Decision Making in Emergency Responders - Iowa League of Cities

iowaleague.org
  • No tags were found...

Decision Making in Emergency Responders - Iowa League of Cities

Decision Making inEmergencyRespondersShawn Bayouth, City of Ames Fire DepartmentHandouts and presentation are available online atwww.iowaleague.org


Decision Making in EmergencyRespondersShawn Bayouth, Ph.D. Candidate,Iowa State UniversityNir Keren, Ph.D. Professor, IowaState UniversityPartially funded by the National Science Foundation


RCA Sony ToshibaWarrantyCostQuality


Health and SafetyFirefighter deaths


Worcester, MA


According to NFPA records, this is the firstloss of six firefighters in a structure firewhere neither building collapse nor anexplosion was a contributing factor to thefatalities.- As reported by U.S. Fire Administration


Naturalistic Decision Making(NDM)Ill-structured problemsUncertain dynamic environmentsShifting, ill-defined, or competinggoalsAction/feedback loopsTime stressHigh stakesMultiple playersOrganizational goals and norms


Recognition Primed DM (RPD)Implement course of action


Firefighter Study


Problem Statement


Experiment Overview


Variables


Time pressurecauses one to:AccelerateprocessingProcess only asubset ofinformationShift decisionstrategiesSvensen & Maule (1993) found that there have been “comparatively few studiesin the area of judgment and decision making under time pressure”


Aspects of decision making, such the “difficulty of the tradeoffhave received relatively little research attention in the decisionmaking literature” (Beattie & Barlas, 2001)Keokuk, Iowa


ExperienceCan affect information processingNo prior experience can lead to sub-optimal decisions


DM Simulation PlatformsLink to video


Implementing FF scenarioManipulating tradeoff levels throughImplementation of cues in VREThree levels of time pressure


MethodologyWhy use a VRE?Hazard-free environmentMimics ‘real life’ stimuliRepeatabilityFully immersiveAppropriate situational awareness/presenceEcologically validated


Ecological Validity-Evoking Controlled StressFalling pointHeart rate behavior of a naïve participantFalling pointHeart rate behavior of a participant with extensive experience in the C6


StressAutonomic NSParasympatheticSympatheticChallenge-related:Subject perceives theycan cope with thesituationIncreasedcardiovascular outputHigher HRInsignificant changein BPThreat-related :Subject perceives theycannot cope with thesituationDecreasedcardiovascular outputLower HRHigher BP(Kassam et at., 2009)


Data Collection and AnalysisDecision process tracing methodologySearch indices [e.g., SI = (a – d) / (a + d)](Billings and Scherer’s, 1988)Number of itemsCue recognitionTime elapsedDecision strategyChoicePhysiological responsesQuestionnaire(HR & BP)NASA Task Load Index (currently examining)Comparisons across:ExperienceLevel of time pressureLevel of tradeoffs


Experienced Incident Commander #1Maze Car Outdoor IndoorHigh time pressurescenarioModerate-low timepressure scenario0:08:12 0:09:30 0:10:48 0:12:06 0:13:24 0:14:41 0:15:59 0:17:17 0:18:35 0:19:52 0:21:10 0:22:28 0:23:46 0:25:03 0:26:21


Experienced Incident Commander #2Maze Car Outdoor Indoor0:05:20 0:06:29 0:07:38 0:08:47 0:09:56 0:11:05 0:12:14 0:13:24 0:14:33 0:15:42 0:16:51 0:18:00 0:19:09


Pre-Backdraft ScenarioPre-backdraft movie


Results - Pre-Backdraft ScenarioExperienced firefighters reviewed moreinformation (p = 0.2587, M = 6.61)NMeanExperienced 31 7.8095Novice 31 5.2381Experienced firefighters took more time tomake a decision (p = 0.0371, M = 203.35)NMeanExperienced 31 218.13Novice 31 178.29


Results - Pre-Backdraft Scenario46.15% of experienced firefightersultimately chose their first optionreviewed26.09% of novice firefightersultimately chose their first optionreviewed


Results – Pre-Flashover Scenario52% of all participants (N = 62)utilized RPD18% of veterans under high timepressure and 11% of veteransunder low time pressuremisidentified scenario


Pre-Flashover ScenarioPre-flashover movie


20-Year VeteranExperienced Incident Commander


What questions can I answer?Shawn Bayouth, Ph.D. Candidate,Iowa State University – sbayouth@iastate.eduNir Keren, Ph.D. Professor, Iowa StateUniversity - nir@iastate.edu

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines