SEPTEMBER 2004 Volume 64, No. 1ROBOTDESIGNCHALLENGESpecial Insert:Results from thefollow-up Gallup Pollwww.iteawww.org
SOLIDWORKS EXPERIENCE PREFERREDSolidWorks 60%job postings on July 1, 2004*EDS Ideas 11%Autodesk Mechanical Desktop 9%Autodesk Inventor 8%EDS Solid Edge 6%Pro/DESKTOP 3%CADKEY 2%Iron CAD 1%WHAT ARE YOUR STUDENTS LEARNING?QUESTION:Can my school afford it?Can my teachers teach it?Can my students learn it?Are local industries using it?Will students find career opportunitiesbased on these skills?YES✓✓✓✓✓NOWe know tech-ed budgets are tight. We know purchasingdecisions are hard. We know technology keeps movingfaster, and good teachers are hard to find. That’s whySolidWorks offers flexible, affordable licensing optionsthat help overcome budget cuts. That’s why SolidWorksoffers free teacher training workshops with completelesson plans and courseware. With SolidWorks, youcan be confident you’ve chosen the leader in 3D CAD.With SolidWorks, your students can learn how to solvereal-world design problems and gain the experience theyneed to compete in today’s job market.MAKE THE DECISION THAT ENSURES YOUR STUDENTS A PROMISING FUTURE.TEACH THEM SOLIDWORKS.SolidWorks Education Edition software is available from authorized SolidWorksresellers. To locate a SolidWorks reseller in your area, call 1-800-693-9000, orvisit the SolidWorks website at www.solidworks.com/education.SolidWorks is a registered trademark of SolidWorks Corporation. All other company and productnames are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.©2003 SolidWorks Corporation, Monster and the Monster logo are trademarks of TMP Worldwide, Inc.* Search conducted on 07-01-04 for positions posted within the last 60 days.Search was conductedfor individual product names and all variations thereof.
SEPTEMBER 2004Volume 64, No. 1Publisher, Kendall N. Starkweather, DTEEditor-In-Chief, Kathleen B. de la PazEditor, Kathie F. CluffITEA Board of DirectorsAnna Sumner, PresidentGeorge Willcox, Past PresidentEthan Lipton, DTE, President-ElectDoug Wagner, Director, ITEA-CSTom Shown, Director, Region 1Chris Merrill, Director, Region 2Dale Hanson, Director, Region 3Doug Walrath, Director, Region 4Rodney Custer, DTE, Director, CTTEMichael DeMiranda, Director, TECAPatrick N. Foster, Director, TECCKendall N. Starkweather, DTE, Executive DirectorITEA is an affiliate of the American Association for theAdvancement of Science.The Technology Teacher, ISSN: 0746-3537, is publishedeight times a year (September through June with combinedDecember/January and May/June issues) by theInternational Technology Education Association,1914 Association Drive, Suite 201, Reston, VA 20191.Subscriptions are included in member dues. U.S. Libraryand nonmember subscriptions are $80; $90 outside the U.S.Single copies are $8.50 for members; $9.50 fornon-members, plus shipping—domestic @ $6.00 andoutside the U.S. @ $17.00 (surface).Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgWorld Wide Web: www.iteawww.orgAdvertising Sales:ITEA Publications Department703-860-2100Fax: 703-860-0353Subscription ClaimsAll subscription claims must be made within 60 days of thefirst day of the month appearing on the cover of the journal.For combined issues, claims will be honored within 60 daysfrom the first day of the last month on the cover. Becauseof repeated delivery problems outside the continental UnitedStates, journals will be shipped only at the customer’s risk.ITEA will ship the subscription copy, but assumes noresponsibility thereafter.The Technology Teacher is listed in the Educational Indexand the Current Index to Journal in Education. Volumes areavailable on Microfiche from University Microfilm, P.O. Box1346, Ann Arbor, MI 48106.Change of AddressSend change of address notification promptly. Provide oldmailing label and new address. Include zip + 4 code.Allow six weeks for change.PostmasterSend address change to: The Technology Teacher, AddressChange, ITEA, 1914 Association Drive, Suite 201, Reston,VA 20191-1539. Periodicals postage paid at Herndon, VAand additional mailing offices.DEPARTMENTS2 ITEA Online3 In the News and Calendar5 You & ITEA11 IDSA Activity20 Resources in TechnologyFEATURES6 Informed Design: A Contemporary Approach toDesign Pedagogy as the Core Process in TechnologyDiscusses the informed design process, which contextualizes learning and appliesthe latest constructivist pedagogical practices to enhance student learning.M. David Burghardt and Michael Hacker9 Robot Design ChallengeDescribes a robot contest that can also be used as a classroom designchallenge.Harry T. Roman15 Being a Somebody for Technology EducationExcerpts from the keynote address delivered at the ITEA 2004 Conference Spiritof Excellence Breakfast in Albuquerque, NM.Jack W. Wescott, DTE19 Bush vs. Kerry on Education25 Standards-Based Technology Teacher EducationOnline: An Innovative New Program at Valley CityState UniversityA question-and-answer-based article, featuring VCSU’s online undergraduatetechnology education program.Donald Mugan, James Boe, and Matt EdlandGallup Poll (INSERT)Revisits the question, “How do Americans view technological literacy?”Lowell C. Rose, Alec M. Gallup, William E. Dugger, Jr., DTE, and Kendall N.Starkweather, DTETABLE OF CONTENTSPRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER
Editorial Review BoardCo-ChairpersonCo-ChairpersonDan EngstromStan KomacekCalifornia University of PA California University of PANEW ON ITEA’S WEB SITESteve AndersonNikolay Middle School, WIStephen BairdBayside Middle School, VALynn BashamMI Department of EducationPhilip CardonEastern Michigan UniversityMichael CichockiSalisbury Middle School, PAGerald DayUniversity of MD-ESMike FitzgeraldIN Department of EducationTom FrawleyG. Ray Bodley High School, NYJohn W. HansenUniversity of HoustonRoger HillUniversity of GeorgiaAngela HughesMorrow High School, GADon MuganValley City State UniversityTerrie RustOasis Elementary School, AZMonty RobinsonBlack Hills State UniversityAndy StephensonScott County High School, KYSteve WaldsteinDike-New Hartford Schools, IAScott WarnerMillersville University of PAGreg Vander WeilWayne State CollegeNow Available on the ITEA Web Site:• New Online Catalog!Did you know that you can now order ITEA’spublications, curriculum materials, and promotionalproducts online? Always up-to-date, theonline catalog is easy and secure. Go towww.iteawww.org/F6.html to find everythingyou need for back-to-school.ITEA ONLINEEditorial PolicyAs the only national and international association dedicatedsolely to the development and improvement of technologyeducation, ITEA seeks to provide an open forum for the freeexchange of relevant ideas relating to technology education.Materials appearing in the journal, including advertising,are expressions of the authors and do not necessarily reflectthe official policy or the opinion of the association, itsofficers, or the ITEA Headquarters staff.Referee PolicyAll professional articles in The Technology Teacher arerefereed, with the exception of selected association activitiesand reports, and invited articles. Refereed articles arereviewed and approved by the Editorial Board beforepublication in The Technology Teacher. Articles with bylineswill be identified as either refereed or invited unless writtenby ITEA officers on association activities or policies.To Submit ArticlesAll articles should be sent directly to the Editor-in-Chief,International Technology Education Association, 1914Association Drive, Suite 201, Reston, VA 20191-1539.Please submit photographs to accompany the article, acopy of the article on disc (PC compatible), and five hardcopies. Maximum length for manuscripts is 8 pages.Manuscripts should be prepared following the style specifiedin the Publications Manual of the American PsychologicalAssociation, Fifth Edition.Editorial guidelines and review policies are available bywriting directly to ITEA or by visiting www.iteawww.org/F7.htm. Contents copyright © 2004 by the InternationalTechnology Education Association, Inc., 703-860-2100.• New Online Conference Registration Form!Go to www.iteawww.org/D5.html to registeronline for ITEA’s 67th Annual Conference inKansas City, MO from April 3-5, 2005.www.iteawww.org2 September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
IN THE NEWS & CALENDARElection CandidatesThe 2005-2006 ITEA Board ofDirectors election ballot will be mailedin September. The highly experiencedfield of candidates is pictured here.Exercise your right to vote byreturning your ballot promptly! Ballotsmust be postmarked on or beforeOctober 30, 2004.PresidentNeil Hancey,Davis SchoolDistrict, UTRegion 3 DirectorDonald Fischer,Department ofCareer & TechnicalEducation, NDJamesMecklenburg,MinnesotaDepartment ofEducation, MNGeneral Sessions, will be held in theKansas City Convention Center.Receptions, meetings, and breakfastswill be held at the ITEA Headquartershotel, the Kansas City MarriottDowntown. New this year will be aWelcome Reception for attendees onSaturday evening, April 2, 2005.If you would like to view the newschedule, the conference program’sConference-At-A-Glance is availablenow for download or print atwww.iteawww.org/KansasCityAtAGlance.pdf as well as on page 31 ofthis journal.The dates are Sunday throughTuesday, April 3-5, 2005.SEE YOU THERE!Kenneth JamesStarkman,WisconsinDepartment ofPublic Instruction,WIRegion 1 DirectorKeith R. Doucette,Sr.,East GreenwichHigh School, RIPaul M. Jacobs,T. Benton GayleMiddle School, VAJohn Singer,Hanby MiddleSchool, DEJulie Moore,University ofHouston, TXThe 67th ITEA AnnualConferenceWe’re Goin’ to Kansas City...Mark your calendar now for ITEA’s67th Annual Conference andExhibition in Kansas City, Missouri.With an entirely new schedule,including expanded registration andresource booth hours, several newnetworking/social events, and, yes,even a free lunch, the Kansas Cityconference promises to be one of themost exciting in years.Plans are underway to provideKansas City conference attendeeswith a fresh and unique conferenceexperience. Look for lower hotel ratesthis year (at least 15% lower thanlast year—details will be announcedas soon as they are finalized).There will also be a brand new,completely different conferenceschedule in Kansas City. In order toprovide a better flow and lessconfusion for attendees, all eventsand interest sessions, including theITEA ConferenceApplication Record BrokenThe ITEA Conference ProgramCommittee met in June to considerprograms for the April 2005 KansasCity Conference. A record number ofapplications were received this year.It was the first time that applicantscould apply to be on the programthrough a totally electronicprocedure.The Conference Program Committeeis chaired by Michael Shealey (MD)and is comprised of professionals fromthe Baltimore area who met for twodays to review and shape theprogram for the coming conference.The Conference Program Committeestays together for a three-year periodand then its duties are rotated to acommittee in a different ITEA region.ITEA President, Anna L. Sumner,indicated that, “If this response isany indicator of the size of theKansas City Conference, we will beanticipating one of our largerconferences in recent history.”Sumner noted that many changeshave been made to this comingyear’s program to provide a totalexperience of fun, education,professional development, andnetworking. Individuals who wouldNEWS AND CALENDARTHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 3
