WOTR - SDC Climate Change and Environment Network

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WOTR - SDC Climate Change and Environment Network

OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGESof ImplementingCLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION in ProjectsPresented byMarcella D’SouzaWatershed Organization TrustClimate Change Adaptation and Monitoring of Adaptation Projects:Exchange and Learning EventRüttihubelbad, near Berne8 th January 2013



The Impacts of Watershed DevelopmentRainfall, Green Vegetation and BarrenLand (Jan.'96 and Dec.'99)150012001197.45900600819.5773858300011530Rainfall (mm) Green Veg.(ha.) Barren Land(ha.)January 1996 December 1999

IMPACTS on Water (Darewadi village)Water harvested in a year of 400mm rain fallOn 500 ha approximately 745 million liters

INCOME FROM AGRICULTURE (Darewadi 1996-2009)6050% of Change=427% over 13 Years : for one year =33%ROI : 600% over 13 Years : for one year =46%40Rs. In Million302010-Cash Crops Cereal Oil seed Pulses Vegetable Milk Fodder Total1996 - 1.27 0.32 2.41 2.61 - 4.01 10.612001 15.10 1.93 0.02 0.75 5.25 1.06 8.54 32.652009 32.53 4.13 0.04 0.92 2.63 0.82 14.88 55.93

Impacts on Agriculture Productivity and Local EmploymentConsolidated for 5 villagesConsolidated for 10 villages

ClimateChangeMaizeThe ContextMarketWaalForces61.5m x 37m x 7.6mDepleting Natural ResourcesFractured Vulnerable Communities

Sustained Impacts Affected by Other Factors• The Market Pull:Shift of Agriculture to cash crops (same cash crop over the years;Change in crops [non-local crops introduced]; purchasing food grain preferred);• Weather Variations (Climate Change effects?):(Delayed monsoons, Unseasonal heavy rains, frost,………..)IMPACTS:- Crop loss, insufficient production, loss of agriculture and livestockbiodiversity- Distress Migration

The WOTR Engine for Adaptive Sustainable Development

Comparatives between WSD & CCA Approaches…Components1. The LensWatershed Development1. Addressing water scarcity and LanddegradationClimate Change Adaptation1. Addressing uncertainties of Weatherand Market pulls.2. Goal3. Location4. Nat. ResourcesManagement5. ProductivityEnhancement6. Livelihoods2. Poverty reduction through NRM3. Isolated villages4. Along WS lines - Soil and waterconservation (SWC), afforestation5. To maximize benefits: marketlinked mono-cultivation, Livestockmaximizedfor productivity – LR &milk6. Livelihoods – from farm and nonfarm,individual drive2. Ability to handle and address risks(Bottom-up Vulnerability Assessment)3. Necessarily a cluster of villages4. Along WS lines, SWC structures toconsider droughts & cloudbursts;biodiversity to enhance adaption toclimatic variations5. Optimize productivity: Farmingsystems with Agromet advisories,guided by appropriate LEISA &livestock; the Back Yard Poultry type6. Livelihoods: optimize - CASDAAT,ensure monies flow in village

…… Comparatives between WSD & CCA ApproachesComponents7. Energy8. Disasterpreparedness& Risk ReductionWatershed Development7. Energy – to meet needs, lighting,cooking as isolated (activity mayor may not be considered)8. Weather factors not considered.Assumed involvement in marketsleads to increased incomesClimate Change Adaptation7. Energy – with sustainability in view(cooking, lifting water, otherproductive purposes); conservecarbon sinks; energy for sustainablelivelihoods8. Disaster Preparedness; Precaution;Response & Rehabilitation9. Women’sInvolvement9. Women’s Empowerment forlivelihoods and developmentalneeds9. Women are more vulnerable/ victims.BUT, women have solutions to DRR.10. LocalGovernance10. Village Development Committees(VDC) of isolated villages10. Gram Sabha active Cluster of villagestherefore CLC; ecosystems based riskreduction ie management of commonissues –natural and human made;linked to govt depts at block level

WOTR’s Climate Change Adaptation ProjectLEGENDProject StatesProject DistrictsProject BlocksTotal Villages : 65Districts / Blocks : 5 /7Area ha. : 40, 734Population : 63,282Kachner ClusterAurangabad /Paithan Taluka(AurangabadDistrict)Total Villages : 10Area : 4402 ha.Akole – Sangamner(Ahmednagar District)Total Villages : 41Area : 29,142 ha.Tallakondapally Cluster(Mahboobnagar District)Total Villages : 3Area : 2,290 ha.Narayanganj Cluster(Niwas Tehsil, Mandla District)Total Villages : 8Area : 2,859 ha.Atmakur Cluster(Kurnool District)Total Villages : 3Area : 2,041 ha.

Tools When Designing a Project…..• Participatory Vulnerability Assessment (VAT)• Participatory 3 Dimensional Model (P3DM)

KEY INTERVENTIONS• Integrated Ecosystems with (a) Watershed Management and(b) Biodiversity Conservation• Food Security through Agri-met advisories for SustainableFarming systems (agriculture & livestock)• Water Security through (a) Water Budgeting and (b) Use Efficiency• Alternate & Renewable Energy for (a) progress & (b) to conservecarbon sinks• Sustainable livelihoods – farm, allied and local non-farm• Disaster Risk Reduction• Gender mainstreaming: women’s inclusion & empowerment• Governance At village, cluster levels & linked with block levelrespective line depts.

