Making Migration Work - Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het ...

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Making Migration Work - Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het ...

how to make migration work17tion of young workers. As soon as the baby boom generation leaves the labourmarket, some of their jobs will also disappear. The new generation will not beaffected by this creative destruction, since it works in entirely new jobs, few ofwhich existed previously.Technological innovation and global competitiveness will spur many of thelabour market trends of the future. The Netherlands is a good example: newtechnologies and the relocation of industries abroad have caused much of theroutine work, for example in shipbuilding and the automobile industry, to disappear.Administrative and ict jobs have also been relocated (Witteloostuijnand Hartog 2007; ser 2008). One new, complicating factor in such relocationis what is known as ‘task differentiation’: it is no longer entire products that arebought and sold, but rather small product components (Akçomak et al. 2010).Technological advances (the Internet) and a high standard of development elsewhere(South Korea, China, India) make it possible to manufacture more andmore products all over the world. For example, approximately seventy per centof the parts that make up the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner are made in morethan forty different businesses at more than 130 production sites. The EuropeanCentre for the Development of Vocational Training (2010) notes that the economiccrises have kicked task differentiation processes into a higher gear.How these trends will affect the Dutch labour market is open to question. Theoptimistic scenario is that the Netherlands has precisely the right equipment tolink global production processes. In The Global Auction, however, Brown et al.(2011) paint a much gloomier picture. In their view, digital Taylorism – dividingup tasks and outsourcing them on the Internet – and the rising tide of Chineseand Indian graduates with much lower wage expectations also mean that muchof the high-value work in the West will be relocated. So globalisation will notonly affect those in the lower and middle segments of the labour market, butalso workers who have long considered themselves safe: Westerners with agood education. On the other hand, the ease of travel and Internet communicationmay well obviate the need to relocate high-skilled employees for longerperiods (Jennissen 2011b). In other words: it is unclear whether high-skilledworkers will even be required in future.Other segments of the labour market face the same uncertainty. One oft-heardprediction is that there will be very few jobs on the lower end of the labourmar ket in future, one reason for the Netherlands and many other eu MemberStates to close their borders to low-skilled workers from non-eu countries. Butas Galgóczi and Leschke demonstrate in a subsequent chapter, it is the lower endof the labour market that manifests the most cross-border mobility. There isan ongoing demand for low-skilled labour in such sectors as the meat processingindustry, agriculture and horticulture – a demand met largely by labour

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