NEWS AND CALENDARstill like to be on the program can doso by going to ITEA’s Web site andsigning up for the Technology FestivalProgram. The Technology Festivalstarted in 1984 as a way for teachersto talk with other teachers about theirprograms. The Festival time has beenexpanded to include research posterboards that allow for the sharing ofresearch information.For more information on theTechnology Festival and the KansasCity Conference, go towww.iteawww.org/D1.html.CALENDAROctober 5-7, 2004Focus 2004: Beyond Education andTraining...Leading Economic Growth,will take place at the Trump Plaza inAtlantic City, NJ. Sponsored by thestate of New Jersey and Global SkillsExchange (GSX), the conference willfocus on the application of skillstandards and industry-basedcertifications in order to educate,empower, and equip visionary publicsector supply-side decision makersand practitioners. Obtain a flyer oradditional information at www.focusonskills.info.October 14-16, 2004The Florida Technology EducationAssociation (FTEA) will hold its stateconference in Orlando, FL. Visitwww.ftea.com for details.October 15-17, 2004The Georgia Industrial TechnologyEducation Association will hold its fallconference in Waycross, GA. Foradditional information, visitwww.gitea.org.October 25-26, 2004The Keystone Conference to exploreK-12 videoconferencing bestpractices will be held in Indianapolis,IN. Designed for K-12 educationstakeholders, this conference willexplore videoconferencing inclassrooms, professionaldevelopment, and contentdevelopment, as well as technologyaccessibility and usability. Attend inperson or via videoconferencing. Visitwww.keystoneconference.org or callAmy Hargis at 1-866-826-CILC (2452)for more information.November 4-6, 2004The 52nd Annual TechnologyEducation Association ofPennsylvania Conference (TEAP),“Technology Education: MakingConnections,” will be held at theRadisson Penn Harris Hotel &Conference Center in Camp Hill, PA.For more information, visit www.teap-online.org or email@example.com.November 7-8, 2004The Technology Educators of Indiana(TEI) Annual Conference will be heldin Jasper, IN. Information is availableat www.teiwww.org.November 12-13, 2004The Kentucky Applied TechnologyEducation Association will hold itsstate conference at Central KentuckyCollege in Danville, KY. Visitwww.katea.org or contact conferencedirector, Dennis Bledsoe, firstname.lastname@example.org fordetails.November 19, 2004The Massachusetts TechnologyEducation/Engineering Collaborative(MassTEC) will hold its annualconference at Fitchburg State College.The conference theme is “design+build = technology/engineeringeducation.” The keynote speaker willbe Brian Brenner, a professor at TuftsUniversity. For additional information,please visit the MassTEC Web sitewww.masstec.org.December 9-11, 2004The Centre for Learning Research atGriffith University will host the ThirdBiennial Technology EducationResearch Conference, which will beheld at the Crowne Plaza HotelSurfers Paradise, Queensland,Australia. The conference theme is“Learning for Innovation inTechnology Education.” Forinformation, contact HowardMiddleton, Conference Director, email@example.com.December 9-11, 2004The Association for Career andTechnical Education (ACTE) will holdits annual convention in Las Vegas,NV. Visit www.acteonline.org fordetails.February 20-26, 2005National Engineers Week, includingthe finals of the National EngineersWeek Future City Competition. Forcomplete information, visitwww.futurecity.org; or contactFuture City National Director, CarolRieg, at 877-636-9578 orCRieg@futurecity.org.February 24-26, 2005The Association of Texas TechnologyEducation will present its conferenceat Texas A&M University. Forinformation, contact ConferenceDirector Dan Vrudny firstname.lastname@example.org.March 31-April 3, 2005The National Science TeachersAssociation (NSTA) NationalConvention will be held in Dallas, TX.For additional information, visit theWeb site at www.nsta.org.April 3-5, 2005The 67th Annual ITEA Conference andExhibition, “Preparing the NextGeneration for TechnologicalLiteracy,” will be held in Kansas City,MO. With an entirely new schedule,including expanded registration andresource booth hours, several newnetworking/social events, and, yes,even a free lunch, the Kansas Cityconference promises to be one ofthe most exciting in years. Visitwww.iteawww.org for the mostup-to-date details.List your State/Province AssociationConference in TTT, TrendScout,and on ITEA’s Web Calendar. Submitconference title, date(s), location, andcontact information (at least two monthsprior to journal publication date) email@example.com September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
YOU & ITEAJim KirkwoodReceives Sagamore of theWabash AwardBall State University professor JamesKirkwood, DTE received Indiana’shighest civilian honor during hisretirement party April 23. TheSagamore of the Wabash Award isgiven for distinguished service to thestate. It was created during the termof Gov. Ralph Gates, who servedfrom 1945-49, and has beenpresented by governors ever since.U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar and otherswrote letters in support of bestowingthe honor on Kirkwood. “Dr. Kirkwoodhas dedicated himself as aneducational leader at Ball StateUniversity through his research andscholarship,” he wrote. Lugar praisedKirkwood’s establishment of theBurris Laboratory School’selementary grade technologyeducation program and his leadershipin professional and educationalassociations.Kirkwood has published more than100 journal articles and bookchapters related to the field oftechnology education. Kirkwood isalso an Army veteran and a dedicatedrunner. In the past two decades hehas published many newsletters andnewspaper columns about running.Kirkwood came to Ball State in 1966.Although his work has led him to theBahamas, Belgium, England, Holland,Sweden, and New Zealand, he hasspent most of his career at Ball State.He retired as a professor of industryand technology on June 25, 2004.ITEA Executive DirectorEarns ASAE CertificationThe AmericanSociety ofAssociationExecutives(ASAE) hasannounced thatDr. Kendall N.Starkweather,DTE, Executive Director/CEO of theInternational Technology EducationAssociation, has earned the CertifiedAssociation Executive (CAE)Credential. Less than five percent ofall association professionals haveachieved this distinction.The CAE Credential is widelyrecognized as an indication ofdemonstrated skill in leadership,activity in community affairs, andexpertise in association management.To earn the Certified AssociationExecutive (CAE) Credential, anapplicant must have obtained aminimum number of years of requiredexperience in nonprofit management,complete multiple hours ofspecialized professional development,pass a stringent examination inassociation management that testsfundamental knowledge of all areasof the association managementprofession, and pledge to uphold acode of ethics.Starkweather, a former classroomteacher and university professor, hasspent his entire associationexperience as the ITEA ChiefExecutive Officer. He undertook theCAE credential as a challenge to staycurrent with the latest happenings inthe executive management ofassociations and to expand hisknowledge of the association world.He has served on ASAE’s KeyProfessional Association Committee(KPAC) for over a decade. The KPACgroup provides ASAE with trends andstrategies for better managingassociations.For more information about ASAEand/or the CAE procedure, visitwww.asaenet.org.Dr. Sterry Retires FromITEA/CATTSDr. Leonard F. Sterry, who joined theITEA staff in the fall of 2001 to workwith the Center to Advance theTeaching of Technology & Science(CATTS) to develop comprehensiveK-12 standards-based resources,retired from his position as SeniorCurriculum Associate at the endof June.Dr. Sterry is Professor Emeritus atthe University of Wisconsin-Stoutand a former state supervisor in theWisconsin Department of PublicInstruction. He is well known forleading the project to develop AConceptual Framework forTechnology Education (1990).Dr. Sterry has been an integralmember of the ITEA staff, bringinga high level of expertise andprofessionalism to the CATTSinitiative. He will be greatly missedin Virginia as he returns to his homeand family in Wisconsin.YOU AND ITEATHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 5
INFORMED DESIGN: A CONTEMPORARY APPROACH TODESIGN PEDAGOGY AS THE CORE PROCESS IN TECHNOLOGYFEATURE ARTICLEM. David BurghardtMichael HackerThe Standards for TechnologicalLiteracy (ITEA, 2000, 2002) documentindicates the centrality of design tothe study of technology, “Design isregarded by many as the coreproblem-solving process oftechnological development. It is asfundamental to technology as inquiryis to science and reading is tolanguage arts” (p. 90). Design intechnology education most closelyallies with engineering design. Forinstance, The Accreditation Board forEngineering and Technology (ABET)defines design in the Criteria forAccrediting Engineering Programs as“the process of devising a system,component, or process to meetdesired needs. It is a decision-makingprocess (often iterative), in which thebasic sciences and mathematics andengineering sciences are applied toconvert resources optimally to meet astated objective” (ABET, 2000).Design as anInstructional StrategyIn recent years, there has been agrowing recognition of theeducational value of design activitiesin which students create externalartifacts that they share and discusswith others (Soloway, 1994; Papert,1993; Resnick, 1998). A synthesisof the literature reveals thatpedagogically solid design projectsinvolve authentic, hands-on tasks;use familiar and easy-to-workmaterials; possess clearly definedoutcomes that allow for multiplesolutions; promote student-centered,collaborative work and higher orderthinking; allow for multiple designiterations to improve the product; andhave clear links to a limited numberof science and engineering concepts(Crismond, 1997).The National Research Council’s HowPeople Learn (Bransford, 1999) hailsIn classroom settings most problems areusually well defined, so students have littleexperience with open-ended problems.instruction where students monitortheir understanding and progress inproblem solving. Research revealsthat experts consider alternatives,note when additional information isrequired, and are mindful if thechosen alternative leads toward thedesired end. These strategies arecentral to the culture of design.However, in classroom settings, mostproblems are usually well defined, sostudents have little experience withopen-ended problems. Technologicaldesign problems, however, areseldom well defined. The designprocess begins with broad ideas andconcepts and continues in thedirection of ever-increasing detail,resulting in an acceptable solution(Thacher, 1989). So using design inthe classroom can be challenging, asstudents are not familiar, or initiallynot comfortable, with the open-endednature of design. This can also poseproblems for teachers, who mustrelinquish directive control. However,it also provides opportunity to useconstructivist pedagogical practiceto engage students in their ownlearning. The informed designprocess discussed in this article, andthe underlying pedagogical supportmethodology, provide a way tooptimize the use of design as apedagogical strategy.Pedagogical Rationalefor DesignAs a pedagogical strategy, designactivities have great potential to:• Engage children as activeparticipants, giving them greatercontrol over the learning process.• Assist students to integrate learningfrom language, the arts, mathematics,and science.• Encourage pluralistic thinking, avoidinga right/wrong dichotomy andsuggesting instead that multiplesolutions are possible.• Provide children an opportunity toreflect upon, revise, and extend theirinternal models of the world.• Encourage children to put themselvesin the minds of others as they thinkabout how their designs will beunderstood and used (Resnick, 1998).All too often, however, design is not usedto maximum pedagogical advantage inthe classroom. As an instructionalstrategy, design has all too often focusedon the product rather than on the learner.Design is often characterized as“gadgeteering,” and trial-and-errorproblem solving where students do notalways gain important (i.e., standardsbased)conceptual understandings.Informed DesignInformed design is a pedagogicalapproach to design that was developedand validated through the NSF-fundedNYSCATE Project (New York StateCurriculum for Advanced TechnologicalEducation) (Burghardt and Hacker, 2003).Informed design enables students toenhance their own related knowledgeand skill base before attempting tosuggest design solutions. In this way,students reach design solutions informedby prior knowledge and research, asopposed to trial-and-error problemsolving, where conceptual closure is oftennot attained. Informed design emphasizesdesign challenges that rely on math andscience knowledge to improve designperformance. The approach prompts6 September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
esearch, inquiry, and analysis;fosters student and teacherdiscourse; and cultivates languageproficiency.Engineers and other designers do notalways follow these steps in asequence. As with most designcycles, the informed design cycle isiterative and allows, evenencourages, users to revisit earlierassumptions and findings as theyproceed. It was created withknowledge gained from works incognitive science and learning.Knowledge and Skill BuildersA key factor that differentiatesinformed design from other designprocesses is how the Research andInvestigation phase is approached. Toprovide the foundation for informeddesign, activity learners are engagedin a progression of knowledge andskill builders (KSBs). KSBs preparestudents to approach a designchallenge from a more knowledgeablebase. The KSBs are short, focusedactivities designed to help studentsidentify the variables that affect theperformance of the design. Theyprovide structured research in keytechnology, science, mathematicsprocesses, skills, and concepts thatunderpin the design solution. Theyalso provide evidence upon whichteachers can assess studentunderstanding of important ideas andskills. The final design is “informed”by the knowledge and skills thatstudents acquired en route todesigning and constructing theirsolutions.Figure 1 depicts the overall informeddesign cycle. The cycle uses familiardesign cycle terminology; however,underlying the phases are importantenhancements. The phases aredescribed as follows:1. Clarify design specifications andconstraints. Describe the problemclearly and fully, noting constraintsand specifications.2. Research and investigate theproblem. Search for and discusssolutions to solve this or similarproblems. Complete a series ofguided-knowledge and skill-builderactivities that will help studentsFigure 1. Informed Design CycleHacker and Burghardt, 2004identify the variables that affect theperformance of the design, andinform students’ knowledge andskill base.3. Generate alternative designs. Don’tstop when you have one solution.Approach the challenge in newways and describe alternatives.4. Choose and justify optimal design.Rate and rank the alternativesagainst the design specificationsand constraints. Justify yourchoice. Your chosen alternative willguide your preliminary design.5. Develop a prototype. Make a modelof the solution. Identify and explainmodifications to refine the design.6. Test and evaluate the designsolution. Develop and carry out atest to assess the performance ofthe design solution. Complete orreview KSBs focused ondeveloping a fair test.7. Redesign the solution withmodifications. Examine your designand look at others’ designs to seewhere improvements can be made.Identify the variables that affectperformance and determine theconcepts that underlie thesevariables. Explain how to enhanceperformance of the design usingthese concepts and variables.8. Communicate your achievements.Complete a design portfolio ordesign report that documents thepreviously mentioned steps. Makea group presentation to the classjustifying your design solution.An Example in aFamiliar ContextBridge-building design projects havebeen used for many years; howeverthey often are not informed bymathematical, scientific, andtechnological knowledge of theconstruction of various types ofbridges. All too often, bridges areloaded to the point of failure,strengthened at the failure point, andrebuilt without delving into the causeand reasons for failure. KSBs for abridge-building project might include:• Investigation and construction ofsimple beam bridges, suspensionbridges, arches, and truss bridges.• Investigation of tension andcompression in bridge members.• Gathering and plotting data toreinforce important mathematicsand science inquiry skills.• Determining and developing a fairtest to focus on the designspecifications and how to testfor them.To encourage the use of thoughtfulalternative solutions, the problemstatement is more open-ended thanthe traditional one of building a bridgeto hold the most weight, a singlecriterion. In the new situation, thegoal is to design and construct acost-effective bridge that will holdthe most weight for the least costwhile meeting a minimum loadspecification, two criteria that maybe inversely related. This moreFEATURE ARTICLETHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 7
