus was highlyprizedover a broad area of Andean South America, exchanged aswhole valves, worked objects, and beads throughout much ofprehistory and over thousands of kilometers.The transformation of Spondylus shells into beads, pendants, andother objects underwent fundamental shifts in volume and focus inlate prehistory, with major reorganizations occurring at circa AD1470 as the Inca Empire expanded into northern South America.Excavations in 2011 at the site of Taller Conchales—a sector ofthe Inca provincial center Huaca Cabeza de Vaca in Tumbes,Peru—resulted in detailed insights into Spondylus craft production.The only known Spondylus workshop directly associated with theInca Empire, data from Taller Conchales document the decisionsand assessments by craft workers as they transformed shells intohighly desired objects, providing a unique perspective into thetechné of craft production in the Inca Empire.Moore, Daniel (SIU Carbondale)[117] Earthen Architecture at Poggio Civitate, ItalyOver 400 fragments of daub with timber impressions and mudbrickwere recovered from the destruction level of the protohistoricEtruscan building complex at Poggio Civitate, Italy. This paper willdescribe the system developed to classify the daub and mudbrickmorphologically and the archaeometric and petrographic testsperformed on samples retained for further study. The morphologyand timber impressions left on the daub revealed that wattle-anddauband mudbrick were used in tandem to construct the walls ofthe complex. Daub fragments also provided information about theconstruction techniques used to build the complex’s gabled roof.Petrographic analysis and archaeometric tests (includingthermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), andlaser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS)) were performed on samples of the daub and mudbrickfragments, as well as ceramics recovered from the complex andthe plaster facing of the earthen walls. These tests revealed thatthe daub, mudbrick, and ceramics reached different firingtemperatures, were likely sourced from separate clay beds, andexperienced different formation processes. The TGA tests on theplaster suggested that the mixture used by the Etruscans impartedsome hydraulic properties that would have helped to preserve theearthen walls and protect them from rain erosion.[117] ChairMoore, Summer (Bishop Museum), Gina Farley (BishopMuseum) and Ashley Robinson (Bishop Museum)[185] Digitizing Archaeology Collections at theBishop Museum: A Case Study from theNu‘alolo Kai SiteIn the 1950s, archaeologists from the Bishop Museum in Honolulu,Hawai‘i, began a systematic effort to better understand thechronology of Hawaiian settlement. One of the first archaeologicalsites investigated as part of this program was Nu‘alolo Kai, afishing settlement on the coast of Kaua‘i that was excavatedbetween 1958 and 1964. Thousands of artifacts, includingfishhooks, domestic objects, and perishable items, were recoveredfrom the site. In 2010, Bishop Museum’s Anthropology Departmentlaunched the Hawaiian Archaeological Survey, an online databaseenvisioned as a means for consolidating Hawaiian archaeologicaldata. Currently, the database contains 12,800 entries forarchaeological sites in Hawai‘i investigated by the BishopMuseum. The Museum hopes to make artifact inventories for eachexcavated site, as well as field notes, archaeological maps, andartifact photographs, available to the public via the Internet as partof a process destined to last many years. Under this program,Nu‘alolo Kai was chosen as the first site to have its artifactcollections completely digitized. This poster presents an overviewof the Nu‘alolo Kai digitization project, with the aim of using it as atest case to explore the benefits of digitizing archaeologycollections in museums.Moore, Christopher R. [243] see McNamee, CallaMoore, Kaitlyn (University of Arizona)[264] Negotiating the Middle Ground in a World-System: An Example from the Northern RockyMountain Fur TradeThe little known archaeology of the early fur trade in the northernRocky Mountains (1796-1821) illustrates important processes ofincorporation of remote colonies into a global political economy.This study focuses on two early nineteenth century trading posts inthe northern Rockies--Rocky Mountain House and KootenaeHouse--where the North West Company engaged in trade with theNiitsitapi (Blackfoot) and Ktunaxa (Kootenai) respectively. A worldsystemsframework is used to explore the array of negotiativeprocesses that occurred between trading parties as expressed onthe landscape. Native and European groups mutually constructeda “middle ground” of trade in an expanding world-system. Materialexpressions of negotiation in the early fur trade are manifest in thephenomena of the “travelling trading post,” i.e. the (often rapid)movement of trading posts across the landscape, selecting thelocation for trading facilities in relation to tribal territory, and postarchitecture. My research shows that, while Native groups were attimes shaped by the world-system, they also renegotiated theirparticipation in the fur trade according to their own cultural logicsthrough a process of active decision-making and compromise overtime.Moore-Jansen, Peer (Wichita State University) and JamesSimmerman (Wichita State University)[286] Integrating Archaeological, Biological, andArchival Data in Culture Historical Interpretationof Historic Mortuary ContextsThe study of mortuary contexts in anthropology can contribute to afurther understanding of human history. Materials of cultural andbiological nature, and when available, archival and other historicalrecords, can be essential to the reconstruction of the historiccemeteries and the reconstruction of the social behavior of theircorresponding temporal and geographical, reference communities.This paper discusses biological, material and structural site datarevered from a mid-17th to early 19th century cemetery (D-1) inWestern Poland. This region has been politically andadministratively unstable for centuries with consequences to

298 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGethnic composition, economic stability, food security, andnutritional status. Although neither is evident in the skeletal recordamong the skeletal remains from D-1, nor verified historically, theconditions of health and general social behavior of the D-1“reference” communities are addressed based on data obtainedfrom historical demographic reconstruction and certain nonbiologicalmanifestations of material from the subsequent analysisof the 2008-2009 excavations of the site. Historical demographicprofiles from vital records for selected reference populations usingarchival records preserved on microfilm are contrasted withpaleodemographic profiles. The results demonstrate shortcomingsto using profile reconstruction relying solely on standardosteological technique.Moraes, Claide [15] see Neves, EduardoMorales, Pedro [17] see Casar, IsabelMorales, Pedro (Pedro Morales Instituto de Geologia UNAM),Edith Cienfuegos (Instituto de Geologia, UNAM), Isabel Casar(Instituto de Física, UNAM), Linda R Manzanilla (Instituto deInvestigaciones Antropológicas, UNAM) and Francisco Otero(Instituto de Geología, UNAM)[17] Geographic Origins and Immigration of theTeopancazco Population in the Context of theAncient City of Teotihuacan México: StableOxygen Isotopic EvidenceIdentification of geographic origins and migratory patterns of theindividuals buried in the Teopancazco neighborhood center ofTeotihuacan were established using the isotopic composition ofoxygen in the carbonates of the apatite of their teeth. Also theisotopic composition of oxygen of actual rainwater from the localsite (Valley of México) was determined as well as rainwater fromthe geographic locations of sites located in corridors towards theGulf Coast of Mexico, in which caravans from Teotihuacanstopped in their trip. The geographic origins of the individuals fromTeopancazco and six other compounds and structures fromTeotihuacan with isotopic analysis were divided into 10 differentgeographical provenience zones with corresponding altitudes fromsea level to 4000 mosl. Teopancazco has immigrants coming from8 of the 10 geographic zones and 62% of its population has valuesin the local range for oxygen of carbonate δ18OVPDB from -8. to-6. ‰.Morales, Reinaldo (University of Central Arkansas)[18] The Oldest Rock Art in the Americas?Debate over the earliest peopling of the Americas tends toresurface periodically as new lines of evidence appear. Recently,paintings at the site of Serrote da Bastiana (Serra da CapivaraNational Park, Brazil) have emerged as possible evidence ofSouth American rock art as ancient as the famous cave art ofEurope, more than 30,000 BP. Very different estimates for the ageof this "Serra da Capivara style" rock art have been published,some estimates in disagreement by an order of magnitude. Usingmultiple lines of evidence and traditional art-historicalmethodology, this paper reconciles those differences withsignificant results. The analysis of paintings from 130 local sitesindicates there are many "Serra da Capivara" styles. One of thesesites, Baixão da Perna I, includes the oldest securely dated rockpaintings in the Americas (at the cusp of the Holocene; c. 10,000BP). Another Serra da Capivara "style" is represented at Serroteda Bastiana (at the cusp of the Formative; c. 3700 BP, millennialater than expected for this "style"). Effective style analysis -- withreasonable expectations of "style" -- can reconcile seeminglycontradictory chronometric data and better inform ourunderstanding of culture and its fickle connection to art.Moran, Kimberlee (Forensic Outreach)[135] ChairMorehouse, Jana (University of New Mexico) and MichaelGraves (University of New Mexico)[5] Agriculture in North Kohala: Fields, Ditches,and InnovationAncient Hawaiian farmers were highly skilled at using landscapesand natural water flow areas to maximize agricultural potential intaro fields. On the windward side of North Kohala, on the island ofHawai’i, these practices also appear to include modifying the landwith ditches, or ‘auwai, in order to link different field complexesover many kilometers. This poster presents recent finds from theHawaiian Archaeological Research Project (HARP) 2012 fieldseason, including two series of agricultural complexes that arelinked through ‘auwai from the mountains to the coast, coveringnot only a long distance, but also many different geographiclandscapes. The maps were produced using GIS and LiDARanalyses, and include archaeological, historical, hydrological, andtopographical data. Results show these connected complexesrepresent innovations of a highly organized social and politicalsociety, with ethnohistoric data to support these claims.Moreland, Milton and Kimberly Kasper (Rhodes College)[223] Living “In High Cotton”: Women PlantationOwners in Antebellum West TennesseeIn six years of excavations on the 20,000 acre Ames land base inwest Tennessee, we have developed a clearer picture of thesocio-economic world of the antebellum south. With over twentycontiguous plantations in our excavation area, we have been ableto compare specific characteristics of the material culture fromlarge plantations (3,000+ acres) to small plantations (300 acres).One interesting factor has been the discovery that six of the twentyplantations were established or run by women during the height ofcotton production and slavery in the region (1830-1860). We havenow focused our attention on the settlement of Fanny Dickens, awoman of financial means who chose to establish a smallplantation after the death of her husband, in distinction from theother five women who inherited the plantation from their deceasedhusbands. Within this paper, we explore the complexity involved inthe social and economic “positionality” and daily practice ofDickens and also the other five widows at their respectiveplantations. This type of archaeological and historical analysiswhich involves peeling apart these unique gendered narrativeshopes to gain a more nuanced understanding of the power andgender dynamics within highly masculinized and racializedspaces.Morell-Hart, Shanti (College of William and Mary)[103] Ancient Pharmacopoeias of NorthwesternHondurasThe landscape of Southeastern Mesoamerica is marked by awealth of plants with medicinal properties, while historic andethnographic resources attest to the diverse spectrum of healthcare incorporating botanical elements. Residues in thearchaeological record (seeds, phytoliths, and starch grains)reference a variety of potential activities, some of them therapeuticin nature. Looking at four ancient communities in NorthwesternHonduras, I draw upon ethnobotanical and ethnobiological studiesto infer medical practices indexed by botanical remains.Comparing these findings with prior investigations, I address thecomplications of dividing plants into limiting categories such as"food," "fuel" or "medicine." I consider the importance of theapothecary craft in past lifeways, as well as persistent traditions inmedical practice.[103] ChairMorello, Flavia [26] see Alfonso-Durruty, Marta

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 299Morello Repetto, Flavia (Instituto de la Patagonia, Universidadde Magallanes)[26] Hunter Gatherers of Cerro Benitez, SouthernPatagonia: Discussing Environmental Changesand Cultural Developments over 10,000 YearsThis study assesses archaeological evidence regarding huntergathereractivities in Cerro Benitez, southern Patagonia, projectFONDECYT N°1100822. This information is evaluated in relationto the archaeological record associated with the late glacial settingof the Pleistocene versus the Holocene epoch. In particular, twospecific issues are considered. First we consider changes inhunter-gatherer and fauna interaction, including predationevidence from a 10.000 year span, as well as prey fluctuations –especially after the big herbivore extinctions during Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Second, we address the role of technologicalvariations in lithic materials in relation to how humans adapted tofluctuating environments over time.The results of the analysis of the anthropic component at Cuevadel Medio and the few archaeological features of Cueva delMilodón are presented for the Pleistocene. This information iscompared to Holocene archaeological data from: the CerroBenitez locality (including the old and new records), Cueva delMedio (Holocene collection), Alero Pedro Cárdenas, Alero delDiablo, Dos Herraduras and Cueva Ciro.[26] ChairMorgan, Christopher [28] see Barton, LoukasMorgan, Christopher (University of Nevada, Reno), LoukasBarton (University of Pittsburgh), Robert Bettinger (Universityof California, Davis), Mingie Yi (Institute of VertebratePaleontology and Paleoanth) and Dongju Zhang (LanzhouUniversity)[222] Behavioral Evidence for the Arrival (orInception) of Modern Human Behaviors inNorthwestern China During the LatePleistoceneAround 40 kya in northwestern China, multiple lines of evidencepoint towards significant behavioral changes that temporallycorrelate with other evidence suggesting the arrival of modernHomo sapiens in East Asia. On China’s Western Loess Plateau, alongstanding Paleolithic core-flake technology becomes gearedmore towards the deliberate manufacture of usable flakes andsettlement patterns shift to encompass more intensive use of agreater array of environments. Along the middle Yellow River, redatingof Shuidongguo Locality 1 suggests the inception or arrivalof a flat-faced core and blade technology ca. 41 kcal BP.Combined, these data suggest significant behavioral changes thatare arguably consistent with the hypothesis that modern humansarrived in East Asia ca. 40 kya with a novel suite of behaviors thatcontrasted sharply with preceding indigenous ones. But evidencefor blade technologies persisting from then until approximately 24kcal BP, when true microblade technologies appear, is scant.Further, core-flake technology persists throughout the regionthrough the Pleistocene, and broad spectrum settlement patternsrevert to narrow spectrum ones during the Last Glacial Maximum,suggesting an alternative hypothesis that modern humans did notbecome well established in the region until the Last GlacialMaximum.Morgan-Smith, Maggie (University of North Carolina at ChapelHill)[65] Placing Abandonment: Investigating theProcess of Detachment from Rancho Kiuic,Yucatán, MéxicoAbandonment is both an experience and process of detachingoneself physically and emotionally from a landscape that isprofoundly shaped by the abandoner’s sense of place. Tounderstand this complexity, we must move past conceptualizingplace as a “target of attachment” (Rodman 1992:204), by exploringthe processes by which people detach. I suggest that the use oforal history, in concert with traditional household archaeologicalmethods, allows us to more meaningfully explore the nexus ofexperiential and processual aspects of leaving place. In this paper,I explore the human experience of abandonment using examplesfrom ongoing research at Rancho Kiuic, an 18th-20th centuryYucatec Mayan landed estate, abandoned by its laboringpopulation. Despite citing oppressive working conditions andmarked inequality between themselves and the landowning family,the descendent population maintains a connection with their oldcommunity that calls assumptions about the finality ofabandonment into question. Meaning attached to Rancho Kiuic inthe present is colored by the memory and physical remains of pastinequality, and by the abandoners’ sense of place. These complexrelationships impacted decisions to leave the community,produced the material manifestations of that detachment, andcontinue to shape the descendants’ interactions with thelandscape today.Moriarty, James [135] see McAllister, MartinMoriarty IV, James [135] see Griffel, DavidMorin, Eugene (Trent University) and Ready Elspeth (StanfordUniversity)[96] Why Transporting Bones? An Analysis ofAnatomical Profiles from Pleistocene EuropeanArchaeofaunasMost studies of Paleolithic faunal assemblages assume that bodyparts of ungulates were transported largely as a function ofassociated whole food value. Our paper tests this assumption inEurope by comparing 167 human-accumulated cervid, equid, largebovine, and caprine assemblages with several utility modelsfocusing on whole food, dry meat, marrow and bone grease value.The results we obtained, which consider a wide spectrum ofrockshelter/cave and open air assemblages dating from the LowerPaleolithic through the early Holocene, appear to refute thecommonly-held view that skeletal parts were transported to sitesmostly as a function of associated whole food utility. Instead, wefound much stronger correlations in our comparisons with modelsfocusing on unsaturated marrow. These results have importantbehavioral implications because they suggest that fat acquisitionwas a driving force underlying animal food procurement during thePleistocene in Europe.Morin, Jesse (University of British Columbia)[137] Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectrometry of StoneCelts Reveals Interaction Spheres in Pre-Contact British Columbia, CanadaAside from one large scale obsidian sourcing study, there hasbeen very limited research into broad patterns of trade andexchange in pre-contact British Columbia, Canada. This paperaddresses that shortcoming by summarizing the results ofmineralogical study of 1374 stone celts from more than 200archaeological sites across British Columbia. These artifacts werean integral part of the woodworking toolkits of aboriginal peoples inthis region from about 3500 BP to AD 1790. The mineralogy ofthese artifacts was determined using a portable near-infrared(NIR) spectrometer, and the resulting data mapped using GIS. Theresults of this study indicate that celts were exchanged primarilywithin six discrete regions, each approximately 200 km indiameter. These six regions each display a unique pattern ofreliance on a particular raw material or suite of raw materials formaking celts. Only in one case – on the Canadian Plateau – docelts appear to have been used in a primarily social role asprestige goods, rather than as functional tools. These resultschallenge the common assumption that cultures on the NorthwestCoast had a greater emphasis on ranking and disparities of wealthcompared to the adjacent Canadian Plateau.

300 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGMorisaki, Kazuki (Nara National Research Institute for CulturalProperties), Masami Izuho (Tokyo Metropolitan University)and Hiroyuki Sato (The University of Tokyo)[28] Human Reactions to the EnvironmentalChange of the Pleistocene-Holocene Transitionin the Japanese Archipelago.This presentation discusses human adaptive reactions toenvironmental change of the Pleistocene-Holocene transition (15-10 Ka BP) in the Japanese Archipelago, focusing on correlationsbetween behavioral strategies and environmental change. Pastchronological studies established by Jomon pottery typology andradiometric data help us to recognize regional differences of lithictechnology during this transition. Since those studies, however,have focused on typological change of lithics and pottery, it is stillunclear how humans reorganized their behavioral strategy toadapt the environmental change. Accordingly, this research aimsto examine spatio-temporal change of human behavioral strategyreflected in lithic technological organization, and discusses historyof human environmental adaptation during this transition,integrating the above behavioral study into recent studies onclimatic, faunal, and floral changes.Main topics are as follows. Lithic technology and behavioralstrategy in Hokkaido was always different from those of Honshuand Kyushu throughout the terminal Pleistocene because theirecological settings were different. Lithic technology and behavioralstrategy in Honshu and Kyushu rapidly changed at the warmperiod of the Late Glacial, while the course and pace of thosechanges varied. Lithic technology and behavioral strategycharacteristics of the Jomon period did not appear until the onsetof the Holocene.Moritz, Ryan P. [35] see Whistler, EmilyMorley, Mike [76] see Stewart, BrianMorley, Mike (Oxford Brookes University)[76] Later Pleistocene Paleoenvironments ofLesotho: River System Responses to ClimaticChange and Implications for the Viability ofValley Floor Environments as CulturalLandscapesOur knowledge of Later Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental changein southern Africa is scant. There is a striking lack of terrestrialsequences from which to derive high-resolution palaeoclimaticdata and model the response of geomorphological systems toclimatic trends. This is especially true of the Kingdom of Lesotho,which is yielding a particularly rich and diverse archaeologicalresource set within a uniquely high-relief, mountainous landscape.Current geoarchaeological research in this region is focusing onthe generation of palaeoenvironmental data from the analysis ofalluvial sediments, valley-marginal colluvial-palaeosol sequencesand fluvial geomorphological features. This research is beginningto elucidate river system and landscape response to climaticshifts, thus providing environmental and climatic context to the richarchaeological narrative emerging from this region. From anarchaeological perspective, this work aims to address an importantquestion that is often overlooked: how can reconstructing riversystem dynamics inform us about changes in valley floorenvironments, and what are the implications for Later Pleistocenehominin populations traversing and inhabiting these landscapes?Morris, Matt [78] see Ringle, WilliamMorris, Annelise (University of California, Berkeley)[99] Excavating Our History: Public Archaeology inRural Southern IllinoisIn the 18th and 19th century, many free people of color found theirwellbeing increasingly threatened in the southern U.S., and as aresult began to make their way to the northern frontier. They cameto Indiana territory in significant numbers; founding small towns,clearing farms, and building schools and churches. Though oftennot highly visible in contemporary historical accounts, generationslater many of these places still exist. I was born into one sucharea, and my research focuses on the archaeological anddocumentary investigation of its history. In July of 2012 I, alongwith a team of experienced archaeologists, students, andcommunity volunteers conducted excavations at a farmstead builtin the early 19th century and occupied through the 1920’s by myAfrican-American ancestors. Some key research goals of thisproject are to make the area’s pioneer history accessible to thelarger community, and to enter the deep roots of the African-American community into the local historical consciousness. Thispaper will discuss the methodological implications of these goals,the advantages and pitfalls of occupying the positionality ofarchaeologist, stakeholder, and descendant, and finally thebenefits and logistical issues associated with opening a field site tocommunity volunteers.[99] ChairMorris, Ellen (Barnard College)[134] Oases as Desert Islands, as Devil’s Islands,and as Isles of the BlessedIf Aegean islands are defined as much by connectivity as byinsularity, as Bernard Knapp suggests, the oases of Dakhleh andKharga in Egypt may be argued to better conform to thestereotype of islandness than many actual islands. This paper willconsider a number of parallels between Egypt’s western oasesand islands, comparisons engendered primarily by remotenessand boundedness. The peril of the journey out to Egypt’s oases isarchaeologically attested by camel bones (desert shipwrecks) andby makeshift shrines to those who perished along the way. Thisisolation resulted in many governments—the ancient Egyptian, theRoman, and the English, to name a few—employing the oases asplaces of banishment. Conversely, due to their same remoteness,the oases served at other times as safehavens for enemies of thestate and bases for predatory raids. Like the islands encounteredby Odysseus, Egypt’s oases were often imagined to be inhabitedby monstrous creatures, and gods and creeds banned elsewherein Egypt thrived in the oases. Further, the oases enjoyed ahothouse environment in which, as Robert Carneiro’scircumscription model might predict, march lords assumed powersthat would never have been permitted in the Nile Valley.Morris, Zoe (University of Western Ontario), Christine White(University of Western Ontario), Lisa Hodgetts (University ofWestern Ontario) and Fred Longstaffe (University of WesternOntario)[263] Stable Isotopic Comparison of Maize-Consumption by Wild Turkeys from LateWoodland Ontario Iroquoian vs. Western BasinSitesWe compare stable isotopic evidence for purposeful feeding ofwild turkeys by two Late Woodland groups: the agricultural OntarioIroquoians and the semi-mobile, horticultural Western Basinpeoples. According to the ecological literature, wild turkeys areunable to eat maize from stalks, but will consume itopportunistically from ground scatter. Since maize has a carbonisotopic composition distinctive from most other plants in theregion, its consumption by wild turkeys can be tracked using suchdata for bone-collagen and bone-carbonate. Carbon and nitrogenisotopic results for turkey bone collagen also offer the opportunityto compare the plant-heavy adult diet to insect-heavy juvenile dietas a possible indicator of seasonal differences in maize fieldaccess.Our results suggest that during the Late Woodland period,maize consumption increased among some adult and juvenile wildturkeys from Ontario Iroquoian sites. When combined witharchaeological evidence of turkey burials and seasonal killing, thedata support the purposeful feeding of wild turkeys. In contrast, noincrease in maize consumption was noted for wild turkeysrecovered from contemporary Western Basin sites despite the

302 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGMoss, Patrick [2] see Ulm, SeanMoss, Madonna (University of Oregon)[167] Obsidian in Southeast Alaska and BritishColumbia: Travel, Trade, and Exchange, orGeochemical Overlap?Obsidian artifacts from archaeological sites in the Alexander Archipelagoof southeast Alaska have been used as evidence for exchange systemsacross the Northern Northwest Coast dating to >7000 BP. Obsidianartifacts have been assigned to sources on Suemez Island in the outerarchipelago, or to sources on Mount Edziza in interior British Columbia,based on trace element geochemistry. The spatial distribution of differentobsidians has important implications for understanding the earlyoccupants of the Northwest Coast, their maritime mobility and socialrelationships, both along the coast and in the interior.Differences in the geochemical signatures of obsidian artifacts wereinferred to indicate early Holocene travel or trade/exchange acrosshundreds of kilometers. The logistics of travel to source areas and thecolors of obsidian in artifacts and sources are also assessed. We reviewthe geochemical data to evaluate whether Suemez and Edziza sourceshave been reliably distinguished. Previous analyses and new data showthat obsidian from Aguada Cove (Suemez), and from Mount Edziza areindistinguishable, and the obsidian from Cape Felix (Suemez), has ageochemical signature different from Aguada and Edziza. Obsidianartifacts previously assigned to Edziza sources may alternatively havebeen sourced at Aguada Cove. Previous archaeological interpretationsrequire revision.[35] DiscussantMost, Rachel [257] see Lerner, ShereenMotsinger, Thomas [123] see Thompson, KevinMountain, Rebecca (University of Arizona, Arizona StateMuseum)[37] Assessing the Relationship betweenAntemortem Tooth Loss and Osteoporosisamong the Early Farmers of the SonoranDesertPrevious analyses of skeletal samples from the Early Agriculturalperiod (c. 2100 B.C.-A.D. 50) in the southwest United States andnorthwest Mexico have documented significant differences in therate of antemortem tooth loss (AMTL) between males andfemales. One possible cause of the increased AMTL in females isosteoporosis and the associated loss of mineral density in thealveolar bone. A number of archaeological studies havesuccessfully used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) tomeasure bone mineral density in dry bone. This method, however,has thus far only been applied to the postcranial skeleton.Approximately 20 skeletons from several Early Agricultural periodsites in Southern Arizona were examined in this study. The goalsof the study were twofold. The first was to determine the efficacyof DEXA in measuring mandibular bone density. The second wasto assess the relationships between postcranial bone density,alveolar bone density, and antemortem tooth loss. The results ofthis study not only elucidate different contributing factors to toothloss in Early Agricultural period populations, but also support anew method for evaluating a potential cause of AMTL that iswidely applicable in archaeological specimens.Mountjoy, Joesph B. [38] see Rhodes, JillMoussa, Nour, Karen Mooder and Fiona Bamforth[77] A Comparison between Two Late Neolithic-Early Bronze Age Cemeteries Ust’-Ida andKurma XI through The Analysis of mtDNALake Baikal area was home to two temporally distinct populations,the Kitoi (Early Neolithic, EN) and the Serovo-Glazkovo (LateNeolithic- Early Bronze Age, LN-EBA). The project seeks toreconstruct the lifestyle of the hunter-gatherers inhabited the area.Several cemeteries have been excavated. Maternally inheritedmtDNA from Kurma XI (LN-EBA) samples, not previouslyexamined, was compared to another previously analyzed LN-EBAcemetery (Ust’-Ida). DNA analysis from Kurma XI burials willstrengthen our analysis of the genetics of LN-EBA populations, asUst’-Ida is the only LN-EBA cemetery examined to date.26 KurmaXI teeth samples were cut using a sterile saw and theirroots were soaked in bleach, rinsed with HPLC water and UVirradiated. After crushing the whole root, DNA was extracted.mtDNA was amplified and sequenced.Results obtained previously from mtDNA analysis of 40 Ust’-Idabone samples, revealed that the predominant haplogroups are A,C, D, F and G2a. Kurma XI samples have also haplogroups F andD. Haplogroup Z is a novel haplogroup in the Kurma XI populationof the region.The presence of haplogroup Z in Kurma XI and not in Ust’-Idapopulations might indicate different female migration patternsaround the area of Lake Baikal during LN-EBA.Moy, Rachel (UCLA)[129] Travelling the Fayum: Agricultural Landscapeand Economy in the Greco-Roman PeriodFrom the time of the Middle Kingdom, and again in the earlyPtolemaic and Roman Periods, the Fayum was a homogenicagricultural landscape, characterized by regular patterns of canals,irrigation ditches, plotted fields, and roads designed for agriculturalexploitation and transport. This paper examines how movement ofpeople, goods, and agricultural produce functioned and changedin the Greco-Roman period. A study of Greco-Roman settlement,field, and road patterns is compared to a wealth of papyrologicalmaterial that has come out of the Fayum. Many of these papyricontain correspondence between periphery and centers,discussing the management and economics of the region throughcontracts and letters. Rather than solely focusing on the content ofthese documents, this paper tracks their movements. Throughexamination of satellite imagery, least cost path analysis, andselective ground survey, many ancient routes can bereconstructed. These reconstructed maps allow closerexamination of the existing agricultural trade network and whattypes of transportation were most likely exploited. It takes an indepthlook at ground versus water transport and explains howcrops moved from farm to market.Moyer, Teresa (National Park Service)[198] Youth, Community Partnerships, and the UrbanArcheology CorpsThe National Park Service coordinated the Urban ArcheologyCorps with Groundwork Anacostia River DC to experiment witharcheology as a way for youth to explore the urban environmentand the park units therein. Learn about the program, the lessonslearned, and view the participants' messages to the NPS about itsmanagement of the park and communication with the community.Moyes, Holley [36] see Robinson, MarkMoyes, PHD, Holley [109] see Nation, HumbertoMraz, Veronica (University of Tulsa)[278] An Examination of the Plains Woodland andPlains Village Periods in North Central/EasternOklahoma through Lithic AssemblageComparisonsThis report will involve a study of late prehistoric (Plains Woodlandand Plains Village) sites within north central/eastern Oklahomawithin the eastern Arkansas and west Verdigris river basins. Thisstudy will compare the cultural historic framework of this region, inan effort to understand the differences in material culturalsignatures and land use strategies in a poorly understood area.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 303The data sets for this research are derived from primary studies aswell as limited site report distributions largely from archaeologicalprojects funded from the Army Corps of Engineers Tulsa division.Mt. Joy, Kristen (Texas Army National Guard), Heidi Fuller(Texas Army National Guard), Jimmy Arterberry (ComancheNation) and Holly Houghten (Mescalero Apache Tribe)[281] Survey without Shovels: Rethinking CulturalInventories with Tribal NationsArchaeological inventories are standard fare for agencies such asthe Texas Military Forces. However, these are limited in scope toidentifying individual artifacts and features and do not accuratelycapture the entire cultural landscape. At the request of tribalpartners, Texas Military Forces initiated an inventory to identifytraditional cultural properties on their lands. This paper looks at theprogress of the first project at Camp Bowie, Brownwood, Texas. Itthen discusses the challenges faced and lessons learned inworking outside the standard archaeological methods andtechniques to build a better understanding of the history of thelands managed by the Texas Military Forces.Mudar, Karen (Archeology Program)[30] Henry T Wright: His Student Legacy, Service tothe Field, and Contributions Beyond AcademiaHenry Wright’s important contributions to the understanding ofcomplex social organization have influenced archeological theoryfor 45+ years. His research spans the world, from investigations ofearly state formation in the Near East, Madagascar, and China toPaleoindian settlement and Archaic adaptations in North America.Equally important are the contributions that Wright has madethrough mentoring students, promoting public and amateurarcheology, and through professional service. This paperexamines Wright’s continuing influence on archeology through hismany students and through his work to promote archeologicalresearch through numerous venues.Mulhern, Dawn (Fort Lewis College) and Mona Charles (FortLewis College)[16] Trauma Patterns in a Basketmaker IIPopulation from Durango, ColoradoThe Eastern Basketmakers are known primarily from three sites inDurango, Colorado. Recent analysis and compilation of skeletaldata from two of these sites has resulted in the mostcomprehensive look at health patterns in this population to date.The purpose of this study is to assess cranial and postcranialtrauma patterns in the Eastern Basketmaker population (750 B.C.-A.D. 500) from Durango. Data collected for the human skeletalremains from the Basketmaker II sites of Darkmold and the FallsCreek Rock Shelters were evaluated for patterns of trauma by ageand sex. Comparisons by sex show a higher frequency of cranialtrauma in females and higher frequency of postcranial trauma inmales. Subadults did not show any evidence of trauma. Resultswere also compared to a Pueblo I sample from the Durango area(A.D. 700-900); overall frequencies of cranial and postcranialtrauma are consistent over time, although incidents of perimortemtrauma are more frequent in the later time period and also affectsubadults, implying changes in the types of interactions inprehistoric Durango area populations over time. Regionalcomparisons will also be discussed.Mulhern, Dawn [16] see Charles, MonaMüller, Noémi (NCSR Demokritos), Maria Dikomitou-Eliadou(University of Cyprus) and Vassilis Kilikoglou (NCSRDemokritos)[178] Calcite Tempering and Thermal Properties OfCeramic Cooking Ware: The Case ofPrehistoric Marki Alonia in CyprusThe notion of the beneficial effect of calcite temper on the thermalshock resistance of ancient cooking ware appears to be embracedby many archaeologists and is frequently used to explain theparticular manufacturing practice. The effect of calcite temper on aceramic vessel’s affordances has been widely discussed,explanations are, however, almost exclusively based ontheoretical considerations, and contradicting statements arereached using different material models. When a recent study onutilitarian pottery from prehistoric Marki Alonia, Cyprus, revealedthe synchronous use of imported cooking ware containing calcitictemper and locally produced vessels, made with a volcanic fabric,it was felt necessary to embark on an experimental investigation toovercome ambiguities inherent in the theoretical models,commonly employed to assess the thermal properties of suchceramics. While not per se explaining technological variation, anunderstanding of the influence of manufacturing parameters onmaterial properties can provide the baseline when consideringtechnological choices in utilitarian ceramics. Results obtained onexperimental briquettes will be presented, outlining the influence ofcalcitic temper on thermal shock resistance and thermalconductivity. Beyond providing a baseline for considerationsregarding consumption practices in prehistoric Cyprus, the resultsare applicable to calcite-tempered ancient cooking ware moregenerally.Müller, Noémi [288] see Day, PeterMullins, Daniel [128] see Jolie, RuthMulrooney, Mara (University of Auckland) and Simon Bickler(Bickler Consultants Ltd.)[27] Radiocarbon Chronologies at the Margins ofEast PolynesiaRadiocarbon dates are fundamental to archaeologicalinterpretations of East Polynesian prehistory. Despite a growingcorpus of radiocarbon dates, debate persists regarding theinterpretation of these data. We assess the latest radiocarbondates from Aotearoa/New Zealand, the Hawaiian Islands andRapa Nui (Easter Island) to examine how archaeological samplingand analyses are used to construct models of earliest settlement,palaeodemography, and cultural dynamics at the fringes of EastPolynesia. Academic research and cultural resource managementhave rapidly increased the number of dates available for theseisland sequences in recent years. We explore the spatialdistribution of dates in these contexts and compare models ofPolynesian settlement on both the large and small islands at theapexes of the Polynesian Triangle.Munns, Anna (University of Minnesota)[108] Ychsma Shells: A Malacological Analysis atPanquilmaThe Inka influence on the Ychsma inhabitants of Panquilma canbe observed by noting variations in the malacological remains, andthis presentation will convey the significance of the malacologicaldata recovered from the site during the 2012 excavation season.The analysis of the malacological remains, conducted byspeciation, determining minimum number of individuals, andweighing, demonstrates fundamental differences between thesite’s religious and domestic sectors as well as disparity betweenthe Ychsma A and Ychsma B phases of occupation. Thecontextual locations of the recovered malacological materials,such as funerary contexts and middens, and the presence oflomas snails and non-local species such as Spondylus furtherexplain the social and economic interactions which occurredduring the site’s occupation. When compared to other sites alongthe Peruvian coast, Panquilma demonstrates a uniqueassemblage of recovered shell species, which emphasizes itsimportance in pre-colonial studies of Peruvian archaeology.Munoz, Cynthia [41] see Mauldin, Raymond

304 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGMunoz, Cynthia (University of Texas at San Antonio) andRaymond Mauldin (University of Texas at San Antonio)[281] Deep Sands, Dense Sites, and Cool Water:Exploring Prehistoric Site Distributions on aTexas Army National Guard Facility using GISCamp Swift, an 11,500-acre training facility, is one of eightinstallations maintained by the Army National Guard in Texas thatcontain archaeological sites. Over the past four decades, CampSwift has been surveyed by various investigators resulting in thedocumentation of 306 sites (214 prehistoric and 136 historiccomponents) that date from the Paleoindian period to the early1940s. Using ArcGIS, we overlay this archaeological site data ongeoreferenced soil and hydrological maps to study the distributionand relationship of sites to these landscape features to determineif site distribution was a function of behavior or of geomorphicprocesses of exposure. We document that, contrary to our initialexpectations, prehistoric site components are underrepresentedon shallow soils and overrepresented on deep soils. This patternmay be a function of past decisions regarding access to water, asareas adjacent to streams tend to have deep soils. However, whenwe control for distance to water, the geomorphic pattern is notsignificantly affected. Other factors, including modern decisions tofocus survey on high probability areas, may result in anunderrepresentation of site discoveries in shallow soil areas.Munro, Natalie [201] see Olszewski, DeborahMunro, Kimberly (Louisiana State University) and DavidChicoine (Louisiana State University)[236] Grinding Stone and Plant Processing atCaylán: A GIS StudyThe site of Caylán, which measures 80 hectares in its monumentalcore, is a Late and Final Formative (800-1 BCE) center located15km inland in the lower Nepeña Valley, coastal Ancash. Severalhundred grinding stones were mapped using GPS in and aroundthe site of Caylán during the summer of 2012. This posterpresents the results of a spatial analysis conducted (using theArc10 suite) on the three different categories of grinding stones,including; Manos, Batanes, and Chungos. Stone material, form,size, and location as well as spatial clustering of the stones areanalyzed to determine plant processing, ritual use, and domesticareas of the site. We pay particular attention to the architecturaland spatial contexts associated with the use and discard of thestone tools, and their meanings to understand urban productionand consumption during the Early Horizon.Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy [125] see Manahan, T.Munschauer, Lyman [186] see Bailey, DavidMunson, Jessica (Simon Fraser University)[171] Social and Material Transformations in an EarlyMaya Community: Changing Views fromCaobal, Petén, GuatemalaSettlement expansion and major social transformations during thePreclassic period led to significant changes in the organization oflowland Maya society. This pattern is exemplified by changes inthe form of large terraced platforms as well as by changes in ritualpractices associated with residential and ceremonial structures.Against this backdrop, this paper presents recent data from thesite of Caobal, a minor center with ceremonial architecture locatednear the site of Ceibal in the Pasión region. Multivariate clusteringtechniques were applied to data from multi-layered stratified unitsto infer synchronous episodes of construction throughout Caobal’s1600-year occupation history. This detailed reconstructiondemonstrates continuities in settlement layout and significantchanges in the architectural forms and materials used to constructmonumental buildings. The transformation of Caobal from a ruralhamlet to minor ceremonial center is contextualized in terms ofbroader sociopolitical change during the Preclassic period. Minortemples like those at Caobal are interpreted as local nodes ofcommunity and religious interaction for households outside thecore of major Maya centers.Murakami, Tatsuya (University of South Florida)[63] State Administration and Political Dynamics atTeotihuacan: Early Classic Interaction Viewedfrom the CoreWhile the presence of Teotihuacan-related material culture outsideof the city has been taken as evidence for indirect administration,elite interaction or alliances, it is often difficult to discriminate thesedifferent models of interaction since they may result in similarmaterial patterns. This paper examines changing politicalorganization of the Teotihuacan state and explores different facetsand scales of its interaction with other regions based ondistributional analyses of non-local resources, such as lime,andesitic cut stone blocks, lapidary materials (e.g., greenstone),and other types of materials. Specifically, this study addresseshow different social segments, including rulers, bureaucrats (bothupper and lower echelons), intermediate elites, and commoners,sought to enhance their power and/or consolidate their socialidentity through external relations. The results indicate highlycomplex nature and multiple levels of interaction with other regionsalong with diachronic changes in the distribution of somematerials.[63] ChairMurakami, Tatsuya [63] see Kabata, ShigeruMuros, Vanessa (UCLA/Getty Conservation Program)[253] Analyzing Deteriorated Glass Using pXRF: APreliminary Study of Vitreous Beads from theLate Bronze Age/Early Iron Age Tumulus ofLofkëndThe availability of portable analytical instrumentation, such asportable xray fluorescence spectroscopy (pXRF), has allowed formore archaeometric research to be conducted on archaeologicalmaterials in the field, where artifacts can be analyzed in situ. Theapplication of this technique to the study of ancient materials hasbeen advantageous in that many more artifacts can be analyzednon-destructively without the need for sampling. Issues are oftenencountered, however, in the characterization of these objects dueto the heterogeneity of the materials used, the method ofmanufacture or the alteration the artifacts underwent during burial.This paper will describe the characterization of a group of vitreousbeads excavated from the Late Bronze Age/Early Iron Agetumulus (14th-9th c. BC) of Lofkënd in Albania. The beads, whichexhibited varying degrees of deterioration and corrosion, wereanalyzed using pXRF in order to identify the raw materials used.The factors considered in the creation of the analyticalmethodology will be presented. The challenges encountered in theinterpretation of the results, and the importance of understandingthe deterioration processes of archaeological materials whenstudying ancient artifacts will be discussed.[253] ChairMurphy, John, Mark Altaweel (University College, London),Lilian Alessa (University of Alaska) and Andrew Kliskey(University of Alaska)[23] Water Then and Water Now: ComputationalApproaches to Modeling Archaeological andContemporary Water ManagementAn important promise of the modeling approach in archaeogy isgeneralizing from historically particular achaeological test-cases todynamics and principles applicable across contexts and even intocontemporary life. A long-running simulation project, the Hohokam

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 305Water Management Simulation, has focused on the interactionsamong stakeholders along the large-scale irrigation works thatextended from the Salt and Gila Rivers and that supported anextensive array of settlements for over a millennium. Recent workhas continued the original simulation's intent to explore howalternative cooperative strategies might have led to resilient orvulnerable conditions for the canal systems' users. Two concurrentprojects have recently been undertaken in which watermanagement and resilience are central foci. One ethnographicallybased project echoes the HWM project by focusing on watermanagement issues in small communities; the other mirrors theHWM even more closely by examining now another populationexists today in central and southern Arizona, around the modernurban areas of Phoenix and Tucson. This paper will offer briefcomments about current aspects of the HWM project, and discusshow the archaeological and contemporary modeling projectscomplement and inform one another in theoretical andmethodological domains.Murphy, Joanne (University of North Carolina Greensboro)[61] Same, Same, but Different: Ritual in theArchaic States of Pylos and MycenaeThis paper explores how two contemporary and culturally relatedarchaic states, Pylos and Mycenae, manipulated ritual tocommunicate and create status. By exploring the evidence forrituals in these two Greek Bronze Age states I illustrate thatalthough each was using ritual to express and confirm theelevated status and identities of their elites, both states useddifferent types of ritual to achieve this. In the final periods of thepalace’s use, Pylos was becoming more architecturally similar toMycenae yet it began to differ in its use and location of ritual. InPylos as the state grew in size, status, and power it deemphasizedits burial rituals in favor of rituals at the palace itself, such asfeasting and sacrifices in its most elaborately decorated room. Incontrast, Mycenae continued to invest large amounts of labor andwealth in its burials while also conducting large scale feasts at thepalace and having areas at the palace reserved for ritual use, suchas the cult center. This paper highlights the need for and thevalue of detailed contextual analysis of individual states in anysociety in order to understand the reasons behind their similaritiesand differences.[61] ChairMurphy, Larry (ADIA) and Linda Scott Cummings(PaleoResearch Institute)[135] Analytical Techniques for Organic Remains inSubmerged Sites: Examples and PotentialSubmerged sites, both archaeological and forensic, possesspotential for high degrees of preservation of organic remains. Thispaper discusses the nature and potential of this preservation andanalytical technical tools and processes that can be applied toexamine organic cultural remains from submerged contexts.Methods and concepts employed successfully in thearchaeological investigation of submerged sites provide the basisfor forensic applications.Murphy, Larry [135] see McAllister, MartinMurray, Samantha (SWCA Environmental Consultants)[102] The People of Plaza Church Cemetery (1822-1844): An Osteological Analysis of LosAngeles’s First CemeteryIn October of 2010, archaeological monitors encountered a portionof the old Plaza Church Cemetery that was thought to have beenmoved in 1844. As tree roots grew deep into the soil, as buildingswere erected, and as blacktop was poured, the people of PlazaChurch Cemetery had lain silently forgotten below the surface forover 150 years. This study presents the results of an osteologicalanalysis of approximately 130 individuals excavated from thePlaza Church Cemetery between 2010 and 2011. Despiteextremely poor preservation of skeletal material and amidst thecontroversy between Native American groups and local agencies,the osteological analysis produced important data about apopulation living in 19th century Los Angeles as it transitionedfrom pueblo to city. Examination of the bones revealed a mixedgroup of hard working men, women and children with extremelymodest burial practices and in overall poor health. The bonesprovide a glimpse of the people who built early Los Angeles andwere then laid to rest in its first official cemetery.Murray, Daithi [263] see Bunce, MichaelMurtha, Timothy [58] see French, KirkMutin, Benjamin (Harvard University)[157] Revisiting Contacts across the Hindu Kush inthe Bronze AgeCultural contacts between the areas located south and north of theHindu Kush during the Bronze Age have been demonstrated sincethe 1970s with the discovery of a site located in Tajikistan in theZeravshan Valley that was occupied during the fourth and thirdmillennia BC: Sarazm. Significant evidence for contacts withsouthern Turkmenistan and some elements that illustraterelationships with certain Bronze Age cultures of the EurasianSteppe were also recovered at Sarazm.Within the large area considered in this session, this paper intendsto focus on the relationships established by the material cultures,especially the ceramics, between the regions of the Indo-Iranianborderlands and southeastern central Asia, and how they compareto the relationships observed between the Zeravshan Valley andthe Eurasian Steppe. Some elements of discussion related to thechronology and mechanisms of contacts will be presented.[157] ChairMyers, Sarah (Indiana University South Bend), Sarah Nixon(IU South Bend), Bryan Dull (IU South Bend) and JamesVanderVeen (IU South Bend)[269] It Takes a Village to Excavate a House:Community Engagement in ArchaeologicalField SchoolsAn archaeological field school is not often viewed as a publicarchaeology program. The members are university studentswhose primary goal is to learn the process of research design andthe techniques of excavation. The field schools at IndianaUniversity South Bend, however, have been conducted with theaim of involving the local communities in a sustained manner. Wepartner with area museums and historical societies, volunteers digalongside students for the whole field season, the public and pressare invited to visit, and the artifacts and information recovered areshared with the wider community through presentations andexhibits. The results of this effort are measured through interviewswith field school participants and the associated institutions.Volunteers learned as much about general issues of stewardshipand contributions made by archaeological research as they didspecific site histories and the proper way to hold a trowel. Inaddition, the time students spent instructing the volunteers andvisitors increased their own engagement in the discipline. Bydirectly involving those who live and work in the area where theexcavation is conducted, we are making public archaeology morepersonal.Nadeau, Jaclyn (University at Albany)[155] Research, Museum Collections, and CulturalResource ManagementThis study focuses on the relationship between emergingresidential sedentism and technological change. It compares toolsand cores, production stages, and technological efficiency from

306 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGmultiple assemblages in eastern New York. It is designed forapplication to museum and cultural resource managementcollections where information crucial to interpretations ofsettlement and subsistence is often stored. Expressly emphasizedis the importance of incorporating these underutilized resourcesinto a formal research program. Materials are curated to allow forfuture research and contend with changing research paradigms.Using contemporary techniques of lithic analysis on curatedmaterials thus ensures that preexisting models are still relevant.[155] ChairNadel, Dani [162] see Power, RobertNagaoka, Tomohito [194] see Shimoda, YasushiNaito, Yuichi [138] see Yoneda, MinoruNajjar, Mohammad [201] see Knabb, KyleNakamura, Carolyn [32] see Agarwal, SabrinaNakassis, Dimitri (The University of Toronto)[239] Livin’ in a New World: Elite Strategies duringthe Mycenaean CollapseThis paper proposes a new view of inequality and how it wasreproduced during the collapse of the Mycenaean states in LateBronze Age Greece. It is commonly accepted that the collapse ofthe palaces ca. 1200 BCE engendered a deep-rooted change inthe social order and a substantial decrease in social and economicinequality. It is thought that the elite disappeared along with thepalaces, leaving local communities to their own devices, andresulting in the promotion of local leaders. I show that thisexplanation relies on a monolithic and bureaucratic model of thestate that does not stand up to scrutiny. Recent work shows thatpalatial affairs were managed by a broad array of independenthigh-status individuals. Thus the palace is not so much a freestandingand closed system as a framework for interactionsbetween heterogeneous agents. The collapse of the palatialsystem does have significant effects, but recent work on thearchaeology of the 12th century BC suggests that these palatiallyactiveelites did not simply vanish. They rather continued to asserttheir elevated status in ways that were largely unchanged. Thesestrategies failed to account for their new socioeconomicenvironment, however, and were ultimately unsuccessful.Nakazawa, Yuichi [147] see Iwase, AkiraNakazawa, Yuichi (Hokkaido University), Akira Iwase (MeijiUniversity), Masami Izuho (Tokyo Metropolitan University),Toshiro Yamahara (Obihiro Centennial Museum) and MinoruKitazawa (Obihiro Centennial Museum)[208] An Evaluation of Site Occupation Intensity:Hearth-Centered Spatial Organization at theUpper Paleolithic Open-Air Site of Kawanishi C,Hokkaido, JapanPrehistoric hunter-gatherers have often occupied flat open-airsurface, while degree of site occupation intensity varied acrossoccupational surface depending on how activities were organized.Given the perception that hearths have served for central nodes ofhuman activities, we discuss the aspect of how Upper Paleolithichunter-gatherers organized their activities around the hearthsthrough an examination of intrasite variation in occupation intensityat the open-air site of Kawanishi C, southeastern Hokkaido,northern Japan. Followed by an identification of clusters of lithicartifacts with and without hearths, we scrutinize how burntobsidian artifacts originally dropped into hearths scattered aroundthe locations of hearths in terms of artifact size-sorting. Naturaland cultural size-sorting processes of burnt and non-burnt artifactssuggest that inferred occupation intensity and performed activitieschanged among hearth-centered areas. A quantitative comparisonof burnt artifacts and refitted specimens among the clusters willfurther provide an implication of Upper Paleolithic huntergatherer’slabor organization.Naleimaile, Sean (University of Hawai'i-Manoa)[203] DiscussantNanavati, William (Washington State University), RachelSullivan (Washington State University), Nichole Bettencourt(Washington State University), Louis Fortin (WashingtonState University) and Melissa Goodman-Elgar (WashingtonState University)[224] Characterizing Tropical Anthrosols by LaserDiffraction Particle Size AnalysisParticle size distribution or texture is a fundamental physicalproperty used to deduce soil and sediment formation and othercharacteristics. Humans alter natural soils and sediments throughadditions, such as food refuse, and losses, such as tillage-inducederosion. We seek to characterize these anthropogenic patterns.However, traditional archaeological texture determinations by drysieving and hydrometer or pipet methods are not universallyeffective. In our study of archaeological sediments from Bolivia,we found dry sieving considerably underestimated the finefractions compared to wet sieving. Dispersion of tropical soils insodium hexametaphosphate caused clay fluocculation reducingthe accuracy of pipet and hydrometer determinations.We addressed these concerns by conducting a series ofexperiments using wet sieving and laser diffraction under differentpretreatment methods. A major advantage of laser diffraction ishigh data resolution in 0.25 φ intervals. This allows comparison ofparticle size distribution curves that can be used to “fingerprint” thesize classes impacted by human activity when compared withcontrols. Although all PSA methods have limitations, ourcomparative data show that wet sieving followed by a dispersiontargeted to clay composition produces a replicable PSA methodthat better estimates sediment composition compared to standardtreatments in these tropical soils.Nash, Donna [61] see Williams, PatrickNash, Donna (UNCG)[100] The Haves and the Have-nots: Poverty in theAncient Andes?At European contact the Andes lacked a developed market systembut was home to the New World’s largest polity, the Inka Empire.Even though there were stark differences in access to resources,because extraction was largely based on labor, social theoristsargue that the empire was free from depredation. Ethnohistoricalaccounts praise the just administration of the Inka, howeverarchaeology provides a check on these potentially polemicalnarratives. In this paper I examine household data, humanremains, and labor demands from both the Inka and Wari empiresto assess if these extractive polities subjected conquered groupsto conditions of poverty.Nation, Humberto and Holley Moyes, PHD[109] Social Implications of SpectrometricTechniques of Speleothem Sourcing fromBelize.Archaeological investigations indicate that extensive political,economic, religious and military interactions existed betweenancient Maya polities in Belize. One documented form ofinteraction is the breakage of speleothems from sacred caves andtransport to political centers, which has become an increasingly

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 307well-documented phenomenon (Brady et al. 1997). One way toelucidate the extent, meaning and significance of this practice isthrough chemically sourcing these cultural materials. With theexception of a few pilot studies, no substantial effort has beenmade in developing a methodology and database for that wouldhelp establish the provenance of lithic materials such asspeleothems. This paper examines the ways in whichspectrometric techniques are substantial changing ourunderstanding of the social dynamics surrounding caves.Naudinot, Nicolas (University of Nice - UMR 7264 CNRS)[291] Entering the Mountain Range: AltitudeSettlements at the End of the Late-Glacial inthe Italic Epigravettian AreaThis paper aims to discuss the interpretation of dates/siteseffectives by integrating several major taphonomic and socioeconomicparameters that could affect the data and the way weinterpret them. Among these parameters, using a technoeconomicapproach of lithic material, we specifically focus on theconsequences of mobility strategies on these interpretations. Inthis perspective, we study the interaction between humansocieties and the altitude environments in the Italic recentEpigravettian techno-complex that spread between Bølling-Allerødand early Holocene. For the present paper we decide to focus onthree research areas among this territory: 1. Venetian Pre-Alps; 2.Tuscany Appenin and 3. Liguro-Provençal Arc. Date/siteseffectives vary consequently between the Veneto and Tuscany.How can we interpret these differences behind thetaphonomic/research/politic bias? The techno-economic data fromthe Liguro-Provençal Arc allow us to discuss these variations. Ourresult show that even if the 14C/population relationship bringsinteresting information about populating tendency, these datacannot be only interpreted in term of demography but also in termof territory management.[291] ChairNauman, Alissa [120] see Hill, KatherineNauman, Alissa (Hamilton College) and Nathan Goodale(Hamilton College)[127] Exploring Expressions of Gendered Identity inHousehold and Community Organization at theSlocan Narrows Pithouse Village, UpperColumbia River Drainage, British Columbia,CanadaStudies examining the activities of women, men and children in thearchaeological record have become gradually more common, yethave remained relatively absent in the Interior Pacific Northwest.In this paper we draw upon ethnographic literature and oralnarrative to aid in the exploration of household and communityorganization at the Slocan Narrows Pithouse Village, a communitylocated within the Upper Columbia River system dating c.a.3100-250 cal B.P., with the specific aim of examining aspects of identityand gendered behavior. Recent investigations have detailed achronology of the site indicating four major occupations. Study ofvillage layout at different slices in time offers insight into possiblecommunity dynamics, while material culture identified fromexcavations in a housepit dating to 1050 cal B.P. serves as a casestudy to examine the organization and use of space within ahousehold. We utilize this data to assist in formulating anarchaeological research strategy to aid further investigation ofengendered activities at the Slocan Narrows Village site.Naumann, Madeline [121] see Schubert, AshleyNavarro Farr, Olivia [63] see Freidel, DavidNavarro-Farr, Olivia (The College of Wooster), Griselda Perez(La Universidad de San Carlos), Damaris Menendez (ProyectoArqueologico El Peru-Waka'), Francisco Castaneda (ProyectoArqueologico El Peru-Waka') and Juan Carlos Perez(Proyecto Arqueologico El Peru-Waka')[65] Staying Power: Ritual Dynamics of Pre-Abandonment Political and Symbolic Agency atClassic Maya El Perú-Waka’Macro-scale abandonment and collapse studies have provokedrich discussions about the dynamics of decline. They have alsoencouraged healthy skepticism about the seeming simplicity withwhich complex societies both rise and fall, as though subject to akind of inevitable ebb and flow like the tide. Framing collapse inmacro terms forces us to look at the intricacies of the micro-scale,revealing diverse processes of active social memory and notablydeliberate responses which, in some instances, call into questionthe idea that decline is inevitable and passively responded to by agiven populace. Indeed, fascinating new data from the main civicceremonialshrine at El Perú-Waka’ reveals a striking emphasis onsymbolic capital and reliance on corvée labor to execute a seriesof intentional symbolic “statements” and grand public ceremonies.It is suggested these acts were conducted to ensure continuity andthe maintenance of balance in the midst of the dissolution ofdynastic authority.Nawrocki, Stephen [193] see Latham, KristaNdiema, Emmanuel [225] see Dillian, CarolynNealis, Stuart [40] see Killoran, PeterNedelcheva, Petranka and Ivan Gatsov[90] Bullet Core Technology at South MarmaraRegion Seventh–Sixth Millennia B.C.This paper deals with the main technological and typologicalcharacteristics of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic bullet coretechnology in the areas of South and East of Marmara andNorthern Aegean shore. This technology spread in NorthwesternAnatolia during the 7-6 mill BC and has been recorded in the lithicassemblages at different settlements such as Barcın Höyük,Ulucak, Menteşe, Ilıpınar, Fikirtepe, Pendik, etc. The fact thatgeneral technological and typological structure of the flint andobsidian assemblages didn’t change in the space and time foraround 1000 years predicts a generalized steady behavior anddefined net of activities. As a whole the research revealsunderlying uniformity concerning the lithic industry and the systemof procurement, and documents evidence for common lithictraditions and in some degree similar environmental traits betweenplain and coastal settlements as well.Neff, Linda (N Arizona University)[48] Getting Your Students to Read the Text in anUndergraduate Archaeology ClassroomGetting students to read the course-related texts in thearchaeology undergraduate classroom is one of the biggestchallenges facing instructors. Yet in order to teach undergraduatestudents how to think, they need to learn the language of the field.One way students can learn the basic language of archaeology isby reading about it. Yet undergraduate students have this amazingability to avoid the reading assignments thereby thwartinginstructor efforts to teach them how to think in well thought outcritical thinking activities. While the summative mid-term and finalexam is one way to assess a student’s cognitive skills and masteryof the content, sometimes more frequent formative assessmentsoffered at regular intervals, can help a student move toward thecourse goals. In addition, frequent assessments also help theinstructor clarify and guide the students along the way; they helpkeep the students on track. In this presentation, I will share my

308 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGexperiences using a variety of techniques to assess course-relatedtexts in the undergraduate archaeology classroom (online and off).Using the misconception/preconception check, empty outlines,and muddiest point strategies in three different undergraduatecourse contexts, I will discuss how the course structure can lead tostudent success.Neff, Hector [186] see Sweeney, AngelinaNeff, Ted (USU Archeological Services/Museum of NorthernArizona), Kenneth Cannon (USU Archeological Services),Molly Cannon (USU Archeological Services), William Eckerle(Western GeoArch Research) and Paul Santarone(Archeological Services)[281] Creative Mitigation in Action at Camp Williams,Utah: Archaeological Testing Results fromThree Upland SitesWhile archaeological research in northern Utah is well established,only a relatively small percentage of it has focused on uplandsettings. The Utah National Guard and Utah State UniversityArcheological Services recently completed an interdisciplinaryassessment of three archaeological sites in upland contexts atCamp Williams in the West Canyon area. This researchrepresented a creative approach to archaeological site mitigation.Work included geomorphic assessment, a magnetometer survey,and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating. The projectarea is notable for a high density of upland sites dating to theArchaic and Fremont time periods. The results presented in thispaper shed some additional light on regional settlement in theuplands along Utah’s Wasatch Front.Negrino, Fabio [28] see Riel-Salvatore, JulienNehlich, Olaf [71] see Arndt, UrsulaNeitzel, Jill (University of Delaware)[139] Hair Styles and Identity in the U.S. SouthwestThis paper explores the issues of identity and interaction asevidenced by the hair styles and hair decorations worn byprehistoric Southwesterners. After first reviewing available historicperiod data, it analyzes two sets of archaeological evidencematerialremains from throughout the Southwest and artisticdepictions on Mimbres bowls, Casas Grandes effigy vessels, andAncestral Puebloan kiva murals. These data document how hairstyles and their decorations conveyed a myriad of identitymessages as well as deeper layers of meaning. Some coiffuresand accessories were restricted to particular groups, and somereflected broader connections. Within groups, women and mengenerally wore different styles both in daily life and on specialoccasions. Some accessories reinforced these gender messages,but this redundancy was secondary to their main purpose ofmarking social status and ceremonial roles. These additionalmessages varied, depending on the occasion and the complexityof the group. The most elaborate headdresses, and possibly somesimpler decorations, were worn only as part of sacred rituals.Finally, some coiffures and hair ornaments linked people to theirancestral past and had embedded religious symbolism.[139] ChairNeller, Angela (Wanapum Heritage Center, Grant County PUD)[246] Moderator[246] DiscussantNelson, Dan [7] see Kwak, SeungkiNelson, Ben (Arizona State University)[97] DiscussantNelson, Amy (University of Oregon), Patrick O'Grady(University of Oregon) and Mike Rondeau (Rondeau LithicsAnalysis )[128] A Survey of Clovis Technology in The GreatBasinThe Northern Great Basin has been a source of Clovisarchaeology for many years and with the discovery of new sitesthroughout the Great Basin we are expanding our understandingof Clovis technology, people and culture more and more each day.The summer of 2012 I worked as a supervisor at the University ofOregon's Archaeology Field School located near Wagon Tire inEastern Oregon in the Northern Great Basin, directed by Dr.Patrick O'Grady, a museum archaeologist at the Museum ofNatural and Cultural History. Dr. O'Grady and I, along with MikeRondeau, an expert in Paleoindian lithics, put together a survey ofthe area surrounding the rockshelter we were excavating for thefield school. The goal of this survey was to gather as muchinformation about the area as possible and to learn more aboutClovis technology. The site has point types ranging from Rose-Springs points all the way to Fluted bifaces and associatedtechnology such as overshot flakes and fluted tools and bifacialthinning flakes. We collected thousands of lithics and Mr. Rondeauhas been working on the analysis of the lithics to give us asummary of the site's history and its Clovis component.Nelson, Peter (UC Berkeley) and Sara Gonzalez (CarletonCollege)[169] Decolonizing the Ranks: Learning FieldMethodology with and from DescendantCommunitiesIn this paper we will consider how the practice of decolonizationimpacts the values we foster in our roles as researchers,instructors, and mentors. Decolonization provides a process forthinking about the ways that our research can and does matter(and to whom). Particular attention will be given to the ways inwhich thinking about our accountability to both discipline andcommunity changes how we train the next generation ofarchaeologists. We will explore one case, a UC Berkeley fieldschool at Pinnacles National Monument, which was a collaborativeeffort between the National Parks Service, UC Berkeley, and theAmah Mutsun Band of Ohlone People. As a community-basedproject, Amah Mutsun community members were not only involvedin planning and commenting on research design and methodology,but were also essential players in the operations of the field schoolitself (i.e., as instructors, project leaders, crew members, and evenas cooks). This integrated involvement provided students from UCBerkeley and Vassar College with a unique learning landscape inwhich they had the opportunity to study Amah Mutsun history andheritage directly from and with the tribal community.Nelson, Sarah (University of Denver)[289] Leadership in the Silla Kingdom of AncientKorea and Relationships with the YamatoKingdom in Ancient JapanThis paper is inspired by a recent book which details the effect of‘immigrant’ families from Korea into the Japanese islands at thetime of the formation of the state in Yamato, based on documents.The author discusses silk weaving, goddesses, and cults inrelation to families from Korea, detailing the strong place ofwomen among royalty, in religious rites, and the importance of silkand silk worms. The author’s uses the Hata clan from Goguryo formany of his examples. Other writings have noted influences fromthe Baekje elite, especially as the bringers of Buddhism to Japan –not merely as a religion, but also architecture, sculpture .andrituals. I will push this idea in another direction and compare theplace of elite women in the hierarchies of both Silla and Yamato byexploring the archaeology of the Three Kingdoms period inGyeongju and comparing it to sites in Japan, especially shrines.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 309[223] DiscussantNelson, Margaret (Arizona State University)[273] Vulnerabilities to Food Securities: Can PeopleBe Buffered from the Impact of Rare ClimateEvents?With careful attention to the relationship between climate,population levels, and ways of living, people can adjust tofluctuations in climate conditions within understood ranges. Theseare fluctuations that have been experienced or can be predictedfrom recent history and social memory. More challenging are therare events – those outside of human experience and memory.Are there ways to think about such uncertainties that can helppeople build resilience to rare events? We use long-term historiesof climate and social change to examine consequences of rareevents under different vulnerability conditions in the Southwest USand North Atlantic Islands. We focus on rare climate events likelyto impact the adequacy of food resources for provisioning people.We examine these dramatically different climates and socialcontexts as a way to understand how people experience rareclimate shocks in the context of different kinds of vulnerabilities.Eight challenges to food security are defined, which we use todelimit constellations of vulnerability conditions that may limitresilience to the impact of a rare event and may offer resilience.[273] ChairNelson, Shaun (Utah National Guard), John Crane (Utah StateUniversity/Utah National Guard) and Kenneth Cannon (USUArcheological Services)[281] A Creative Approach to Archaeological SiteMitigation at Camp Williams, UtahWhile archaeological data recovery is a common approach tomitigation, on-site excavation is not always an option. A recentrange construction project at Camp Williams presented projectplanners and archaeologists with the challenge of mitigatingimpacts to a site that could not be accessed for data recovery dueto significant concentrations of unexploded military ordnance. Thispaper will summarize the deliberate and thoughtful approach takenby the Utah National Guard and Utah State Universityarchaeologists to develop a creative plan to ensure that impacts tothe site are mitigated in a way that is meaningful and thatcontributes to the body of archaeological knowledge in the region.Nesbitt, Jason (Tulane University)[65] After They've Gone: The Reinterpretation ofAbandoned Initial and Early HorizonMonuments in the Moche Valley, PeruDuring the Initial Period (1700-800 cal .B.C) and middle EarlyHorizon (800-300 cal B.C.), the north coast of Peru was home to awell-developed and long-lasting tradition of monument building.Recent investigations at the Caballo Muerto Complex (MocheValley) demonstrated that by the middle part of the Early Horizon,monument construction ceased and the site was abandoned forseveral centuries. However, excavations at several buildings atCaballo Muerto found abundant evidence that the site wasreutilized for mortuary purposes and other types of ceremonialactivities by the Moche (A.D. 100-800) and Chimu (~800/900-1470) cultures. In this paper, I discuss the significance of theseremains and argue that the numerous Initial Period and EarlyHorizon monuments that dotted the landscape of the Moche Valley(and elsewhere) were significant and highly visible places thatwere reinterpreted by later cultures and may also have inspiredsubsequent developments in the region beginning in the early firstmillennium A.D.Neubauer, Fernanda [50] see Schaefer, MichaelNeubauer, Fernanda (University of Wisconsin-Madison,CAPES Foundation)[220] Playing with Projectile Points: Umbu ChildhoodFlintknapping Imitation in Southern BrazilThis study highlights how we can identify children in thearchaeological record through the study of finished lithic products.Children are a significant component of most documented socialgroups and it is expected that they played a role in the creation ofthe archaeological record. In seeking to understand the manyroles that children have played, I contrast lithic tools created bychildren with the products of more skilled flintknappers. As a casestudy I use Adelar Pilger site (RS-C-61), an Umbu hunter-gathererrock shelter habitation site in Southern Brazil dated to 8,000 BP.By linking decisions related to raw material selection with theaesthetic and technological properties of projectile points, I haveidentified three types made by expert knappers, apprentices, andchildren. I demonstrate how these agents' differing final productsrepresent distinct behaviors, intentions and choices. At the Pilgersite, I suggest that children were producing projectile pointsaround the fire as a form of play in imitation of the adults' knappingactivities. Through their play, children were able to roughly imitateformal projectile point shapes but could not reproduce the tools ina three dimensional or technological sense.Neusius, Sarah (Indiana University of PA), Laura Kaufman(Indiana University of PA) and Andrea Boon (IndianaUniversity of PA)[173] Assessing Faunal Assemblage Comparabilityat the Johnston SiteSince 2005, IUP archaeologists have been re-investigating theJohnston site, a large, Late Prehistoric village located nearBlairsville, Pennsylvania, that has been considered the type sitefor the Johnston Phase of the Monongahela tradition ofsouthwestern Pennsylvania. IUP excavations have produced awell-preserved faunal assemblage that can be compared with thefaunal remains collected in the early 1950s by Don Dragoo of theCarnegie Museum. Flotation sampling by IUP also has generateda micro-assemblage of animal bone that provides other insightsabout Monongahela animal usage. Assessing these assemblagesfor comparability allows us to explore the ways in which samplingand recovery methods as well as differential preservationcontribute to our data and interpretations. Key variables forassessing assemblage comparability include recovery method,context, fragmentation, and weight. Even though theseassemblages are not entirely comparable, each contributes to theunderstanding of the use of animals by the inhabitants of this site,and interpreting the different faunal assemblages from theJohnston site promises to contribute to archaeological studies ofthe Monongahela tradition. Our studies show that it is important forzooarchaeologists to explore comparability in their analyses andmake this kind of information available along with theirinterpretations.Neusius, Phillip (Indiana University of PA), Sarah Neusius(Indiana University of PA), Beverly Chiarulli (IndianaUniversity of PA) and Ben Ford (Indiana University of PA)[257] Teaching Heritage Values to AppliedArchaeology StudentsThe IUP MA in Applied Archaeology Program is specificallyfocused on providing its students with the skills necessary tobecome practicing archaeologists prepared to work asprofessionals in cultural resource management and relatedheritage fields. Two of our goals are to provide background inarchaeological law and ethics and to expand studentsunderstanding of archaeology's place in the broader arena ofheritage management. Thus, we do not just teach archaeologicaltheory, skills and knowledge. We offer a series of integratedcourses including a required course in Archaeological Laws andEthics, two required seminars in Cultural Resource Managementas well as a variety of electives in topics such as PublicArchaeology, Issues in Historic Preservation and Contemporary

