Making Migration Work - Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het ...

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Making Migration Work - Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het ...

94making migration workation (e.g. crisis) and policies on migrant workers. The following points neverthelessseem to be worth noting. When examining the skills characteristics ofeu10 migrant workers in the eu15, it is clear that the educational attainment ofthe eu10 migrant population tends to be significantly higher than in previousmigration waves (European Integration Consortium 2009). The issues of ‘braindrain’, ‘brain overflow’ and ‘brain waste’ have been discussed from the pointof view of sending countries (for examples, see Kahanec and Zimmermann2010 and Galgóczi, Leschke and Watt 2009a). One conclusion can certainly bedrawn: post-enlargement East-West labour mobility has not contributed tobetter human-capital allocation due to large-scale skills-occupation mismatchesaffecting eu10 migrants in eu15 labour markets.5.5 government and trade union policiesThe type of measures adopted by governments and the social partners in settingand implementing policies related to labour migration vary considerablybetween individual countries. The first important distinction is, of course,between sending and receiving countries. While governments and the socialpartners in receiving countries have had to deal with such issues as the integrationof the new migrants, protection of their working conditions and wages,and how to maintain the working conditions and wages of indigenous workers,governments and the social partners in sending countries with large emigrationflows dealt with a very different set of issues: the most important are linked torising skills deficits or bottlenecks in certain sectors, which resulted in strategiessuch as the retraining of existing workers, recruitment of migrant workersfrom neighbouring countries, and initiatives to convince emigrant workers toreturn home. In this section we focus on policies implemented in receivingcountries based on some of the country case studies examined in two booksedited by the authors (Galgóczi, Leschke and Watt 2009a, 2012). Informationon the policy responses of three of the sending countries (Poland, Latviaand Hungary) can be found in the aforementioned volumes and in Galgóczi,Leschke and Watt (2009b).With regard to the type of measures adopted in receiving countries, the impositionof transitional measures was clearly the most important. Governmentsin Germany and Austria had to negotiate and implement various exceptions tothese measures for certain sectors and occupational groups – mostly high-skillprofessions or, conversely, areas with unattractive pay and conditions that hadtrouble recruiting domestic workers – in order to respond to emerging skilldeficits and ensure a continued supply of seasonal labour. They also had to respond– by way of tighter controls – to an increase in irregular migration (bogusself-employment, posted work, illegal work and the like) which was used to

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