FEATURE ARTICLEaccurately models engineeringpractice. Materials have differentcosts associated with them, whichcan encourage a variety of designapproaches and foster criticalthinking about why they will be thebest (Hacker and Burghardt, 2004).Research BaseThe informed design process wascreated as part of the NYSCATE NSFcurriculum materials developmentproject. Of the thirteen modulesdeveloped, eight are intended for useon the high school level and can bemodified for use in middle school; theremaining modules are for use incommunity college technologycourses. The modules weredeveloped using strategies ofbackwards design (Wiggins andMcTighe, 1998) as replacementcurriculum for existing technologyand science courses.There was a great deal of enthusiasmexpressed by teachers and studentsfor all the modules. The Projectevaluators indicated that thetechnology and design componentswere consistently understood bystudents and teachers, and that theunderstanding of science andmathematics concepts varieddepending on how explicitly they wereaddressed by the KSBs. For instance,in one module, where studentsdesigned a food dehydrator (Drying byDesign), the three field-test teachersagreed that students learnedimportant technology concepts andimportant design processes.Students were questioned aboutwhat they perceived they learned.The following summarizes theirresponses:• Students strongly agreed that theylearned important science,technology, and design concepts.• Students strongly agreed that theylearned from the design task sothat they could do it better if theydid it again.• Students moderately agreed theylearned important math concepts.The modules developed through theNYSCATE Project use informed designas the core instructional strategy. Themodules are shown in Figure 2.ConclusionThe results from reviews by experts,pilot testing, and field testing of themodules has shown that informeddesign and the pedagogical strategiesthat support it are effective. Theinformed design process contextualizeslearning and applies the latestconstructivist pedagogical practicesto enhance student learning. Thisprocess complies with currentunderstandings of how students learnand how to create effective learningenvironments for them.ReferencesAccreditation Board for Engineering andTechnology. (2000). Criteria forAccrediting Engineering Programs:Effective for Evaluations During the2000-2001 Accreditation Cycle.Baltimore, MD: Author.Bloch, Erich. (1986). Science andEngineering: A Continuum. Washington,DC: National Research Council.Bransford, John, et al. (1999). How PeopleLearn. Washington, DC: National AcademyPress.Burghardt, M. David & Hacker, Michael. (2003).The New York State Curriculum for AdvancedTechnological Education. www.nyscate.net.Crismond, David. (1997). Investigate-and-Redesign Tasks as a Context for Learning andDoing Science and Technology: A study ofnaive, novice and expert high school andadult designers doing product comparisonsand redesign tasks. Unpublished doctoralthesis, Harvard Graduate School ofEducation, Cambridge, MA.Hacker, Michael, & Burghardt, David. (2004).Technology Education: Learning by Design.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Papert, Seymour. (1993). The Children’sMachine. New York: Basic Books.Resnick, Mitchel. (1998). Technologies forLifelong Kindergarten. EducationalTechnology Research and Development,Vol. 46, no. 4.Soloway, E., Guzdial, M., & Hay, K. (1994).Learner-Centered Design. Interactions1, 2, 36-48.Thacher, Eric, (1989). Design. In Principles ofEngineering. New York State EducationDepartment.Wiggins, Grant & McTighe, Jay. (1998).Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA:Association for Supervision and CurriculumDevelopment.David Burghardt,Distinguished Professor ofEngineering, is Chair ofthe EngineeringDepartment and Codirectorof the Center forTechnological Literacy atHofstra University. He has been an activeresearcher in technology education forover 15 years and can be reached viae-mail at M.D.Burghardt@Hofstra.edu.NYSCATE ModulesAREA MATERIALS AND INFORMATION BIO/CHEMICALGRADE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY TECHNOLOGYGr. 9-10, HS Drying By Design The Help Desk Genetic TestingMapping ThroughRemote SensingGr. 11-12, HS Liquid Crystals Introduction PolymersTo NetworksGr. 13, CC Control Systems Paving The Way Solutions AndTo The Internet DilutionsGr. 14, CC Design For Gatekeeper To Purifying ProteinsManufacture The Internet By DesignFigure 2Michael Hacker is theCo-director of theHofstra Center forTechnological Literacyat Hofstra University.He can be reachedvia e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.This is a refereed article.8 September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
ROBOT DESIGN CHALLENGEHarry T. RomanHere is a fun design challenge youcan use in your classroom or acrossthe grades in your school. If you are aregional manager of a number ofschools, you can challenge severalschools to participate. No specialtools, hardware, or supplies areneeded, only imagination andteamwork. I have used this challengewith students and teachers whovisited my robot application designlab; and I have applied it through TheNewark Museum, with local Newarkschools participating. It’s always afun exercise that illustratestechnology education principles.First, I’d like to present a littleintroduction and discussion.IntroductionI often have the opportunity to talk totechnology education students,teachers, and educators. Invariably,someone always asks me to identifythe most important college courses Itook. My answer is always ashowstopper. Looking back at theaudience in my very serious face,after an appropriate pause to makethem believe that weighty thoughtsare flashing through my mind, I boldlyexclaim, “The three most importantcourses I took were English,laboratories, and the humanities.”After the quizzical looks are finishedand the murmurs die down, I try toexplain. English courses teach youhow to communicate—a mostfundamental skill in the work-a-dayworld…bedrock for all employees.Labs teach you how to work withothers, the necessary give-and-takebetween viewpoints, egos, anddiffering life experiences.But the toughest one for them toswallow is the humanities courses.Here I talk about the need to blendtechnology solutions with the nontechnicalaspects of life. NewThis design challenge is a mirror on theworld.products must be safe,environmentally neutral, sociallyacceptable, and in conformance withinstitutional guidelines andgovernmental regulations.We go to college, I emphasize, not somuch to study more of what we aregood at, like technical subjects, butrather to discover, research, andlearn more about what we don’tknow so well. The humanitiescourses put the non-technical worldin perspective, establishingboundaries for us to design within.Were our educational system moreintegrative, stressing multidimensionalthinking and theinterweaving of subjects, my answerprobably would not appear sounexpected. But the curriculum isfragmented, highly specialized, oftenblurring the rich interfaces existingbetween subjects. It is to correct thispizza pie slice approach to education,and illustrate the multi-dimensionalaspects of problem solving à latechnology education that I havedeveloped the design challengedescribed below.The Design ChallengeThis challenge stems from anexercise I originally did with Grades3-5 at my robot design andapplication lab in central New Jersey.I would invite local schools to bringteachers and students into the labtwice a month to have teams ofstudents see and actually operatemobile robotic devices I wasdeveloping—and then have thesestudents try to design a personalrobot to assist a physicallychallenged person. It was a mostpopular activity with both studentsand teachers. It took about 2-3 hoursto hold the design challenge, andwinners received a robot t-shirt. Alltold, I estimate about 1000 studentsand teachers took the challenge. Andyes, the students always blew theteachers away with their designs. Itwasn’t even close in most cases.When my robot design lab completedits mission and was closed, I stillwanted to use the design challengewith students. I no longer had realrobots for them to see, touch, andoperate, but I felt the challenge couldstill be used with excellent results.Here is an interesting way we keptthis great activity going.Working with the in-serviceeducational instructors of thenationally recognized NewarkMuseum in Newark, New Jersey andlocal Newark School teachers, weredesigned the program to be a moreintense two-week activity. Thewinning teams from a number ofschools and classes involved (mostlythe 3rd through 6th grades) displayedposters of their designs at theMuseum, where judges assembled toselect the best ones, and awardedsavings bonds as prizes.Here is how the two-week designchallenge was structured. You willsee how it related to the threeimportant courses that I mentionedearlier had influenced me the most incollege.Initiating the Design ChallengeStudents are arranged into fivememberdesign teams. Each team isto imagine itself in the business ofdesigning robots for sale to thepublic. The teams may select theirFEATURE ARTICLETHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 9
FEATURE ARTICLEown company name, as well as thename of their robot product. Thechallenge is for each team to designa mobile robot that can assist aphysically challenged person, orperhaps someone confined to awheelchair.There are five basic designconstraints for the teams. This robotshould be able to:1. Pick up small objects like coins,keys, a wallet, etc.2. Reach behind furniture and retrieveobjects.3. Operate for a full day withoutneeding recharging.4. Withstand continuous day-to-dayuse; be rugged, yet lightweight.5. Be easily affordable—notexpensive.How It HappensThe students are allowed to freelymeet and think about their designs,and are encouraged to develop theirown way of meeting the five basicdesign constraints listed above. Thereis no right or wrong answer, only theanswer they feel best expresses theirachieving the design constraints.They must agree on what they wishto do and what course of action theywill take.With a five-member team, eachstudent must play a specific role onthe team and represent thatviewpoint.• Team leader and captain of theteam: Integrates the variousconcerns and suggestions of theother role players.•Design engineer: In charge of thetechnical aspects of the designand the materials to be used.• Customer representative: Looks outfor the interests of the user of therobot (the handicapped person).• Human interface designer: Whosejob it is to make sure the robot isuser friendly to the customer.• Economist: Develops a costestimate for the robot that willmake it affordable to the customer.What is Expected of theStudentsEach team has two weeks tocomplete its design and mustproduce the following:•A written report on its design.• An estimate of the cost of therobot.• One or more posters that illustratethe robot and how it functions.•A list and description of specialfeatures built into the robot.• An oral report in front ofclassmates describing the robotand answering questions.The Importance of theChallengeThis exercise is designed to fosterteamwork and reinforce communicationskills, teach makingtradeoffs between the roles theyassume, and integrate their variousroles and viewpoints together into afinal design. Since there is no right orwrong answer, the students mustreach consensus as to what they aretrying to do, how best to do it, andorganize their collective resources toaccomplish the consensus position.This design challenge is a mirror onthe world, very similar to howprojects are managed and led inindustry. The team leader of thisexercise should have good leadershipskills, be articulate, and able toprovide direction and counseling tothe team to encourage them to reachtheir goals if they get stuck.The students should realize theimportance of writing and speakingwell. Good ideas poorly presented inthe workplace are not likely to belistened to seriously, and in alllikelihood will not be implemented.Good communication skills areenormously important in the world ofwork and essential to selling productsto the public—whether they arerobots or anything else. That is whycommunication is built into thisdesign challenge.Teachers, you should precede thischallenge with some robot classroomresearch, including visits to the richrobot Web sites that now exist, andperhaps a few hours of class timespent discussing how robots operateand are being applied in the worldtoday. Perhaps you can locate a robotcompany or a robot engineer to visitwith the school(s) to help introducerobotic concepts to the students. Thiswould be ideal.It also would be very helpful in thisexercise if time were spent in theclassroom beforehand discussingcreativity techniques and how teamsare much more creative thanindividuals. The students should beencouraged to think “outside of thebox,” with an emphasis on meetingthe design constraints.Show the students how to brainstormand capture their ideas on paperbefore trying to rush into a design.The process of planning the project isas important as executing thesolution, for once the basic concept ofplanning a project is understood, itcan be repeated for many differenttypes of projects. It is a repeatableprocess highly sought after bycompanies. People who can work inteams and know how to carry outprojects are in great demand.I hope you enjoy this design challengeas much as I do.Harry T. Roman is aTechnologyDevelopment andTransfer Consultantat the Public ServiceElectric & GasCompany (PSE&G) inNewark, NJ. He can be reached viae-mail at email@example.com September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
RESOURCES FromIN IDSA TECHNOLOGYTHE TECHNOLOGY OBSERVATIONAL TEACHER’S TOOL RESEARCH: BOX: STREAMING MEDIAFORMALIZED CURIOSITYWalter F. Deal, IIIPaul Skaggs, IDSADesign research is a valuable tool tohelp the designer understand theproblem that he/she needs to solve.“A problem well stated is half solved.” 1The purpose of design research is tohelp state or understand the problemsbetter, which will lead to bettersolutions. Observational research is adesign research method for helpingthe designer understand and definethe problem.What is observationalresearch?A dictionary defines observation as:1. paying attention: the attentivewatching of somebody or something,2. observing of developments insomething: the careful observing andrecording of something that ishappening, 3. record of somethingseen or noted: the result or record ofobserving something such as a naturalphenomenon and noting developments.2 All of these definitions applyto observational research.A good definition of research is:“Research is formalized curiosity; it ispoking and prying with purpose.” 3Great designers are curious; theypoke and pry. The challenge is thatcuriosity is a hard concept to teach,but we can teach methods that willhelp students experience the powerof curiosity.1 Charles Kettering2 Encarta® World English Dictionary [NorthAmerican Edition]3 Zora Neal HurstonThe benefits of streaming media include a convenient meansCuriosity is a hard concept to teach, but weof creating online-accessible content that capitalizes on thedynamic capabilities of audio and video.can teach methods that will help studentsexperience the power of curiosity.Why is observationalresearch important todesigners?Observational research introduces thedesigner to the user(s) of theproduct, the environment the productis used in, how the product is used,sequences and frequency of use,patterns of behavior, gaps inprocesses, problems, and perceptionsof the user. Observational research isa way that designers can helpdevelop the products to meet more ofthe needs of the consumer andthereby reduce the risk of the newproduct introduction. Observationalresearch also provides opportunity forinnovative ideas that may have beenmissed otherwise. Observationalresearch is a formalized way to helpthe designer learn the value of anddevelop his curiosity.How is it done?There are two methods of observing.The outsider approach is observingthe environment and users from theoutside looking in. Outsider observingshould be done as unobtrusively aspossible. Users have a tendency tomodify their behaviors if they knowthey are being watched. The insiderapproach is observing the users andtheir environment by participationand experience. Both approacheshave merit, but typically the outsiderapproach works best for thedesigner. The insider approach ishard to do because sometimes it ishard to see the whole picture if youare inside the frame. If bothapproaches are deemed necessary tothe project, the designer should takethe outsider’s approach first, then theinsider’s approach. This allows thedesigner to observe the setting andits members acting naturally, then toparticipate or experience what it islike to be a user in the environment.Conversations, interviews, andsurveys are part of the observationalresearch; they should be done at theend of the observation so as not toaffect the user’s natural behavior.The best tool for observationalresearch is the designer’s knowledge,vision, and memory. A camera and asketchbook/notebook serve as toolsthat are reminders of what isobserved. A video camera can alsowork if someone else is operating thevideo, allowing the designer to focuson the larger picture. With a videocamera, the setting becomesnarrowly focused. The observer cansketch, make notes, and takepictures in the process ofobservation. Sketches are lessobtrusive than pictures, and picturesare less obtrusive than video. Notes,sketches, and photos can be used asreminders and selling tools.IDSATHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 11
Figure 1. Research photos, sketches, and prototype of Icon treadmill.RESOURCES IDSA IN TECHNOLOGYHow is observationalresearch taught?The best way to teach the power ofobservational research is to have thestudents experience it firsthand.What you want them to learn is thatobservational research is important tothe design process because it willallow them to come up with bettersolutions to their design opportunities.Begin by assigning the students tobrainstorm ways that a certainactivity could be made better with anew product or an improved process.Select areas that the students are nottypically involved in, such as groceryshopping as opposed to video gameplaying. It is easier for students toobserve if they don’t have a set ofpreconceived notions about what theywill see. Once they have brainstormedthe new product or process and havecome up with a number of ideas,assign them to then go andunobtrusively observe peopleparticipating in the activity. Havethem look for patterns or sequencesof behavior, interactions, andcomponents. Have them also observethe environment around where theactivity is taking place. Have themtake notes, sketch, and photograph orvideotape the activity. Once theyhave observed from the outside, theycan move to the inside. From theinside they can ask more specificquestions of the users and experiencethe activity firsthand. The studentsshould complete the assignment bybrainstorming ideas again, only withthe observation as a tool to helpthem. The ideas should be compared.Look for fluency or number of ideas,the flexibility or diversity of ideas, theelaboration of ideas, and the noveltyof the ideas. If the research was doneeffectively, their ideas and ideaquality will both increase.What are the results?Case Study 1While consulting for an exerciseequipment manufacturer, Icon Healthand Fitness, we were given theassignment for a new home-usetreadmill. The market was crowdedwith home-use treadmills, and wewanted something to differentiate ourdesign. Off to the club I went withcamera and sketchbook to sit andobserve the use of the treadmills. Iwas in the club about five minuteswhen I noticed a very unusualbehavior pattern. People came intothe area with a water bottle, towel,and a magazine or novel. Theysearched the floor for a piece of bentplastic, a magazine rack. They put theafter-market rack onto the treadmillconsole with their magazine. They slidthe rack to one side and programmedtheir workout. They then slid the rackback to the middle and started theirworkout while reading their magazine.On occasion during the workout theywould slide the rack to the side to seethe displays on the console, to checktheir time, calories, or distance, andthen slide the rack back into place inthe middle of the console. This theydid three or four times in a thirtyminuteworkout. In a thirty-minuteworkout, they used the console forfive minutes and the magazine rackfor twenty-five minutes.That was one of our ideas—aconsole with a built-in magazine rackin the middle and the controls anddisplays to the side. The designdirector was so excited by ourdiscovery that he pledged that everytreadmill, elliptical, stair-stepper, andbike would have a console with amagazine rack built in. Every time Ivisit Sears or other exerciseequipment outlets, I look to see if hehas kept his commitment, and to thisday, six years later, he has.Case Study 2Fisher-Price tried for a couple ofyears to develop their ELA (electroniclearning device) category of toys tocompete with the very successfulLeapFrog and V-tech products. Wewere given the task of developingsome concepts for unique ELAs. Ourfirst step was to understand howthese products were used. Wegathered a large box of Fisher-Priceand competitors’ products, gotpermission from a local preschool(the product’s target audience) andthe parents to videotape thechildren’s interaction with the toys.We were allowed to video a segmentof the daily routine at the daycarethat was designated as playtime.This was so our observation wouldn’tinterrupt the regular school-dayactivity. We tried to be asunobtrusive as possible in aclassroom of four- and five-year-olds.The attention was on us until webrought out the toys; then we werequickly forgotten. We filmed aboutfive hours of pre-schools on differentdays, playing with, sharing,discarding, fighting over, andinteracting with the toys. At the endof the playtime session was recess.The students were immersed in the12 September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
Figure 2. Fisher-Price research and concept model.The benefits of streaming mediatoy research, playing with theplethora of new toys when the recessbell rang. The toys were dropped inan instant as the students lined up togo outside. The video had been shutoff and was being packed up whenthe teacher took the studentsoutside. I wandered out to furtherobserve what was going on. Thechildren were having a great timeplaying, laughing, running, jumping,and swinging in the summer sun.They were having far more fun thanthey did with any of the toys. Theteacher was involved in organizingrecess activities like Ring around theRosy, Red Rover, and the like. TheELA concept that we presented toFisher-Price was an outdoor product,called Jitterbug. The product lookedlike a bug and when you “danced”with the bug it would give you aseries of tasks to do, such as run,jump, and hop on one foot, whileteaching the alphabet, numbers,colors, and co-operation.Case include Study a convenient 3 means ofAnother exercise equipment client,Weider/Jumpking, asked us to designa new set of free weights. Off to theclub I went to observe how weightswere used. I saw a young femalelifting 45 lb. weights onto the benchpressbar. The weight was heavy andhard to hold. She was struggling totry to line up the hole in the weightwith the bar. The weights were vinylcoated with different colors to give avisual clue to the pounds. The 35 lb.weight was yellow and looked veryworn. A series of innovations cameout of this observation. The resultwas a set of weights with a handleon both sides and a lead-in to alignthe bar with the hole. We also usedvinyl to differentiate the weights butused an “o-ring” approach. The vinylwent around the outside edge wherethe vinyl really serves its purpose.This has been one of the best sellingweight sets that Weider/Jumpkinghas ever introduced.ConclusionObservational research should be partof the design process that wepractice, preach, and teach. Weshould practice formalized curiosity.Designers will be better if theyunderstand and use observationalresearch as a part of their designprocess.Paul Skaggs, IDSA isan associate professorat Brigham YoungUniversity. He hasjoined the facultyafter 22 years’ experiencein industry,during 14 of which heowned and operated a full-serviceproduct design and developmentconsulting firm. Clients includedKodak, Fisher-Price, Federal Express,Motorola, AT&T, Xerox, and Hewlett-Packard, to name a few of thebiggies. Paul received his BFA fromBrigham Young University and hisMFA from Rochester Institute ofTechnology.ITEA/NASA-JPL IDSA LEARNING ACTIVITYFigure 3. Free weight research photos, sketches, and product.THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 13
Simplify the Complex.
BEING A SOMEBODY FORTECHNOLOGY EDUCATIONRemarks delivered byJack W. WescottKeynote Address at the FTESpirit of ExcellenceBreakfastITEA Conference 2004,Albuquerque, NMThis morning I have chosen not toshare with you who and why certainindividuals were influential during mycareer—but instead I have decided toshare with you some of myobservations regarding thecharacteristics of those individuals.Very simply stated, why did theseindividuals stand out in my mind asleaders? It is interesting to note thatthese individuals who have had aninfluence on my career are part of avery diverse group that includespeople from all walks of life: publicschool teachers, relatives, friends,coaches, military officers, clergy, andcertainly professional colleagues.In many ways this is an awkwardtopic for me to address, because I amnot a self-proclaimed expert onleadership and also do not readilyperceive myself as a leader. But Idon’t think that this is unusual. Iwould guess that many of you in theaudience this morning do not readilyconsider yourselves to be leaders oftechnology education even thoughmany of you are.This perception of ourselves ispartially due to the manner in whichwe have traditionally identified theleaders of our profession. For years, Ithought that leaders in our field werelimited to those names published inCharles Bennett’s History of IndustrialEducation, Volumes I&II or LeslieCochrans’ text, ContemporaryPrograms in Industrial Arts. Even as agraduate student in JoeLeadership requires creating what isn’tthere, something new, something beyondwhat the system already has.Leutkemeyer’s History and Philosophyof Industrial Arts class at the Universityof Maryland, I can remember that thereseemed to be a mystical set ofstandards for those who wereconsidered to be the leaders of ourfield. And that set of standards seemedto be narrowly focused on older teachereducators at major universities whohad authored books, published asignificant number of refereed articles,written grants, and funded curriculumprojects.But even the term “leadership” itselftends to make most of usuncomfortable. Maybe it is time for usto rethink our perception of leadership.And if you haven’t already done so—becertain to include yourselves in thatnew vision of leadership. So if“leadership” isn’t the term we shouldbe using, then what might be analternative—is there another term thatis broader and more encompassing ofindividuals in our profession and nottied so tightly to the traditional criteriathat I have previously explained?In response to that question, it seemsappropriate for me to share a storyabout the first time that I met Dr.Donald Maley. In the process ofshopping for a doctoral program, Ivisited the University of Maryland andmade an appointment with him todiscuss the graduate program. Duringthe appointment, I can vividlyremember the obvious clutter of hisoffice and many piles of papers andcardboard boxes. Initially, we chattedabout the university, the department,and the faculty, as well as the usualquestions regarding the graduateprogram—most important to me wasthe question of when I wouldgraduate, which by the way was anobvious mistake on my part. He alsotold me about the courses and themany valuable experiences that Iwould have as well as the graduateassistantship opportunities. We eventalked briefly about the photograph ofthe PT 109 navy boat that hung on thewall behind his desk. Slowly butsurely we ran out of things to talkabout, and as the meeting seemed tobe coming to an end he paused for amoment, removed his glasses, pointedhis index finger at me and simplystated, “What is really important myfriend is that when you leave thisuniversity you become a ‘somebody.’”Become a “somebody!” I mustconfess that at the time I really didn’tunderstand what he was talkingabout. After all, I had alreadycompleted two degrees and justreturned from a tour of duty inVietnam—traveled halfway across thecountry in a dilapidated car to havehim tell me to become a “somebody!”But during the time I spent atMaryland and throughout my career Ilearned much more about what hereally meant.Having said that, let’s begin by takinga look at what I believe to be the sixcharacteristics of a “somebody.”1. Being a “somebody” is dependentupon how we communicate withpeople.Those are people on whom wedepend to make our programssuccessful at all levels. I can think ofno other profession that is moredependent on communication skillsthan education.FEATURE ARTICLETHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 15
FEATURE ARTICLEBut communication is not necessarilymore e-mails, newsletters, bulletinsor Web sites. Effectivecommunication emphasizes listeningand feedback. It is cleaning up theclutter of our attempts to talk to eachother by seeking feedback fromcolleagues, students, administrators,and former students. Simply stated—effective leaders are good listeners.It is interesting that every study that Ihave ever read on desirableleadership qualities lists goodcommunication as an essential skill.Furthermore, the literature on thecommunication process can bebroken down into four majorcomponents: reading, writing,speaking, and listening. Researchshows that the average personspends less than 25% of his or hercommunication clock hours engagedin reading and/or writing. Theremaining 75% is divided betweenspeaking and listening, with thelistening percentage heavilyoutweighing the speakingpercentage.It can also be said thatcommunication doesn’t begin withthe sender; it begins with therecipient, and that makes it difficultbecause there are times when I feelthat there are only two kinds ofpeople in this world: those who loveto talk and those who hate to listen.Colin Powell demonstrated theimportance of being a good listenerwhen he stated, “The day individualsstop bringing you their problems isthe day you have stopped leadingthem. They have either lostconfidence that you can help them orconcluded that you really don’t care.Either case is a failure of leadership.”But here’s a flash for you,communicating while sitting in awarm seat in your office isn’t smartcommunication. Frankly, one’s officeis not where the action is. Butbeware—as we leave our offices itbecomes a challenge to get throughthe closed and sometimes lockedoffice doors. Windows are oftencovered with posters, cardboard, andmasking tape, while inside there is aperson deeply focused on a computermonitor. Could face-to-facecommunication with people becomea lost art?Just last month our universityexperienced a server failure that keptour faculty from accessing e-mail,and as you might guess, it resulted inchaos. I even had individuals ask meif they could go home because theire-mail was inoperable. A formercolleague and mentor, Dick Henak,suggested that we not use ourcomputers one day a week so thatwe would be forced to communicatewith each other.Please understand that I do not wantto sacrifice my e-mail capabilities,but I would argue that most, if not all,of the meaningful experiences anddefining moments that I had in mycareer could not and will not becaptured in an e-mail message. It isimperative to understand when faceto-facecommunication is moreeffective than an e-mail message.2. A “somebody” understands thedifference between “managing”and “leadership.”In a phrase that has almost become abusiness cliché, Warren Bennis(1980) says that American businessesare over-managed and under-led.Maybe that same quote hasimplications for technologyeducation. Most managers have asimple objective, which is to keepthings as they are and to preservethe system. Is that what we want fortechnology education?Bennis also suggests that managingand leading differ in a number ofways. The effective leader bringsnew ideas, goals, and a sense ofvision to their position, accompaniedby a passion and commitment forwhat they believe. Managers engagein the day-to-day conduct of theorganization, while leaders transcendthe everyday organizational routinesto guide the organization. Leadershiprequires creating what isn’t there,something new, something beyondwhat the system already has. Otherdistinctions between managementand leadership include the following:• Managers have employees.Leaders have followers.•Managers command and control.Leaders empower and inspire.• Managers seek stability.Leaders seek flexibility.• Managers make decisions andsolve problems.Leaders set directions and thenempower and enable their team tomake their own decisions andsolve their own problems.• Managers accept the organizationalstructure and culture.Leaders look for a better way.Leaders understand how to releasethe brainpower, intelligent curiosity,the “know how” of our greatestasset—the teachers, students, andstaff that we work with every day.3. A “somebody” is able to focus onareas where he/she can make adifference.I raised a small flock of sheep forseveral years. It started out as myson’s 4H project and developed intoDad’s project. Some of you mayknow the acronym FFA that Ialways thought stood for FutureFarmers of America. But I want youto know that it really stands for“fathers farm alone!” When peoplelearned that I raised sheep, I wasalmost always reminded of howsheep are intellectually challenged,and some folks simply referred to mywooly friends as dumb. But myfavorite sheep story involves myolder son. As a young 4H’er, heenjoyed feeding the sheep. In order tofeed the flock, the sheep had to passthrough a gate from a large pastureinto a smaller feedlot. He would rattlethe feed bucket and the sheep wouldcome running. As the sheepapproached the feedlot, he wouldplace a long stick horizontally about afoot off the ground where the gatehad previously been. He wouldpatiently watch as the first sheepjumped over the stick and into thefeedlot—then a second sheep wouldjump the stick, then a third sheepwould do the same. He would thenremove the stick and laughhysterically as the rest of the flockpassed through the opening jumpingover the stick that was no longerthere.Effective leaders are careful not tospend too much time trying to jumpover sticks that aren’t there! Theyfocus on those areas that really makea difference. Focusing on areas that16 September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
eally make a difference leads me tothe next characteristic.4. A “somebody” has vision andcommitment.When I think of vision, I am remindedof something that was said to me bya CEO of a manufacturing company inIndiana. While informally addressingthe topic of establishing a vision, hesimply said, “Jack, be careful whenyou identify a vision because there isa fine line between a having a visionand hallucinating!”Having a vision is not enough.Leaders must be able tocommunicate the vision frequentlyand effectively. They need to becapable of articulating it in differentways to different constituencies.Effective communication is the abilityto take something complicated andmake it simple. A leader can neverassume that the vision is fullyunderstood by all. They need to bealmost “missionary” in style as theycontinually and consistently “preachthe gospel” of the future. Doing sowill allow them to change theperception of people as to what isimportant for them and theorganization.5. A “somebody” is also committedand persistent to his or hervision.Calvin Coolidge said it best when heexpressed the importance ofpersistence:“Nothing in the world can takethe place of persistence. Talentwill not; nothing is morecommon than unsuccessful menwith great talent. Genius willnot; the unrewarded genius isalmost a proverb. Educationwill not; the world is full ofeducated derelicts. Persistenceand determination alone areparamount.”Leaders need to be unshaken in theirbelief that what they are doing is theright thing to do. This requires acertain degree of mental toughness.Being tough is many timesmisinterpreted. Being tough isstanding true to your visionregardless of challenges andsetbacks or when others doubt youor your ability to succeed. This typeof “toughness” is called commitment,and good leaders seem to have it.True “toughness” is going over thehill without knowing what is on theother side. It is about staying thecourse through adversity. But don’tworry, whatever course you decideon, there is always someone nearbyto tell you that you are wrong. Therewill always be difficulties that comeup that will tempt you to doubtyourself and believe the critics areright. It takes tremendous courage tomap out a course and direction andsee it through.Let’s take a moment to review arecent defining moment for ourprofession. As far back as I canremember there has been aconsistent request by public schoolteachers, administrators, and teachereducators for a set of standards fortechnology education. After all, suchstandards would certainly givemeaning to what we are as aprofession and how we do it. Until afew years ago I was convinced that itwouldn’t happen. After all, whowould have the vision andcommitment and time for such aproject?I was later informed that a colleagueof ours had a vision to developstandards for our profession. You allknow that I am speaking of BillDugger. Remembering the statementthat there is a fine line between avision and hallucinating, I honestlythought Dr. Dugger was hallucinating!But it is safe to say that the rest ishistory. Bill Dugger did have thevision, persistence, and commitment,and the profession now has a set ofstandards.6. Finally, being a “somebody”means understanding theimportance of being a mentor.An effective leader is someone whomakes the extra effort to become amentor to a student or colleague. Iwill be the first to admit that I havebenefited professionally from severalmentors in my career.It is not a secret that the future of ourprofession lies in the hands of ouryoung professionals. Perhaps ourgreatest accomplishment will not bethat we were gifted technologyeducators, but rather that we inspiredthe next generation of those who willlead our profession.In her book The Mentor’s Guide:Facilitating Effective LearningRelationships, Lois Zachary states,“Human beings thrive bestwhen we grow in the presenceof those who have gone before.Our roots may not follow everyavailable pathway, but we areable to become more fullyourselves because of thepresence of others. ‘I am who Iam because we are’ goes thatsaying. And mentors are a vitalpart of our lives.”I would like to conclude my remarksthis morning by reading to you amanifesto that was written by KentKeith when he was a 19-year-oldstudent at Harvard. The original titleis “The Paradoxical Commandments,”and it was published in a booklet thatKent wrote for student leaders backin 1968. I feel these ten items haveimplications for our challenges asprofessionals.1. People are illogical,unreasonable, and selfcentered.Respect them anyway.2. If you do good, people willaccuse you of selfish, ulteriormotives.Do good anyway.3. If you are successful, you winfalse friends and true enemies.Succeed anyway.4. The good you do will beforgotten tomorrow.Do good anyway.5. Honesty and frankness makeyou vulnerable.Be honest and frank anyway.6. The biggest men and womenwith the biggest ideas can beshot down by the smallest menand women with the smallestminds.Think big anyway.7. People favor underdogs butfollow only top dogs.Fight for a few underdogs anyway.8. What you spend years buildingmay be destroyed overnight.Build anyway.9. People really need help, but mayattack you if you help them.Help people anyway.FEATURE ARTICLETHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 17
BUSH VS. KERRY ON EDUCATIONThe American public is being inundated with political advertisements, which will reach a peak this fall, leading up to theNovember elections. Among the myriad of issues that the candidates have addressed is the issue of education. Where doGeorge W. Bush and John Kerry stand on this all-important issue? The bullet points below were taken directly from thecandidates’ Web sites.George W. BushRepublicanwww.georgebush.com/EducationJohn KerryDemocratwww.johnkerry.com/issues/education/• Signed No Child Left Behind Act, which makes federalfunding contingent on states giving standardized tests inmath and reading and publishing results for third- througheighth-graders.• Says when it comes to our schools, dollars alone do notalways make the difference.• Calls for zero tolerance on disruption, guns, and schoolsafety.• Says federal dollars should not follow failure.Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind Act, whichcreates education standards and accountability for each state.A common complaint among teachers is that the act createda new emphasis on testing, which they believe shifts thefocus in the classroom from teaching to testing. Bush alsoadvocates overhauling the Head Start program by increasing2004 funding by $203 million, and requiring half its teachersto have college degrees by 2008. Bush’s 2004 budgetincreases education funding to $53.1 billion.(Source: cbsnews.com)• Proposes a National Education Trust Fund to guaranteethe federal government meets its obligation to fully fundeducation priorities.• Vows to change the No Child Left Behind Act to ensurethat schools focus on teaching high standards, and notbecome “drill and kill” test prep institutions.• Says No Child Left Behind underfunds public schools by$6 billion this year.• Chronically disruptive or violent students should beremoved from classrooms and placed in alternativelearning environments.Voted for the “No Child Left Behind” bill in 2001, but hassince called for increased funding. Supports Early Start,Head Start, and Smart Start. Criticized the proposal thatwould give control of Head Start preschool programs to thestates. He would increase funding for special education.Member of Education Committee. Introduced a bill toprovide universal pre-kindergarten. Opposes school voucherprograms. Proposed a “national service a way of life.” Thecomponents of his plan include “High School Service,”which would require all high school students to performcommunity service before receiving diplomas, “Retired butNot Tired,” a program for seniors, “Summer of Service” forteens not old enough to work. Proposes free publiceducation for people who do two years of volunteer workand for quadrupling the number of Peace Corps volunteersfrom 6,700 to 25,000. He said he’d pay for the program byclosing corporate tax loopholes.(Source: cbsnews.com)ELECTION 2004THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 19
Figure 2. As we look to the future of transportation we can see that there is a need formore fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles. Historically, modern electricvehicles have been small and primarily designed for commuter transport. The Ford MotorCompany has introduced a hybrid gasoline-electric vehicle that promises to providedesirable size and economy features that have not been available in traditional SUVs.(Courtesy of Ford Motor Company.)History of Electric MotorsThe invention of the electric motor isthe result of a number of inventionsand discoveries in the field ofelectricity during the eighteenth andnineteenth centuries. While“electricity” and “magnetism” andsome of their properties had beenknown for many years, how to usethem to produce mechanical motionwas not. Several key discoverieswere critical to the invention of theelectric motor. These discoveriesincluded the discovery of electricity,the battery, and the principle ofelectromagnetism. Perhaps we mightsay that the discovery ofelectromagnetism by Hans ChristianØrsted in 1820 was a pivotal eventthat led to the development andinvention of electric motors. Hedemonstrated that a wire carrying acurrent was able to deflect amagnetized compass needle. Ørsteddid not suggest any satisfactoryexplanation of the phenomenon, nordid he try to represent thephenomenon in a mathematicalframework; however, other scientistsand inventors would follow alongwith practical inventions thatcapitalized on electricity andelectromagnetism.Two of the more significant scientistsand inventors were Michael Faradayand Nicola Tesla. Interestingly,Michael Faraday was apprenticed asa bookbinder at the early age offourteen. During his seven-yearapprenticeship, Faraday developed aninterest in science. Subsequently hebecame acquainted with andemployed by Sir Humphrey Davy asan assistant. Faraday was intenselyinterested in Ørsted’s phenomenon ofelectromagnetism and developed twodevices that produced what he calledelectromagnetic rotation. This can bebest described as a continuouscircular motion from the circularmagnetic force around a wire. Keepin mind that a magnetic field iscreated around a wire and isperpendicular to the direction ofcurrent in that wire. Today we useFleming’s Left Hand Motor rule todescribe this concept, where yourthumb and first and second fingersare extended, your first finger straightand second finger at a right angle toyour first indicates the magneticfield, second finger direction ofcurrent, and thumb represents theresulting motion.Nicola Tesla is noted for his work inalternating current or what is calledAC. Tesla invented the AC motor andtransformer, 3-phase electricity, andthe Tesla Coil. Each of theseinventions has made a significantimpact on our world today—morethan we may realize! The invention ofthe AC electric motor, for the mostpart, is obvious. We use the benefitsof electric motors daily in nearlyevery aspect of daily living. Yourrefrigerator, heating system,microwave oven, and water that youshower with in the morning are insome manner connected to motioncreated by an AC electric motor!Tesla received patent number390,414 in 1888 for his DynamoElectric Machine. Perhaps lessobvious is the electricity that isgenerated by the utility companiesthat we use with just the flick of aswitch for light, heating and cooling,cooking, and yes, watchingtelevision! It was the work of Teslathat brought us this modernalternating current electricdistribution system.As we look at these inventors andtheir inventions, it is important torealize that they all had a number ofcommon interests. Each of them wasinquisitive, creative, and had a keeninterest in wanting to know howthings worked. This is much thesame as in the technology educationlaboratory where you study scienceand technology to learn abouttechnological inventions anddevelopments and their impacts.These early inventors learned how tothink critically and solve problems atan early age.Basic ElectricMotor OperationThere are many different kinds andsizes of electric motors. The sizes ofelectric motors range from micromotors that can fit on the head of apin to very large ones that weighthousands of pounds and developthousands of horsepower. Electricmotors may be classified by size andhorsepower. However, it is morecommon to classify them as directcurrent or alternating currentdevices—AC or DC motors. GenerallyAC motors are used in fixed locationsor where there is ready access to ACelectricity such as a wall outlet. DCmotors operate from direct currentRESOURCES IN TECHNOLOGYTHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 21
RESOURCES IN TECHNOLOGYFigure 3. The motors shown here are representative of the kinds of miniature DC motors thatare typically used in motorized projects and activities in technology education labs. Themotors shown left to right are a LEGO® gear motor, a standard gear motor, a “pan cake”motor, and an inexpensive DC motor. Each of these motors is available from electronic androbotic suppliers from which technology teachers obtain supplies.that can be readily provided bybatteries. Cordless appliances andtools such as saws and drills userechargeable batteries as a source ofenergy to power DC electric motors.Within each of these categories forAC and DC motors there are manysub-categories. Because of spacelimitations, we will look at severaltypes of DC motors that arecommonly found in portable tools,appliances, and frequently used inrobotic projects in the technologyeducation lab.Several types of DC motors that aresuitable for building projects andmini-robots are the permanentmagnet brush-type motors such asthose shown in Figure 3. Other kindsof DC motors include brushless, andpermanent magnet coreless designs.Generally speaking, the DC motorsincluded with LEGO kits or found atRadio Shack, Kelvin Electronics,Pitsco, and other low cost motorsuppliers are the brush-typepermanent magnet motors in the1-1/2 to 9.0 volt supply voltage range.Generally these motors run at toohigh a speed and too low a torque tobe useful for robotic applications andconstruction activities. Typical motorshaft speeds are 5,000 to 15,000RPM. Gear reduction boxes are addedto these types of motors to reducethe speed and increase the torque.Small DC motors are also availablewith gearboxes that are an integralpart of the motor frame and arecalled gear motors.There are several major partscommon to most DC brush-typemotors. These parts include thearmature, permanent magnet fields,case, brush assembly, and end capsas shown in Figure 4. The operationof the DC electromagnetic motors isbased on the principle of magnetism,where like magnetic poles attract andunlike poles repel each other. Withthis principle in mind, we need onlyto add some means of changing thepoles or polarity of the magnets tocreate a rotating effect. This is easilyaccomplished with a commutator.The commutator is an integral part ofthe armature that reverses thedirection of the current twice everycycle. This allows each of thearmature magnets to push and pullon the permanent magnet fields onthe outside of the motor and causesthe armature to rotate.An inexpensive DC motor is easilydisassembled to see each of thecomponents. You will notice in Figure4 that the motor housing containstwo sets of magnets. These magnetsare positioned so that one has aNorth Pole orientation and the other aSouth Pole orientation. One of theend caps provides only a bearing andsupport for the armature, while theother end cap contains thecommutator brushes. The brushesmay be made of a copper alloy,carbon, or carbon composite toprovide a moveable electricalconnection that is long wearing. Thearmature has stamped steellaminations as a core on which theFigure 4. The basic parts of a miniature DC motor include an armature, sometimes called arotor, the end caps to support the armature, and the housing with two permanent magnetsattached. The brush assembly is an integral part of one of the end caps. This student ispointing to the commutator that reverses the current to the windings twice every cycle.22 September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
RESOURCES IN TECHNOLOGYthe manufacturers, we can begin tosee that generally voltage and currentplay a significant role in the power ofan electric motor. However, this is abit of an oversimplification, as thedesign and construction as well asthe types of materials used in theconstruction of a motor affects itscapability to do work. Size and speedalone are not sufficient measures ofthe power of a motor.Choosing Electric MotorsSelecting a miniature DC motorshould be done by carefullyreviewing a motor manufacturer’smotor specification tables, where thevoltage, current, torque, and speedratings are listed. Additionally, afamily of curves will be shown thatgraphs the power, torque, current,and speed relationships. By matchingthe specifications of a motor to yourneeds you will achieve satisfactoryresults in your project constructionactivities. Sometimes this is notpossible or practical, as in the casewhere bulk purchases of DC motorsare made at very low cost and onlythe voltage, current, and motorspeeds are stated. In such cases it isgenerally necessary to perform someexperimentation and add a gearboxto handle the intended loads for amotor drive system, such as in arobot project.Miniature DC motors can bepurchased from a number of vendors,such as Kelvin Electronics and othervendors, in large quantities at veryreasonable prices that make themattractive for technology educationprojects. Generally, these kinds ofmotors are in the 1-1/2 – 12 voltranges and lend themselves readily toa number of problem-solving andcritical-thinking design activities. Themotor specifications provided by suchvendors are sufficient to make goodchoices in choosing a motor in anintelligent manner.In most cases where a DC motor isintended for a drive train system, thespeed of the motor will be too high.Decreasing the applied voltage, eventhough it will reduce the motor speed,is generally not a satisfactorysolution. Here, the addition of a smallgear reduction would be appropriate.Alternatively, a pulley system may beused. DC motors may be purchasedwith an integral gearbox, or a gearboxmay be purchased separately. Somesimple calculations must be made toensure that the motor speed, at itsrated voltage and torque, will providethe speed and power necessary for agiven project when a gearbox isadded. For example, a small motorrated at 2,200 RPM and 2.8 G/CM canbe coupled with a gearbox to providean acceptable speed and torque for asmall robot or vehicle. If we were toadd a gearbox with a reduction ratioof 50:1, then the resulting output shaftspeed would be 44 RPM and theoutput torque would be approximately140 G/CM, less frictional losses.Assuming that our vehicle has a drivewheel of 2 inches in diameter, thenwe can calculate the theoreticalspeed of the vehicle as the shaftspeed times the drive wheelcircumference, or 44 RPM X π r2, or138 inches per minute.SummaryAs we look at the world around us, itis increasingly difficult not to realizethe impacts that electricity andelectric motors have made on oursociety and the way that we live.Electric motors are conversiondevices that convert electricity intomechanical energy that do work forus. As we look at some of theapplications of electric motors, bothlarge and small, we can see that theyindeed provide us with the capabilityto move things rapidly and efficiently.We find that motors are used to drivepumps to move water and other fluids,as well as fans to keep us cool, andpower to transport us in environmentallyfriendly vehicles! So the nexttime that you listen to your favoritetunes on your CD player or ride anescalator in a shopping mall, thinkabout the discoveries in electromagnetismand motor theories ofFaraday, Tesla, and Ørsted and theimpact that they have made!Selecting the most appropriateminiature DC electric motor wiselywill contribute toward successand satisfaction in designing andbuilding motorized projects andactivities. Typical parts suppliersstock a variety of miniature DCmotors and provide sufficientinformation to select motors that willmeet your project needs.ReferencesCowden, David H. www.srl.gatech.edu/education/ME3110/primer/motors.htmJones, Joseph L., & Flynn, Anita M.(1993). Mobile Robots: Inspiration toImplementation. Wellesley, MA: A. K.Peters.Walter F. Deal, III,Ph.D. is anassociate professorat Old DominionUniversity in Norfolk,VA. He can bereached via e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.AD INDEXGEICO.................................C-3Goodheart-Willcox...............14Mastercam.........................C-4SolidWorks Corporation .....C-224 September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