310 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGNative Americans. Internships are also encouraged, as are relatedcourses from other disciplines such as Public History andEnvironmental Planning. Related extracurricular activities areencouraged. We believe that combining these courses with moretraditional archaeological training in a master’s program is the bestapproach to educating our students. Although our program is onlyfour years old, our initial graduates have had great success infinding employment, and have entered the workforce with many ofthe specialized skills needed by today's studies of abuse define the current animosity that exists onbehalf of Native Americans towards anthropologists. So wheredoes that leave us as agency representatives? Tribal entities seeletters from agency liaisons and think, “What do they want now?”“What are the motives behind this request?” “How will thisinformation be used?” “Who will benefit from this documentation?”In this paper I will explore the existing relationship between tribalentities and Federal Agencies. I will also explore personalexperiences and strategies that I have employed as a TribalRelations Specialist to overcome suspicion and build mutuallyrespectful relationships with Tribes.Neusius, Sarah [257] see Neusius, PhillipNeves, Eduardo (University of São Paulo), MichaelHeckenberger (University of Florida) and Claide Moraes(Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará)[15] Super Villages, Small Towns, Garden Cities:Understanding the Large Settlements of LatePrecolonial AmazoniaResearch done in the last few years brings mounting evidence forthe presence of large settlements during the first and secondmillennia A.D. across the Amazon. Some of those settlementsshow the presence of highly structured and ordered spatialstructures as well as long-term, century old, occupations thatwould qualify them as cities. However, a closer examination of thedata shows that their wide range of forms and shapes defy theirclassification into received categories. This presentation brings thearchaeological evidence to account for such diversity andproposes a different framework, based on the long-term symbolicand economic ties established by ancient Amazonian and thetropical environment, to account for the occupation andabandonment of those large settlements.[60] DiscussantNewbold, Bradley (Washington State University)[217] Addressing Diet Variability via Bayesian Multi-Source Isotope Mixing ModelsThe stable isotope signatures from agriculturalist groups covarywith the degree of reliance on plant or animal protein, facilitatinguseful reconstruction of the diets of incipient farmers in the distantpast and pinpointing local establishment of agriculture. In thisstudy, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from bone collagenwere used in concert with Bayesian multi-source mixing models toestimate proportional contributions of various food sources to thediets of Fremont-affiliated individuals of the eastern Great Basinand western Colorado Plateau. This source population (AD 400-1400) spans the beginnings of Fremont culture and associatedagricultural practices, the peak of sociocultural and subsistencediversity, and subsequent demise and abandonment of farming. Anovel freeware package, SIAR (Stable Isotope Analysis in R), isintroduced and utilized as a more robust alternative to IsoSourceand similar linear mixing model packages, as it is capable of bothincorporating variation and uncertainty as well as accounting forgrouping structure within the data.Newman, Tiffany [87] see Villagran, VictorNewsom, Lee A. [172] see Kistler, LoganNewsome, Seth D. [88] see Etnier, MichaelNez, Nanebah (Arizona State University / Tonto Nat. Forest)[174] What are the Moral Considerations of Engagingin Tribal Consultation?Anthropology in the Americas is besmirched with examples ofacademic researchers using Native American history and cultureto build names and niches for themselves. Unfortunately theseNials, Fred (Desert Archaeology, Inc.; GeoArch)[199] The Role of Piping in Abandonment ofPrehistoric Agricultural Sites and Interpretationof Site FeaturesPiping (tunneling, subsidence, subsurface erosion) is a geologicalprocess described from almost every continent and climateregime, but is of particular importance in arid and semiarid regionssuch as the American Southwest. The role of piping in destructionof modern farmlands and development of badlands topographyhas long been recognized, but its import to prehistoric agriculturehas been under-appreciated. Recent excavations in Arizona revealthe hazards of piping for irrigation farming and lead to new ideasregarding the formation and interpretation of some types of sitefeatures. The traditional association of piping and arroyo formationis not necessarily correct, and customary methods of excavation ofpit features may not be adequate for identification of piping-relatedfeatures. Many previously-identified "cultural" pits may be ofnatural origin. New evidence from floodplain agricultural sites inthe Southwest suggests thatpiping may have been a significant factor in the abandonment ofsome agricultural sites. Criteria for recognition of piping-relatedfeatures are reviewed, and suggested methods of excavation ofsome types of cultural features are presented.[199] ChairNicewinter, Jeanette (Virginia Commonwealth University)[178] Geometric Communication on CajamarcaCeramicsWith the advent of kaolin ceramics and a unique style ofrepresentation that includes naturalistic and geometric depictions,the prehistoric Cajamarca culture in the north highlands of Peruwas archaeological defined. Daniel G. Julien has deemed thehallmark style on Cajamarca ceramics a marker of Cajamarcaethnicity. However, the analysis of ceramics within terms of formand style is an abbreviated version of the complex communicationintended to be understood by the viewer of the object. I argue thatthe geometric paintings prevalent on Cajamarca ceramics duringthe Late Intermediate Period, between 1000 and 1460 CE, at thesite of Yanaorco represent a visual communication system thatfunctioned within the code of Cajamarca culture and society. I willcompare elements from representational and non-representationalimagery on decorated Cajamarca ceramics to demonstrate thatindividual elements or signifiers worked within a communicationsystem intended to employ ideas and concepts from the artist tothe viewer. By reconstructing the visual communication systemevident on Cajamarca ceramics, the ideological and artisticfunction of Cajamarca ceramics within prehistoric north highlandsculture is better understood as a marker of identity and animplement for the formation of ethnicity.Nicholas, George (Simon Fraser University)[118] DiscussantNicholas, Linda [133] see Feinman, Gary

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 311Nichols, Deborah (Dartmouth College), Wesley Stoner(University of Missouri), Bridget Alex (Harvard University) andDestiny Crider (Luther College)[288] Altica and Early-Middle Formative Exchange inthe Basin of Mexico: A Multi-Method Approachto Compositional AnalysisUnderstanding Early and Middle Formative exchange networks inMesoamerica is of broad interest. Recent analyses of Formativepottery from the Teotihuacan Valley identified a group ofZacatenco white ware pottery from the site of Altica that iscompositionally distinct from any known central Mexican ceramics.Obsidian source data suggests Altica, 10 km from the Otumbasource, was part of exchange networks with other settlements inthe Basin and beyond. We discuss data from NAA, LA-ICP-MS,and petrographic thin section analyses of this distinct Zacatencowhite ware group and compare them to ceramics and clay fromCentral Mexico and the Gulf Coast.Nieva, Miguel [193] see Fondebrider, LuisNightingale, Sheila (City University of New York, GraduateCenter), Alex Mackay (School of Archaeology andAnthropology, Australia), Jessica Thompson (School ofSocial Science, University of Queensland), Victor de Moor(Department of Archaeology, Leiden University, Leid) andElizabeth Gomani-Chindebvu (Ministry of Tourism, Wildlife,and Culture, Lilong)[76] Variability in Middle Stone Age Stone ArtifactReduction Strategies and Raw Material Use inthe Karonga District of Northern MalawiThe variability of Middle Stone Age stone tool production haspreviously been demonstrated in the archaeological record ofnorthern Malawi. However, evaluation of these assemblages inrelation to those of more intensively studied parts of Africa hasbeen minimal. This is in part because of a lack of chronologicalresolution and an analytical framework for typo-technologicalclassification and comparison. From 2009 – 2012, archaeologicalsurvey and excavation of Middle Stone Age deposits in theKaronga region of Malawi has resulted in the recovery of artifactsfrom four different major river catchments. This dataset, whichcomprises worked ochre and over 40,000 stone artifacts from sixsites and 21 test pits across the landscape, and detailed surveydata of several hundred surface finds from the broader area,shows significant temporal and geographic variability of theartifactual record. This variability—evidenced in the differential useof raw materials and reduction strategies that vary in intensity ofpreparation and exploitation, both between sites and within layersat the same site—is of particular importance for understanding theadaptive responses of MSA hominins at times of inferredenvironmental change, and the behavioral trends that situatethese hominins in relation to their contemporaries elsewhere inAfrica.Nigra, Benjamin (UCLA), Kevin Hill (UCLA), Michael Rosales(UCSB), Chloe Tolman (UCLA) and Camille Weinberg (UCLA)[268] An Analysis of Surface Ceramics from Cerrodel Gentil, a Paracas Adobe Mound in theChincha Valley, PeruOur 2012 research at the site of Cerro del Gentil (PV 57-59), anadobe platform mound in the Chincha Valley of the Peruvian southcoast, revealed data suggesting that members of the Paracasregional community built and occupied the site during the EarlyHorizon. As a component of our long-term site management planwe systematically recovered and analyzed surface artifactsassociated with looted pits and areas disturbed by earth-movingmachinery. We focused on diagnostic ceramic sherds as onecomponent of our recovery project. Our results suggest thatoccupants in the area immediately surrounding Cerro del Gentilutilized at least three distinct ceramic styles: Paracas, Topará, andlater Carmen. Analysis indicates that both food preparation andconsumption activities took place on site. Finally, recovery ofdecorated ceramic panpipe fragments suggests that musicalperformance was an important component of the Carmen periodoccupation. Our study highlights the usefulness of cleaning lootedcontexts during early stage research as a method for gaining anpreliminary, broad-picture perspective on site occupation andreuse, and as a compliment to concurrent data sets.Nigst, Philip (University of Cambridge and Max-Planck-Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology), Larissa Koulakovska(Archaeological Museum, Institute of Archaeology, NationalAcademy of Sciences of Ukraine), Vitaly Usik (ArchaeologicalMuseum, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy ofSciences of Ukraine), Freddy Damblon (Royal BelgianInstitute of Natural Sciences) and Jean-Jacques Hublin(Department of Human Evolution, Max-Planck-Institute)[207] Exploring the Middle and Upper Paleolithic ofWestern UkraineNeanderthal and modern human adaptations to various climaticconditions are a heavily debated issue in the archaeological andanthropological communities. In order to contribute to a betterunderstanding of these adaptations during roughly MIS 5 to 2, werecently started an interdisciplinary research project in WesternUkraine. It was mainly selected for its rich archaeological recordand the thick loess deposits. Since 2010 we are conductingsurveys and test-excavations. Here we present first results of oursurvey in the Dniestr valley and of the excavations at Beregovo(Transcarpathia). In the Dniestr valley we discovered manyPaleolithic sites. These include one Middle Paleolithic siteprobably predating MIS 5e, mid Upper Paleolithic as well as lateUpper Paleolithic sites. Excavations at Beregovo provided a richProto-Aurignacian assemblage. First 14C dates and the lithicassemblage including Dufour subtype Dufour bladelets arepresented. This is the first Proto-Aurignacian site in this region.Nikita, Efthymia [172] see Radini, AnitaNishida, Yastami [258] see Craig, OliverNishida, Yastami (Niigata Museum of History), Hayley Saul(University of York), Carl Heron (University of Bradford) andOliver Craig (University of York)[258] Hot Dishes in the Beginning of Jomon Period,JapanAs one of the earliest pottery in Eurasia, Jomon pottery has gaineda lot of interest since the middle of the last century. Compared todating, usage analysis has been modest, until recent developmentof organic analysis techniques. Frequent carbonized residues andsooting found on early pottery indicate their usage on fire, and thisfact enabled direct AMS datings of the sherds. By taking a closelook at the dating of the Incipient and Initial Jomon periods, onenotices the difference in the numbers of results by pottery types. Itdoes not reflect the difference in the amount of sherds unearthed.Actually there are some periods when residues are scarcely found.If the role of pottery did not change, there must have beenchanges in the ingredients or cooking methods.Our team has focused on carbonized residues on the incipient andthe initial Jomon pottery from various parts of Japanesearchipelago, and applied chemical as well as archaeobotanicalanalyses. The sampled sites include open sites, cave sites andshellmidden sites and dates range from ca. 13,000 cal B.C. to5,500 cal B.C. To what degree can we establish the hot dishesthat were cooked in the pots?Nishimura, Masanari (Center for Research of CulturalResource Kanazawa University)[216] Early Bronze Casting and Its Cultural Impact onthe Prehistory of Northern VietnamThis paper argues that the earliest bronze metallurgy in northernVietnam appeared with the early state of the Dong Dau period (ca.3200-2900 B.P.). The Dai Trach site, located in the middle of the

312 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGRed River Plain, is a multi-component habitation site with DongDau and Dong Son cultural layers (3000 B.P. to 2200 B.P.). The2001 excavation revealed two archaeological features of bronzecasting, which suggests an intensive bronze production occurredduring the Dong Dau period. Previous scholars have speculatedabout the possibility of bronze casting appearing during thepreceding Phung Nguyen period. No Phung Nguyen site or sitecomponent has yielded bronze metallurgical evidence, however,and evidence from the Dai Trach site supports a model in whichbronze casting was introduced in the early stage of Dong Dauperiod. This period witnessed a decline in settlement numbers,and an increase in site size along the major rivers. This changewould be related to the shift from lithic to bronze raw materials fortool production. Parallels are also drawn between the earliestdated bronze technological tradition in Northeast Thailand and thatof northern Vietnam.Niven, Laura [68] see Bosch, MarjoleinNixon, Sarah (Indiana University South Bend) and JamesVanderVeen (Indiana University South Bend)[268] Reproducing Ceramic Vessel Form toReconstruct Usage: A Case Study of theCaribbean “Water” BottleWhen considering the behavior of past people, the choicesemployed in the manufacture of artifacts are as important toconsider as the usage, distribution, and symbolic meaning of thosesame materials. This is particularly true when the true use of anartifact remains in question. This poster examines the productionprocesses employed in the creation of a specific vessel foundthroughout the pre-contact Caribbean. The bottle, known as apotiza, is often described as a water storage jar, but that usage iscurrently in debate. In an attempt to imitate the qualities found inpotizas to better understand their function, vessels were createdusing various building techniques and firing styles andtemperatures. These reproductions were subsequently tested withregards to predicted ceramic usage and breakage patternsobserved in the archaeological record. As seen ethnographicallyaround the world, ceramic vessel form is a function of culturalusage; as such, the experimental information of this study givesinsight into the placement of the potiza in Taíno culture.Nixon, Sarah [269] see Myers, SarahNixon-Darcus, Laurie (Simon Fraser University) and A.Catherine D'Andrea (Simon Fraser University)[250] Making a Met’han: The Manufacturing ofGrindingstones in Northern EthiopiaThe manufacturing of grindingstones or saddle querns is a veryancient tradition found in both the Old and New World, and insome regions, the technology persists to the present-day. Withthe relatively recent introduction of diesel and electric flour mills, itis a rapidly disappearing technology. In northern Ethiopia, theproduction of grindingstones or met’han remains a living tradition,although this expertise is increasingly limited to an oldergeneration. This paper presents the results of anethnoarchaeological investigation of grindingstone productiondocumented in the Gulo Makeda region of Eastern Tigrai. Fromraw material selection to final finishing, observations and datacollection were informed by concepts of design theory and chaîneopératoire. Decisions made during the manufacturing processdemonstrated a thorough understanding of the structuralproperties of stone, and design decisions affected the usability andlongevity of the finished tool. Embedded in the manufacturingprocess are social implications for the people of this region.Nobile, Juan [193] see Fondebrider, LuisNoll, Christopher (Plateau Archaeological Investigations) andJohn Kannady (Plateau Archaeological Investigations)[148] A Geospatial Model of the Relationshipbetween Chippable Stone Quarries andWorkshop Locations in the NorthwesternUnited StatesChipped stone reduction strategies rely on stone qualities that arenecessary for controlled fracture. Stone with the necessaryattributes occurs in source locations that are irregularly distributedand found in discrete localities. The presence of a high qualitychippable stone source on the landscape is a major influence onpopulation movements as it relates to the exploitation of thatsource. Secondary factors may influence the intensity of theexploitation of a raw material source. The dependent tasksinvolved in reducing stone into usable objective pieces require aninvestment of time that must be supported by the raw materialsource environment through available low-cost subsistenceresources such as shellfish and ready-to-eat plants, and taskdependent resources such as fuel for heat treatment fires. Theavailability of low cost subsistence resources and task dependentresources may have played a significant role in determining whichstone sources were exploited prehistorically. This paper exploresthe secondary influences on raw material exploitation and providessome environmental parameters for geospatial modeling thelocation of lithic workshops.Noonsuk, Wannasarn (Walailak University)[104] The Foundation of Greatness: The EarlyDevelopment of the Tambralinga Kingdom inPeninsular SiamLocated on the east coast of Peninsular Siam, an isthmian tractbetween the South China Sea and the Bay of Bengal, Tambralingahad the openness of an island to trade and cultural influencessince the late centuries B.C.E. However, historians tend to talkabout Tambralinga as if it emerged only in the early centuries ofthe second millennium C.E. when the kingdom reached its peak.During that time, according to the historical record, it sent a seriesof envoys to China, controlled the whole isthmus, sent a prince torule Angkor, and even sent army across the ocean to occupy thenorthern part of Sri Lanka. It was the only Southeast Asiankingdom that could establish a vassal in South Asia. However, theearly development of Tambralinga has largely been neglected byscholars. Therefore, this paper will examine the early materialculture in the area of Tambralinga from the late centuries B.C.E. tothe 11th century C.E. My archaeological fieldworks demonstratedthat this area had the highest densities of Bronze Drums, earlyVishnu images, lingas, Hindu shrines, and stone inscriptions inPeninsula Siam. Clusters of early historic sites on the GIS-basedmaps and the kingdom’s cultural geography will be discussed.Nordine, Kelsey [103] see Hageman, JonNorman, Garth (ARCON, Inc.)[78] Izapa, Mexico to Nazca, Peru by Sea--15Degrees North and South Latitude SUNZENITH Ancient Cultural Calendar Connection.Izapa, Mexico's sophisticated design plan was completed in the4th Century BC prior to initiating construction of mounds andmonuments. The master plan incorporated geometric mandalas,standard measures, calendar observatory and precessionmeasures in the temple center. This empirical data base providesa solid foundation for Izapa comparative studies. Izapa's 15degree north latitude Zenith sun passage documents the sacred260-day calendar. I traced Izapa's Anti-Zenith to 15 degrees southlatitude at Nazca, Peru in search of the sacred 260-day calendarin the southern hemisphere. A Google Earth satellite surveyreveals Izapa's full design plan reached Nazca by sea during thesettlement of Cauachi around 200 BC. The full data is found in theNazca lines dimensions and astronomical orientations and in theCauachi temple geometric design with standard measures andastronomical orientations. This data illustrates long distancecultural contacts by sea and establishes a firm foundation for moreopen, serious trans-oceanic cultural contacts research.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 313Norman, Scotti (Vanderbilt University), Asa Cameron(Vanderbilt University), Carla Hernandez (VanderbiltUniversity) and Steven Wernke (Vanderbilt University)[235] Producing Colonial Place: GIS-based SpatialNetwork Analysis of a Planned Colonial Townin Highland PeruDuring the 1570s, Spanish policies in the Viceroyalty of Perusought to instill a program of colonial dominance through massresettlement to planned towns (reducciones). Little site-levelresearch investigates how such colonial policies were instituted insitu, or how they were received by Andean communities. Previousresearch in the Colca Valley of highland Peru demonstrates thatthese policies were in part enacted through the modification of thebuilt environment within preexisting sites, producing novel placesthat synthesized elements and practices from both indigenous andSpanish traditions. At Mawchu Llacta, a reducción in the ColcaValley, evidence suggests that the site layout was initially centeredon a trapezoidal plaza from a major preexisting Inkaic center,while a second, rectangular plaza was subsequently elaborated. Inthis poster, spatial network analysis simulates patterns of accessand movement between houses and these two plazas within thereducción. This approach illustrates how reducción resettlementwas not an arbitrary imposition of foreign spatial practices, butinstead was actually enacted through micro-scale processes ofrecycling and transformation of the built environment, which bothreinforced and transformed indigenous spatial practices. Theseambivalent processes of co-production in turn generated distinctlycolonial-Andean modes of dwelling.Normoyle, Jessica [182] see Richardson-Cline, KristaNovic, Juliana (ASU School of Human Evolution and SocialChange)[229] Social Mixing in the Neighborhoods of AztecPeriod Calixtlahuaca, MexicoSocial scientists have been interested in social clustering orsegregation and social mixing for decades. Archaeologists havebeen slow to focus on these aspects of community. The socialorganization of a city can have profound effects on the type ofcommunity and political organization present there. I examinesocial clustering and social mixing along the lines of class, ritual,and consumer preferences in the twenty neighborhoods ofCalixtlahuaca. The data and analysis show that Calixtlahuaca wasa socially mixed city in many respects. House groups sharedsimilarities in consumer preference of ceramics, but thesepreferences did not dictate where they chose to live. Elites andcommoners lived side by side. However, neighborhood locationdid relate to access to or desire for certain ritual objects andsources of obsidian. These findings suggest that issues of socialclustering and social mixing cannot be summarized with onemeasure. Many factors impact residential choice.[229] ChairNovotny, Anna (Arizona State University)[256] History and Genealogy among Ancient MayaCommoners of the Belize River Valley, BelizeIconographic, archaeological, and ethnographic data indicate thatlineage membership was a prime social structuring element inancient Maya society. The extent to which this is true forcommoners is not well understood. Scholars argue that ancestorveneration was a cultural institution that originated withcommoners, however their means of communicating theimportance of lineage in archaeologically recoverable materialswere limited since they could not rely on hieroglyphs oriconography. The goal of this paper is to assess the extent towhich leaders of three mid-level sites of the Belize River Valley,Belize, emphasized lineage membership using contextual andbioarchaeological data. I address the importance of lineage to midlevelleaders of the Late Classic period (A.D. 500-900) byinvestigating the degree of biological relatedness though kinshipanalysis of individuals interred in eastern structures, interpreted asa location of lineage ancestors. The data are expected todemonstrate that commoners emphasized lineage, and thusvalued their own history and connection to the past.Novotny, Claire (University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill)[256] Households and Hinterlands: Synthesizing aRegional Chronology for the Toledo District ofSouthern BelizeIn the Toledo district of southern Belize, diachronic dataestablished through ceramic typologies and AMS radiocarbondates are currently refining our understanding of when and for howlong the ancient Maya occupied monumental site centers.However, I argue that in order to synthesize a regional chronologyfor southern Belize, researchers need to evaluate archaeologicalresidues from hinterland settlements. This paper reviews ongoingarchaeological research at rural farming settlements surroundingAguacate village in the Toledo district. Using archaeologicalreconnaissance, topographic mapping, and surface collections, Iconsider how the recorded sites fit into ceramic chronologiesestablished at Lubaantun and refined at Nim Li Punit andUxbenka. Additionally, I explore how spatial data expands ourknowledge of diachronic settlement. Preliminary ceramic data fromsites on Aguacate community land suggest that settlement mayhave occurred as early as the Early Classic period (A.D. 250-500),and extended through the Late Classic period (A.D. 500-900).Spatial data suggest that building houses on hilltops wasconsistent over time. Consideration of hinterland households, theirchronology and spatial location, is key to a holistic understandingof the sociocultural processes that shaped ancient society insouthern Belize.Nowell, April [162] see Bisson, MichaelNowell, April (Univ of Victoria-Dept of Anth) and Melanie LeeChang (University of Oregon)[217] How to Make Stone Soup: PaleolithicArchaeology and the “Paleo Diet”Health and fitness books touting the benefits of eating a “Paleodiet” and following a “Paleo lifestyle” have proliferated greatly inrecent years with more than 500 books and countless prepackaged“Paleo” foods, Paleo shopping list apps and otherproducts currently available to consumers. With titles such asNeanderThin, Primal Body, Primal Mind, and Cave Women Don'tGet Fat: The Paleo Girl's Diet for Rapid Results, these booksclearly resonate with a significant segment of the North Americanpopulation. This paper explores the assumptions underlyingvarious iterations of the “Paleo movement” and their relation to thearchaeological and paleontological evidence for the health, dietand subsistence strategies of our hominin ancestors at differentpoints in our evolution. By way of conclusion, this paper addresseswhy some people aspire to live a “Paleolithic life.”Noyes, Martha[280] Writing the Heavens on the Earth: HawaiianCultural Astronomy at KukanilokoRecent research at Kūkaniloko, an important site in central Oʻahubest known as the piko (navel) of Hawaiʻi and a royal birthing site,shows that landscape features both within the view of Kūkanilokoand beyond view were named in such a way as to locate the riseand/or set of stars as and stations of the sun. This ordering of thelandscape and stars served to mark events in the culture’scosmology, the structure of its celestial architecture, and at leastone element of societal governance.Nuevo Delaunay, Amalia [26] see Méndez Melgar, César

314 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGNuevo Delaunay, Amalia (INAPL-Buenos Aires), Juan BautistaBelardi (UNPA- CONICET), Flavia Carballo Marina (UNPA) andHernán De Angelis (CADIC- CONICET)[26] Contact, Disarticulation, and Continuity inTehuelche Groups: Settlement Patterns andTechnology in South Patagonia (Santa Cruz,Argentina)Archeological research in Patagonia has focused primarily on thestudy of hunter-gatherers prior to the contact with Europeansettlers. However, if we consider regional peopling as part of acontinuum that can be archeologically evaluated until recent -historical moments, this kind of research can provide meaningfulinsights for assessing settlement patterns and technologicalchoices of a farther past. We study the archeological recordattributed to Tehuelche groups already immersed in the socialeconomiccontext of the Argentinean state, yet these data areconsidered independent and complementary to that provided bythe historical record. By studying settlement patterns and the useof technology in four different XIX-to-XX century sites ofindigenous ancestry, we evaluate the variability of huntergatherersmaterial responses as a consequence of Europeancontact. We discuss the different responses and the resilience ofthe Tehuelche peoples towards European contact at the finalstages of the disarticulation of a lifeway based on hunting andgathering. This paper may be useful for understanding the causesof change/continuity of other groups in the past.Nydegger, Nick [281] see Fruhlinger, JakeOas, Sarah[103] Revisiting Bosumpra: Investigating Plant Use,Continuity, and Change in the GhanaianRainforest during the Late Stone AgeThe rockshelter of Bosumpra in southern Ghana is among themost important sites of the Late Stone Age (LSA) period in sub-Saharan West Africa. The rockshelter is one of the only knownLSA forest occupation sites, and it has the longest knowncontinuous occupation sequence in Ghana, spanning almost theentirety of the LSA (c. 10, 280-2550 BP). Scholars interested inWest African subsistence practices have long hypothesized thatBosumpra might provide early evidence of tree-nut cultivation, asremains of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and incense tree(Canarium schweinfurthii) were recorded from earlier excavationsat the rockshelter. This paper presents the results of my M.A.thesis, that focused on the macrobotanical analysis of the seeds,fruits, and wood charcoal remains from the most recent reexcavationat Bosumpra (2008-2010). I provide the firstquantitative evaluation of tree-nut taxa use at the site, anddocument changes in preference between these taxa over time. Ialso describe the other plant materials recovered, includingdomesticated millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and cowpea (Viciaunguiculata), providing some of the first macrobotanical data aboutthe emergence and spread of plant domesticates in the tropicalforests of southern Ghana in the LSA.OBoyle, Robert (University Of Montana), Alvin Windy Boy Sr.(Chippewa Cree Tribal Historic Preservation Officer) andJason Brown (Heritage Preservation Office ContentManagement Sy)[265] The Good, the Bad, and the FederalGovernment: A Way forward with TribalConsultationThe Ojibwe and Ne-hi-yah-w people of the Rocky Boy’s IndianReservation have been working with federal agencies for years onconsultation and the 106 process. The Chippewa Cree CulturalResource Preservation Department has worked with varyingdegrees of success with federal agencies. Some of thesepartnerships have been great, demonstrating what can happenwhen tribes and federal officials work together, while some haveshown the inadequacies and shortcomings of many federalagencies in their level of tribal consultation. This poster is aboutsolutions. The authors have developed an innovative web basedsolution where Government Agencies and Tribes can worktogether in the consultation process. A simple letter sent to thetribe has been found to be inadequate to fulfill the requirementsunder 36CFR800.2Bii. The Cultural Resource PreservationDepartment has a “forms” page on the website wherefederal and state agencies can submit information to the Tribe forconsultation and review. Because it is web based, all parties – nomatter if they are in Box Elder, Montana or Bensenville, Illinois canaccess the information. All communication and information can bestored in a single easily accessible location.O'Boyle, Robert C. [262] see Bello, CharlesOBrien, Lauren (Southern Methodist University)[16] New Investigations of Pithouses in the NorthernTaos ValleyRecent archaeological investigations at several pithouse sites inthe Northern Taos Valley have revealed new insights into thisperiod. Research undertaken over the last 30 years haspredominately focused on the southern half of the valley, leavingour knowledge of the northern half insufficient. Excavations overthe past year have improved our understanding of the design anduse of these structures, as well as on extramural areas andpossible structures associated with them. This paper will showhow this new data has modified our interpretations of what wasoccurring in the northern half of the Taos Valley, and possible whowas occupying it.O'Brien, Matthew (University of New Mexico)[151] Identifying Leadership for Communal HuntingEpisodes at the Eden Farson SiteIt is commonly assumed that social status is invisible within huntergatherer archaeology due to the absence of clear indicators ofprestige among the material culture. In addition, definingindividuals or individual households in often obscured by siteformation processes. Ethnographic evidence indicates that mosthunter gatherer societies possess some degree of inequalityamong individuals. These differences are associated with thoseindividuals that possess a comparative advantage over others,which results in greater benefits for themselves or their family.Skewed returns are commonly mentioned in historical andcontemporary accounts of communal hunting that requireleadership for the organization of labor and policing of participantsduring the event. This presentation aims to address the issue ofidentifying leadership, or enhanced status, in archaeologicalassemblages through a combination of faunal and spatialanalyses. The Eden Farson site, a communal pronghorn kill site insouthwest Wyoming, provides an opportunity to addressimplications of leadership an otherwise egalitarian society. In theanalysis of the estimated 175 pronghorn dispersed among the 10households at Eden Farson, evidence suggests that is possible toidentify skewness, or preferential treatment, in the distribution ofthe proceeds from this communal hunting episode.O'Brien, Michael [217] see Collard, MarkOchoa, Patricia [248] see Velazquez, AdrianO'Connell, James [2] see Codding, BrianO'Connor, Sue [7] see Bulbeck, DavidO'Connor, John (University of Hawaii-Manoa)[27] Fishhook Variability in East Polynesia

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 315The colonization of the eastern Pacific islands has long been ofinterest to archaeologists given its relatively recent history andremoteness. The geographical isolation exemplified by thearchipelagos of East Polynesia provides an ideal situation for thestudy of cultural development among descendants of an initialancestral population. My study examines proximal endpoint lineattachment-devices(LAD) in prehistoric fishhook assemblagesfrom East Polynesia to address questions of early colonization,migrations, and interaction. I build relational networks using artifactclasses and compare these artifact trait networks to thegeographical distributions of the analyzed assemblages. Therelation of stylistic character states among assemblages mapscultural transmission lineages. From this analysis I explore thedegree of cultural relatedness among various East Polynesianfishhook classes, their sharing in space and time, and considersome of the implications of colonization order and humanmigrations in East Polynesia. Sample size differences limit theanalytic potential of this study, but point to areas for futureresearch.O'Connor, Sue (The Australian National University)[167] Pleistocene Maritime Societies in IslandSoutheast AsiaSome time prior to 50,000 years ago modern humans leftmainland Asia (Sunda) and began the first of a series of maritimevoyages that was to culminate in the colonization of Sahul(Australia and New Guinea) by 50,000 B.P. The maritimetechnology implied by this accomplishment has raised manyquestions which cannot be addressed by the earliest sites inSahul. Recent excavations in caves on the north coast of EastTimor have recovered the world’s oldest fish hooks together withan assemblage of fish bones, including many from pelagic specieslike tuna. This evidence dates back to 42,000 B.P. and shows thatthe people living in the islands to the north of Australia eitherarrived with, or rapidly acquired, considerable maritime skills andequipment. It seems likely that it was these skills that made thecolonization of Australia possible at this early date. This paperexplores the technological implications of the marine faunalassemblage and the role of the shell and osseous artifacts in theprocurement of these resources.Oda, Hirotaka [222] see Izuho, MasamiODay, Karen (University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire)[19] Inferring Identity of Gran CocléAnthropomorphic Effigy Vessels ca. 550-1150C.E.Polychrome ceramics form a major corpus of visual expression bythe societies of the Gran Coclé region. Accordingly, consistentscholarly attention examines a wide range of issues. The region’sceramic chronology is firm. Spiritual, social, political, andeconomic roles of the vessels have been described. Ampleinterpretations of the zoomorphic and geometric iconography exist.Among this research, one data source is relatively overlooked:anthropomorphic effigy vessels. Admittedly, they comprise asmaller database than the thousands of plates, bowls, and jarsand, in addition, the zoomorphic effigies are also more numerous.On the plus side, recent studies of effigies and figurinesdemonstrate that they form productive and unique data sets. Assuch, the effigy vessels potentially complement the excavatedburials, which stand as the main data about the people of GranCoclé. This presentation focuses discussion on the effigies’identity markers. A preliminary insight about gender follows: it ispossible that the anthropomorphic effigy vessels are the firstevidence of gender variance in Gran Coclé.Odegaard, Nancy [139] see Santarelli, BrunellaOdess, Daniel (University of Alaska Museum)[168] DiscussantO'Donnabhain, Barra (University College Cork, Ireland)[209] Americans Abroad: Providing MeaningfulArchaeological and Cultural Experiences in anEnglish-Speaking DestinationIreland has for long been a popular destination for US-basedstudents seeking to study overseas. However, as the USgovernment and institutions of higher education are pushingstudents to participate in programmes at non-traditionaldestinations, is the Irish experience still relevant or valid? Thispaper explores the reasons why Ireland became an attractivedestination in the first place and critically evaluates the position of‘traditional’ locations and their ability to compete with nontraditionalvenues and to recruit US students in the future. It willpresent the type of research experiences developed countries mayoffer to field school students and explore whether suchexperiences are sufficiently ‘exotic’. It will examine the place ofarchaeology in general in the context of the desired outcome andintended goals of the Simon Study Abroad Act and will suggestthat archaeology itself is non-traditional and offers studentsmeaningful and transformative cultural experiences. In thiscontext, the research location itself is of secondary relevance.ODriscoll, Corey (University of Queensland) and JessicaThompson (University of Queensland)[263] Zooarchaeological Evidence for ProjectileTechnology in the African Middle Stone AgeThe ability of Homo sapiens to kill prey at a distance is arguablyone of the catalysts for our current ecological dominance. Despitethe importance of projectile technology in human huntingstrategies, there is no consensus on its origins. Many researchershave suggested it lies in the African Middle Stone Age (MSA) orMiddle Paleolithic. However, evidence from the MSA is dependenton analysis of the stone points themselves. There is a growingbody of research focusing on zooarchaeological projectile impactmarks in European assemblages; however, comparableinvestigations are currently lacking for the MSA. The criteria foridentifying projectile impact marks on bone are not standardized,and no large experimental studies exist that examine marks left byMSA points. Therefore, a clear analytical framework must becreated through experimental samples. Using replica MSAprepared core points and Howiesons Poort segments – presentduring the southern African MSA – this paper defines the variousforms of marks on bone caused by stone artifacts commonlyconsidered to have been used as projectiles at this time. Whenapplied to the archaeological record, these results suggest that theearliest direct evidence for hunting practices in southern AfricanMSA deposits dates to ~90 ka.Oechsner, Amy (U.S. Bureau of Land Management)[91] Challenges and Strategies: Managing the OldSpanish National Historic Trail in CaliforniaIn 1829, New Mexican trader Antonio Armijo blazed the OldSpanish Trail: first overland conduit of immigration and commerceto pierce Alta California and tie it to the east. Congress designatedthis significant byway a National Historic Trail in 2002, andassigned the Bureau of Land Management and National ParkService joint managers. In California, where the Trail crossesprodigious swaths of BLM land, BLM cultural resourceprofessionals tackle a number of management challenges. Officialmaps of the Trail corridor are inaccurate, and extant trace isunder-surveyed, the history, definition, and importance of the Trailare obscure, BLM - Old Spanish Trail Association partnerships areunorganized and underutilized, and burgeoning renewable energyprojects consume limited fiscal resources and cultural resourcestaff hours. I explore these challenges and define successfulstrategies the California BLM is using to mitigate them. Regular

316 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGinteragency and extra-agency application of these strategies willfacilitate improved documentation, preservation, and promotion ofthis nationally significant cultural resource.Oetelaar, Gerald (University of Calgary) and AlwynneBeaudoin (Royal Alberta Museum, Edmonton, Alberta)[131] The Days of the Dry Snow: Short and LongTerm Cultural Adaptations to the Mazama AshFall on the Northern PlainsThe climactic eruption of Mount Mazama spread a thick layer ofvolcanic ash over 1,000,000 km2 of western North America. Theash accumulation had a devastating impact on the continentalflora and fauna which exposed a number of vulnerabilities in thesocial and subsistence strategies of the resident population. Inparticular, the long-term unpredictability in the availability ofsubsistence resources culminated in the depletion of the storedfood supplies and forced the resident groups to seek theassistance of their relations living beyond the limits of the ash fall.As a result of this population displacement, the former occupantsof the Northern Plains acquired new food preparation techniquesand strategies for the long term storage of essential resources. Toavoid similar disasters in the future, the interacting groups alsoexpanded their social safety nets to ensure access to a largeaggregate of people well beyond the limits of their respectivehomelands. Using data recovered from deeply stratifiedarchaeological sites occupied before and after the ash fall, I willexplore the vulnerabilities of pre-eruption societies through ananalysis of the social and technological changes adopted by thehunter-gatherer groups after this unusual natural disaster.Oetelaar, Gerald [131] see Beaudoin, AlwynneOffenbecker, Adrianne (University of Calgary) and D. TroyCase (North Carolina State University)[41] Contact in the Northern Great Plains: AnAssessment of Biological Stress among theProtohistoric ArikaraThe arrival of Europeans in North America represents a pivotaltransition that altered the biocultural landscape of a continent.While many studies have generalized the contact experience asoverwhelmingly deleterious, others have suggested thatinteractions between Old and New World populations may havebeen initially favorable in some places, including the Great Plainsof the United States. The primary objective of our research is toexamine temporal trends in the health status of Arikara villagersthat may be related to the initial arrival of European explorers andfur traders in the Upper Missouri Valley. We accomplish this bycomparing biological stress levels among precontact andpostcontact Arikara populations, as indicated by the presence ofenamel hypoplasia, porotic hyperostosis, and cribra orbitalia.Statistical analysis reveals significantly higher levels of systemicstress in the postcontact population, particularly among juveniles.We discuss these results in the context of varying subsistencestrategies, dietary intake, and disease loads and highlight theimportance of utilizing both juvenile and adult remains in healthanalyses of past populations.Ogburn, Dennis (University of North Carolina at Charlotte)[132] New Perspectives on Prehispanic Empires inthe AndesTaking a cross-cultural perspective, observations are offered forunderstanding imperialism in the prehispanic Andes. Empires aremechanisms to benefit elites and aspiring elites, and theyessentially comprise a set of elite relationships. While empirescan expand quickly, creating an enduring imperial state requiresestablishing strong relationships between center and provincialelites at various levels. This entails leveraging elite agency andpromulgating a shared political ideology. Consolidating theserelationships establishes elite participation at local levels andthose elites come to participate to an extent in a shared imperialelite identity, which is expressed through an iconography of powerand other material means. Failure to consolidate theserelationships at the local level can result in different imperialtrajectories that may not be readily recognized in thearchaeological record. One such trajectory is suggested as amodel to potentially explain the key problem of shared eliteideology in the Middle Horizon, which has been a long-standingproblem in Andean archaeology.O'Grady, Patrick [128] see Nelson, AmyOh, Chang Seok [22] see Kim, Myeung JuOh, Kang Won (The Academy of Korean Studies) and KangWon Oh (The Academy of Korean Studies)[289] Changes in Interaction Spheres amongComplex Societies in Liaoning during theBronze and Early Iron Ages (Twelfth to ThirdCenturies B.C.)Material cultures in Liaoning went through four dramatic changesin the 12th, 8th, 6th, and 3rd centuries B.C. Such cultural shiftswere closely interwoven with increasing social complexity andreforming interactions between centers and peripheries inLiaoning. For example, the spread of the Weiyingzi-type culturalassemblage resulted from the formation of complex societies inKazuo region in the 12th century. In the 8th century, risingcomplex societies influenced the network of the Shiertaiyingzimaterial culture in Liaoxi, west part of Liaoining. Two culturaltraditions of the Nandonggou in Kazuo and the Zhengjiawazi inShenyang were centers of trading relations in Liaoning in the 6thcentury B.C. Consequence of widening interactions is theformation of similar material cultures throughout Liaoning by the6th century B.C. Yan state became a center of unifying culturaltradition in Liaoning by the 5th century B.C. Such unifying Liaoningculture influenced the material cultures in both northeast Chinaand northwest Korea. The Early Iron Age sites in northwest Koreadating to the 3rd century B.C. showed intensifying culturalinteractions with Yan, eastern Liaoning, and central Jilin.Ohnersorgen, Michael [279] see Glascock, MichaelOka, Rahul (University of Notre Dame) and Dianna Bartone(University of Notre Dame)[100] Reclaiming Poverty for Anthropology: HowArchaeology Can Form the Basis forUnderstanding the Evolution, Endurance, andUbiquity of Global PovertyTwo processes seem to characterize the relationship betweenanthropology and poverty. First, anthropology has rejected‘poverty’ and turned towards nuanced discussions of ‘structuralviolence’ and ‘inequality.’ Second, anthropology has becomeincreasingly irrelevant in public policy decisions on structuralviolence, inequality, or poverty. Other social and health sciencescontinue to investigate ‘poverty’ as a debilitating human conditioninextricable from contemporary global political economies even asthey acknowledge the issues in defining and measuring it. In thispaper, given the almost 10,000 years of data on inequality andcomplexity, we argue that anthropology, especially archaeology,have much to offer the ongoing studies on poverty and policiesaimed at its alleviation. Accordingly, we call for anthropology toreclaim ‘poverty.’ We offer summary, debate, and cautionaryconsensus on the issues of defining and measuring povertyencountered in economics, political science, psychology,sociology, and the health sciences. We highlight recent economicanalyses showing the correlation between poverty, credit, andmaterial accumulation. We posit that these studies will enablearchaeological anthropology to take the initiative in understandingpoverty as larger human concern that predates our contemporaryeconomy and to confront the room elephant: is poverty anecessary outcome of social complexity?

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 317Okada, Mayumi[141] The Current Situation of ArchaeologicalHeritage and Tourism in the World NaturalHeritage ShiretokoIn July 2005, Shiretoko, a peninsula of well-preserved wildernessof the northern Hokkaido, was registered as a World NaturalHeritage site. Although Shiretoko contains rich archaeologicalresources from the dynamic Okhotsk culture and illustratesconnections with Ainu descendant communities, the Japanesegovernment has not recognized the important of indigenouscultural heritage in local Shiretoko tourism development. Fewhistorical and cultural traces of Ainu people are evident in one ofHokkaido’s most popular tourism destinations. The IndigenousHeritage and Tourism Working Group (IHTWG) has sponsoredtemporary exhibits of archaeological remains found from siteslocated in Shiretoko (such as the Chashikot B site) since 2008. Toclarify current understandings of local archaeological heritage inShiretoko tourism, IHTWG administered questionnaires to exhibitvisitors in 2009 and 2010. Using questionnaire results, this paperdiscusses (1) how people recognize archaeological sites located inShiretoko, (2) what kind of impression the exhibit makes onvisitors; (3) what archaeology can do for promoting multi-vocalperspectives of history and characteristics in Shiretoko.Okamoto, Kamijyou [66] see Wang, QiangOkrutny, Elizabeth [251] see Burch, AshleyOkumura, Mercedes (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil) andAstolfo Araujo (University of Sao Paulo, Brazil)[80] Morphometric Evolution of Early HoloceneBifacial Points in Southern Brazil (GarivaldinoRodrigues, Taquari, Rio Grande do Sul)Regardless the great number of archaeological sites fromSouthern Brazil presenting bifacial points dated from thePleistocene-Holocene boundary, not many detailed studies ontheir morphological evolution have been done so far. We present amorphometric study of projectile points excavated from the siteGarivaldino Rodrigues (RS-TQ-58), located on the state of RioGrande do Sul. Garivaldino presents a range of dates from 11.800to 7.400 cal B.P. Ninety-four points from four stratigraphic levelswere studied. Multivariate statistics applied to both the traditionaland the geometric morphometric analyses have failed to revealany important temporal changes. However, the univariateanalyses of linear measurements have revealed an increasethrough time in the variation of all measurements. It has also beenobserved an increase in the types of raw material used tomanufacture such points through time. The absence of change inthe morphology of points has been observed in other cases inSouth America (Rick 1980; Borrero 1989), usually related to smallgroups and low levels of cultural innovation. On the other hand,the increase in the variability of linear measurements and thetypes of raw material might suggest an increase in population sizeand copying errors.Olano, Jorge [214] see Sakai, MasatoO'Leary, Beth (New Mexico State University )[13] To Boldy Go Where No Man Has Gone before:Approaches in Space Archaeology andHeritageMy paper will provide a current overview of the field of SpaceArchaeology and Heritage from its origins (2000 to 2012). I willexplore the underlying theoretical framework of spacearchaeology, which not only studies the relationships betweenmaterial culture and human behavior, but embraces the totality ofhuman experience in that it can be studied in all times and in allplaces it exists. Space archaeologists can study both the past andpresent and make substantive contributions to studies of humanbehavior that other disciplines cannot. The field eliminates spatialboundaries. With the advent of space exploration (ca. 50 B.P.) anexoatmospheric archaeological record was created and isincreasing exponentially. The cultural landscape of space includesboth sites and objects on and off Earth; it is necessary to evaluatethe significance of the latter and treat them as important objectsand places worthy of legitimate archaeological inquiry. A broadview of the diversity of foci will be explored including technology,life history, how objects construct their subject, popular culture,and the advent of space robotic “culture.” My paper will investigatethe routes for preservation, both national and international, underthe increasing prospect of those objects and places beingdestroyed.[13] ChairO'Leary, Owen (JPAC-CIL)[251] The History of the Joint POW/MIA AccountingCommand and America’s Efforts to Recover ItsFallen Service MembersThe United States government has been actively engaged in therecovery, repatriation, and identification of its military personnelwho have died on the field of battle for over 170 years. This paperwill discuss how those efforts began, evolved over time, and wereshaped by lessons learned from each of the major wars of the20th century. This will include detailing the creation of specificorganizations for the task, adoption and incorporation ofanthropological methods and techniques, and the invention ofconcurrent return. Particular emphasis will be paid to thedevelopment of the modern efforts to account for the missingservicemen since the Vietnam War and how the various iterationsof organizations have led to the present day Joint POW/MIAAccounting Command. This contextual background will establishthe groundwork for understanding the unique and challenging taskthat JPAC currently undertakes.[251] ChairO'Leary, Owen [251] see To, DeniseOlenick, Carly Evelyn [149] see Jones, TerrahOlguin, Ivan[114] Los contextos arqueológicos de las tumbas deMitla.Mitla es bien conocido por la compleja y detallada arquitectura desus palacios y recintos funerarios, producto de una larga tradicióncultural que alcanzó su más refinada expresión hacia el periodopostclásico. Si bien diversos investigadores se han interesado porestudiar este sitio, en el que se evidencia el alto valor social de laconcepción de la muerte y las tradiciones funerarias tanto enépoca prehispánica como en el presente, son insuficientes lostrabajos que se han enfocado de manera general en los contextosarqueológicos hallados en sus tumbas, dentro del área urbana delasentamiento prehispánico. Tomando en cuenta la alteración queestos contextos han sufrido al paso del tiempo debido a lacontinuidad ocupacional, y teniendo en mente la incertidumbre entorno al origen cultural de sus contenidos, esta ponencia pretenderetomar la interpretación arqueológica de estos contextosfunerarios en busca de esclarecer su origen y significado.Ollé, Andreu [98] see Evans, AdrianOllivier, Morgane (ENS Lyon / IGFL), Christophe Hitte (CNRS /IGDR), Anne Tresset (CNRS / MNHN), Jean-Denis Vigne(CNRS / MNHN) and Hänni Catherine (CNRS / IGFL)[20] Phenotypic Variations in Ancient Dogs: A

318 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGGleam from the Past to Shed New Light onDomesticationThe large phenotypic and genetic diversity of present-day dogpopulations suggests that their founders came from wide andvaried wolf populations. Nevertheless, for three hundred years,men have operated intense artificial selection erasing pastdiversity. As a result, little is known about phenotypes of ancientdogs, wolves or of the early effects of domestication at the geneticand phenotypic levels on primitive dogs.Paleogenetic analysis of ancient wolves and dogs’ specimensenables us to understand the history of genes responsible forphenotypic changes, and infer the history of domesticatedphenotypes. As genomic information is available for modern dogs(one genome of boxer, annotated sequences, SNPs...), there iseasy access to information on specific genomic regions related tophenotypic traits susceptible to change between wolves and dogsdue to the domestication process.We studied specific SNPs on several genes and QTL regionsrelated to phenotypic variation (coat color, size…). Thisgenotyping of ancient samples, allowed us to link phenotypicinformation to genomic variations and clarify the geneticmechanisms that have been underlying evolutionary processesand adaptations during the domestication of dog.Olsen, Karyn (Western University), Christine White (WesternUniversity), Fred Longstaffe (Western University ), Kristin vonHeyking (Ludwig Maximilians University Munich) and GeorgeMcGlynn (Munich State Collection for Anthropology andPalaeoanatomy)[79] The Effects of Trauma and Infection on Intra-Tissue Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopic Variabilityof Bone CollagenIsotopic (δ13C, δ15N) variability in human tissues is regularly usedto reconstruct diet with little knowledge of how much it might beaffected by pathological conditions. Here, we address the effectsof various pathologies on the carbon- and nitrogen-isotopecompositions of collagen. Individuals who had either experiencedrecent bone fractures (evident by an incompletely remodeledcallus) or active and systemic bone infection (osteomyelitis) weresampled from a Medieval period poorhouse cemetery inRegensburg, Germany, and a modern/historic Swiss anatomycollection. Fracture calluses or osteomyelitic lesions were sampledalong with unaffected areas of bone from the same individuals.Both traumatic and infectious lesions had higher δ15N values thanthe unaffected bone, which likely reflects negative nitrogenbalances associated with increased muscle protein catabolism andurinary nitrogen excretion. The osteomyelitic lesions also hadhigher δ13C values than those of unaffected bone. This differencelikely reflects the changes in carbohydrate metabolism thataccompany infection-induced anorexia or the loss of appetiteassociated with prolonged infection. Given that trauma andinfection can greatly disrupt normal body metabolism, the isotopiccomposition of collagen formed during serious periods of illness isunreliable for dietary reconstruction.Olsen, John W. [222] see Gillam, ChristopherOlson, Kyle [157] see Thornton, ChristopherOlson, Greg (Mercyhurst University)[193] Human Remains Recovery in a Fatal FireSetting Using Archaeological MethodologyThere is a natural tendency for those involved in fire settings tobecome overwhelmed simply by the magnitude and destruction ofthe scene itself. One can easily become overpowered at sceneswhere there is large loss, and the path the investigator must takemay be obscured by the scene. Fire investigations are oftencomplex and difficult to interpret at first blush. Because of thepotential for the fire investigator to become distracted, one mustdevelop an analytical and systematic approach to sceneinvestigations. It is expected that fire investigators with experienceand training in archaeological methods will successfully meet therigorous test of the scientific method that is being emphasized infire investigations. To date, the resulting recovery analysis hasproven overwhelmingly that the application of archaeologicalmethods at these types of scenes both supports and authenticatesthe utilization of these methods. After attending this presentation,attendees will understand the value of applying archaeologicalrecovery methods at fatal fire scenes not only to maximize theamount of human remains recovered but also the associatedartifacts surrounding the death.Olson, Brandon (Boston University) and Ann Killebrew (ThePennsylvania State University)[247] New Directions in Three-DimensionalRecording in ArchaeologyFrom initial planning to final analysis, archaeology, by its verynature, is a destructive discipline consisting of a wide array ofapproaches, theories, and methods. The archaeologist, whetherconducting a pedestrian survey across a vast landscape orexcavating a small singe-phase site, is obliged to record andpresent their results in a systematic and meaningful manner. Whilefield recording methods deployed to identify, characterize, andparse collected spatial data have taken many forms, mostrepresent two-dimensional platforms of an invariably threedimensional(3D) subject. With recent breakthroughs in 3Dtechnology, it is now possible for the archaeologist to quicklygenerate a spatially accurate, photorealistic 3D model of anytarget of interest ranging in size from an individual artifact to alandscape with a series of digital photographs using PhotoScan, acommercially available software suite developed by Agisoft LLC.With two years of rigorous field testing completed by the Tel AkkoTotal Archaeology Project, it is clear that full scale implementationof PhotoScan in archaeology is possible and will ultimatelyfacilitate unprecedented accuracy in field recording, photorealisticdigital heritage management, and a new exciting outlet for thedissemination of archaeological data at multiple levels of interest.[247] ChairOlszewski, Deborah, Maysoon al-Nahar (Department ofAntiquities of Jordan), Jason Cooper (AMEC Earth &Environmental), Natalie Munro (Department of Anthropology,University of Connecticut) and Bilal Khrisat (Department ofConservation Science, Hashemite University)[201] The Early Epipaleolithic at KPS-75, WesternHighlands of JordanTest excavations in 2009 at the Early Epipaleolithic (Nebekian)rockshelter site of KPS-75 on the Kerak Plateau, about 12 kmnorth of the Wadi al-Hasa, in the western highlands of Jordan,yielded substantial lithic assemblages, as well as faunal andphytolith data sets. Geoarchaeological investigations suggest thatthe site was occupied when standing water, perhaps seasonal,was within 1 km south of the rockshelter. Preliminary interpretationof microliths suggests two occupation phases. The earliest hasnarrow, nongeometric forms (double-arched) that elsewhere aredated between about 25,000 to 21,000 calibrated B.P. The lateroccupation contains numerous Qalkhan points in various phasesof manufacture and also is associated with microgravettes, as wellas double-arched pieces and narrow geometric forms. This laterphase is undated, but likely falls between about 21,000 to 18,000cal B.P. The large quantity of Qalkhan points is unusual, as mostNebekian sites yield only a few of these distinctive forms. Thefaunal assemblage is dominated by high-ranked, grasslandspecies, such as gazelle, tortoise, wild ass, and aurochs,suggesting that residents were not long-term occupants of the site,but exploited local resources, potentially on a seasonal basis,before moving on.[201] ChairOmay, Barbara A. [38] see Rhodes, Jill

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 319Omay, Barbara (Drew University), Jill Rhodes (Deparment ofAnthropology, Drew University) and Joseph Mountjoy(Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de laCosta)[38] Lessons in Taphonomy: An SEM Analysis ofSuspect Cut-Marks from the Middle and LateFormative Periods of West MexicoThe funerary custom typical to the Middle (800 B.C.) and LateFormative periods (200 B.C.-200 A.D.) of West Mexico is burial ofarticulated and disarticulated remains in either a pit or shaft andchamber tomb. The varying states of articulation indicate atminimum, the curation of remains prior to interment. Suspect cutmarkswere identified in a number of burials leading to thequestion of excarnation, suggesting a more complex peri-mortemritual than has previously been identified in this region. The cutmarkswere found along the distal aspect of the ribs, various longbones, and the cranium in both adult and infant remains. Theywere identified at a number of sites across both time periods.Casts were taken in the field and cut-marks of forensic origin wereincluded in the study for comparison. All casts were similarlymounted and processed for examination under a ScanningElectron Microscope. Magnification was set at 100 µm.Comparison was made across specimens and the end result was,at least in these specimens, nonconformity with the morphologicalappearance expected from a sharp implement as the causativeagent. This contribution demonstrates the value of cut-markanalysis in solving questions of cultural behavior vs. taphonomicprocesses.O'Meara, Joanne [51] see MacDonald, Brandi LeeOmori, Kazutaka [214] see Lopez, LarryO'Neill, Brian[137] In the Shadow of Mt. Mazama: Early HoloceneRecord in the Upper Umpqua River Basin,Southwest OregonEarly Holocene archaeological sites are generally rare in theinterior valleys of western Oregon and researchers often rely onradiocarbon dating to confirm their antiquity. In the upper Umpquaand Rogue river basins, the cataclysmic eruption of Mt. Mazama7600 years ago buried the landscape under a thick deposity ofvolcanic ash, obscuring evidence of past human occupation.Since 1981, investigations have uncovered an increasing numberof archaeological sites beneath this ash. This paper focuses onwhat archaeologists have learned of the pre-Mazama (pre-7600)occupation of the upper drainage, placing these findings in regionaperspective.[137] ChairOpitz, Rachel, Nicola Terrenato (University of Michigan), AnnaGallone (Gabii Project) and Marcello Mogetta (University ofMichigan)[105] Translating Digital Practice: From Collection toInterpretationDigital data comes into play at three key stages in anarchaeological project: data collection, dataexploration/analysis/interpretation, and publication. A lot ofattention has been paid to digital data collection methodsincludingthe use of tablets in the field, databases, GIS and 3Dmodeling methods, digital photography, and geophysical survey.As projects heavily invested in digital data collection make theirway to the analysis, interpretation and publication stages, a newset of challenges is appearing. The translation of digital datacollection practices to interpretation and dissemination practices isnot trivial, and the problems involved in manipulating, analyzing,interpreting, and creating convincing explanations and compellingnarratives using digital data are substantial. We look at it, weinterrogate it as best we can, but we’re not confident enough in ourpractice in these areas to present the analytical and interpretiveprocess that links the digital data to the conclusions. In thiscontribution we focus on the analysis and interpretation of digitaldata collected through the Gabii Project, a significant excavation inItaly- leveraging the many tools for data exploration andvisualization available. In particular we consider the role of 3d dataand modeling in the interpretation and analysis.Orange, Marie (Université Bordeaux 3, France), Tristan Carter(McMaster Archaeological Lab, McMaster University) andFrançois-Xavier Le Bourdonnec (IRAMAT-CRP2A UMR5060,CNRS-Université Bordeaux 3)[62] Studying Near-East obsidian from NeolithicSyria: A Joint Analysis by SEM-EDS andEDXRF.This study details the elemental characterization of obsidianassemblages from two Syrian Neolithic sites, Tell Aswad(middle/late PPNB) and Qdeir 1 (final PPNB). Two complementarynon-destructive techniques were employed: SEM-EDS whichpermitted the analysis of the smallest artifacts, plus EDXRF whoseprecision, speed and automation enabled us to characterise entireassemblages (a total of 622 artifacts) and fully discriminate thevarious source materials represented. Our analyses provided newinformation on the obsidian employed by the two communities,demonstrated the complementarity of the two analytical methodsin a Near Eastern context and showed for the first time thatEDXRF is capable of discriminating the peralkaline products ofBingöl A and Nemrut Dağ, two of the most important sources ofthe region.Orchard, Trevor, Daryl Fedje, Jenny Cohen and QuentinMackie[137] Persistent Places on Dynamic Landscapes:Sea Levels and a Pan-Holocene HumanOccupation Site in Southern Haida Gwaii, B.C.Research in recent decades has highlighted a complex, locallyvariable sea-level history across the Northwest Coast of NorthAmerica. This resulted in a dynamic coastal landscape throughoutthe Holocene, and yields poor archaeological visibility for manyperiods. Early- through mid-Holocene cultural deposits are ofteneither stranded on raised landforms some distance from currentshorelines or submerged beneath contemporary sea levels.Based on a detailed reconstruction of the local sea-level history,recent research in southern Haida Gwaii has targeted such mid-Holocene deposits. In particular research at site 924T in easternGwaii Haanas National Park Reserve and Haida Heritage Site isrevealing a persistent use of this location over at least 5000 years.A series of occupations on sequentially higher paleo-beachterraces associated with a long-term decline in sea levels in theregion speak both to the importance of this location from at leastthe mid-Holocene to the European contact period, and alsodocument dramatic changes in subsistence and material culturethrough a period that is otherwise unknown in the region. Thesepoint to a close relationship between site locations and sea levelhistories, and reveal long-term continuity in the use of local areasin the face of this dynamic environment.Ordoñez, Maria, Ronald Beckett (Bioanthropology ResearchInstitute-Quinnipiac University) and Gerald Conlogue(Bioanthropology Research Institute-Quinnipiac University)[1] Forensic Anthropology and Paleoimaging: AnApplication of Traditional and Non-intrusiveTechniques on Two Museum Collections inQuitoThis presentation is centered around the application of ForensicAnthropology and Radiology techniques to the study ofarchaeological human remains. We use the cases of theosteological collections at the Jacinto Jijon y Caamaño Museum inQuito to illustrate how museum collections can be studied by usingan approach that combines traditional techniques in forensicanthropology (direct handling of the remains) with, in more recent

320 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGstudies, non-intrusive techniques taken from radiology termedpaleo-imaging (the use of X-Ray imaging, CT scanning andendoscopy, for example).It also emphasizes how the use of a multidisciplinary focus thatincludes ethno-historical recollections, physical anthropology,forensic anthropology and radiological imaging allows theresearcher to not only construct biological profiles and a pathologyreports, but contextualize the data recollected from osteologicalremains and complement other historical and archaeological data.Orifeci, Guiseppe [214] see Lopez, LarryO'Rourke, Dennis H. [71] see Beck, RO'Rourke, Laura (RCUH)[126] An Olmec-Style Cylinder Seal from YarumelaThe Yarumela Archaeological Project 2008 field season focusedon Early and Middle Formative household contexts as a first stepin understanding the development of social complexity in this earlyvillage. Yarumela is one of the earliest village sites in Honduras. Itis also one of the earliest sites with monumental architecture, withstructures dating to around 800 B.C. One of the most interestingfinds of the season was the discovery of an Olmec-style claycylinder seal. The style of the iconography indicates that the sealwas created sometime around 1000 B.C. The presence of anOlmec-style artifact in an early village in central Hondurassuggests that the people who lived in this place were tied into thebroader patterns of social change in Early FormativeMesoamerica. In this paper I suggest that this special artifact isrepresentative of important social changes in Yarumela at the endof the Early Formative, changes reflected in the subsequentconstruction of monumental architecture. This paper alsodiscusses the importance of the seal as a powerful medium ofcommunication and possibly as a means of social control in earlycomplex societies.[126] ChairOrozco, Joseph (CSULA) and Joseph Orozco (Graduatestudent-California State Univerisity, Los)[109] Faunal Assemblage of Midnight Terror CaveOver the course of three seasons from 2008-2010, California StateUniversity, Los Angeles conducted an intensive surface survey ofMidnight Terror Cave (MTC). These investigations documentedextensive modification of the cave to create broad, level areassuitable for public ritual. The project also recovered extensivehuman skeletal material thought to be the remains of sacrificialvictims. Further evidence of ritual is derived from the type of nonnativefaunal remains found in MTC’s interior. During the course ofthe survey 682 animal bones were recovered and analyzed at CalState L.A. The assemblage was found to be unusual in being veryheavy in fish and bird bones. This paper analyzes the remains interms of being a ritual assemblage and notes how the MTCassemblage differs from other cave assemblages.Orozco, Joseph [109] see Orozco, JosephOrsini, Celia (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne, France)[55] Recycled Traditions and Innovations inNortheast BritainThis paper presents the results of recent dissertation research onthe archaeological evidence for cultural interactions in northeastEngland and southeast Scotland in the early medieval period. Itexplores how populations used the landscape to create andmaintain their identity and territories in this time of change, aperiod in which northern Britain saw the fall of the Roman Empire,conversion to Christianity and the emergence of centralizedkingdoms. By examining a selection of early medieval burial sites,it is argued that the Tyne and Forth region was a zone of multiplecontacts between the 5th and 8th centuries. A comparison offuneral practices will be undertaken to demonstrate the impact ofsocio-political events and the varied local responses theyprovoked.Ort, Michael [131] see Elson, MarkOrtega, Allan (Allan Ortega)[46] Vulnerable Groups among Postclassic Mayafrom East Coast of Peninsula of Yucatan: ElMeco and El Rey Case StudiesAfter the Maya Fall, circa A.D. 1441, the Yucatec peninsular Mayasettlements, over all the east coast, formed autonomous groups bypolitical entities that struggled among themselves for supplies ofthe region. From these entities, Ecab was the most important, andEl Meco and El Rey were from this political entity. It is well knownthe differential access to food sources by gender and age of eachindividual in the Maya society; however, this varies from locality tolocality, and therefore impacts the health status of each person.The goal of this presentation is to show how access to food,evaluated by osteopathological indicators analyzed in both skeletalcollections from El Meco and El Rey, can be measured by age andsex and show the social inequities in Postclassic times.Ortegón, David [144] see Dunning, NicholasOrtiz, Agustín [166] see Carballo, DavidOrtiz Díaz, Edith [253] see Cockrell, BryanOrtman, Scott [16] see Grundtisch, KatieOrtman, Scott (SFI/Crow Canyon)[273] The Physical World and the World of Discoursein Tewa OriginsA key element of an archaeology of the human experience isunderstanding relationships between material conditions and theways people understood them. This is important because socialaction is mediated through discourse and politics more so thanfactual understanding. In this paper, I summarize socio-naturalconditions faced by Mesa Verde people shortly before the famousepisode of collapse and migration to the northern Rio Grande, anduse Tewa oral tradition and the pattern of change in materialculture associated with migration as barometers for understandinghow the people who lived through this episode interpreted thesituation they faced and the social transformation they sought toachieve. This example illustrates the challenges involved inunderstanding social transformation in cases where fewer lines ofevidence are available.Ortmann, Anthony (Murray State University)[284] Investigating the Function of an Archaic PeriodEarthwork through Microartifact AnalysisThe functions of Archaic Period mounds in the Lower MississippiValley are poorly understood. Poverty Point’s Mound C provides aunique opportunity to examine the function of one late Archaicmound. Recent excavations in Mound C revealed a complexconstruction sequence consisting of numerous, thin, flat-toppedconstruction stages. The presence of features on the surfaces ofsome stages, coupled with micromorphological evidence fortrampling suggests these mound stage summits were used forcultural activities. The nearly complete absence of macroartifacts,however, makes it difficult to discern the types of activities thatwere undertaken on these surfaces. Microartifacts recovered fromthese construction platforms provide an alternative perspective on

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 321the nature of activities associated with this earthwork. The analysisof microartifacts suggests Mound C was used for distinctive,possibly ritual activities.[284] ChairOrtmann, Anthony [284] see Roe, LoriOsborn, Alan (University of Nebraska-Omaha)[130] Poisoning Probiscideans: An AlternativeStrategy for Hunting Mammoths andMastodons during the Younger DryasRecent studies suggest that many mammoth and mastodon killsthroughout North America occurred during the Younger DryasCold Event (YDCE; 12,900-11,600 cal yrs B.P.). Traditionally,archaeologists have assumed that proboscideans were killed bymeans of a direct encounter hunting strategy employing thrustingspears or atlatl darts tipped with chipped stone points. Given thisstrategy, the prey animals are assumed to have died as a result ofsignificant blood loss. This paper explores the feasibility of aPaleoIndian hunting strategy employing weapons that deliveredlethal injections of plant alkaloid poisons. Poison hunting, then,would have important implications for research regardingproboscidean population dynamics, alternative forms of weapontechnology, and revised methods for kill site investigation. Finally,we may discover that PaleoIndians were forced to adopt foragingstrategies that deviated significantly from "optimal" patterns.Osborne, Daniel [212] see Bleed, PeterOskam, Charlotte (Ancient DNA Laboratory, School of Vet &Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth), Morten Allentoft(Ancient DNA Laboratory, Murdoch University, Perth),Richard Holdaway (Palaecol Research Ltd and University ofCanterbury), Chris Jacomb (South Pacific ArchaeologicalResearch, and Univers) and Michael Bunce (Ancient DNALaboratory, Murdoch University, Perth)[263] Biomolecules Preserved in Eggshell ProvidesInsights into ArchaeologyDue to excellent biomolecule preservation, fossil eggshells havebeen widely used for reconstructing palaeoecology andpalaeodiets, and as an exceptional medium for a variety of datingmethods. Here we show that ancient DNA (aDNA) is also wellpreserved within the calcite matrix of fossil eggshells excavatedfrom Madagascar (elephant bird) and Australia (emu) - with therecord so far being 19,000-year-old DNA characterized from emueggshell at Tunnel Cave, WA. Our data shows, when carefulattention is paid to methodology, fossil eggshell contains a richsource of ‘pure’ ancient DNA and that eggshell represents apreviously unrecognized ancient DNA substrate. We set out toinvestigate the application of aDNA and stable isotopes ofeggshell from archaeological contexts. New Zealand’s flightlessbirds and their eggs were consumed by the early Polynesianinhabitants following first contact ~700 years ago. Attributingeggshell fragments, from archaeological middens, to one of ninemoa species can be problematic. However, the characterization ofmitochondrial DNA and microsatellites from ~250 eggshellsprovided definitive species identifications to determine which moawere available for Polynesians to hunt in each area. As well ascompiling accurate zooarchaeological assemblages, this approachprovides new insights into moa biology, and extinction processes.Osorpurev, Tserennadmid[31] DiscussantOstapkowicz, Joanna[259] The Sculptural Legacy of the Jamaican TaínoJamaica’s rich artistic heritage includes a small group of Taínowooden sculptures (ca. A.D. 1200-1600) that have survivedcenturies in dry caves, placed there for ceremonies or forsafekeeping. They document an innovative carving style, distinctto that seen on the neighboring islands of Hispaniola (DominicanRepublic/Haiti), Cuba and Puerto Rico, yet sharing broad parallels.This artistic legacy has much to contribute to our understanding ofTaíno ritual, belief and aesthetics. The paper will provide anoverview of some of the recent directions in their study, includinghistoriography, iconography, chronologies and material studies(the latter through radiocarbon dating, wood ID, GC/MS and stableisotope analysis). These sculptures are complex ‘entities’, withequally complex histories and stories to convey.Osterholtz, Anna (University of Nevada Las Vegas)[101] Warrior, Soldier, Big Man: Warrior Ethos,Identity Formation and the Negotiation of SocialRoles in Multicultural SettingsWhile a sense of identity is what defines us, in reality we eachhave a multitude of identities that manifest based on social orcultural context. The role of the warrior is complex, as it oftenrequires the temporary or long-term suppression of other roleswhile bringing about a greater sense of group solidarity andidentity. Soldiers returning from WWI found re-assimilation intosociety difficult, as their experiences had altered their perceptions.Shared experience and practice, however, created a verycohesive group identity that crosscut socio-economic and ethniclines. Additionally, in multicultural settings military service can actas a leveling mechanism for immigrants coming to a new place(e.g., the conscription of new immigrants during the American CivilWar), both in the act of fighting and as a cohesive mechanismafter war is over. By understanding the power of the warrioridentity or ethos as a mechanism of identity formation andnegotiation, this presentation explores the role of warriors in themodern world (e.g., United States, Canada, and Uganda) to betterunderstand archaeological (e.g., Northwest Coast Chiefdoms andTeotihuacan) and ethnohistorical (Northwest Coast, Mexico, andAfrica) accounts of warriors in antiquity.[101] ChairOstericher, Ian [121] see Stewart, HaedenO'Sullivan, David [23] see Romanowska, IzaOtarola-Castillo, Erik [76] see Schoville, BenjaminOtárola-Castillo, Erik (Harvard University), Emma James(School of Social Science, The University of Queens), JessicaThompson (School of Social Science, The University ofQueens), Jacob Harris (Institute of Human Origins, School ofHuman Evolut) and Agustina Massigoge (INCUAPA-CONICET,Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Un)[117] No Longer Just a Pretty Picture: Differentiatingbetween Experimental Bone SurfaceModifications Using 3D Morphometric AnalysisStudies of bone-surface marks are crucial to our understanding ofthe evolution of human subsistence behavior. Over the last severaldecades, however, identification of bone surface modifications hasremained contentious. One historical problem is the lack ofconsensus over how to identify or differentiate marks from humanand non-human actors and effectors. Most investigations rely onmorphology to identify cutmarks and their patterning, discriminatethese from non-human-behavioral processes, and identify theobjects or agents responsible for making the marks. These rangefrom subjective characterization of cutmark morphology by thenaked eye to the use of high-powered microscopy such asScanning Electron Microscopes (SEM). These approaches,however, are difficult to replicate, quantify, and compare. 3D

322 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGgeometric morphometrics (GM), under the procrustes paradigm,has demonstrated its ability to discriminate between marks causedby human and non-human effector/actor combinations, whileproviding quantitative morphological measurements anddescription. Here we apply 3D GM to quantitatively differentiatemark morphology within a large dataset collected from a widerange of experiments. These include: human and ungulatetrampling experiments, crocodile and hyena-ravaged boneassemblages, and butchery cut and percussed boneassemblages. Results strengthen statistical confidence inidentifications, providing an incipient digital library with which tomake quantitative comparisons.Otero, Francisco [17] see Morales, PedroOverfield, Zachary (University of Texas at Arlington)[119] Resurrecting Old Pattonia: Uncovering theLifeways of a Nineteenth-Century Shipping PortCommunityThe 19th century was a period of tumultuous change for Texas,the United States, and Mexico. Rebellions, revolutions, civil wars,and national boundary disputes, unfolded dramatically during thisera. Although the grand sweep of Texas history is welldocumented, there are innumerable smaller stories within thatnarrative that remain unexplored. One such story is the founding,use, and eventual abandonment of Pattonia, a shipping portcommunity on the Angelina River in Nacogdoches County.Founded in 1844, the port at Pattonia connected steamboatshipping routes from Galveston and New Orleans to East Texasuntil the late 1880s when it was abandoned. I incorporated severaldifferent methodological strategies at Pattonia to collectrepresentative samples of material from across the entirecommunity. The collected materials will be used to explorequestions of social differentiation, gender, class, race, andeconomy within a small shipping port community. The relativequality and quantity of the household goods and their distributionacross the site along with historical records conveys the natureand degree of social differentiation at this community. Througharchaeological and archival analysis this poster will present thesocial differentiation present on the landscape and how theintroduction of industrial capitalism impacted the people ofPattonia.Overholtzer, Lisa (Wichita State University), Jaime Mata-Míguez (University of Texas at Austin), Enrique Rodríguez-Alegría (University of Texas at Austin) and Deborah Bolnick(University of Texas at Austin)[140] Weaving Tlacamecayotl Temporalities: The“Rope of People,” Household Histories, andTime in ArchaeologyArchaeologists have long been captivated by burials because theycapture a moment in time, a singular event in the otherwisechronologically imprecise multitude of practices often preserved inthe archaeological record. Yet, as I demonstrate using a novelcombination of analytical techniques, groups of household burialscan also offer windows into other temporalities—individuallifespans, multigenerational family histories, and political historiesof the local community and broader region. Moreover, thesemethods allow us to recreate how these temporalities are woventogether. This paper examines the intersection of household socialhistories and individuals’ lived experiences of community-levelsocial, political, and economic transitions at the Postclassic centralMexican site of Xaltocan. This examination is supported bymortuary and osteological analyses, ancient DNA evidence, andBayesian statistical modeling of radiometric dates of the skeletalremains of household members interred in an exterior patio spacebetween 1330 and 1480 C.E. These data provide a fullerunderstanding of the social lives, memories, and relationships ofsome of the ordinary men, women, and children who lived on themargins of empire, but nonetheless formed its backbone. Inconjunction, these lines of evidence allow us to consider time andtemporality in archaeological interpretation of households andcommunities.Owen, Paige (Undergraduate Anthropolgy Student- ASU)[89] Connectivity and Persistence Internally andAbroad in the Southwest United States andNorth MexicoI plan to use the five archaeological case studies of Mimbres, SaltRiver Hohokam, Salinas, Zuni, and La Quemada for my research.By studying the relationship of diversity of exchanged objects tothe persistence of a group I hope to identify whether there is acorrelation between the amount of connections a cultural patternpossesses through exchanged objects and to what extent thatculture persists. In turn using the diversity of these exchangedobjects as possible marker for inequality I hope to answerquestions concerning connectivity between the five cases studiesand internally within them.For the purposes of this research persistence of a group will bedefined as continued use of an area, traditions, or other distinctmarkers utilized by a recognized cultural pattern over time.To answer these questions concerning persistence and inequality Iplan to gather archaeological data from various important siteswithin each case study. The data will be specific to artifacts thatare considered possible markers of connections such asturquoise, macaws, shell trumpets, and copper. I then will also useethnographic data and comparisons to help determine what sort ofpatterns and connections the data reveals.Owens, Kim (SWCA)[102] Public Outreach: Striving for Balance whilePresenting California Mission ArchaeologyThe Alameda Corridor East (ACE) San Gabriel Trench Project is ahigh publicity project with many stakeholders. In particular, thedata recovery excavations at the San Gabriel Missionarchaeological site occurred in a highly visible area and drew agreat deal of public interest. As a part this project, SWCA wasasked to provide public outreach to correspond with thearchaeological data recovery. SWCA created brochures, posters,and show-and-tell artifacts for hands-on-learning; constructed alarge viewing platform for organized tours of the site; and placed awebcam on the site for remote viewing. SWCA archaeologists,native Gabrieleno monitors, and ACE representatives spoke toover 3,000 visitors to the site, including school children, localhistorical societies, politicians, and the media. In the planningphase, the question of how to present the achievements of themissionaries while appropriately acknowledging the exploitation oflocal Native Americans presented itself. As archaeologists, westrive to be good stewards and impart an objective interpretation ofhistory based on data while acknowledging any biases. Here wediscuss SWCA’s strategy of presenting a balanced view of thiscontroversial history while keeping good relationships withstakeholders.Ownby, Mary (Desert Archaeology Inc.) and Deborah Huntley(Archaeology Southwest)[139] Production and Exchange of PolychromePottery in the Upper Gila and Mimbres Valleys:Results from Neutron Activation andPetrographic AnalysesThe appearance of Maverick Mountain Series pottery at 13thcentury sites in the southern U.S. Southwest has been viewed asa hallmark for the movement of immigrant groups from the north.Made in the Kayenta style with locally available materials,Maverick Mountain Series pottery is believed to have influencedthe widespread 14th-15th century Salado Polychrome tradition ofsouthern Arizona and New Mexico. These ceramic wares share apolychrome design scheme and certain technological and designelements. Our NAA and petrographic analysis of over 400polychrome and plain ware sherds from multiple sites insoutheastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico allows us todemonstrate technological continuity between the MaverickMountain and Salado traditions. We are also able to build upon

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 323Patty Crown’s influential study of Salado Polychrome productionand distribution, demonstrating local production of Saladopolychromes at several Upper Gila region sites, as well as someexchange of both Maverick Mountain Series and SaladoPolychrome vessels within the Upper Gila and Mimbres valleys.Our study highlights the utility of using multiple ceramic sourcingtechniques and diverse statistical approaches to answerarchaeological questions, but also acknowledges some of thepotential difficulties in using these methods to interpret complexhuman behaviors.Pääbo, Svante [222] see Fu, QiaomeiPailes, Matthew (University of Arizona)[264] Río Sonora Community Size: NewInterpretations Based on Settlement PatternData and Intersite Variation in the MoctezumaValleyIn this paper I present data from survey and excavations in theMoctezuma Valley of Northwest Mexico, A.D. 1100-1600. Theprevailing model for this region is based on exploration eraaccounts of the 16th century. Previous researchers inferred largescalepolities with consolidated authority over substantialterritories, developed trade economies, dense populations, andstrong ties to the Casas Grandes region. Preliminary analysis ofsettlement pattern data, variation in ceramic styles between sites,and differential access to exotic materials do not support theinterpretation of territorial polities nor significant large-scalecommunity organization of any kind. The data instead reflectmultiple small-scale communities with variable internalorganization and strength of exterior ties. It appears previousinterpretations may only be applicable to a subset of communitiesin this region and only if the spatial scale of interpretations is vastlyreduced.Pak, Sunyoung [22] see Jeong, YangseungPalacios F., Patricia[238] Análisis Textil de un entierro humano en elTemplo de Omo M10En las recientes excavaciones de la temporada 2012 realizadasen el templo Tiwanaku de Omo en el Valley de Moquegua-Perú,se halló un entierro humano incompleto y disturbado. Ubicado enla plataforma superior hacía la esquina sur-este del templo(Cuarto 27), los restos humanos estaban junto con textiles queconsistieron en una camisa completa en un 40 porcientoaproximadamente. Este interesante textil de color natural conbordados decorativos en diferentes colores es una muestra cuyoanálisis y comparación con otros textiles Tiwanaku de la zona nosdarán evidencia de estatus y afiliación cultural basándose en elmaterial, calidad, técnica y forma de este fragmento de camisa,teniendo en consideración la poca existencia de este tipo dematerial en el templo.Palazoglu, Mine [124] see Tushingham, ShannonPalka, Joel (University of Illinois-Chicago)[65] Death and Lacandon Maya SettlementAbandonmentArchaeological investigations encountered abandoned nineteenthcenturyLacandon Maya settlements containing large amounts ofusable artifacts, such as metal axes, machetes, and knives. Theartifact assemblages lend support to the scenario of rapidabandonment and no return to the sites. Through ethnographicanalogy, Lacandon may have abandoned these settlementsimmediately following a death in the household, perhaps fromviolence. Items belonging to the deceased were never collectedbecause of their perceived connections to the souls of theirowners.Palka, Joel [140] see Kestle, CalebPalomo, Juan Manuel (University of Arizona)[57] Mortuary Treatments at the Ancient MayaCenter of Ceibal, GuatemalaCeibal is located in the Maya Lowlands, in the southwesternregion of Guatemala. Its occupation spanned nearly 2,000 yearsfrom the Middle Preclassic to the Terminal Classic period (1,000B.C.-A.D. 1,000). During six field seasons (2006, 2008-2012), theCeibal-Petexbatun archaeological project uncovered around 50burials from various contexts such as open Plazas and residentialgroups, displaying different types of mortuary treatments andgrave goods. The result of the bioarchaeological analysisprovides new information about Ceibal Early Middle Preclassicpopulation, and the continuity and change of mortuary treatmentsuntil the Terminal Classic period. In addition to the archaeologicaldata, iconographic information is referenced to reconstructpossible activities on burial practices.Pan, Yan (School of Life Science, Fudan University)[212] Aquatic Ecology, Anthropogenesis, andResource Production in the Lower YangziRegion during 10,000-6,000 B.P.The Lower Yangzi region is regarded as one of the primary originsof agriculture in the world. Most interests concerning theemergence and development of prehistoric agriculture of the areahave been focused on rice. However, the sites of 10,000-6,000B.P. recovered in the recent decade, including those ofShangshan, Kuahuqiao, Hemudu, and Majiabang cultures, offeredus rich data to reconstruct and reinterpret the subsistenceeconomy and human ecology there. More than 140 genus orspecies of plants are identified in conjunction with abundantanimal bones, particularly fish and bird. The data are analyzed inan integral wetland ecology model considering human’s impact. Itis demonstrated that the role of rice in subsistence economy usedto be over-emphasized. Rice was just one component of theagricultural complex and did not become dominant in diet until6000 B.P. A variety of important economic plants, such as watercaltrop, fox nut, job’s tear, cattail, reed, could be managed orcultivated like rice in the same aquatic habitat. In a broaderecosystem, the wetland could be maintained and regulated byhuman for multiple resource production.Panich, Lee M. [119] see Mathwich, NicolePaquette, James [119] see Anderton, JohnPardoe, Colin (Research Affiliate, Australian NationalUniveristy)[177] Territoriality and Conflict in Aboriginal AustraliaGiven the pace and direction of European colonization, researchinto Aboriginal Australia has often focused on groups surviving inarid environments rather than on those hunter gatherers who livedin densely populated, rich environments. This paper focuses onthe Murray River, the longest river in Australia, and the insightsthat biological anthropology and burial practices can give toquestions of demography, territoriality, boundary maintenance,competition, and conflict. High levels of violence are evident inearly and late Holocene skeletal remains from this region as wellas in the historical record. Reasons for this will be explored.Paredes-Rios, Freddy [38] see Maley, Blaine

324 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGPargeter, Justin (Stony Brook University), Karl Hutchings(Department of Sociology & Anthropology, Thompson RiversUniversity) and Marlize Lombard (University ofJohannesburg)[98] Using Velocity-Dependent Micro-FractureFeatures to Determine Rates of Impact andWeapon Delivery Systems in an ExperimentalHunting ContextMechanically-projected weapon systems, such as the bow andarrow, are a proxy for human behavioral flexibility, and are likely tohave had a long trajectory in the African Stone Age. Identifyingthese weapon forms in the archaeological record is challenging,because of the near absence of diagnostic organic components.Studies in material sciences and experiments have shown thatdetermining armature loading rates (the physical properties ofcontact between two materials such as the rate of collision andduration of contact), affecting the fracture of stone weapon inserts,is a potential means of differentiating weapon delivery systems.Velocity dependent micro-fracture features, specifically Wallnerlines and fracture wings, are an objective means of determiningthese loading rates on stone tools used as weapon components.The boundaries of the loading rate regimes established for variousweapons categories, however, remain to be independentlyvalidated in experimental and blind-test situations. The presentstudy is the first in a series of projects assessing the identification,application, and accuracy of these boundaries, using acombination of hunting experiments and blind-tests. This paperexamines the velocity dependent micro-fractures on a series ofexperimental flint backed tools used as hunting weaponcomponents that were projected at known velocities.Paris, Céline [39] see Bellot-Gurlet, LudovicParis, Elizabeth (University of Southern Mississippi)[140] Integration and Durability in PostclassicCommunities in the Jovel Valley, Chiapas,MexicoLike most social entities, communities are not inherently durable;they must be created and maintained by the interactions of theirmembers. As such, the nature and duration of interactions withinand between community members, and also between differentcommunities, may shift over time. In ancient Mesoamerica, manycommunities underwent significant changes in organization,population, and political structure as a result of the collapse ofpowerful Classic period polities. Many communities also continuedto experience significant demographic and political changes duringthe following Postclassic period, which shifted the nature of theirinteraction and degree of cohesion over time.In this paper, I will examine the degree of integration and durabilitywithin and between households at Moxviquil and Huitepec, twoPostclassic period sites located on opposite sides of the JovelValley in the highlands of Chiapas. Excavations at these sitesreveal the creation and maintenance of economic and social tiesboth within and between these two sites during the EarlyPostclassic period, such that both settlements could arguably beconsidered part of a single community. During the Late Postclassicperiod, there is evidence of decreasing interactions within andbetween these sites, suggesting that these communities slowlydisintegrated over time.Park, Jungjae [70] see Kim, MinkooParker, Daniel [5] see Lin, SamParker, Megan (Georgia State University) and Terry Powis(Kennesaw State University)[58] Understanding Environmental Changes throughMaya RitualIn a world that is growing increasingly conscious of itsenvironment, it is important for us to understand how pastsocieties adapted to environmental stress. More importantly, bystudying the ways in which ancient cultures interacted with theirenvironment, we can make steps towards preventing possiblyharmful ecological changes in our own future. During the 2011 and2012 field seasons, archaeobotanical remains were recoveredfrom six cave sites and three rock shelters from the periphery ofthe Maya site of Pacbitun, located in west central Belize. Soilsamples were taken throughout the caves, followed by theplacement and excavation of 25 x 25 cm units. All of the soil fromthese units was subjected to the flotation process in order toseparate paleoethnobotanical remains from the heavy fraction.Analysis of these remains is not yet complete, but we believe thata thorough examination will provide us with a better understandingof ancient Maya cave ritual. This data, coupled with environmentaldata from the region, will inform upon the influence ofenvironmental changes to the ritual process. This research willserve to show how influential environmental factors can be onimportant cultural features, such as ritual.Parker, Evan (Tulane University), Stephanie Simms (BostonUniversity) and George Bey III (Millsaps College)[65] Over the Hills and Far Away: MayaAbandonment Strategy at Escalera al Cielo,Yucatán, MéxicoBetween A.D. 950 and 1150, the inhabitants of the Mayaresidential hill complex Escalera al Cielo (EAC) rapidly abandonedtheir homes. Yet rich floor assemblages indicate that theyexpected to return, a rare archaeological signature with regard tostrategies of detachment in ancient Mesoamerica. At EAC, ties tohouseholds, ancestors, and landscapes were never severed.These findings suggest that there are multiple ways in whichestablished groups abandon households and communities andthat such events need not be final. Instead, abandonment withanticipated return represents a social practice that can beexamined archaeologically among not only nomadic and transientgroups, but also within sedentary societies. Households andcommunities practiced such strategies for a variety of reasons,such as responding to catastrophic events, seizing opportunitiesfor socio-economic improvement, and observing routinizedreligious practices. The type of abandonment strategy seen atEAC is compared to similar cases of abandonment, both historicaland archaeological, with an anticipated return. Overall, theabandonment of EAC enhances our understanding of how andwhy groups detach from a particular place.Parker, Alyssa (Millennia Research Limited)[156] Challenges and Opportunities for Analysis of3D Point Cloud DataThe collection of data, using a variety of spatial and attribute digitalrecording techniques that can be linked together in a relationaldatabase, produces a complex, attributed, 3D point cloud. Thisposes challenges and unique opportunities for analysis. 3D GISsoftware allows a wide range of visualization and analysis of 3Dpoint data. ArcGIS 3D Analyst is used to display and analyse arich 3D point cloud dataset. Challenges include visualizing adense cloud of 3D points and interpreting patterns from it.However, the analysis options are much greater than they are fora traditionally recorded excavation. Techniques for analysisinclude symbolizing quantitative and qualitative attributes forvisualization of patterns. Selective symbolization of certainattributes queried from the database simplifies the point cloud andallows patterns to be discerned more easily. Exact relationshipsbetween items are determined in 3 dimensions. Stratigraphicbreaks recorded as points are transformed into overlappingsurfaces, from which multiple stratigraphic profiles can begenerated using cross-sections. Volumes of materials can also beaccurately calculated using 3D volumetric shapes interpolatedfrom the point cloud. Presentation of results can be dynamic andvisually powerful using animated rotation of the symbolized pointcloud.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 325Parr, Nicolette (Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command -Central Identification Laboratory)[138] Diachronic Patterns of Health and Disease inthe Naton Beach Burial Complex from TumonBay, GuamThe current study is an investigation of the prehistoric Chamorro ofGuam, in the Marianas Islands, to assess health and diseasepatterns over time. The transition from the Pre-Latte to Latteperiods displays a shift in population size, diet, and subsistencestrategies. These changes occur concomitantly with large-scaleenvironmental and climatic fluctuations. It is predicted that culturaland environmental shifts will be accompanied by biological ones,as manifested by linear enamel hypoplasias (LEH) and cariouslesions, due to increased stress levels and dietary changes.Significant differences in LEH frequencies were found between thePre-Latte (16.5%) and Latte (45.0%) populations. The Pre-Latteindividuals are less prone to LEH and thus may not have beenexposed to high degrees of physiological stressors as the Latte.Climatic instability was more common in the Latte period and likelyresulted in destruction of crops and reef systems, leading toreduced access to nutritional resources and subsequent decreasein health status. A significant decrease in caries rates occursbetween the Pre-Latte (72.7%) and Latte (24.1%) populations.This pattern is contrary to the expected results as intensification ofagriculture is often associated with a higher degree of caries andmay be the result of betel-nut chewing.Parris, Caroline [241] see Baron, JoanneParrish, Otis [111] see Wingard, JohnParsons, Ted and Roberta Gordaoff (University of AlaskaAnchorage)[117] Creating Site Orthophotos and 3-D Models fora House Feature in the Aleutian IslandsWe test the utility of “structure from motion” (SfM) software as partof the excavation of a 3400-year-old upland house (ADK-237) onAdak Island, Alaska. Low altitude aerial photographs taken withinexpensive digital cameras are merged with terrestrial digitalsingle lens reflex images into large-scale photomaps and detailed3-D models of site features. We find that the semi-automatedsoftware is simple to use and that the merged and rectified imagesit creates are accurate and easy to interpret.Passeniers, Oona [227] see Van Gijn, Annelouacademic career in Australian archaeology, including theestablishment of the Department of Archaeology at FlindersUniversity, reflects adherence to these philosophies.Patel, Parin [48] see Giessler, KalenaPatel, Shankari (University of California Riverside)[168] New Directions Courtesy of an Old Collection:Pilgrimage, Gender, and the Nepean Collectionfrom Isla de Sacrificios, MexicoThe Nepean Collection is the largest group of artifacts from Isla deSacrificios in Veracruz, Mexico that the British Museum acquiredfrom a British Navel Officer in 1844. Only one percent of thecollection is on display and an even smaller portion of the artifactshad received scholarly attention. Previous researchers determinedthat Isla de Sacrificios served as an international Postclassic (A.D.1000 – 1519) pilgrimage location. With permission and assistancefrom the British Museum, my dissertation research drew uponfeminist and historical materialist methodologies to examine overtwo thousand artifacts from the Nepean Collection. The numerousfemale figurines and spindle whorls compared within the context ofa larger regional history indicate a previously unknown femininecomponent to Postclassic pilgrimage practices. However, thelarger insight gained included the realization of the immense valuethat old collections can provide for answering new and importantarchaeological questions.Paterson, Alistair (University of Western Australia)[163] Cruel Seas: Depictions of Maritime Activitiesand Rock Art as Evidence for Coastal andIsland Use in the Colonial Period, NorthwesternAustraliaIn the Pilbara (Northwestern Australia) depictive traditions in rockart and other media were significant aspects of indigenouscommunication. With the arrival of outsiders in the nineteenthcentury significant changes were heralded by Europeancolonialism, the demands of pearling and pastoralism, and the lossof traditional lands. In this rapidly changing social and physicalenvironment Aboriginal artists depicted boats, Europeans, stock,and other aspects of the contested colonial domain in rock art.This reflected what we know from historical sources: people wereforced to work on boats and were confined to offshore islands.Recent work explores how these events are potentially reflectedthrough the archaeological record, including rock art. An analysisof the rock art of the coastal Pilbara necessarily move beyond thedepictions of new motifs to a nuanced interpretation of indigenousdepictive practices in a changing world.Passey, Benjamin [172] see Henkes, GregoryPatrick , Faulkner [224] see Barham, AnthonyPate, Donald (Flinders University)[230] Archaeology and the Scientific Method: AnInterdisciplinary Process Involving SuccessiveApproximations toward a Past BehavioralRealityDue to the influences of my mentor Dick Gould, I practice andpromote archaeology as a behavioral science which examinesrelationships between material remains and past human behaviorsin ancient, historical and contemporary time periods. Applying acritical scientific approach to archaeology involves a collaborative,interdisciplinary process which enables inferences about pasthuman behaviors via the employment of a range of independentmethods of analysis. As Walter W. Taylor argued, this approach toarchaeological research results in successive approximationstoward a past human behavioral reality. An educational groundingin the sciences and social sciences facilitates effectivecommunication across disciplines and active involvement in teambasedarchaeological teaching and research. My 30-yearPattee, Donald (University of Nevada, Reno ) and Geoff Smith(Department of Anthropology-University of Nevada, R)[128] A Changing Valley: Diachronic Shifts in Mobilityand Toolstone Procurement in Oregon’sWarner ValleyX-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is a common technique thatresearchers use to determine the geochemical properties of lithicmaterials. It allows researchers to calculate the distances anddirections that prehistoric artifacts traveled via direct procurementand/or exchange, and these data are often used to addressquestions of prehistoric mobility and toolstone procurementstrategies. This study incorporates a large sample of obsidianprojectile points ranging from fluted and stemmed Paleoindian(~11,000-8,000 BP) points to Archaic (~8,000 BP to Contact)points from Oregon’s Warner Valley and considers diachronicshifts in mobility patterns and toolstone procurement strategiesthere. Additionally, data derived from the projectile point samplemay offer insight into Warner Valley’s place in the prehistoric

326 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGsocioeconomic systems of the northern Great Basin. Evidencefrom surrounding study areas facilitates situating Warner Valleywithin this broader context.[128] ChairPatterson, Sarah[158] Using Grave Markers to Identify Trends inImmigrationResearch involving historic cemeteries and the information thatcan be gleaned from them is a growing part of archaeology today.This study examines the extent to which it is possible to determinetrends in immigration based on the information available on gravemarkers from one historic cemetery, Historic St. Michael’sCemetery in Pensacola, Florida. A sample of grave markers wasselected from the previously collected St. Michael’s CemeteryDatabase and the data was analyzed with regard to availablebirthplace information. The data shows marked trends inimmigration that coincide with observations from alternatehistorical and archaeological sources.Patterson, David [215] see Bobe, RenePatterson, Susan (Rhode Island College)[230] To Follow in the Footsteps of a Master: TheIndian Shaker Church and Tribal Identity inNorthwestern CaliforniaRichard Gould is not only a gifted archaeologist, for his work inethnography and ethno-archaeology has informed my own careeras a cultural anthropologist and shaped my life, both professionaland personal. Dick wrote compellingly about the Indian ShakerChurch among the Tolowa and other natives of northwestCalifornia, asserting that rather than assisting natives towardsassimilation, the ISC was a vehicle for the maintenance oftradition. These traditions would, in time, inform the direction oftheir contemporary sovereign tribalism, emergent during Dick’sresearch in the 1960’s, and firmly in place during my researchfrom 1999 to 2000. When Dick was conducting his archaeologicalexcavation at Point St. George, no one could predict the impactthat mass media and electronic communication would have on thepoliticization of Indian identity. And yet he astutely identified theISC as the cultural bridge to 21st century retribalization. In thispaper I will describe the role of the Shaker Church, as therepository of pan-Indian traditions, in facilitating the emergence ofdistinct tribal identities in northwestern California.Payne, Jennifer (Los Alamos National Laboratory)[175] Community Organization in Two Areas of theSouthwestern United StatesCentral to archaeological research in the southwestern UnitedStates is an understanding of the diverse ways people cometogether to form communities. Communities are organized in avariety of ways across this area of the United States. Differencesand similarities reflect the needs of the individuals that make upthe community as well as the common goals of the communities.Communities are dynamic and can change as a result of changingconditions and needs. Recurring and recognizable patterns ofstability and change are visible in the archaeological record on thePajarito Plateau in northern New Mexico and in the Mogollonregion of southern New Mexico. Population aggregation appearsto have been one of the primary ways in which communitiesformed in both of these areas. Recent research has providedinformation about aggregation and subsequent integration in theseareas across time. This paper provides an overview of thearchitectural evidence from both of these areas as well asexamples of the ways in which architectural evidence can be usedto evaluate community organization.Pazmiño, Iván [1] see Vasquez, JosefinaPeacock, Evan (Mississippi State University) and Timothy M.Ryan (Pennsylvania State University)[284] High Resolution Computerized Tomography asa New Method for Microartifact AnalysisAlthough microartifact analysis has a number of applications, itremains relatively little used in archaeology due in part to theonerous time requirements for sample processing and analysis.One option for high-throughput classification and analysis ofmicrodebitage samples is high-resolution computed tomography(HRCT) scanning. HRCT uses the attenuation of X-rays throughan object to produce cross-sectional images. The high energysources (typically 100 to >320 kV) are capable of penetratingdense samples like rocks and fossils and have the capability toresolve fine-scale structures ranging in size from less than 0.01mm to 0.2 mm. We propose an alternative method for microartifactanalysis in which raw field samples (small cores) are scanned andanalyzed digitally using image analysis and visualization software.Automatic and semi-automatic image segmentation methods arebeing developed to allow quick selection and three-dimensionalreconstruction of the microartifacts based on both morphological(e.g., size, shape) and density features present in the CT dataset.Pauketat, Timothy [15] see Pauketat, TimothyPéan, Stéphane [69] see Lanoë, FrançoisPauketat, Timothy[15] Cities, Would-Be Cities, and the Case ofCahokiaCities and would-be urban centers consist to variable degree ofdesigned monumental spaces and dense, diverse populations.Ancient eastern North American centers from 3500 B.C.E. to thehistoric era were typically the former but seldom the latter untilCahokia. Yet Cahokia and later Mississippian towns were built ofnondurable materials, and certain sorts of sustainedcommemorations by descendants were not possible. Based onMississippian cultural history and comparisons with other earlycities, I argue that urbanization was a process contingent onmateriality and monumentality as much as people.[15] ChairPearson, Jessica (University of Liverpool), Lynn Meskell(Stanford University, USA), Carrie Nakamura (University ofLeiden, Netherlands) and Clark Spencer Larsen (University ofOhio, USA)[32] Isotopes and Images: Fleshing out Bodies atÇatalhöyükFor twenty years archaeological approaches to the body havetended to focus upon evidence confined to specific areas ofexpertise. Such separations in scholarship are understandabledue to archaeological specializations in osteology or figurines,burial practice or stable isotope ratios. Here we attempt areconciliation of evidence at Çatalhöyük that relates to thearchaeological body: stable isotope analysis, physicalanthropology and bodily representation through figurines, buildinginstallations, and the burial assemblage.Paul, Kathleen [63] see Butler, MichellePavlenok, Konstantin [222] see Flas, DamienOnce interpreted as evidence for a Mother Goddess cult, newstudies of the corpulent figurines suggest a bodily significance offlesh, aging and maturity. The lack of gender differentiation isnotable throughout the site, including in diet. However, the isotope

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 327data does reveal that younger adults consumed different foodsthan other adults, which accords well with the particular attentionto age and flesh in the representational sphere. This age-basedpattern is also borne out in the burial assemblages: olderindividuals accrued the most diverse and biographical burialassemblages. We suggest that the Çatalhöyük inhabitants pushedbeyond their corporeal constraints by emphasizing the significanceof flesh in their material world as representational of age andmaturity, which challenges older notions about matriarchy, genderhierarchies and the privileging of female fertility.Pearson , Jessica [32] see Agarwal, SabrinaPechenkina, Ekaterina (Queens College of CUNY) and XiaolinMa (Henan Administration of Cultural Heritage)[219] The Consequences of the Mid-HoloceneClimatic Optimum and Subsequent Cooling forHuman Health in China's Central PlainsClimatic change and associated environmental instability affecthuman health in several different ways. By altering the availabilityof particular resources and thereby influencing nutrition and dietthey have an immediate impact on growth and development, aswell as on oral health. Episodes of famine lead to the increasedfrailty of infants and also to growth arrest episodes in juveniles andsubadults. On the Central Plain of northern China, climaticchanges following the Mid-Holocene climatic optimum werecoupled with rapid sociocultural changes in Chinese society. Inthis paper, we employ the frequency of linear enamel hypoplasiasto document incidents of growth arrest during early childhoodusing skeletal collections spanning from the Middle Neolithic to theterminal Bronze Age. We document a negative correspondencebetween the frequency of such episodes in a given skeletalcollection and the occurrence of other skeletal indicators ofphysiological distress, such as porotic hyperostosis and generalperiostosis. This negative relationship might be explained asresulting from selective mortality of frail infants with additionalhealth problems.Peck, Nina (University of Guam)[7] Subsistence and Coastal Resources: The IronAge in San Remigio, Cebu, PhilippinesIn June 2011, the University of Guam held a field school in SanRemigio, Cebu, in conjunction with the University of thePhilippines-Diliman and the University of San Carlos. Thearchaeological excavations focused on an Iron Age burial sitelocated in the San Remigio Parish Church premises. Seven burialswere found, with several whole earthenware pots among the gravegoods. A large number of earthenware sherds were alsorecovered over the course of the field season. Marine shellsexhibited signs of modification, possibly because of meatextraction. Carbon dating from the site makes this the oldestarchaeological site in Cebu, placing it during the Philippine Metalor Iron Age at 1540-1400 BP. This paper presents subsistencestrategies among the inhabitants of Iron Age San Remigio, Cebuand how this subsistence pattern influenced changes in thecoastal landscape.Peelo, Sarah (Albion Environmental), Linda Hylkema (SantaClara University) and Clinton Blount (Albion Environmental)[119] The Indian Rancheria at Mission Santa Clarade AsísMissions were communities, or cascos, that included not only thechurch and its architectural elements but all spaces, inside andout. From historic documents and artist reconstructions, we havenumerous depictions of indigenous villages (rancherias) part ofSpanish mission communities. Despite our awareness of suchcomponents, few archaeological investigations have focused onthe identification of rancherias, let alone other non-architecturalfeatures within those spaces. Archaeological investigation of thesefeatures provide an opportunity to explore spaces that wereinherently indigenous. Studying the experiences of those who livedoutside of the church’s walls provides a balanced understanding ofmission life, and the ways the local Indians, the Ohlone, Miwok,and Yokuts, responded to the colonial process. Here, we highlightour findings from recent archaeological work in the IndianRancheria at Mission Santa Clara de Asís emphasizing how thiscommunity reproduced Native traditions in a new socialenvironment, incorporated foreign practices, and emerged with anew Mission Indian identity.Peeples, Matthew [89] see Torvinen, AndreaPeeples, Matt (Archaeology Southwest)[218] Social Networks and Material Diversity inPopulation Centers and Frontiers: An Examplefrom the Chaco WorldIn the American Southwest, settlements characterized by highdegrees of material diversity tend to be relatively small, short-lived,and located in sparsely populated areas (frontiers). In many morepolitically and economically complex settings, including severalMesoamerican polities, the reverse is often true with high materialdiversity associated with large persistent centers (cultural “cores”).Such broad distinctions suggest that settings displaying differentdegrees of centralization may have been characterized bydramatic differences in the structure of regional social networksand distinct relationships between population centers andperipheries. Available evidence on the relative frequencies ofceramic wares, lithics, and other non-local objects in the Chacoregion suggests that the relationship between diversity andsettlement prominence in the northern Southwest may have moreclosely resembled patterns typical of hierarchical settings duringthe height of the Chaco regional system (A.D. 1050-1130). In thispaper, I use methods from social network analysis and ceramicdata from great house and great kiva sites across the broaderChacoan world to formally test the relationships between materialdiversity, settlement size, and persistence. I suggest that such aconsideration of the social connections and relationships betweenfrontiers and centers may highlight important aspects of political,economic and social organization.Pei, Shuwen [222] see Peng, FeiPelletier, Natalie, Tania Blyth (Diagnostic ImagingDepartment, Quinnipiac University), Robert Lombardo(Bioanthropology Research Institute, Quinnipiac University),Gerald Conlogue (Bioanthropology Research Institute,Quinnipiac University) and Gary Aronsen (Department ofAnthropology, Yale University, New Haven)[260] The Advantages and Disadvantages of Multi-Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) andComputed Radiography (CR) for theRadiographic Examination of Human SkeletalRemains from a Mid-Nineteenth-CenturyCemetery in ConnecticutMulti-detector computed tomography, MDCT, and computedradiography, CR, were used in the investigation of human skeletalremains from a Mid-19th Century Cemetery in Connecticut. Bothmodalities prove themselves useful in a number of ways; howeverdepending on the pathology or anatomy of interest one modalitymay be more appropriate than the other. A selection of images,describing their radiographic findings, technical factors, positioningtechniques and comparison of each modality will be presented inorder to clearly demonstrate the significance of radiographicimaging and the advantages and disadvantages of bothmodalities. In addition, the relative availability and potential costsassociated with each modality will be discussed.

328 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGPellitier, Natalie [260] see Conlogue, GeraldPelz, Ana [234] see Lailson Tinoco, BecketPena, Jose and Robert Tykot (University of South Florida)[178] Trace Element Analysis of Late Horizon Potteryfrom the Huancabamba Valley, Jaen-Cajamarca, PeruAccording to ceramic evidence, the pre-Hispanic occupation of theHuancabamba Valley began during the Initial period. This valleyworked as a strategic area to establish relationships and trade withdifferent regions such as Jaen and Bagua; the north coast of Peru;and the Cajamarca area. During the Late Horizon, a centralizedpower took control over the Andean area and the reorganization ofdifferent ethnic groups constituted changes in the material culture.The Incas built in the Huancabamba valley state productioncenters in order to control and keep the Inca Road System, whichconnected the north area of Peru to Ecuador. The ceramicassemblage recovered from Inca state sites does not show typicalInca pottery style or decoration from the heartland. It is possiblethat administrative centers built by the Incas provided the meansto support state facilities such as pottery production. In addition,ethnohistoric evidence suggests that during the Inca periodcoastal communities were relocated to highland settlements inorder to serve as officers in state facilities. Trace element analysison Late Horizon pottery in this valley provides information onpottery provenance in the Cajamarca area, and the way in whichthe Inca state exercised control in new provinces.Peña, Augustin [37] see Cucina, AndreaPeng, Peng[216] Was Lost-Wax Casting Practiced in BronzeAge China? A Case Study of the RimOpenwork Appendage of the Bronze Zun-PanSet in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of ZengScholars disagree about whether late Bronze Age Chinesemetallurgy involved the lost-wax casting technique. The bronzeZun and Pan serving vessel set, recovered from the tomb ofMarquis Yi of Zeng (d. 433 BC; Hubei Province) in 1978 offers anexcellent opportunity to evaluate competing views. This paperreports findings from research on the bronze serving set and alsowork on other related bronze vessels, and concludes that lost-waxcasting was used to make these vessels. This case studydemonstrates that late Bronze Age Chinese metalworkersemployed lost-wax casting as part of their technological tradition.Peng, Fei (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences), XingGao (Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Paleoant),Huimin Wang (Institute of Archaeology of Ningxia HuiAutonomous), Fuyou Chen (Institute of VertebratePalaeontology and Paleoanthropology) and Shuwen Pei(Institute of Vertebrate Palaeontology and Paleoanthropology)[222] Emergence of Late Paleolithic in China: ATechnological and Cognitive PerspectiveThe onset of Late(Upper) Paleolithic is traditionally marked by theappearance of complex technology and cognition ability.Increasing evidences in archaeological excavations and advancesin chronology allow us to discuss the emergence of LatePaleolithic in China and Late Pleistocene cultural evolution inNortheast Asia in more detail. Some scholars have suggestedthat, in Northeast Asia, technological changes are linked withdemographic variations that the early stage of the Late Paleolithictechnology reflects the economic advantages inherent to Levalloiscore geometries. Shuidonggou Locality1(SDG1) provide importantmaterial to check this assumption because of its distinctive bladeassemblage in China. Most of the previous studies followed atypological approach, a new study combined the techno-economicapproach of the Chiaine Operatoire with an attribute analysis wasapplied to reanalysis the collections that were unearthed dusingthe 1980's excavation. Two main blade reduction systems atSDG1 were identified. It shows striking technological andchronological similarities with the laminar assemblages in SiberianAltai. The technological analysis led to the exceptional discoveryof an engraved core.This study provide an technological andcognitive perspective to understand the poorly known period inChinese archaeology and late Pleistocene population dynamic inNortheast AsiaPeniche May, Nancy (UCSD)[256] Constructing Chronologies from Buildings:Excavations at Plaza B of Cahal Pech, BelizeThe archaeological site of Cahal Pech in the Belize Valley ischaracterized, among other things, by having a long occupationdating from the terminal Early Preclassic to the Late Classicperiod. The multiple explorations at the site have permitted to havea good understanding of the ceramic chronological sequence andhave insights about some activities performed by the ancientoccupants of Cahal Pech. Yet, we need to understand thecomplex evolution and variability of the architecturalmanifestations throughout this long occupation. As an effort to fullyassess this architectural change and variability, during the 2012field season of the Belize Valley Archaeological ReconnaissanceProject, a large block excavation was conducted in Plaza B, whereCahal Pech was funded during Cunil times (1200BC-900BC).Information obtained through this excavation has permitted to builda complex architectural sequence dating from the terminal EarlyPreclassic to the Late Classic period. Along with data coming fromprevious explorations, this chronology building gives us insightsabout the spatial and sociopolitical changes that took place atCahal Pech, especially during the earliest phases of occupation.Peralto, Leon[203] DiscussantPeres, Tanya (Middle Tenn State Univ) and Heidi Altman(Georgia Southern University)[151] From Ahwi to Anikahwi: Deer in Subsistenceand Social StructureIn the Southeastern United States white-tailed deer remains arerecovered in abundance from late prehistoric archaeological sitesand have been used to identify numerous social and culturalphenomena including differences in food consumption based onstatus, feasting, inter-site transport of foodstuffs, and regionalvariation in subsistence strategies. Meat, marrow, and hide werethree important physical contributions of deer to the daily lives ofsoutheastern natives; however, we argue the spiritual and socialvalue of deer were equally important. We combinezooarchaeological analyses of white-tailed deer from MississippianPeriod sites with both published and unpublished data from theNative American ethnohistorical, ethnographic and linguisticrecord. We examine the practices and beliefs that surround thehuman-animal interaction -- a set of relationships that still exists incommunities today. Whereas the contexts for some traditionalactivities, such as painting deep inside of caves or constructingelaborate architecture, may have changed, native peoples in thesoutheast still live in environments with animals that are largely thesame as their ancestors. Given this persistent context, we useethnohistorical accounts and ethnographic interviews to providemeaningful insights into the symbolic and social significance of astaple food prior to the arrival of Europeans.Peresani, Marco [291] see Naudinot, NicolasPerez, Juan Carlos [65] see Navarro-Farr, Olivia

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 329Perez , Griselda [65] see Navarro-Farr, OliviaPérez , M.Carmen [63] see Sugiura, YokoPerez Robles, Griselda [290] see Fridberg, DianaPerkins, Leslie and David Sandrock (SWCA EnvironmentalConsultants)[213] Preliminary Report on Excavation Comparisonsbetween Two Household Residential Groupsalong the Dos Hombres to Gran CacaoArchaeological Project in Northwestern BelizeHousehold archaeology attempts to understand how householdswere ordered and how the house itself structures activities. Thispaper compares the excavation results between two householdresidential groups within the Dos Hombres to Gran Cacao(DH2GC) Archaeology Project area. One of the residential groupsis located closer to the site of Dos Hombres; the other is situatedroughly one km away near a middle management site.Comparison of production and consumption assemblagesprovides a basis for drawing inferences regarding the nature ofcooperation, ownership, and status within the groups.Perreault, Charles (Santa Fe Institute)[11] The Pace of Cultural EvolutionToday, humans inhabit most of the world’s terrestrial habitats. Thisobservation has been explained by the fact that we possess asecondary inheritance mechanism, culture, in addition to a geneticsystem. Because it is assumed that cultural evolution occurs fasterthan biological evolution, humans can adapt to new ecosystemsmore rapidly than other animals. This assumption, however, hasnever been tested empirically. Here, I compare rates of change inhuman technologies to rates of change in animal morphologies. Ifind that rates of cultural evolution are inversely correlated with thetime interval over which they are measured, which is similar towhat is known for biological rates. This correlation explains whythe pace of cultural evolution appears faster when measured overrecent time periods, where time intervals are often shorter.Controlling for the correlation between rates and time intervals, Ishow that cultural evolution is faster than biological evolution; thiseffect holds true even when the generation time of species iscontrolled for; and culture allows us to evolve over short timescales, that are normally accessible only to short-lived species,while at the same time allowing for us to enjoy the benefits of along life history.Perri, Angela (Durham University)[20] The Hunting Dogs of Jomon-Period JapanThe Japanese archaeological record has produced some of therichest and most numerous prehistoric dog burials in world, thoughtheir existence often goes unnoticed by the larger archaeologicalcommunity due to a lack of translated material. Faunal materialrecovered from prehistoric Jomon sites (ca. 12,000-2,500 B.P.)shows a close relationship between Jomon dogs and people,especially at the large shell middens of the northeastern coastwhere groups were largely dependent on hunting terrestrialungulates. This paper discusses the relationship between huntingmethods, prey species, and environmental change in examiningthe role of dogs as important hunting tools (and group members)in Jomon communities.[20] ChairPerry, Elizabeth (SWCA Environmental Consultants)[123] DiscussantPerry, Jennifer (CSU Channel Islands)[209] Field School Pedagogies: Agendas, Outcomes,and AdaptationsArchaeological field schools oftentimes have multiple agendasrelating to research, teaching, and public outreach. Most wouldagree that the integrity of the research and the quality of studenteducation are simultaneously important. However, the intersectionof these agendas may result in outcomes ranging from synergisticto conflicting and even disastrous. It can be difficult to balancethese priorities because of the significant budgetary, logistical, andsupervisorial constraints under which many field schools operate.Complicating this situation, not all students are the same withrespect to their motivations, proficiencies, and goals. Althoughmany would acknowledge the priority of training futurearchaeologists, the reality is that a large percentage of field schoolparticipants do not pursue archaeology as a profession afterwards.As the number of field schools grows as a means to fundresearch, and opportunities grow in response to a greateremphasis on study abroad and other forms of experientialeducation in the United States, what is our responsibility to thenon-archaeologists who populate our field schools? I explore thepedagogical implications of this question, highlighting examplesalong a spectrum of possibilities ranging from limiting enrollment togreater inclusivity.Peschaux, Caroline (Université de Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), Grégory Debout (Service archéologique desYvelines) and Olivier Bignon (Centre National de laRecherche Scientifique)[227] A “Bead's Time” within the Hunter-GathererPopulations of the Upper Paleolithic:Correlation between Personal Ornaments andSite Function in the Paris Basin (France)This paper focuses on the links between personal ornaments andthe territorial organization of Upper Paleolithic hunter-gathererssocieties. In sites, the beads series are dissimilar. They differ inquantity, variety, local distribution and stage of manufacturing(finalized objects, raw material, supports and waste). This diversityenables one to distinguish the production sites from the sites ofoccasional losses. Bead-work may have been segmented in timeand space. Ethnographic studies show that bead-work was mainlycarried out while the populations were mobile and settled, thusindicating that bead-work was done while on residentialsettlements at certain times of year. To check whether the makingof personal ornaments during Upper Paleolithic is to be related tothe sites functions, we have correlated the presence and thecontent of beads with the length of time, seasons and activities ofseveral French sites in the Paris Basin dating from the UpperMagdalenian (-14 Ky BP) and the Badegoulian (-18 Ky BP). Thepurpose of this work is to identify whether there was a specific“Beads Time” and to model the role this time may have played inthe territorial organization of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers.Pestle, William (University of Miami), Christina Torres-Rouff(University of California, Merced), Mark Hubbe (The OhioState University), Francisco Gallardo (Museo Chileno de ArtePrecolombino) and Gonzalo Pimentel (Universidad Católicadel Norte)[217] Moving Food, Moving People: Regional andLocal Patterns of Dietary Variation in theFormative Period Atacama Desert, NorthernChileUsing a burgeoning corpus of human, floral, and faunal stablecarbon and nitrogen isotope data, the present work examinespatterns of mobility and social interaction in northern Chile’sFormative Period (1500 B.C.-A.D. 500). While the geographicbarriers and harsh climatic conditions of the Atacama Deserttogether with substantial logistic considerations established certainconstraints on human diet at the site and local (i.e. coastal, LoaRiver, oasis) levels, regional level dietary variation and the

330 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGidentification of travelers (individuals with dietary signaturescharacteristic of foodstuffs not available at their place of burial andalong exchange routes) speak to frequent and possibly evenregular interzonal movements of people and/or foodstuffs. Here,we examine data on: 1) unique isotopic aspects of the region’savailable foodstuffs, 2) regional patterns of dietary variationconsidered in light of recently advanced hypotheses about thenature of mobility and social interaction in Formative Periodnorthern Chile, and 3) intra-site dietary variation possiblyattributable to age, sex, and unequal practices of food access andredistribution.Island archaeologists are increasingly aware that in the context ofhuman adaptive systems, simple measures of isolation like thoseused by biogeographers are insufficient for understanding thecomplex social interactions between human populations and theconstruction of boundaries in an island world. This paper willexplore the potential applications of the concept of connectednessfor measuring isolation as social distance rather than as a strictlygeographic parameter, using case studies from Island SoutheastAsia. This concept enables us to move beyond the beach toinvestigate interaction, both cooperative and competitive, andisolation from intra-island to region scales.Peters, April and Bern Carey (Museum of Northern Arizona)[218] Social Identities in the Deadman's WashFrontier Zone North of Flagstaff, ArizonaA signature event in the prehistoric landscape of the Flagstaff,Arizona region was the eruption of Sunset Crater in the mid-to-late11th century. Following that eruption three distinct groups, theCohonina, the Kayenta Branch of the Ancestral Puebloans, andthe Sinagua migrated into a region north of Sunset Crater fromtheir cultural heartlands. These groups converged and interactedin this frontier region from 1075 to 1300 AD. An area twice the sizeof the Wupatki National Monument , called the Deadman's WashFrontier Zone, is being surveyed on US National Forest lands.Hundreds of previously unknown, significant habitation sites havebeen recorded. A new, robust data set now exists from those sitesin which distinct, cultural communities are being found that changethrough time. Using similarities in ceramic assemblages to inferparticipation in a social network, this research establishes thestructure of prehistoric social networks in 25-year time intervals.The structure and change of social networks allows insights intohow and with whom the prehistoric inhabitants of the regioninteracted and how those communities of interaction changed overtime.Peters Jr., Desmond [128] see Villeneuve, SuzannePeterson, Elizabeth (Simon Fraser University)[5] Mobility Variation among Hunting-GatheringSocieties: Evaluating Risk Reduction throughthe Lens of Social NetworkingBuilding upon the current models of mobility, this study exploresone specific possible driver of variation in mobility patterns foundamong hunting-gathering populations; that of social networking.By social-networking I mean the creation and maintenance ofgroup relations as an adaption to the uncertainty of resourceprocurement due to environmental conditions (Jochim 1998; Kelly1995: Ch. 5; Whallon 1989, 2006). This posters will be reportingon the results of a cross cultural analysis of ethnographic data onhunting-gathering groups from the recent past as a means toexplore possible correlations between environmental biodiversityand network mobility in terms of visits. The data set is derivedfrom Binford’s compilation of ethnographically studied huntinggatheringgroups as expressed in his 2001 work ConstructingFrames of Reference. Focus is placed on three variables:environment, population size, and the mean size of the populationconducting multi-group moves for networking. The overall goal forthis cross-cultural study is to contribute further to ourunderstanding of variation in hunting-gathering mobility by buildingupon past models. Results of such a study will enable us tobroaden our understanding of variability in hunting-gatheringmobility patterns in both the ethnographic and archaeologicalrecord allowing for a more complete picture.Peterson, Christian (University of Hawai'i at Manoa)[179] Conservative Ceramic Change and Its Impacton Social and Demographic Reconstructionfrom Regional Settlement DataThe prehistoric ceramic assemblages of northeastern China varyvery little across a vast area over thousands of years, complicatingthe definition of archaeological period boundaries and theirsubdivision into shorter phases. This paper explores the impactthat conservative ceramic change has on the estimation ofregional population and the delineation of community structurefrom settlement pattern data. In Neolithic northeastern China, as insome other parts of the world, the composition and characteristicsof highly fragmented ceramic assemblages from residentialcontexts are poorly understood, so ceramic chronologies arebased largely on subtle changes in form and surface decorationobserved for whole vessels recovered from burials. Consequently,the tiny, worn and non-diagnostic pottery sherds that are thetypical remains of prehistoric occupation encountered on surveycan be extremely difficult to classify to archaeological period—letalone to assign to shorter occupational phases within periods thatare exceptionally long. The possibility that surface sherds havebeen systematically misidentified is especially worrisome, sinceexisting social and demographic reconstructions would requirerevision. Estimates of regional population and the scale ofNeolithic communities would increase for some periods, anddecrease for others. These and other issues are discussed atlength, and corrective action suggested.Peterson, John (University of Guam)[221] Co-opted Heritage: Political Action, Identity,and Preservation at the Pagat Site, GuamDuring the EIS process for the proposed U.S. Navy militarybuildup on Guam, a community activist group, We Are Guahan,protested the selection of an artillery range near the late precontactsite of Pagat in northeast Guam. The site was used torally native Chamorro resistance to the military buildup. The groupled a coalition of community groups in a lawsuit seeking arestraining order against the project. The case was subsequentlydismissed, but heritage preservation had become the focal pointfor community action against the buildup, and an expression ofcultural identity. However, contemporary Chamorro identity isrooted in the late Spanish and early American periods of Guam’shistory, and traces to the 19th century and not to pre-Spanishindigenous culture on Guam. The latte stone has become akeystone of Chamorro identity, but Chamorro today have fewcultural memories of pre-Spanish settlement. The political actionwas successful in firing public imagination off Guam, but arguablystalled the military buildup that is supported by the majority ofGuamanians, Chamorro along with Filipinos, Asians, and Anglo-Americans. Unfortunately, the site of Pagat is now at greater riskof neglect once out of the limelight.Peterson, John [7] see Sanders, MarianaPeterson, Emily (University of Washington) and Peter Lape(University of Washington)[167] Beyond the Beach: Exploring Connectednessand Isolation in Island Southeast AsiaPetraglia, Michael[131] The Toba Super-eruption: Current State ofKnowledgeThe Toba super-eruption was the largest volcanic eruption in thelast two million years. Competing theories center on the degree towhich the eruption impacted life on earth, one view claiming that

