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Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out For navigation instructions please click here Search Issue | Next PageSEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008LEDsmagazine.comLuminairesColor changing andintelligence P. 33TECHNOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS OF LIGHT EMITTING DIODESOlympicsLEDs light upthe Games P.26ChipsLEDs set new R&Drecords P. 25ConferencesChina focuses onLED lighting P.31Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out For navigation instructions please click here Search Issue | Next Page


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Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSISSUE 23september/october2008Cover StoryLEDs were used to illuminate theWater Cube in Beijing, a key locationfor the Olympic Games (see page 26).AP Photo/Natalie Behring for Cree.2325featuresLED CHIPSBluGlass opens pilot plant todemonstrate LED growth processTim WhitakerLED CHIPSLED chips set new R&D recordsTim Whitaker31 CONFERENCESChina SSL highlights national focuson solid-state lightingRobert Steele, Strategies Unlimited33 LUMINAIRESDesign considerations for intelligent,color-changeable LED luminairesJames Mckenzie & Majd Zoorob, PhotonStar LED Ltd.41OUTDOOR LIGHTINGNew York fi rm & LSG to build prototype LED streetlightsJulie MacShane45 MARKETSIllumination and LCD backlightingare major drivers for growthTim Whitaker52LAST WORDUK incentives for LED lightingAndre Dobraszczyk, Lighthouse Electronicscolumns/departments4 COMMENTARYTime for the LED industry to come clean9172650NEWS + VIEWSSharp introduces newcommercial LED fi xturesLighting Science Groupacquires Lamina LightingCoolLED Ltd. signs licensingagreement with Carl ZeissLEDs in close encounter onIndependence DayFUNDING + PROGRAMSDOE workshops create tools tobuild a strong SSL industryFOCUS ONOlympic GamesPRODUCT FOCUSPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGScommentaryTime for the LED industryto come cleanEDITOR & Tim WhitakerPUBLISHER twhitaker@pennwell.comTel. +44(0)117 946 7262MANAGING EDITOR Julie MacShanejuliem@pennwell.comTel. +1 603 891 9221CONTRIBUTING EDITOR Brian OwenCompared with CFLs, replacement LEDlamps have a number of advantagesand drawbacks. While CFLs have for someyears been marketed as energy-efficient lightsources, LED lamps are only barely starting tobecome a viable alternative, reflecting the currentperformance and cost of LED products.However, one factor may lead to the downfallof CFLs, to the ultimate benefit of LEDs.In a word: mercury. CFLs don’t contain much,but it’s there. Attitudes vary as to the dangersposed. There was the story of a broken CFL ina US home that resulted in a clean-up operationcosting thousands of dollars. In contrast,I was recently sent four free CFLs by my UKelectricity supplier. In a Q&A, the question“Should I be worried about mercury content”was answered with “No. The material involveddoesn’t pose a significant health problem. If abulb breaks ventilate the room for a few minutes.”The truth is somewhere between theseextremes, but there’s no doubt that the words“contains mercury” are not generally positivefor any product. Consumer perception or legislationmay eventually dictate that only zeromercury content is acceptable.So what about LEDs? Well, there’s no mercury,so that’s a good start. Ideally, we wouldbe able to say that LEDs contain no toxic materialsat all and are fully recyclable, but it’s notclear this is the case. In fact, there are numeroustypes of LED containing many differentmaterials, albeit in small quantities. Whetheror not a single LED might cause a problem isa different issue from whether a large pile ofLEDs in a landfill might result in contaminationof groundwater. California recently listedgallium arsenide (GaAs), a semiconductormaterial, as a carcinogen (see www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/9/6).GaAs is used in some_______________________types of LED, primarily red, orange, amberand infrared devices, but it is not found at allin gallium nitride (GaN) LED chips that emitin the green, blue and UV regions and form thebasis of white LEDs. This is a hugely importantdistinction that was beyond the understandingof one blogger who wrote: “Given theincreasing usage of GaAs, the main constituentin LEDs…there may be significant environmentalconcerns as related to their disposal…arguments that LEDs are more environmentallyfriendly than fluorescent lights containingmercury may be totally specious.” Wecan dismiss this as ill-informed rubbish, butwouldn’t it be better if we had some concretedata to throw back? This is where the US DOE’sLife Cycle Analysis for Solid-State Lighting willcome into its own. As described on page 21, theDOE has commissioned a study looking at theenergy and environmental aspects related tothe manufacturing, use and disposal or recyclingof LEDs and SSL products.LED manufacturing involves numeroussteps, often with low yield, that consumesome pretty nasty chemicals as well as lots ofenergy. The cost and environmental