STANDARDS-BASED TECHNOLOGY TEACHER EDUCATION ONLINE:AN INNOVATIVE NEW PROGRAM AT VALLEY CITY STATE UNIVERSITYDonald MuganJames BoeMatt EdlandValley City State University in ValleyCity, ND, has developed an undergraduatetechnology educationprogram over the past five yearsthat is being delivered completelyonline.What are you doing in technologyeducation and how did it comeabout?The current effort was really set inmotion in 1990 when the campus wasgiven a mission by the universitysystem to exercise a leadership role inenhancing the teaching and learningprocess through technology. After anumber of significant accomplishments,including universal computeraccess through notebook computersand universal digital portfolio assessment,the university was ready toexplore a possible role in onlinelearning as a means to accomplish itsmission. In 1998 the campus secureda $1.7 million DOE grant, which wasused to develop an infrastructure tosupport online learning, to build facultyexpertise, and to create a completemodel online program.Technology Education was chosen asthe first online program because itrepresented an opportunity torevitalize a long-standing program, andbecause of the clearly defined criticalneed for technology teachers. Otherfactors influencing the decision werethe Standards for TechnologicalLiteracy (STL) project, and ITEA’screation of the Center to Advance theTeaching of Technology and Science(CATTS) Consortium, which engagedin development of curriculummaterials for STL implementation.Taken together, these factorspresented an opportunity to make aclean break with the past and developa program of national reach andsignificance.A Menu Selection Connects Instructor to any school in the state through Interactive IP(Internet Protocol) Video.On what is your curriculum basedand how does it line up with whatis going on in K-12 schools?STL represents the clearest consensusto date of what technology educationcan and should do for America.Therefore, the greatest assurance ofsuccess for an online program wouldbe found in building on thesestandards, and it meant starting fromscratch with all new content—nocompromises. Working within theconstraints of a 36-credit major, itbecame clear that the traditionalmodel of capping skills courses with amethods course would not work. IfRegional Technology Centernew standards-based materials wereadded, something must be deleted. Italso became clear that if highereducation is to foster change, it mustmodel the curriculum it seeks tocreate in schools. Valley City StateUniversity decided to adopt thecurriculum framework proposed by theCATTS Consortium, complete withcourse titles. This meant thatactivities must be grade-levelappropriate, and traditional skills mustbe taught on a just-in-time, as-neededbasis. For example, if a prospectiveteacher must know how to solder inorder to supervise a design challenge,a soldering tutorial is provided ifneeded, when needed. When adecision is made to set a single factoras the top priority, in this case STL,the ramifications are endless. Everythingmust be scrutinized, includingfacility. STL is K-12 in scope; therefore,highly specialized labs filled withindustrial-age equipment areinappropriate. Labs must be flexible,clean, exciting, and non-intimidating toteachers and students alike. A newfacility to address these needs wascompleted at VCSU in 2001.FEATURE ARTICLETHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 25
FEATURE ARTICLEThe program enjoys considerablesupport in K-12 schools for a variety ofreasons. First, the grant funded thecreation of a Curriculum DevelopmentTeam made up of a dozen of the mostrespected K-12 teachers in the state.It is unusual for K-12 teachers to begiven a voice in the creation ofuniversity curriculum, but the resultingownership among teachers isgratifying. The team was selected forgeographic and grade level balance,including elementary teachers.Another factor in acceptance of theprogram is that the State Board forCareer and Technical Education was apartner in the project from itsconception. The CTE board and staffprovide leadership and support fortechnology education and play a rolein teacher certification as well asGrades 7-12 course approval. CTEfunded the North Dakota CATTSmembership over the past five yearsand provided several other forms ofassistance. Upon completion of theuniversity curriculum, the StateSupervisor of Technology Educationworked with Curriculum DevelopmentTeam members to create a statecurriculum framework similar to theCATTS framework. CTE has a processfor approving and funding of programs.Approved programs and fundedprograms will offer an increasingnumber of standards-based coursesfrom the Framework document.Modular Labnecessary activities. Certainly, designactivities consistent with STL are nomore challenging to deliver thanengineering education, andengineering educators have beenworking for many years to improvedistance delivery of subject matterand laboratories.The focus of our continuousimprovement efforts in the delivery oflaboratory instruction center aroundthe level of support we can provide toa wide variety of learners. Forexample, many of our students areemergency-certified teachers and canfunction with a minimum level ofsupport since they have a lab facilityavailable and often have othertechnology teachers nearby to assistthem. Obviously, an elementaryteacher working at home on thekitchen table may require moresupport. However, several suchindividuals have had success withcurrent levels of support. Initially, weoffered open labs during the week,Saturday labs, and summerworkshops. To provide support tomore learners, we have begun theprocess of training remote laboratoryfacilitators and setting up remote labsin K-12 schools and in otheruniversities. The lab facilitators andstudents are supported through IP(Internet Protocol) interactive video asneeded, and interactive sessions withthe online instructor are scheduled atthe beginning of each lab session,usually on Saturdays. We areexperimenting with existingtechnology that will permit individualsat home to join the discussions and sitin on live demonstrations with remotelab facilitators and other students.These learners must have a highbandwidth Internet connection,additional software, and, if they wouldlike to interact face-to-face, a cameramounted on their monitor.What research data are youcollecting as you move forwardwith the delivery of this degree?The opportunity to start over comesbut once in a lifetime, and it was acomplete package—all or nothing. Weconcluded we could not build theWhat’s working and in what areasare you making adjustments as youdeliver instruction?The portion of the curriculum that isanalogous to traditional lecturematerial is delivered online in aBlackboard ® course-containerenvironment. Unit readingassignments, online WebQuestresearch assignments, and onlinediscussions form the basis of mostcourse material. While subject tocontinuous improvement, mostaspects work very well and do notdepart substantially from courses inany other discipline. Therefore, thebenchmarks appropriate for any onlinecourse apply. Laboratory instructionfor distance learners is a seriouschallenge, as one might imagine, but isby no means impossible. Distancedelivery imposes many constraints,but if one recognizes that design, notin-depth skill, is foremost in astandards-based curriculum, thenways can be found to accomplishDesign for Engineering – Data Logging with LabVIEW26 September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
Awesome Airplanes Thematic Unit, with Parents Watching Washington Elementary ThirdGrade Class, Valley City, ND.program one course and one decisionat a time. We had to assemble allpieces, including curriculum anddelivery system, at once—on adeadline—in five years. Therefore, weadopted a continuous improvementmodel, with support and advice fromthe Curriculum Development Team andnational consultants in technologyeducation and e-learning. Weimplemented an assessment plan, withcontinuous feedback from everystudent, in every unit, in every course.At the end of each semester we meetto decide on necessary changesbased on the semester results. Nowthat the grant is completed(September 30, 2003), we are engagedin three distinct efforts to improveresults through focused research. Wehave partnered with ITEA and NASA’sClassroom of the Future to study indetail the effectiveness of one of ourcourses over a four-year period. Wehave also partnered with two schooldistricts and a two-year college tocreate a model K-12 standards-basedcurriculum implementation, witharticulated pathways to engineeringprograms. We are also seeking fundsto assist in rewriting of all coursematerials on a continual basis.Where do your students come from?We could not market the newprogram until we were accredited. Wereceived accreditation as an onlineprogram from North Dakota, NCATE,and North Central in June of 2002.Since then, enrollment has gone fromessentially zero majors to over 40.With three university partnershipagreements in final stages, we expectthat enrollment will grow rapidly.Because a path toward teachercertification is available and mostlyonline, students from many fields arerepresented. These include elementaryeducation, business administration,engineering, and emergency-certifiedteachers, both degreed and nondegreed.How do you deliver what hastraditionally been known as thefabrication or “making” part of yourcurriculum?Laboratory activities for the most partrely on carefully selected designchallenges accompanied by a VCSUpackagedmaterials kit that requiresonly commonly available tools forcompletion. Since many students areadults from other fields, the activitiesmust serve multiple functions. Theactivity must provide prospectiveteachers with a concept ofmethodologies that are appropriate fora given grade level, a clearunderstanding of what standards andbenchmarks must be emphasized in agiven course, and finally, experiencewith fabricating design solutions usingFEATURE ARTICLEEngineering Lab“Flying Bugs” at Technology Night at Sweetwater Elementary, Devils Lake, ND.THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 27
control of experiments, and expandedsimulation opportunities.Closing ThoughtsFEATURE ARTICLERefining a Design Solution in ProDesktopcommon tools and materials in a safemanner. There are many factors toconsider in selecting these activities,including cost, common toolrequirements, variety of materials andindustries, standards and benchmarks,safety, escalating ability in fabrication,and many more. Because of thevariation in skill level of prospectiveteachers and the many factorsmentioned, the design challengesmust be written more tightly than wewould like, but the conceptual leap tomore open-ended challenges is farless than in the traditional modelwhere content and methodology aretaught in isolated courses. Asmentioned previously, VCSU wasamong the first to require digitalportfolio assessment for all graduates.Students document their progressthrough all activities, with digitalphotographs submitted with each unitand assessed through rubrics.Students assemble a graduationportfolio which must speak to VCSUrequirements, STL standards andbenchmarks, NCATE standards, andsafety documentation.increase university partnerships,increase K-12 partnerships, expandcourse-leasing arrangements, expandtraining of adjunct faculty, expandtraining for laboratory facilitators,expand course offerings beyond a 36-credit major, and expand laboratorysupport options through online rapidprototyping, remote monitoring andIf technology education is to moveforward, we must have teachers—teachers who understand the need fora public perception that technologicalliteracy is an essential part ofeducation, and also understand thattechnological literacy, as defined bySTL, is the primary means to achievethat goal. We cannot stand by andhope that we can recruit enoughyoungsters to fill our ranks. Accordingto ACT, interest in teaching careers onthe part of college-age students hasfallen for the past 30 years to half ofwhat it was, and continues to fallincrementally every year. Focus groupinterviews with college-age studentsregarding the teaching profession arenot encouraging. We must look toadults who are willing to considerteaching with an open mind and notbe swayed by peer pressure. Not onlydo we face a teacher shortage, but abacklog of hundreds of emergencycertifiedteachers who desperatelyneed instruction, not only to keep theirjobs, but to serve our students. Canwe as technology educators notharness technology to meet our goals?We must make our programsWhat are your plans for the future?We plan to adhere tenaciously to thecontinuous improvement model. Wewill improve course materials, expandmarketing efforts, expand onlineteacher certification alternatives,Lego Robotics Challenge at Camp Cyber Prairie28 September 2004 • THE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER
accessible to those who are willing toteach our children.ReferencesACT. (1999). Scores Show SignificantGains in the ‘90s. Retrieved October28, 2003 from: www.act.org/news/releases/1999/08-17-99.html.ACT. (2001). Hot Jobs Get Cool Responsefrom 2001 High School Grads.Retrieved October 28, 2003 from:www.act.org/news/releases/2001/08-15-01a.html.Deal, Walter F. (2002). Distance Learning:Teaching Technology Online. TheTechnology Teacher, Vol 61( 8), 21-26Retrieved October 28, 2003 from:www.iteawww.org/TTT/mayjun02.pdf.Flowers, Jim. (2001). Online LearningNeeds in Technology Education.Journal of Technology Education. Vol13(1). Retrieved October 28,2003 from:http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v13n1/pdf/flowers.pdf.Hart, P.D. Research Associates, Inc.(1999). “Key Findings from Researchon Young Americans’ Interest in thePublic School Teaching Profession.”Report commissioned by the MillikenFamily Foundation. Santa Monica, CA:Milliken Family Foundation. RetrievedOctober 28, 2003 from: www.mff.org/pubs/FocusGroupReport.pdf.Institute for Higher Education Policy.(2000). Quality on the Line:Benchmarks for Success in Internet-Based Distance Education.Washington, DC: Author. RetrievedOctober 28, 2003 from: www.ihep.com/Pubs/PDF/Quality.pdf.ITEA. (2000 2002). Standards forTechnological Literacy: Content for theStudy of Technology. Reston. VA:Author. Retrieved October 28, 2003from: www.iteawww.org/TAA/PDFs/xstnd.pdf.ITEA. (2003). Advancing Excellence inTechnological Literacy: StudentAssessment, Professional Development,and Program Standards. Reston.VA: Author. Retrieved October 28,2003 from: www.iteawww.org/TAA/PDFs/AETL.pdf.Miller, Thomas K. III. (1998). DeliveringEngineering Education via DistanceLearning. Retrieved October 28,2003 from: www.nsf.gov/pubs/1998/nsf9892/deliver.htm.National Academy of Engineering and theNational Research Council. (2002).Technically Speaking: Why allAmericans need to know more aboutTechnology. Washington, DC: NationalAcademy Press. Retrieved October 28,2003 from: www.nap.edu/books/0309082625/html.Ndahi, H.B. & Ritz, J. M. (2003).Technology Education TeacherDemand, 2002-2005. The TechnologyTeacher, Vol 62( 7) 27-31 RetrievedOctober 28, 2003 from: www.iteawww.org/TTT/apr03.pdf.North Dakota State Board for Career andTechnical Education. (2002).Technology Education: A North DakotaCurricular Framework. RetrievedOctober 28, 2003, from: www.state.nd.us/cte/secondary/program/tech-ed/docs/curriculumframework-documents.pdf.Waits, T., Lewis, L., Greene, B. (ProjectOfficer). (2003). Distance Education atDegree-Granting PostsecondaryInstitutions: 2000-2001. (NCES 2003-017). Washington, DC: U.S.Department of Education, NationalCenter for Education Statistics.Retrieved October 28, 2003 from:www.nces.ed.gov/pubs2003/2003017.pdf.Volk, Kenneth. (1997). Going, Going, Gone?Recent Trends in Technology TeacherDesign/Activity AreaTechnology Literacy Workshop Interdisciplinary TeamsEducation Programs. Journal ofTechnology Education. Vol 8(2).Retrieved October 28, 2003 from:http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JTE/v8n2/pdf/.Weston, S. (1997). Teacher shortagesupplyand demand. The TechnologyTeacher, Vol 57( 1), 6-9. RetrievedOctober 28, 2003 from:www.iteawww.org/B2k.html.Donald Mugan,Ph.D. is professorand Chair of theTechnologyDepartment at ValleyCity State University(VCSU), Valley City,North Dakota. Hecan be reached via e-mail email@example.com.James Boe is theCurriculumDevelopmentSpecialist in theTechnologyDepartment at VCSU.He can be reachedvia e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.Matthew Edlandwas the leadonline instructor inthe TechnologyDepartment atVCSU. He passedaway unexpectedlyin May whiletraining for a marathon.FEATURE ARTICLETHE TECHNOLOGY TEACHER • September 2004 29
Request for Special RecognitionNominationsITEA members are invited to submit nominations for the following awards. Recognize colleagues who give extra effort!Academy of FellowsThis is the highest recognition thatthe International Technology EducationAssociation (ITEA) can bestowupon any person. To qualify, theindividual must have gained prominencein and brought honor to theprofession of technology education.The recipient must be an ITEAmember. The awardee will begranted membership in the Academyof Fellows of the InternationalTechnology Education Association.Individuals will be considered basedon:a) Leadership roles in ITEA andother affiliate organization(s),andb) Presentations and professionaldevelopment activities at localto international level, andc) Recognition by peers.Award of DistinctionThis award is presented to an individualwithin technology educationwho has advanced the professionthrough a sustained and recognizedrecord of exemplary professionalactivity. To qualify for the Award ofDistinction, the individual must bean ITEA member and have distinguishedhim/herself through accomplishmentsin:a) Improvement of Instruction, orb) Research and Scholarship, orc) Effective Teaching.William J. Wilkinson MeritoriousService AwardThe Meritorious Service Award ispresented to an ITEA memberworthy of commendation for serviceto the International TechnologyEducation Association. To be considered,individuals must have providedcontinuous service to ITEAanda) Affiliate Association(s) orb) The profession.Lockette/Monroe HumanitarianAwardGiven to an individual who is anITEA member and has promotedhumanistic values while serving as atechnology education professionalon the national/international, state/province, or local level in one ormore of the following areas:a) Developing social awareness,b) Preserving democratic and/orhuman dignity processes, and/orc) Maximizing the potential ofindividuals.Special Recognition AwardThis award is presented to an individualwho has established a sustainedrecord of outstanding serviceto the field of technology education.To qualify for this award, the recipientmust be an ITEA member andhave made a significant contributionto ITEA or technology education. Tobe considered, individuals mustmeet one of the following criteria:a) Promoted technology educationat any level (local to international)with a resulting impact;orb) Actively facilitated or participatedin professional developmentfor technology educatorswith a resulting impact; orc) Recognized at any level foroutstanding service or achievementin technology education.Prakken ProfessionalCooperation AwardThis award is presented to an individualwho, through teaching,research, and professional service,has promoted the field of technologyeducation in collaboration with otherfields of discipline. To qualify for thisaward, individuals should be involvedwith projects that collaboratewith other disciplines, such asscience, engineering, mathematics,marketing, management, etc. Therecipient of the award may be frominside or outside of the field oftechnology education. Nominees donot need to be members of ITEA.Sales Representative ExcellenceAwardThis award, sponsored by intelitek,inc., is presented to a full-time salesrepresentative who has been in thetechnology education field for atleast three years. It recognizesoutstanding service, training, andfollow-up support.ITEA MEMBERS ARE INVITED TO SUBMIT NOMINATIONS TO:Chairperson, Awards CommitteeInternational Technology Education Association1914 Association Drive, Suite 201Reston, VA 20191-1539(703) 860-2100 Fax (703) 860-0353 e-mail: email@example.comNOMINATIONS MUST BE POSTMARKED BY DECEMBER 31 STYou may also download the nomination form from the ITEA Web siteat www.iteawww.org.
67 th Annual ITEA ConferenceAt-A-GlanceSaturday, April 2, 20057:30am-8:30am8:30am-12:00pm8:30am-12:00 pm11:00am-5:00pm1:00pm-4:00pm1:00pm-1:30pm1:30pm-2:50pm3:00pm-5:00pm6:00pm-7:30pm6:00pm-11:30pmCouncil Breakfasts (Marriott)Board of Directors MeetingCouncil Meetings (Marriott)Registration, Resource Booth,Hospitality Area Open (KCCC)Pre-Conference Workshops(KCCC)ITEA Committee Chairs Meeting(Marriott)ITEA Committee Work Sessions(Marriott)Council Work Sessions (Marriott)ITEA WELCOME RECEPTION(Marriott)Yearbook Committee Dinnerand Meeting (Marriott)Monday, April 4, 20057:00am-8:45amFoundation Spirit of ExcellenceBreakfast (Marriott)8:00am-5:00pm Registration, Resource Booth,Hospitality Area Open (KCCC)9:00am-10:50amSecond General Session (KCCC)Teacher Excellence Awards11:00am-11:50am Special Interest Sessions (KCCC)11:00am-4:00pmExhibits Open (KCCC)12:00pm-1:30pm Complimentary Buffet Lunch(KCCC Exhibit Hall A)1:00pm-5:00pm Spouse/Partner/Guest Tours2:00pm-2:50pm Council Business Meetings(Marriott)2:00pm-4:50pm Special Interest Sessions (KCCC)7:00pm-11:00pmA Taste of Kansas City – Jazzand Blues TourWhat’s New?• DedicatedExhibit Hours• Special Lunchesin Exhibit Hall• Hospitality Areain ConventionCenterCompletely NEWConference Schedule• Welcome Receptionfor Attendees• MorningGeneral Sessions• ExpandedRegistration andResource BoothHours• Lower Room RatesSunday, April 3, 20057:00am-8:30am ITEA Roundtable Breakfast(Marriott)8:00am-5:00pm Registration, Resource Booth,Hospitality Area Open (KCCC)9:00am-10:50amFirst General Session (KCCC)Program Excellence Awards11:00am-11:50am Special Interest Sessions (KCCC)11:00am-12:00pm Spouse/Partner/Guest Activity11:00am-1:00pm TECA Student Event (KCCC)11:00am-5:00pmExhibits Open (KCCC)12:00pm-1:30pmInternational Luncheon (KCCC)12:00pm-1:30pm Buffet Lunch (KCCC Exhibit Hall A)1:00pm-4:50pm Special Interest Sessions (KCCC)1:00pm-5:00pm Spouse/Partner/Guest Tours2:00pm-2:50pmITEA Governance Session(KCCC)5:00pm-5:50pm CS Roundtable Reception(Marriott)6:00pm-9:00pm CTTE Yearbook Dinner (Marriott)*KCCC = Kansas City Convention CenterTuesday, April 5, 20057:00am-8:45am7:45am-8:45am8:00am-12:00pm9:00am-9:50am9:00am-10:30am9:00am-11:00am10:00am-11:50am12:00pm-1:50pm2:00pm-6:00pmEPT Breakfast (Marriott)Program Excellence Breakfast(Marriott)Registration, Resource Booth,Hospitality Area Open (KCCC)Special Interest Sessions (KCCC)CTTE Poster Sessions (KCCC)ITEA Technology Festival (KCCC)Special Interest Sessions (KCCC)Awards and RecognitionLuncheon (KCCC)ITEA Board of Directors/ExecutiveCommittee Meetings (Marriott)
This series of activity guides is designed to supplement Standardsfor Technological Literacy through the use of classroom activities.The activities are directly linked to recommended K-12 courses andpresent a variety of contemporary methods that will infuse recentresearch concerning learning and teaching.The guides provide detailed guidance for teacher preparation andimplementation.They include ready-to-duplicate student handouts and reflectionquestions and provide multiple assessment strategies.Currently available titles:Classroom ActivitiesNow Available from ITEA!ITEA-HITS (Human Innovating Technology Series) is geared toward secondary students.Agricultural Equipment Models and Prototypes Applying Energy NEW!Processes and Feedback Artificial Ecosystems and Habitats Shaping Technology NEW!Communicating Design Ideas Technological Impacts Communicating with Symbols NEW!Technological Influences on History Communication Media NEW! Technology and EcosystemsComputers and Information Technology and Human Needs Consumers and Information NEW!Technology and Society NEW! Design Requirements Technology and the EnvironmentDesigning Messages Technology Transfer Development of TechnologyTransportation Systems Energy Conversion Transportation Processes NEW!Evaluating Designs NEW! Transportation Vehicles Human Made World NEW!What is Design? Invention and Innovation What is a System?Learning How Things Work What is Technology? Manu. Enterprise & Marketing NEW!What is Engineering Design? Manufacturing ProcessesITEA-KITS (Kids Inventing Technology Series) is designed for elementary classrooms.Agricultural Technology NEW! Needs & Wants in the Design Process NEW!Collecting and Analyzing Data Parts of a Structure Communicating DesignsTechnological Interactions Communication Media Technological SymbolsCommunication Symbols Technology and Human Needs Design RequirementsTechnology and Medicine NEW! Technology and Waste Designing Manufactured Things NEW!Developing Design Solutions The Human-Made World Development of TechnologyTools Make Work Easier NEW! Exchanging Information NEW! Transportation SystemsExperimentation and R&D Transportation Vehicles NEW! Farming and Technology NEW!Troubleshooting NEW! Forms of Energy Using Technological Devices NEW!Housing What is a System? How Things WorkWhat is Design? Invention and Innovation What is Engineering Design?Manufacturing Enterprise What is Technology? What are Materials?Each five-activity pack is available for the low price of $15.00 to ITEAmembers ($20.00 for non-members) plus shipping and handling.For more information or to order, call (703) 860-2100 or visit theITEA Web site at www.iteawww.org.
Get as much out of your ITEA membershipas you did from your very first association.Remember the first group youever belonged to? It was a closeknitcircle of friends whoreally looked out for each other.At GEICO, we take the sameapproach toward our policyholders.Through our partnership withITEA, we’re able to provide youwith outstanding car insurancecoverage and a sense of security.Each week more than 10,000drivers switch their car insuranceto GEICO for unparalleled savingsand service. As an ITEA member,you’ll get GEICO’s lowest possiblerate for which you qualify. In statesLet ITEA helpyou save on GEICOcar insurance.1-800-368-2734geico.comwhere available, a special memberdiscount may apply.Call anytime, 24-hours a day, toget a rate quote, file a claim, orsimply ask a question about yourpolicy. You’ll quickly see howGEICO builds strong relationshipswith our policyholders. In fact, weoffer renewal to over 97% of themeach year.So get your free rate quotetoday. When you call, be sure tomention your ITEA affiliation.Find out just how much you maysave with GEICO, the company thattreats you like a friend.Discount amount varies in some states. Discount not available in all states or in all GEICO companies. One group discount applicable per policy.Government Employees Insurance Co. • GEICO General Insurance Co. • GEICO Indemnity Co. • GEICO Casualty Co. These companies are subsidiaries of Berkshire Hathaway Inc.GEICO Auto Insurance is not available in MA or NJ. GEICO: Washington, DC 20076
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