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 331the event was devastating and catastrophic, while anothersuggesting relatively minimal impacts. A 10 year interdisciplinaryproject on the ecological and evolutionary effects of the eruptionhas been conducted in South Asia. The aim of this presentation isto highlight main findings and to review the most recent evidencerelating to dating, environments and archaeological sites. Ourconclusion is that while the Toba super-eruption had effects onterrestrial ecosystems, these were limited, temporary, and spatiallyvariable, and certainly not as catastrophic as has been theorized.We conclude, using the most up-to-date archaeologicalinformation, that human populations in South Asia survived theeruption.Petrie, Cameron (University of Cambridge)[245] DiscussantPettinelli, Elena [135] see Barone, Pier MatteoPeuramaki-Brown, Meaghan (University of Calgary)[287] The Community as “Affective Assemblage”:Low-Density Urbanization at Buenavista delCayo, BelizeIn a recent article, Harris (2012) builds from Deleuze and Guittari(2004) to describe communities as the consequences of “affectiveassemblages” -relationships between people, places, thingsoperatingwithin a range of specific scales both geographically andtemporally. Buenavista del Cayo is a Classic period Maya centerin the Lower Mopan River Valley of West-Central Belize whose lifehistory of urbanization begins in the Middle Preclassic (ca.1000-350 B.C.E.) and persists until the Terminal Classic (ca. 780-890C.E.). This paper adopts Harris’ perspective in the presentation ofan examination of the process of urbanization at Buenavistathrough an evaluation of relationships between people, theirknowledge and “things”, and the places -both public and privatetheyinhabit. The “community as affective assemblage” approachis demonstrated to successfully produce diverse and diachronicinsights into the urbanization process at Buenavista on local,center-wide, and regional scales.[287] ChairPhaff, Brianne (Simon Fraser University) and Mike Richards(Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute)[138] Spatial Variation of Biologically AvailableStrontium Isotopes in Fiji: Implications forPrehistoric Fijian MobilityThis paper will discuss mobility patterns of prehistoric humansinterred at the site of Sigatoka, Viti Levu, Fiji through the strontium(Sr) analysis of prehistoric human skeletal material and modernplant remains. Our dataset includes samples of human toothenamel from 52 individuals interred at the western and easternburial groups at Sigatoka, which span four discrete periods ofoccupation, as well as 56 samples of modern marine shell andplants from various locales in Viti Levu. The goal of this paper is toexplore (1) whether sufficient heterogeneity exists in thebiologically available strontium data we collected for Viti Levu toenable interpretations of mobility, particularly given the proximity tomarine environments and the possible influence of marinestrontium, (2) if appropriate heterogeneity exists, the fraction oflocal versus foreign individuals at the site through an analysis ofstrontium (87Sr/86Sr) values in human tooth enamel, and (3) thepossibilities and limitations of analyzing large datasets ofbiologically available strontium to produce interpretations ofhuman mobility in an archaeological context.Phillipps, Rebecca (University of Auckland)[129] Contextualizing Human Mid-Holocene MobilityStrategies in the Fayum, EgyptThe beginning of the Holocene marks the initiation of varyingdegrees of human dependence on domesticated plants andanimals. Egypt’s geographic position has led to its incorporationinto a number of models of Neolithic development including thoseof southwest Asia, but also North Africa and the Mediterraneanbasin. Traditional models of Neolithic development in Egyptsuggest proximity to the southwest Asian ‘center’ of domestication,in addition to ecological context, had an impact on resulting socioeconomyand settlement pattern. The mid-Holocene occupation ofthe Fayum Depression is incorporated into this model. Mobilitystudies, either reconstruction of human movement or thecontextualization of mobility strategies, are closely linked to thismodel in the Fayum, however, few studies exist where humanmovement is empirically documented in the archaeological record.A method to document artifact movement, a proxy measure forhuman movement, is applied to three assemblages fromgeographically distinct locations in Egypt to contextualize theFayum occupation, including Sais in the Nile Delta and NabtaPlaya in the eastern Sahara. The results challenge traditionalinterpretations, but also provide insights about the outcomes ofdifferent combinations and intersections of local social, economicand environmental variables during this period.Phillips, Natasha (University of Auckland)[129] Assessing Variation in Temporal and SpatialScales of Early to Mid-Holocene Human-Environment Interaction in Northeast AfricaThe relationship between early and mid-Holocene human behaviorand arid to semi-arid environmental changes is considered at botha regional and local scale in the Egyptian eastern Sahara. As achronological proxy for human behavior, hearth remains andassociated archaeological, archaeobotanical andarchaeozoological evidence are analyzed in relation toindependent proxies for paleoenvironmental change from NabtaPlaya, Dakhleh Oasis and the Fayum Depression. The degreewith which human behavior changed in response to localizedenvironmental shifts (e.g., lake and terrestrial resource availability)or large-scale paleoenvironmental processes (e.g., the north-southmovement of the Inter-Tropical Convergent Zone) is assessed andcompared to regional settlement system reconstructions andtypologically defined units (i.e., Epipaleolithic and Neolithic).Geomorphological and post-depositional processes areconsidered potential biases when assessing generalized modelson human-environment interaction.Phillips, Caroline [165] see Kahotea, DesPhon, Kaseka [249] see Dega, MichaelPicard, Jennifer (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee),Jennifer Haas (Great Lakes Archaeological Research Center)and Ricky Kubicek (Great Lakes Archaeological ResearchCenter)[25] Sourcing Late Woodland Collared Ware andMadison Ware Vessels from the Finch Site,Southeast WisconsinThe Late Woodland collared wares and uncollared Madison Warevessels of Southeast Wisconsin continue to generate questionssurrounding cultural affiliation, spatial distribution and temporalassociation. For example, research has shown differential regionaldistributions of Aztalan Collared, Starved Rock Collared and PointSauble Collared Vessels. The degree to which the presence ofMadison Ware versus collared ware vessels is indicative ofcultural difference is a persistent question also. Recentexcavations at the Finch Site (47JE902), a multicomponenthabitation near Lake Koshkonong, produced a diverse LateWoodland ceramic assemblage. Vessels recovered include avariety of collared ware and Madison Ware vessels. Compositionalanalysis was conducted on these vessels using a portable X-ray

332 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGfluorescence analyzer (pXRF). The goal of this research is toprovide insight into the manufacture and distribution of LateWoodland ceramic styles at the Finch site and throughout theregion.Pickering, Robyn (School of Earth Sciences, University ofMelbourne)[11] “The Time Has Come”: The New Role of the U-Pb Geochronometer Applied to the SouthAfrican Early Hominin SitesSouth Africa has a rich early hominin fossil records, concentratedmainly in cave deposits, which, until recently, have been poorlydated and often considered the poor cousin of the vast, well dateddeposits of East Africa. Recent advances in U-Pb dating ofcarbonates (mostly cave carbonates or speleothems, particularlyflowstones) are beginning to change this. Flowstones layerssandwiched between fossil bearing sediments can be treated aschronostratigraphic marker horizons and play an analogous role tothe volcanic tuffs in East Africa. The key to successful U-Pb datingis isolating uranium rich horizons within the flowstones, makingcareful sample pre-screening a necessity. Most U-Pb dating workhas focused on the ‘Cradle of Humankind’ caves, where ages cannow be assigned to the early hominin species; ages can be furtherrefined by investigating the palaeomagnetic signals preserved inthe sediments and flowstones. Flowstones from caves severalkilometres apart have U-Pb ages within error of each other,suggesting some large scale cyclicity behind the alternatingdeposition of flowstone and cave sediment. U-Pb dating has alsobeen successfully applied to the southern Cape coastal cave sitesof Pinnacle Points and attempts to date calcrete horizons from thewestern Cape coast are underway.Pierce, Daniel E. [279] see Glascock, MichaelPietrusewsky, Michael, Hallie Buckley (Department ofAnatomy and Structural Biology, Univ) and Dimitri Anson(Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, Univer)[27] Polynesian Origins: Biodistance Studies ofCrania, Mandibles, and Some Lapita SkeletonsBiological distance studies, especially those based on cranial andskeletal morphology, continue to provide physical anthropologistsand bioarchaeologists with an exceptional set of mathematicallybased methods for understanding population relatedness andpopulation history. Because of the demonstrated correlationbetween phenotypic and genotypic similarities, studies of cranialform, most notably cranial measurements, occupy a central role inmodern biodistance studies. This paper examines the results ofmultivariate statistical procedures applied to measurementsrecorded in modern and prehistoric crania and mandibles from thePacific, including the largest samples of intact Lapita mandiblesfrom the SAC site on Watom Island, New Britain, Papua NewGuinea. The analysis of cranial measurements indicates affinitiesbetween Polynesian and island Southeast Asia. The analysis ofmandibular measurements demonstrates that the Lapitaassociated mandibles from the SAC site are morphologically mostsimilar to mandibles from eastern Melanesia, and that mandiblesfrom Polynesia are most similar to mandibles from Southeast Asia.While these results do not support any of the previously proposedmodels for Polynesian origins entirely, the evidence frombiodistance studies supports an ancestral Polynesian homeland inWallacea and not one within geographic Melanesia.Pietrusewsky, Michael [27] see Kadohiro, KarenPietruszka, Andrew [251] see Esh, KelleyPietruszka, Andrew (Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command)and Richard Wills (Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command)[251] Forensic Archaeology Underwater: JPAC’sInventory, Investigation, and Recovery of U.S.Casualties of War from Submerged SitesMembers of JPAC Recovery Teams travel throughout the world torecover Americans missing from the Vietnam War, the KoreanWar, World War II, and the Cold War. A growing concern over thepast ten years has been the recovery and identification of remainsfrom submerged sites. Currently, worldwide, some 3,616 uniqueloss incidents, accounting for over 10,000 individuals, are believedto be underwater. In this paper we examine the development ofunderwater investigations and recoveries at JPAC, the inherentdifficulties of conducting forensic archaeology underwater, and thecritical role of underwater sites in providing the fullest possibleaccounting of all American’s missing as a result of the nation’spast conflicts.Pigott, Vincent (University of Pennsylvania Museum)[216] DiscussantPike, Scott (Willamette University) and Jordan Loos(Willamette University)[224] The Use of pXRF on In Situ Floor Deposits toInterpret Activity Areas within Monumental-Scaled Structures at the Ness of Brodgar atUNESCO’s Heart of Neolithic Orkney WorldHeritage Site, Orkney, ScotlandThe current study is part of a broad research program to assessthe utility of pXRF on active excavations. A Bruker Tracer III-SDpXRF was used to analyze in situ floor deposits of monumentalscaleStructures 8 and 10 at the Late Neolithic site of the Ness ofBrodgar in UNESCO’s Heart of Neolithic Orkney World HeritageSite in Orkney, Scotland. Multiple analyses of over 200 griddedsample locations were analyzed using two different instrumentconfigurations to target elements with specific fluorescent energyranges. The resultant spectra were quantified and the datanormalized to the Raleigh (elastic) scatter peak of the incident x-ray beam. Spatial contour mapping of the data suggests differentuse activities within different areas of the structures including thelikely location of a pigment-producing workshop in Structure 10.This is significant, as the site has produced the earliest knowninterior painted walls in all of the British Isles, and possiblynorthern Europe. The pXRF data, when coupled with excavationdata, are providing significant insight into the function and use ofspace in the largest buildings excavated thus far at this importantand unparalleled monumental-scaled Neolithic temple complex.Pikirayi, Innocent[15] Early Second Millennium A.D. Future Cities ofSouthern Zambezia: Great Zimbabwe as anUrban Complex and Center of a StateThere is nothing novel about current discussion on urban design,architecture, energy saving and environmental sustainability whenone considers the pre-European, African city. For 13th centuryGreat Zimbabwe and its hegemony one must accept that it wasmore than an oversized African village. Categorized by antiquarianTheodore Bent during the 1890s as one of the 'ruined cities ofMashonaland', Great Zimababwe was a town, a central Africanone, but a metropolis nonetheless. It comprised many parts - eliteresidences, ritual centers, public forums, markets, as well ashouses of commoners and artisans. It housed a large populationof about 20000 people, within a complex of massively stoneswalledfuturistic megastructures. Its growth had an impact on itsinhabitants, energy resources as well as the immediate andbroader physical environment. At its fluorescence, it was one ofthe largest settlements in sub-Saharan Africa. How one definessuch site revolves around centralization of political power and howsuch power mobilized labour, economic resources, and wealth insouthern Zambezia.Pilaar Birch, Suzanne (University of Cambridge)[269] Communicating Archaeology through the Social

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 333Media Knowledge ExchangeThe Social Media Knowledge Exchange is an Arts and HumanitiesResearch Council (AHRC) funded framework in the UK thatfacilitates the dissemination and communication of research byPh.D. students and early career scholars. This poster describesand shares some of the preliminary results of a project that workswithin this framework to not only create digital communityscrapbooks but also uses other forms of social media to facilitatethe exchange of archaeological knowledge between early careeracademics and the public via the internet. The project recognizesthe gap between making research not only open access butaccessible. Digital scrapbooks are research, illustrated andexplained. In the format of short podcasts, salient points of a givenresearch topic are drawn as they are explicated, allowing theviewer to both listen to and visualize what is being described. Theuse of social media allows for feedback and input from users ofthe material in the constructions of future “scrapbooks”. This ongoingproject will culminate in the production of a mini-series ofcollaborative scrapbook podcasts highlighting current research atthe Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University ofCambridge and has implications for public dissemination ofarchaeological research and knowledge-sharing in widerperspective.Pilloud, Marin [12] see Schwitalla, AlPilloud, Marin and Mary Megyesi (Central IdentificationLaboratory, Joint POW/MIA A)[251] Human Remains in a Glacial EnvironmentA glacial setting presents a unique set of environmentalparameters that leave a distinct taphonomic signature on bone.This signature is distinct from those seen in water or dry landenvironments and may be confused with other processes.Moreover, low temperatures slow bacterial reproduction therebyimpeding the decay process. This delay could extend the intervalthat bone may respond in a perimortem fashion. It is important forthe anthropologist analyzing human remains to understandtaphonomy in a wide range of environments to accurately interpretperi and postmortem bone alteration.A glacial environment presents multiple forces that can act onbone to include extreme temperatures, changes in temperature,and glacial movement. These forces lead to taphonomicmodifications such as abrasion, fragmentation, cryoturbation,scavenging, and hydro-fracturing. Forensic cases recovered bythe JPAC-CIL are discussed to describe the unique taphonomicsignature cased by glacial processes and identify key patterns thatcan aid anthropologists in recognition. In addition, the preservationof bone and soft tissue is explored as well as potential for DNAextraction.Pillsbury, Joanne (Getty Research Institute)[59] DiscussantPimentel, Gonzalo [217] see Pestle, WilliamPineda De Carias, Maria-Cristina (National AutonomousUniversity of Honduras), Nohemy Rivera (NationalAutonomous University of Honduras) and Cristina Argueta(National Autonomous University of Honduras)[166] Stela D: Sundial of Copán, HondurasThis paper shows how the Maya of Copán, Honduras used StelaD as a sundial. Reviews of archaeological investigations show thatin the northern sector of the Main Plaza of Copán ArchaeologicalPark, Honduras, poles and unfinished stelae could be used tomeasure time and associated rites. We constructed a Stela Dmodel to study the behavior of the shadows cast at different timesof day and at different dates of the year such as solstices,equinoxes and zenith Sun passage. As a result we found out howthis Stela served as a time marker. The analogy of the shadowscast with bodies of snakes; supports the iconographicinterpretation of Stela D.Pink, Christine (Joint POW/MIA Accounting Command)[272] Striking Out and Digging In: The Effects of theRise and Fall of the Wari Empire on PopulationGenetic Structure in the Peruvian AndesArchaeological evidence suggests that during the Middle Horizon(A.D. 600-1000) the Wari imperialist agenda influenced manypopulations on a broad geographic scale. The goal of this studywas to detect the possible effects of Wari imperialism on theintensity of interaction between regional populations in thePeruvian Andes. Biological distance analyses based on cranialnonmetric data were used to identify biological affinity betweenpopulations and over time as a proxy for social interaction.Regional samples dating to the height of the Wari culture duringthe Middle Horizon were compared to those from the LateIntermediate Period (A.D. 1000-1400) after the collapse of theempire. Results indicate that populations were more geneticallyisolated after the collapse of the Wari Empire. Geographic patternsare also evident among the samples with regard to biologicaldistances. These results have important implications forunderstanding social interaction and how it may be impacted bythe economic, political, and ideological ambitions of an empireeven in the absence of direct imperial administration.Piper, Phil [20] see Larson, GregerPippin, Douglas (State University of New York at Oswego)[261] “A Very Laborious Task”: British Colonial Policyand the Establishment of Fort Haldimand onCarleton Island (1778–1784)British policy in the American Colonies––leading up to theRevolutionary War––restricted colonial expansion, anddiscouraged settlement on the frontier. When that war broke out,maintaining control over the Great Lakes region was vital to Britishinterests. They were hampered by their colonial policy, however,that resulted in few civilian communities in the upper St. LawrenceValley and westward. In 1775 the new Continental Army attemptedto exploit this weakness, and launched an attack on Canada thatultimately failed. In the years that followed, the British re-fortifiedthe Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Valley. They struggled,however, to maintain transportation over the great distances andprovide adequate supplies. At the head of the St. Lawrence River,Carleton Island functioned as a shipping depot, refugee base, andmilitary hub between the upper posts and the cities of Montréaland Québec. Archaeological and historical evidence indicates thatthe active transport at Carleton Island led to a diverse populationwith respect to nationality, ethnicity, occupation, and socioeconomicstatus. By examining not just the soldiers at thefortification, but the Carleton Island community in a broadercontext, a greater understanding emerges for post-war Britishsettlement pattern in Upper Canada.Piscitelli, Matthew [70] see Alarcon, CarmelaPiscitelli, Matthew (University of Illinois-Chicago) andCarmela Alarcón Ledesma (PAURARKU)[285] Ritual is Power: A Multidisciplinary Explorationof Early Ceremonial Architecture at the LateArchaic Site of Huaricanga in the FortalezaValley of PeruThis paper describes the results of fieldwork to investigate 3rdmillennium B.C. temples on the coast of Peru. Field methodologieswere designed to examine the changing nature of ritual practices

334 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGperformed by early leaders as they systematically incorporatedreligion into their base of power. The Late Archaic Period (3,000-1,800 B.C.) witnessed the appearance and florescence of multiplelarge scale communities with monumental platform mounds andlarge sunken courts. Recent excavations have also revealed anumber of much smaller scale temple structures at larger sites thatbear many similarities to the classic Mito temples found in thehighlands. These temple structures reflect non-public rituals withface-to-face interaction and provide an avenue for investigatingthe role of ritual and ideology in the emergence of complexpolitical systems. This study presents the results of innovativeanalytical techniques used in the excavation of a series of smallscaletemples at the site of Huaricanga in order to explorevariation in ritual practices in the evolving complex polities on thePeruvian coast during the Late Archaic Period.Pitblado, Bonnie (Utah State University), Molly Boeka Cannon(Utah State Univesity), J.M. Adovasio, Megan Bloxham (UtahState University) and Joel C. Janetski (Brigham YoungUniversity)[87] Reuniting the Four-Decades-Lost PillingFremont Figurine with His Mates: HumanIntrigue, Cutting-Edge Science, and EthicalChallengesOur poster focuses on the well-known Pilling Figurines, acollection of a dozen unbaked clay figurines crafted around AD1000 and collected 1000 years later by ranchers in the RangeCreek (eastern Utah) area. The poster overviews the 1950 sitefind; subsequent travels of the collection within and well outside ofUtah; the loss of a male figurine 40 years ago; the apparentreappearance of the lost figurine in November 2011; the efforts ofresearchers to demonstrate that the original had been returned;and discussion of the collection within broader Fremont context.We also touch upon the importance of collections like the Pillingassemblage to museums, land management agencies,researchers, and the public.Although the SAA submission system permits listing only five totalsubmission authors, our poster includes important contributions byadditional co-authors: Bud Pilling (son of the gentleman whocollected the figurines); K. Renee Barlow (who documented anddated the site); Kathleen Anderson and Steven T. Nelson (whoperformed geochemical analyses of the assemblage); Sally J.Cole (on Fremont iconography); Byron Loosle (BLM archaeologist,Utah); and Pamela Miller (long-time curator of the USU-EasternPrehistoric Museum, which has housed the figurines for many ofthe last 60 years).Pitezel, Todd (University of Arizona)[97] Hilltop Signals of Ritual Practice in the CasasGrandes World, Chihuahua, MexicoHilltop features in the Casas Grandes world have been referred toas “atalayas,” a Spanish word meaning watchtowers. But, thisterm masks variability in feature composition and use during theCasas Grandes Medio period (A.D. 1200-1450). During this time,one or more of at least five rock feature types were constructed on29 hilltops. The configurations of these features vary, but theyconform to components maximally expressed at Cerro deMoctezuma. A GIS analysis shows that Casas Grandes hilltopsites could have been signaling locations, with Cerro deMoctezuma being the most intervisible site. At the same time,recent excavation within Cerro de Moctezuma’s atalaya indicatesthat it supported ritual observances. We describe hilltop featuresin the context of their surrounding valley settlements todemonstrate that these places signaled ritual practice across theCasas Grandes world.[97] ChairPitezel, Todd [97] see Pitezel, ToddPitter, Sharmini (Stanford University), Nerissa Russell(Cornell University), Ian Hodder (Stanford University ) andRichard P. Evershed (University of Bristol)[9] Food Residue Fatty Acid C and H stableIsotopes as Proxies for Evaluating Cultural andClimatic Change at Çatalhöyük,TurkeyAn extensive study of the organic residue associated with theNeolithic pottery of Çatalhöyük has further confined the timing ofdairy production on-site after following the methods of a previousstudy (Evershed et al. 2008). The combination of this newinformation with the faunal and stable isotope records of the samesite has provided a more detailed account of changes in animalmanagement strategy over time. Although the animal origins ofdairy at this particular settlement are still unclear (cattle vs.sheep/goat), this study clearly demonstrates the importance ofcombining information from multiple methods in furthering ourunderstanding of archaeological settings. In addition, a newlydeveloped palaeoenvironmental proxy may provide a direct linkbetween changes in local precipitation levels and changessubsistence practices by assessing stable hydrogen isotope (δD)values of fatty acids extracted from pottery residues. This studyprovides an in-depth look at some of the oldest dairy residuesfound to date as well as environmental and social factors that mayhave contributed or resulted from the transition to secondaryproduct use during the Neolithic.Pittman, Holly (University of Pennsylvania)[157] The Bronze Age of Exchange on the IranianPlateauEvidence from recent excavations in the region of Jiroft in the HalilRiver Valley of south central Iran establishes the presence ofactors from across the Middle East in this region. Links to CentralAsia, the Indus valley, the Persian Gulf and southernMesopotamia can be seen through the residue of administrativeactivity, and in particular through the glyptic impressed on claycontainer sealings. This evidence augments and enhances ourunderstanding of the role of the Iranian plateau in the vibrantphase of interaction during the third millennium BC that underliesthe rise of complex societies across the region.Platt, Sarah [178] see Woodburn, MichaelPluciennik, Mark (University of Leicester)[49] Differential Processes ...Socio-cultural evolution has a life across many disciplines andstages, from a broadly-construed anthropology to philosophy,colonialist actions, contemporary geopolitics, and publicunderstandings of human history and the status of others. Evenwithin its classic modern form (from the mid-eighteenth centuryonwards) social evolution cannot simply or continuously beascribed to the more material or more social tendencies ofarchaeological theory. Rather, the leitmotif tends to be 'progress'of one form or another. This includes technologies, modes ofsubsistence, settlement, or production; or the evolution of or'towards' cultural traits such as monogamy, religion, literacy,societal size, or socio-economic complexity. But what happens tounderstandings of socio-cultural evolution when viewed throughthe lens of Difference Theory? What are the implications ofdissonance and non-correspondence between the materiality ofthe archaeological record and the almost always heterogeneoussocial (and other) construals of that record, past and present, forconcepts of historical process? Must the long-term only ever beunderstood as post-hoc historical accommodations, rather thancogent explanations? How can systematic generalization ever beinformative, or offer a persuasive 'answer'? Difference Theorytriggers a critical reexamination of some of the foundations ofphilosophies of history from a specifically archaeologicalperspective.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 335Pluckhahn, Thomas [167] see Thompson, VictorPlunk, Lindsay[6] Chemical and Mineralogical Analysis of VarneyRed Filmed Ceramics from the LowerMississippi River ValleyVarney Red Filmed ceramics are a common part of EarlyMississippian assemblages in the Lower Mississippi River Valley.Results of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thin-section petrography willbe presented from several Early Mississippian sites in the region.A better understanding of Varney Red Filmed ceramics and theEarly Mississippian culture in the Southeastern United States canbe achieved through the chemical and mineralogical study ofthese ceramics.Plunket, Patricia (Universidad de las Americas Puebla) andGabriela Uruñuela (Universidad de las Americas Puebla)[63] The Cholula-Teotihuacan Relation RevisitedBased on his 1954 analysis of ceramics from excavations atCholula’s Great Pyramid, Eduardo Noguera concluded thatCholula was conquered by Teotihuacan early in the Classic periodand consequently was home to many ethnic Teotihuacanos. Onthe other hand, scholars working at Teotihuacan, like JamesBennyhoff and Evelyn Rattray, recognized a strong Cholulainfluence in the Tzacualli phase ceramics from the Basin of Mexicometropolis, but they did not envision large-scale immigration fromCholula or any political intervention. In this paper we reconsiderthe relation between the two Classic cities based on their materialculture and discuss alternative possibilities for their interaction.[114] DiscussantPoister, Nicholas [125] see Brown, KaitlinPokines, James T. [224] see Ames, ChristopherPolcyn , Marek [32] see Marciniak, ArkadiuszPolk, Michael (Sagebrush Consultants, L.L.C.)[168] Seeking Storage Where None Seems to ExistSince February 2009, the primary curation facility in the State ofUtah has refused to accept historic archaeological collections,citing that such acceptance violates its purpose and ability toproperly store such materials. As a contractor who regularly dealswith historic archaeological sites, a number of which we haveexcavated, the absence of a facility to properly store the recoveredmaterials has created serious challenge for our company. In thispaper, I describe these challenges and alternative means that wehave discovered to curate artifacts. I also provide broaderperspective about the subject, applicable in many other places inthe country.Pollack, David [40] see Killoran, PeterPollock, Susan[30] Commensality and Painted Pottery Traditions inthe Late Fifth Millennium in Southwestern IranAn integral part of Henry Wright’s studies of early states and theirimmediate predecessors in southwestern Iran has been aconsideration of the production and exchange of craft goods,among them ceramics. His work has helped to move ourunderstandings beyond simple comparisons of the outwardappearance of finished goods to consider forms of production andcirculation. In this paper I will examine another element, namelyhow ceramic vessels were used in contexts of commensality andthe social implications of their uses. My focus is on the late 5thmillennium painted pottery traditions in the Susiana Plain and theKur River Basin.Polloock, Jacob, Ashley Grimes (Department ofAnthropology, University of Utah) and Lisa Benson(Department of Anthropology, University of Utah)[148] Exploring Lithic Assemblages in the Uinta-Wasatch-Cache National ForestIn recent years much attention has been given to high altitudesites around the Great Basin as discoveries have increased;however, there is a lack of systematic mapping of these locations.This project is designed to analyze sites across the Uinta-Wasatch-Cache National Forest by 1) Mapping known lithicassemblages across the varying vegetation zones (Transitional,Canadian, Hudsonian, and Alpine), and 2) To analyze theoccupational span of these sites. A comprehensive compilation ofprehistoric sites and potential patterning of human behavior atvarying elevations across the forest will help the archaeologicalcommunity to better understand why human populations wereconverging at such heights.Ponkratova, Irina [131] see Keeler, DustinPonomareva, Vera [131] see Keeler, DustinPool, Christopher A. [33] see Jaime-Riveron, OlafPool, Christopher (University of Kentucky), Philip Arnold(Loyola University of Chicago) and Ponicano Ortiz(Universidad Veracruzana)[275] Radiocarbon and Ceramic Chronologies ofMatacapan, Veracruz, MexicoThe ceramic chronology worked out for Matacapan by Ortiz andSantley is a linchpin for archaeological research in the TuxtlasMountains. Radiocarbon dates submitted in the 1980s, however,produced large standard errors, most on the order of 100 to 300years. In this paper we present a new series of radiocarbon datesfor the site and discuss their implications for the prehistory ofMatacapan and the Tuxtla Mountains.Poot, Paulina Ivette [33] see Rivas, JavierPopelka-Filcoff, Rachel (Flinders University), Tiffany Reeves(Flinders University), Philip Jones (South Australian Museum)and Claire Lenehan (Flinders University)[181] Differentiation of Binders in Aboriginal andEuropean Painted Artifacts using Pyrolysis GasChromatography Mass SpectrometryBinders are used to adhere pigments to each other and to thesupport, and compounds used vary between cultures. AfterEuropean settlement in Australia, Aboriginal Australians beganusing European-style binders as well as those obtained fromnative flora and fauna, however when and how this transitionoccurred is unclear. There has been extensive characterization ofEuropean binders, but much less of Aboriginal media. Suchcharacterization could provide a basis for conservation,restoration, authentication, and dating of Indigenous artifacts fromthese time periods, as well as provide insight into Australianhistory.This research has focused on optimising a pyrolysis gaschromatography mass spectrometry (Py-GCMS) method toanalyse a wide range of binding materials. This involves rapidheating of a sample to form small volatile compounds that aresubsequently separated and detected to determine the chemicalcomposition of the sample, and requires only very small samples(0.5 mg) and minimal sample preparation, making it highly

336 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGadvantageous for use in analysing valuable artifacts.A method capable of distinguishing between binder types andmaterials from European and Aboriginal cultures has beendeveloped, and a library of known binders has been compiled forcomparison to Indigenous objects for identification.Popov, Alexander [194] see McKenzie, HughPopp, Brian (University of Hawaii)[138] Geochemical and Climate Modeling Evidencefor Holocene Aridification in HawaiiValuable records of Holocene paleoclimate for the centralsubtropical Pacific have been developed from peat deposits andlake sediments. Increases in sedimentation rate between 10,000and 6,000 cal yr B.P. in peat deposits from coastal, montane andsubalpine areas in the Hawaiian Islands that receivepredominantly trade wind precipitation imply increased moisture.The apparent increase in moisture coincides with evidence forincreased moisture above the trade wind inversion. On the otherhand a record of carbon and hydrogen isotope values of individualn-alkanes derived from the leaf waxes of terrestrial plantsextracted from a 13.5 m sequence of limnic sediments in asinkhole on the leeward coastal Oahu, Hawaii are consistent witha shift in the local vegetation from C3 to C4-dominated flora anddecreased moisture over this time interval. The vegetativechanges are consistent with a response to decreased overallwater availability mainly due to reduced wintertime precipitation.Model simulations of orbitally-induced increases in insolation alongthe equator during the Holocene provide evidence for wintertimedrying in Hawaii and in the eastern subtropical North Pacific. Inthis talk, I review records used to construct paleoclimate in Hawaiiand compare them to tropical climate change across the PacificBasin.Poppiti, Vincenzo [33] see Kimber, TomPorter, Anne[146] Pastoralism and the Proliferation of the PolityThis paper argues that the perceived disjuncture between pristine(fourth millennium) and secondary (mid-third millennium) stateformation in greater Mesopotamia arises from the misperceptionthat cultural continuity can only be carried by sedentary settlementsystems. A widespread and long-lasting break in occupationintervened between the retraction of the first state system, theUruk, from the north, and the rebirth of complex society in thisregion. Two separate geneses of the state therefore seemnecessary. From the perspective of mobile pastoralism however,there is a seamless narrative to tell where the rise and spread ofthe polity across greater Mesopotamia is a single process.Pastoralists were intrinsic members of, and dynamic forces in, thecreation of the intersecting polities of the fourth millennium andtheir extension over space. When that system collapsedpastoralists regrouped and relocated, carrying with them theessential elements of its political practice, as they established newrelations with the landscape during the early third millennium –relations that culminated in the urbanization of the mid-thirdmillennium. The material manifestations of complex society werethereby reconfigured across space, but the social, political, andreligious components of complexity remained intact throughoutthis time.Porter, Benjamin [149] see Ames, NicholasPorter, Benjamin (University of California, Berkeley),Benjamin Porter (University of California, Berkeley), AlanFarahani (University of California, Berkeley) and MelanieMiller (University of California, Berkeley)[263] Catching Crabs in the Desert: Isotopic Insightsinto Human-Animal Relationships in Early IronAge Central JordanArchaeological remains of brachyurans (e.g. crabs) have oftenbeen overlooked as potential paleoenvironmental andpaleoclimatical proxies in contrast to other marine and terrestrialinvertebrates such as mollusks and landsnails. The potential forfine-scale regional paleoclimate reconstruction based upon theseorganisms' behavioral ecology has yet to be examined. This paperpresents isotopic and morphometric analyses of archaeofaunalremains of Mediterranean semi-terrestrial freshwater crabs(Potamon potamios) from the archaeological site of Khirbat al-Mudayna al-’Aliya (KMA). KMA lies on a southern tributary ofJordan’s Wadi al-Mujib, approximately 40 kilometers east of theDead Sea. Excavations at the site recovered architecture,artifacts, and ecofacts dating to a single-period occupation duringthe early Iron Age (ca. 1000 BCE). Oxygen and carbon isotopesfrom these archaeofaunal remains were analyzed in conjunctionwith a novel two-year study of the modern Potomonautidpopulation to ascertain the biophysical interactions between theorganism and environment. This study also explores thecomparative validity of these past ecological relationships throughthe examination of contemporary samples collected from otherwadi systems. The implications of this research bear upon the lociof interaction of the ancient community with the wadi landscape,mobility, resource acquisition, and human-animal relationshipsPorts, Kyle (Humboldt State University)[213] Stepping into the Underworld: PreliminaryAnalysis of Cave Investigations at the DosHombres to Gran Cacao Archaeological Project(DH2GC)Caves and subterranean features are important aspects of thesacred landscape of the Maya region. This paper will provideinterpretations of preliminary survey and excavations of severalsubterranean features located within the Dos Hombres to GranCacao Archaeological Project (DH2GC). By analyzing the spatialcharacteristics and providing artifact analysis, this paper exploresthe utilization of subterranean features by the ancient Maya and itsramifications on settlement analysis. This paper will also include acomparative analysis of caves located in the Programme for BelizeArchaeology Project (PfBAP) region. The investigation of thesefeatures is integral to the understanding of the role that cavesplayed in ancient Maya hinterland settlement.Poteate, Aaron (North Carolina State University), ScottFitzpatrick (University of Oregon), Meagan Clark (Universityof Oregon), Jessica Stone (University of Oregon) and AlysonHarding (North Carolina State University)[2] Amerindian Mollusk Exploitation during the LateCeramic Age at Coconut Walk, Nevis, WestIndies (ca. A.D. 850-1450)Islands provide a unique opportunity to elucidate natural andcultural change due to their fragile ecosystems and heavy relianceon marine resources by human populations. In this paper, we addto the current knowledge of prehistoric Caribbean islandsubsistence strategies and human environmental interaction byexamining the exploitation of mollusks from the Late Ceramic Agesite of Coconut Walk on the island of Nevis in the northern LesserAntilles. Results from a robust assemblage of more than 63,000MNI and 79 discrete taxa from a large 5 × 5 meter midden area,suggest that: 1) three taxa (Nerita tessellata, Cittarium pica, andLithopoma tuber) were the preferred species, with N. tessellatacomprising 62% of the overall assemblage; 2) there was increasedexploitation of mollusks generally through time; and 3) there isevidence of increasing size of at least one species, N. tessellata,over the course of site occupation. The research providesimportant insight into mollusk use on Nevis, and the role that alimited number of species had in human consumption patterns.Questions arise as to whether cultural and/or natural processesaffected mollusk size, and how the Nevis data compare with otherprehistoric shellfish assemblages in the Antilles.