Bio Diversity ConservationTOOL: The Modified People’s Biodiversity Register

Towards Food Security

Community Based Agro-Advisory Provisioning• Formulate crop and locale specific advisories inresponse to specific weather conditions whichincludes:- crops and cropping pattern- cultural practices- irrigation management- nutrient management- pest and diseases management• that are environmentally friendly, promote soilhealth, reduce costs and increase productivity18

Community Based Agro-AdvisoryAutomated WeatherStations installed in 41villages

Crop Weather Advisory - Paddy (monsoon)AnticipatedweatherNormal weather conditions prevailing /Sufficient rainfall followed by clear skyand high RH (>75%)Scanty rainfall / intermediate cloudysky/ moderate humidityRecommendations(based on anticipated weather)Integrated Nutrient Management:‣ Application of third split dose of Nitrogen@25 Kg/ha.‣ Application of Jeeva Amrut @ 500 litres/ha.Integrated Pest & Disease Management:‣ Hoeing operation to remove weeds.‣ Drain out the excess water‣ Application of Dash Parni Extract @ 150ml/10lit of water.‣ Application of Neem Seed Extract@5%(50ml/lit of water)‣ Application of Amrut Pani@ 100 ml/ 10 lit ofwater‣ Monitor the field for incidence of Disease &Pest‣ Setup light trap and monitor the adult flies‣ Monitor the field for incidence of Disease &PestIntegrated Nutrient Management:‣ Application of irrigation .‣ Application of Jeeva Amrut @ 500litres/ha.Integrated Pest & Disease Management:‣ Hoeing operation to remove weeds.‣ Application of Dash Parni Extract @150ml/10 lit of water.‣ Application of Neem Seed Extract@5%(50ml/lit of water)‣ Application of Amrut Pani@ 100 ml/ 10 litof water‣ Monitor the field for incidence ofDisease & Pest‣ Setup light trap and monitor the adultflies‣ Monitor the field for incidence ofDisease & Pest

From Farm to Plate• Form farmer groups according to crops cultivatedin village for purposes of scale• Provide post harvest technologies includingmarket intelligence• Value Chain Engagement - Link with Governmentand private agencies/ companies/ services andfacilities for value addition and ensuringmaximum returns to farmer

Adaptive Sustainable AgricultureConservation, Management, Use EfficiencyPilot CropDemos/Farmer FieldSchoolsIntegratedPestManagementWaterAvailability CroppingPatternWater BudgetingIntegratedWater-NutrientMgmtWaterConservationTechnologiesWater Sharing

Health Indicators of FOOD SECURITY• Growth Monitoring of children of0-5 years• Assessment of Anemia of all(particularly the vulnerable – women)• Sanitation and Hygiene

Towards Water SecurityTool: Water Budgeting

Water Budgeting and Management• Assess season-wise water availability: surface & groundwater• Assess current & projected water demand: domestic, agriculture, livestock& livelihood purposes• Match existing water availability with demand• Choose crops & cropping patterns with net water availability(with household food security and market (income) needs factored)• Introduce water conserving technologies: drip, sprinkler, etc• Determine & Introduce sustainable surface & ground wateraccessing, management water sharing practices

Towards Livelihoods SecurityTools: LM3 & CASDAAT

Livelihoods: The WOTR ApproachA healthy attractive cluster of villages where thereexists various livelihood optionsHouseholds meet livelihood needs within villagesfrom sustainable farm, allied and non-farm livelihoodoptions (more than one livelihood source)Resource base, Demand, skills, appropriatetechnologyPeople migrate by choice & not because of distress

Alternate & Renewable EnergyImpacts & Issues• Afforestation & Tree Cover- Destroyed to meet cooking fuel needsSolutions & opportunities• Alternate cooking fuel / stoves; forhomes, schools & Day care Centres• Energy for lifting water & progress

Disaster Risk ReductionTool: P3DM• Risks of any kind – weather extremes, market forces,epidemics, existing structures …….• Preparedness; Precautions; Response; Rehabilitation• At Village level as well as at Cluster level• Linkage with the appropriate government linedepartments

Water Security:Water Budgeting &Water Use EfficiencyKEY INNOVATIONSPolicy linked Multi-Institutionalcollaboration withNational andInternationalagenciesTool Kits,Vulnerabilityassessment; (ITenabledPlanning,Assessment andMonitoring)Systems (CASDAAT,P3DM….)Cluster-basedIntegratedEcosystemsManagementCluster basedSustainableLivelihoods &BiodiversityWeather -basedAgro-Advisories(AGRI-MATE)Sustainable Agriculture -IntegratedCrop-Water-Nutrient-PestManagement

Who We AreVision: "Communities, especially the poorwithin, are empowered to live in dignity andsecure their livelihood in sustainable ecosystems"• No. of People directly impacted:• WSD - +821,000• SHGs - +100,000• No. of Partner NGOs - 184• No. of Watershed Villages- 1106• No. of Project Villages 2516• No. of States Operating In - 6• Total Area Covered (ha) - 680,000 ha• No. of People Trained - > 300,000• Support provided to Projects in Somaliland,Kenya, Tanzania and Malawi .

Approach for Understanding & Up-scaling• Knowledge Generation/Action Research• Tool Kits and Technology enabled Monitoring systems• Capacity Building & handholding• Training & Dissemination• Policy Advocacy and Dialogue

Thank You.Visit us: http://wotr.org

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