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 337Potter, James (PaleoWest Archaeology)[175] Household Action and the Construction andDestruction of the Ridges Basin CommunityRather than the passive outcome of people living together,communities are produced through social action, a primary locusof which is the household. Yet the community also createsstructure which guides household-level decisions. This interplaybetween household action and community structure produces atension that can alter the nature and organization of thecommunity over time and in some cases tear it apart, sometimesviolently. This paper explores the formation, development, anddissolution of an early prehispanic community in SouthwesternColorado. At its height the Ridges Basin community, dating fromA.D. 750-825, comprised approximately 75 households spreadacross the basin in pit-house clusters. Data indicate thathouseholds in these clusters were diverse in their backgroundsand social identities, regularly exercised violence against oneanother, and were variably connected to other communities andthe larger outside world. The result was a community thatdeveloped and changed rapidly, exhibited fluid boundaries andvolatile social relations among households, and came to a quickand violent end. The study reinforces communities as complex,multi-scale, fluid arrays of social relations that emerge, persist,and end through people’s actions and practices.[123] DiscussantPottier, Christophe[49] Digging the History in Angkor (Cambodia)In many ways, Angkor is characteristic of the large monumentalsites of Southeast Asia, as it plays a major and often foundationalrole in the national histories of modern nations. Angkor alsoillustrates remarkably how -and on what basis- these "histories"were reconstructed with different materials, largely with thediscovery and restoration of monumental vestiges, and thedecryption of the epigraphic corpus and its interpretation in anhistorical perspective. Archaeology was often then expected just toprovide material evidence for the intellectual reconstructions ofsocial phenomena. Yet, the historiography of Angkor shows thatarchaeology has a strong ability to move beyond this role and toproduce seminal additional types of information and interpretation.From the example of the archaeological excavations he conductedfor the last 12 years in search of the urban origin of the Angkorregion, the presenter will illustrate how the archaeological realityhelps to deeply reconsider our interpretative schemes byconfronting some seemingly solid historical sources that providethe bedrock of the historical dogma of Angkor. The Angkor casedemonstrates how, in such context, historical and archaeologicalapproaches remain complementary, despite their differences andincompatibilities to produce coherent interpretations.[104] DiscussantPotts, Richard [10] see Brooks, AlisonPotts, Richard (Smithsonian Institution, Human OriginsProgram)[215] Alternating High- and Low-Climate VariabilityProvided a Context for Variability Selection inPleistocene East AfricaThe interaction of orbital insolation cycles offers a model of EastAfrican environment that predicts switching between high- andlow-climate variability over the past 5 million years. The modelimplies repeated increases in landscape/resource instability andintervening periods of stability. It also predicts eight prolongederas of intensified habitat variability in which faunal communityrestructuring and hominin evolutionary innovations are likely tohave occurred, potentially by variability selection. The prediction ofhighly variable landscapes is confirmed by stratigraphic analysesin the Olorgesailie, Olduvai, Turkana, and other East Africanbasins. At Olorgesailie, for example, 70% (n=30) of basinwidelandscape shifts, including large-scale lake/land oscillations,occurred in a 200,000-year interval of predicted high-climatevariability, compared with 29% in the remaining 500,000 years ofthe Olorgesailie Formation (1.2-0.5 Ma). Integrated analysis ofarcheological and paleolandscape records at Olorgesailieillustrates (a) the adaptable responses of Acheulean hominins tolandscape variability, and (b) the potential influence of prolongedhigh variability beginning ~356,000 years ago on the shift fromAcheulean to Middle Stone Age. Collaboration with the NationalMuseums of Kenya, and support by the Peter Buck Fund forHuman Origins Research and the Ruth and Vernon TaylorFoundation, are gratefully acknowledged.Poupart, Melanie [162] see Bisson, MichaelPowell, Shirley and Mark Varien (Crow CanyonArchaeological Center)[67] Establishing the Genetic Distinctiveness ofHopi Corn: A Collaboration between the HopiCultural Preservation Office and the CrowCanyon Archaeological CenterThe Crow Canyon Archaeological Center and the Hopi CulturalPreservation Office (HCPO), under the leadership of LeighKuwanwisiwma, are conducting a long-term research andeducation initiative known as the Pueblo Farming Project. As onepart of this project, Crow Canyon and the HCPO entered into anagreement to establish a database of Hopi corn lines. Our projectuses DNA single sequence repeat (SSR) markers to determinewhether there are differences among four morphologically distinctHopi corn lines, and between the Hopi corn and other known corngenomes. The analysis examines the genetic distinctiveness ofthe Hopi corn lines, and the HCPO and Crow Canyon anticipatethat these data can be used to protect the corn as intellectualproperty of the Hopi Tribe and to answer questions about Hopihistory and prehistory.In this presentation we focus on the lengthy and complex processthat provided the foundation for this unique and productivepartnership. Additionally we use the resulting data to evaluate botharchaeological and traditional Hopi interpretations of theprocesses that led to the cultural landscape that today we know asHopi. Finally, we offer thoughts about new directions for thiscreative collaboration.Power, Robert (Plant Foods in Hominin Dietary Ecology - MPIfor Evolutionary Anthropology), Arlene Rosen (The Universityof Texas at Austin) and Dani Nadel (Zinman Institute ofArchaeology, University of Hai)[162] Phytolith analysis of Late Natufian site atRaqefet Cave in Mount Carmel, IsraelRaqefet Cave is a Late Natufian site on Mount Carmel in northernIsrael. Although information is accumulating through phytolithanalysis on Natufian plant use, we still have limited information onthe way Natufians availed of plants for subsistence and othercultural activities due to the rarity of Natufian macrobotanicalremains. Here we report on the results of a preliminary study ofphytoliths from sediments in the site’s cave floor, carved bedrockfeatures and burials. Some sediments revealed abundant anddiverse phytolith morphotypes. These results may indicate the useof plants in both economic and symbolic behaviors by LateNatufians.Powis, Terry [36] see Ward, DrewPraetzellis, Adrian[99] Discussant

338 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGPrasciunas, Mary (WestLand Resources, Inc.), William Deaver(WestLand Resources, Inc.) and Fred Huntington (WestLandResources, Inc.)[130] Food or Fiber: The Archaeology of AgaveProcessing in Southern ArizonaAgave was an important source of food and fiber for most NativeAmerican groups living within its distributional range. Non-irrigationagricultural rock pile fields associated with agave cultivation havebeen identified at numerous localities across southern Arizona,and are generally associated with the middle and late Formativeperiods. Although the economic and social implications ofsubsistence- versus nonsubsistence-related agave processing arefundamentally different, the archaeological signatures of theseactivities are similar and few studies have attempted todifferentiate between the two. This paper discusses potentialmethods for distinguishing between agave food and fiberprocessing, and describes the archaeology of what is interpretedto be an agave fiber processing locale associated with the ClassicPeriod Marana Community in the northern Tucson Basin ofsouthern Arizona.Pratt, Trevor (CA Office of Historic Preservation)[53] ModeratorPratt, William and David Brown (University of Texas at Austin)[178] The Cocina Perdida Site: ArchaeologicalSurvey in the Western Piedmont of EcuadorArchaeological survey in the Malqui-Machay valley of westernCotopaxi province revealed a number of new sites from the lateprehistoric and colonial periods, though the suspected Inkaoccupation remains poorly documented. While the late prehistoricperiod is still little understood, one small site yielded a singlewhole vessel that reveals much about the area’s late inhabitants.The buried kitchen remnants at this site suggest that at least someoccupants may have struggled to survive in this valley that todaylies well off the beaten path.Prebble, Matiu [274] see Whitau, RosePrentiss, Anna (University of Montana)[120] The Archaeology of Housepit 54 during theColonial Period at Bridge RiverHousepit 54 at the Bridge River site (interior British Columbia), isthe target of a multi-year archaeological research project fundedprimarily by the U.S. National Endowment for the Humanities.With approximately 13 superimposed anthropogenic floors, thehousepit offers the opportunity for fine grained analysis ofvariability in complex hunter-gatherer-fisher organization in timeand space. The 2012 excavations focused on the Colonial periodoccupation, likely dating to the early to middle 19th century C.E.This poster outlines the project and reviews results of excavationswith a focus on stratigraphy, features, and dating. Conclusionsare offered regarding occupation patterns.[120] ChairPrentiss, Anna [120] see Prentiss, AnnaPrescott, Catherine [186] see Bailey, DavidPrescott, Christopher (University of Oslo)[221] ChairPrezzano, Susan [68] see Walker, MorganPrezzano, Susan[264] Landscape, Memory, and Archaeology inNorthwestern PennsylvaniaThree seasons of excavations along the Clarion River within theAllegheny National Forest in northwestern Pennsylvania revealeda complex multicomponent site ranging from an early twentiethcentury mill town to a series of Middle Archaic fishingencampments that date as early as 8000 BP. These excavationsat the Millstone site united several stakeholders, including townand county officials, state and federal agencies, universityacademics, undergraduates, and local high school students in therecovery of the past in a region that has seen little archaeologicalinvestigations. The results not only contributed to archaeologicalknowledge but provided legitimacy to the growing perception byresidents and project partners of the intrinsic value of the naturalenvironment of the region that in the recent past had been thefocus of intense resource extraction, deforestation, pollution, anddepopulation. The excavations provided validity to an emotionalattachment to the landscape by linking its present use to aperceived past.Price, T. Douglas (University of Aarhus)[17] Migration to and from Teotihuacan: An IsotopicPerspectiveIn the last two decades, new methods have appeared for directlyassessing human movement in the past. Focused on dentalenamel, these methods have employed isotopic ratios ofstrontium, oxygen, and sometimes lead to examine the mobility ofthe inhabitants of ancient Mesoamerica. A variety of studies havebeen conducted at Teotihuacán focused on both individuals andgroups to assess questions such as migration and mobility withregard to age, sex, and status. In this presentation, examples ofisotopic studies of migration using human remains from Mazapan,Oztoyohualco, Cueva del Pirul, the Moon Pyramid, the Temple ofQuetzaquoatal, and elsewhere will be discussed in detail todocument the utility of these methods. The results of these studiesshow a high degree of mobility in and around the Basin of Mexicoduring the Classic period.[17] DiscussantPrice, T. Douglas [37] see Cucina, AndreaPrice, Neil (University of Aberdeen)[55] Nine Paces from Hel: Time and Motion in OldNorse Funerary DramaThe last decade or so has seen an increasing interest in the notionof performance and drama as integral elements in Viking-Ageritual. Among textual scholars, notably Terry Gunnell, we haveseen great advances made in our understanding of how what wenow know as Norse mythology was originally communicated andperceived. Archaeologists, including the presenter, have workedon the parallel realm of mortuary behavior and the complexpractice of funerals. However, it is one thing to note the probableexistence of ritual performance in these contexts, but a quitedifferent matter to uncover what it was that actually happened.How were the postulated mythological dramas staged? Where didthese plays find their audience? What really occurred at thegravesides of the Vikings? Using examples from the Old Norseprose corpus and recent archaeological finds, thise paper willdiscuss the recovery of duration, spatial arena and specific actionin performative ritual of the period.[55] ChairPrevosti, Francisco Juan [26] see Martin, Fabiana MaríaPrice, Gypsy (University of Florida) and John Krigbaum(University of Florida)

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 339[136] From Fields to Feast: Procurement andConsumption at Mycenae, GreeceThe multivocality of food does not start at the dinner table or evenin the kitchen, it begins with procurement. In the case ofpastoralism, the management and distribution practices of faunaare part of the food signification process. Human-animalinteractions of both managed herds and wild game impact themeaningfulness of the consumption of faunal resources. I presentpreliminary results of an isotopic survey of fauna from PetsasHouse, a Late Bronze Age extra-palatial industrial and domesticstructure at Mycenae, Greece. Stable isotope biochemistry permitschanges in diet and movement across landscapes to be assessedfor individual fauna associated with populations exploited for food(sheep, goat, cattle, deer, and boar). Disparities in provisioning offoddering strategies, as well as place of origin or herd patterningare visible using multiple isotope proxies (carbon, oxygen,nitrogen, and strontium). This research addresses questionsconcerning the meaningfulness of locality or origin and degree andtype of human interaction when procuring faunal resources, bothwild and domestic, for consumption in various social contexts atMycenae during the Late Bronze Age.Prieto, Oscar Gabriel [101] see Sutter, RichardPritchard, Erin [276] see Harle, MichaelynPrivat, Karen (University of New South Wales, Australia),Shawn Ross (Unviersity of New South Wales, Australia),Adela Sobotkova (University of New South Wales, Australia)and Victoria Russeva (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences)[217] Paleodietary Analysis of Bronze Age HumanRemains from Boyanovo, BulgariaThe Bronze Age of the Eurasian steppe and border-steppe regionswas a period of flux, with a tendency toward increased mobility forportions of communities or entire groups. The increasing economicdependence of humans upon their domestic herds in the BronzeAge and subsequent Iron Age is to some extent reflected in thearchaeological evidence for a broad dietary shift toward theconsumption of domesticated animal products over wild andagricultural resources. However, this trend is not uniform acrossthe region, and paleodietary and paleoecological studies from arange of sites across the Eurasian steppe indicate that, at least atsome sites, wild resources (e.g., fish) and agricultural resources(e.g., millet) contributed significantly to the diet of humans throughthe Bronze Age. In this study, we use stable isotope analysis ofbone collagen extracted from 20 adults from the Bronze Age burialmound of Boyanovo in southeastern Bulgaria to examine dietarydifferentiation within the population (sex, age, outliers). Thepaleodietary trends identified are compared with comprehensivearchaeological, osteological and botanical analyses fromBoyanovo and other contemporary sites throughout the broaderEurasian steppe region to address issues of animal management,wild plant and animal exploitation, and social structure andmobility.Prociuk, Nadya[259] Inscribing Identity: Symbolic Representation inthe Castro CultureThe material remains of the Iron Age Castro Culture ofnorthwestern Iberia display the repeatedinscription of design motifs which distinguish them fromsurrounding groups. These designs appear tomanifest a suite of symbolic concepts reflecting a sense of sharedidentification. Significantly, this set of symbolic identificationsencountered the possibility of change at every re-inscription,perhaps reflecting fluid conceptions of identification. Though it maynever be possible to accurately understand the meaning of thesymbolic motifs to the Castro people, my research attempts tounderstand the social function of material culture repetitivelyinscribed with symbolic motifs.In order to explore this possibility, my research focuses on 5important characteristics of these motifs: context, repetition,visibility, association and commonality. Utilizing collections ofceramics, items of personal adornment, as well as domestic andmonumental architecture, it may be possible to access the ways inwhich the people of the Castro Culture chose to represent aspectsof a shared identification. This paper will present the theoreticalfoundations and work in progress of this research project.Prost, Stefan (Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology andEvolution, University of Otago, NZ), Andrew Clarke (Schoolof Life Sciences, University of Warwick, Co), Olga Kardailsky(Department of Anatomy, University of Otago, Dunedi), DavidAddison (Samoan Studies Institute, ASCC, American Samoa)and Lisa Matisoo-Smith (Allan Wilson Centre for MolecularEcology and Evol)[47] MtDNA and Y Chromosome Evidence for theOrigins and Population History of TokelauThis study is part of National Geographic's Genographic project inassociation with the Tokelau Science Education and ResearchProject. We sampled cheek swabs and genealogical informationfrom more than 150 individuals representing all three atolls: Atafu,Nukunonu and Fakaofo. We sequenced complete mtDNAgenomes and identified Y chromosome haplotypes to studypopulation structure in the archipelago using standard and modelbasedanalyses. We then compared the data to other Pacificpopulations. This paper presents those results and theimplications for the origins and population history of the people ofTokelau.Prufer, Keith [36] see Robinson, MarkPrufer, Keith (University of New Mexico)[256] A Multi-Proxy Regional Chronology forSouthern BelizeSouthern Belize is a geographically circumscribed region and oneof the more ecologically diverse in the Maya Lowlands. Politicalcenters are located in range of geological and biotic settings fromthe igneous Maya Mountains to the Caribbean Sea. Withoccupation at over 20 minor capitals spanning at least 1000 years,it is an ideal area to study processes of state formation andregional interaction. This presentation discusses the regionalsettlement chronology drawing on primary and archival dataincluding ceramics, radiocarbon assays, monument dates,architectural styles, and settlement patterns.Pryor, Alex [274] see Ussher, EllaPugh, Timothy (Queens College and The Graduate Center),Carlos Sánchez (Centro Universitario de Petén), Evelyn Chan(Centro Universitario de Petén), Miriam Salas (CentroUniversitario de Petén) and Pablo Lizano (CentroUniversitario de Petén)[78] The Late Preclassic Occupation at Tayasal,Petén, GuatemalaRecent archaeological excavations at Tayasal, Petén, Guatemalahave revealed that the site experienced it largest occupationduring the Chicanel phase (300 BC-AD 200). At this time, amassive T-shaped platform was built in the site’s center and insome areas, the fill of this platform is over 7 meters deep.Chicanel phase developments also include triadic temple groupsand surrounding residences. Excavations encountered a circularplatform, which likely dates to the Chicanel phase. The lack ofsubstantial Early Classic (AD 200-600) period materials at Tayasalindicates a hiatus at the end of the Late Preclassic period (300BC-AD 200). A similar pattern was encountered at other sites inthe Petén lakes region suggesting the possibility of a majorpopulation shift and/or collapse in the area at the end of the

340 ABSTRACTS OF THE 78TH ANNUAL MEETINGPreclassic period.Pugh, Timothy [140] see Shiratori, YukoPugh, Christina (Washington University in St Louis), DanielPugh (Nazarbayev University) and Zachary Cofran(Nazarbayev University)[149] Nazarbayev University Laboratory ofAnthropological Sciences: New Resources forSteppe ArchaeologyThe Eurasian steppe is home to a staggering amount ofarchaeological wealth, but it has received proportionally littleattention from Western archaeologists. With a rapid pace ofdevelopment in the former Soviet republics, particularlyKazakhstan, many archaeological treasures are at risk. Thepresident of Kazakhstan has recently commissioned a noveluniversity project in his name, and heritage management isprioritized in various forms. The Nazarbayev UniversityLaboratory of Anthropological Sciences (NULAS) is establishing a21st century program of heritage management with three primaryareas of focus: 1) bringing modern techniques to the steppe; 2)facilitating transfer of knowledge between English speakingarchaeologists and colleagues working in Russian, Kazakh, andother local languages; and 3) providing a point of cooperation andsupport for foreign archaeologists working in the region. Thisposter reports on the development of this new program andpresents strategies for upcoming projects.Pugh, Daniel (Nazarbayev University)[278] Climate and Culture: Late Prehistoric SocialFlux in the Central PlainsThe mid-13th century saw major movements of population within,and more substantially out of, the Central Plains. The reoccupationof this territory over a century later set the social stagefor the emergence of historically-known Plains tribes. Thusunderstanding exactly how and why these population shifts tookplace is critical for explaining the origins of the historic and moderntribes. Climatic models have often been invoked to explain the13th century abandonment and by extension the laterreoccupation, but several of the assumptions underlying thosemodels have recently come into question and they deserve reevaluation.Re-evaluating the respective roles of culture andclimate in these population movements has implications for thecultural origins of historic tribes and the ways that archaeologistsunderstand historical relatedness.Punke, Michele (Archaeological Investigations Northwest,Inc.)[33] The Surveyor Spring Site: An Ash-Flow TuffObsidian Source in South-Central OregonThe Surveyor Spring archaeological site in southern Lake County,Oregon, is positioned on a landscape composed primarily ofPliocene- to Miocene-aged volcanic ash-flow tuffs. The tuffdeposits are made up of indurated pyroclastic materials, includingrhyolite, ash, pumice, and obsidian. The tuff deposits haveweathered in place, revealing localized concentrations of obsidiannodules within the site. These obsidian concentrations served asan important raw material source for prehistoric people who livedin the area. This paper presents the complex geologic andgeomorphic setting of this obsidian source, and discusses thenature of the site in relation to other obsidian-rich tuff deposits andarchaeological sites in the area.Punzo, Jose Luis (Instituto Nacional de Antropologia eHistoria)[97] The Chalchihuteños, Dwellers of the Hills in theValley of Guadiana Durango MexicoAround A.D. 600 in the Valley of Guadiana, south-centralDurango, Mexico, a series of small villages began to appear onthe summits of steep hills near the margins of rivers. Thisoccupation has been referred to as the Guadiana branch of theChalchihuites culture with a deep Mesoamerican tradition. Manyresearchers have regarded these summit villages and theirarchitecture, especially terraces and modified narrow passages toaccess the summit, as a defensive reaction to a violent time.However, a broader consideration shows that the architecture,patios, pyramids, and ball courts on these hills reflect a profoundworldview of landscape, life, and ritual during this time.Purcell, Gabrielle (The University of Tennessee )[243] The Development of Maize Agriculture in theSmoky MountainsLocated in the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina, Smokemont isa multicomponent site that has evidence of occupation from theEarly Woodland through Euro-American periods. Paleobotanicalremains have been examined from two structures identified on thesite, one Pisgah house and one Qualla house, as well as fromEarly and Middle Woodland features. Floral analysis of fourWoodland pits indicates some horticultural activity, and wild plantscontinue to be important but supplementary to maize agricultureduring the Mississippian and Cherokee occupations. This paperdiscusses the development of maize agriculture at Smokemont asindicated by plant remains collected in 2010 and 2012.Purser, Margaret [111] see Wingard, JohnPuseman, Kathryn [236] see Scott Cummings, LindaPutsavage, Kathryn (University of Colorado)[16] Social Transformations in the Mimbres Regionof Southern New Mexico from A.D. 1150 to1450: An Investigation of the Black MountainSite (LA 49)In the Mimbres region of southern New Mexico, the BlackMountain site (LA 49) is well-known but poorly understoodbecause of long-term and extensive vandalism. Since the site isprobably the largest post-Classic Mimbres pueblo in the LowerMimbres Valley, research at the site could significantly add tocurrent understandings of demographic and social transformationsin the southern Southwest after A.D. 1130/1150. From 2010 to2012, the University of Colorado conducted three seasons of fieldresearch examining two periods of social transformation at theBlack Mountain site. The first period of transformation occurredaround A.D. 1150 and represents the transition between theClassic Mimbres (A.D. 1000 to 1150) and Black Mountain phase(A.D. 1150 to 1250/1300). The second period of transformationrepresents the transition from the Black Mountain to the Cliffphase (A.D. 1250 to 1450). Both of these phase transitionsencompass a range of transformative processes includingpopulation replacement and reorganization, changes in economicnetworks, adaptations to changing or new environments, and/orreorganization of social networks. The scale, chronology, andnature of these two transformations are not fully understood. Thispaper describes recent research at the Black Mountain site andprovides new insight surrounding these complex social processes.Putsavage, Kathryn [86] see Dolan, SeanPyburn, Anne (Indiana University)[144] Location, Location, Location: PopulationMovement and Maya CitiesNo single archaeological site in the Maya area has all of thecharacteristics that have been attributed to cities, but most authorsagree that at least some Maya of the classic period were urban.While population distribution and density have often beenconsidered in attempts to understand Maya settlements,population movement, other than exodus, has not been the focusof much research. We observe the movement of goods, we

ABSTRACTS OF THE SAA 78th ANNUAL MEETING 341speculate about the movement of people carrying them, but wehave drawn few conclusions about how the sort of large scalemigrations that affected early cities elsewhere in the ancient worldmight have played a role in Maya political economy. In this paper Iconsider what aspects of material culture, if any, may beconsidered an index of migration, and whether migration must beconsidered a significant factor in understanding the life histories ofprehispanic Maya cities.[118] Moderator[100] DiscussantPye, Mary (New World Archaeological Foundation)[4] DiscussantPyszka, Kimberly [119] see Falls, EvaQIAN, Wei (University of Science and Technology Beijing)[93] Cast Iron Smelting in Early China:Archaeological Survey and LaboratorySimulationCast iron is one of the most important inventions in ancient China.The white cast iron specimens found at Tianma-Qucun Cemeteryin Shanxi Province dated to 8th c. B.C. showed the earliest use ofcast iron in China. Dozens of pre-500 B.C., cast iron artifacts havebeen unearthed from sites in Yellow River and Yangtze Rivervalleys. The invention of cast iron smelting was strongly related tothe technology, as well as the social demands, of cast bronze andceramics in early China. A series of iron smelting furnaces weresurveyed and measured with scientific methods. 3D laserscanning technology was applied to measure the hearths andwalls of the shaft furnaces which was useful in reconstructing thefurnaces. The smelting situations in the furnaces can be simulatedby using the calculations with CFD software and the analysis ofthe slag and other remains in the smelting sites. The spatialevolution of the smelting furnaces shows why the ancient Chinesecould produce liquid cast iron so early and how they continued onthis technical route for so long time.Qin, Zhen (Washington University in St. Louis)[183] Studies of Iron Smelting Sites around NanyangBasin during Warring States, Qin and HanPeriodsFrom the Warring States period to the Han dynasty (475 B.C.-220A.D.), a series of distinctive cast-iron based smelting technologies,which differed from bloomery technology in the Near East andEurope, were invented and adopted in Central Plain of China.Several clusters of iron smelting sites were found and excavatedin the region, especially around the Nanyang Basin. The studieson these sites will contribute to deeper understanding of somefocused archaeological issues, including early smeltingtechnologies, patterns of site locations and relationships betweeniron production and the environment.This poster will first give a brief but comprehensive introduction tothe archaeometallurgical work done around Nanyang Basin,especially on the smelting sites in Wugang and Xiping counties.Analyses of slags and iron products by SEM-EDS andmetallurgical microscopy indicate that there was a completesystem of iron production, including mining, smelting, melting andcasting. Then in the poster, the author will show GIS-based spatialanalyses of the distributional patterns of sites, which display thatsites with different functions have evident divergences on slopeand flow accumulation but identity on aspect. Finally, theinteractions between smelting activities and ecology near the siteswill be explored.Quiggle, Robert (HDR Engineering, Inc.)[270] Developing Strategies for Managing CulturalResources at Large Hydropower Projects: ACase Study from the U.S. Gulf CoastThe management of archaeological and historic resources at largehydroelectric projects licensed by the Federal Energy RegulatoryCommission presents unique challenges. Fluctuating reservoirlevels, public recreation, and even routine maintenance activitiesall have the potential to adversely affect historic properties ifproper management measures are not in place. This posterexplores successful strategies for managing cultural resources atlarge hydroelectric projects through a case study of the ToledoBend Project, a bi-state hydroelectric project on the U.S GulfCoast. With over 1,100 miles of shoreline, the Toledo Bend Projectis one of the largest hydroelectric projects in the United States,and over 400 archaeological resources have been reported withinthe project’s area of potential effects. Working on behalf of thelicensees, HDR Engineering, Inc. led a diverse group that includedthe State Historic Preservation Officers, Indian tribes, and the U.S.Forest Service to develop a consensus Historic PropertiesManagement Plan (HPMP) that will guide the management ofarchaeological and historic resources at the Toledo Bend Projectfor the next 50 years. The HPMP developed for this project servesas an example of how carefully considered managementstrategies can successfully balance preservation concerns with theefficient operation of large hydroelectric projects.Quimby, Frank (Micronesian Area Research Center--Research Associate)[95] The Mariana Islands and the Role of EarlyModern Asia-Pacific Colonization inGlobalizationThe Marianas, a western Pacific archipelago astride the ManilaGalleons’ return voyage from Acapulco, were the first Islands ofOceania Spain integrated into its Asia-Pacific colonial tradingnetwork. The indigenous people, known as Chamorros, tradedwith Spanish and other Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries,facilitating the reception of a Jesuit-led mission in 1668.Resistance to the colony's social transformation and politicalconsolidation agenda led to the conquest of the islands, whichbecame an official colony and way-station for Manila-boundgalleons until 1815.Quintus, Seth (University of Auckland)[274] Intensive Food Production Systems in theSamoan Archipelago: A Case Study from OfuIsland, Manu’a groupPrehistoric food production systems in the Samoan archipelagohave been referred to as non-intensive, based on historic eraobservation and little archaeology. However, more recentarchaeological examinations on multiple islands of the group arecalling this description into question, though no archaeologicalproject has specifically examined food production. Research beingconducted on Ofu Island, Manu’a, American Samoa, has this goal.Preliminary results suggest that swidden cultivation and multistoreyarboricultural gardens constitute the system complimentedby landscape modifications in the form of ditches and terraces, theformer densely distributed across the interior landscape. I arguethat the impetus for the construction of these landscapemodifications was multi-faceted, ditches, especially, functioning indifferent ways depending on both temporal and spatial context.While intensification models may be utilized to understand thissystem, a better understanding of the differences between thisproduction system and systems elsewhere in Oceania requires an“unpacking” of the process.R. Carl, DeMuth [188] see Wells, JoshuaRaad, Danielle (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and

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