issues aredealt with by the LED makers, and reflected inthe prices they charge. But that won’t satisfythe environmental lobby. So far, no-one seemsable (or willing) to figure out how much energyis consumed by LED manufacturing comparedwith other light sources. It would be great tobe able to say that LED manufacturing is moreenvironmentally friendly, while also resultingin products that consume less energy. Let’shope the DOE study yields the right results.Tim Whitaker, EDITORtwhitaker@pennwell.comWHAT DO YOU THINK? Comment on this editorialat http://www.ledsmagazine.com/blogSALES MANAGER Joanna Hook(EUROPE & ASIA) joannah@pennwell.comTel. +44(0)117 946 7262SALES MANAGER Mary Donnelly(USA) maryd@pennwell.comTel. +1 603 891 9398PRODUCTION DIRECTOR Mari RodriguezART DIRECTOR Meg FuschettiILLUSTRATOR Christopher HippMARKETING COMM. Carol FrondutoMANAGERCIRCULATION MANAGER Debbie Bouleydebbieb@pennwell.comGROUP EXHIBITS Katrina FrazerDIRECTOR katrinaf@pennwell.comTECHNOLOGY GROUP Christine A. ShawSENIOR VICE PRESIDENT cshaw@pennwell.com& PUBLISHING DIRECTOR Tel. +1 603 891 9178VP OF AUDIENCE Gloria S. AdamsDEVELOPMENTCORPORATE OFFICERSCHAIRMAN Frank T. LauingerPRESIDENT AND CEO Robert F. BiolchiniCHIEF FINANCIAL Mark C. WilmothOFFICERLEDS MAGAZINE PennWell Technology GroupIS PUBLISHED BY: 98 Spit Brook Rd, Nashua, NH 03062, USAEmail: leds@pennwell.comSUBSCRIPTIONS: LEDs magazine is available by paidsubscription. Price includes 6 print issues peryear plus the LED Suppliers Directory.The electronic (PDF) version is availablefree of charge from our website. Visit __ www.ledsmagazine.com/subscribe.Enquiries: led@omeda.comCopyright © 2008 PennWell Corp. All rights reserved. Contents ofthis publication may not be reproduced in any form without priorwritten consent of Publishers.4 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSLED Lighting Gallery : www.samsungleds.comWe dream of a future full of bright colors. Through LED technology, this dream comes true.Samsung Electro-Mechanics provides a total solution with the world’s bestRF technology (Zigbee) and Power technology while managing the overall processes ofLED Chip, Package, and Module technology.Samsung Electro-Mechanics leads the world of LED technology.Middle Power High Power Side View-5252 Warm &Cool White-5252 R/G/B/A,RGB-3228 Cool White -3228 R/G/B/A,RGB-1W Warm &Cool White,R/G/B-2W Warm &Cool White-3W Warm &Cool White-0.4T/0.5T/0.6Twww.sem.samsung.com U.S.A- Steve Byun (sbbyun@samsung.com, +1-949-797-8054) Europe - Logan Yang (wjoon.yang@samsung.com, +49-6196-66-7240) Asia- Hank Lee (hank.lee@samsung.com, +65-6833-3217)S.C.Lim (schin.lim@samsung.com, +65-6833-3220) China- Tony Yoo (tony.yoo@samsung.com. +86-0755-8608-5550)Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSWebcastsWe are pleased to announce our next webcast:ADVERTISERS index| web exclusivesThermal Design for Enhanced LED PerformanceOctober 2008Visit www.ledsmagazine.com/webcasts for furtherdetails, or to access our archived presentations.ArticlesJane DOE goes shopping: Experiences from the CALiPER programwww.ledsmagazine.com/features/5/9/1LEDs: Coming soon to a street light near youwww.ledsmagazine.com/features/5/9/2Selecting encapsulant epoxy for LED packagerobustness and enhancementwww.ledsmagazine.com/features/5/9/3Company Profile: SemiLEDs Corporationwww.ledsmagazine.com/features/5/9/4Featured CompaniesA number of companies have recently been added to the LEDs Magazinewebsite as Featured Companies. We thank these companies for their support:Philips Lumileds Lighting • Cree Inc. • Shin-EtsuChemical • Osram Opto Semiconductors • TerraLUX,Inc • SemiLEDs • High Power Lighting Corp.Visit www.ledsmagazine.com/buyers/featured fordetails of LEDs Magazine’s online partners.Allegro Microsystems 40Alpha-One Electronics Ltd. 50American Bright 14OptoelectronicsArticulated 50Technologies LLCAsymtek 21Avago Technologies 50Carclo Technical Plastics 50Citizen Electronics Co. Ltd. 2Color StarsC3Cree 35Dowa Electronics 20Materials Co. Ltd.Edison Opto Corporation 13Ellsworth Adhesives 39Everlight Electronics Co. Ltd. 44Favour Tec C2, 50Company Ltd.Fawoo Technology 8Fusion Optix 50Future Lighting Solutions 51Heatron 36Imagineering, Inc. 1Instrument Systems GmbH 42Intertech Pira 47Kingbright Electronic 43Europe GmbHKingsun Optoelectronics C3, 51Laird Technologies 30Lambda Research Corp. 11LED Linear GmbH 12Lynk Labs 51Macroblock, Inc. 38Magtech Industries 39CorporationMean Well USA Inc. 32Messe Munchen GmbH 47, 49Nichia 7Nusil Technology 19Optical Research 16AssociatesOptiled Holdings Co Ltd. 22Optronic Laboratories, Inc. 10Palomar Technologies 51Rohm Electronics C4Samsung Electronics 5Seoul Semiconductor 29Co., Ltd.Shin-Etsu Silicones 15of America Inc.Sichuan Jiuzhou Electric 24Group Co., Ltd.StellarNet Inc. 51Supertex, Inc. 42We Are BV 46FEATURED eventLED Japan/Strategies in LightOctober 16-17, 2008Tokyo, JapanStrategies in Light, the leading event forthe global LED industry, attracted over1,000 attendeesthis year and isthe largest andlongest-running event in the industry.LED Japan/Strategies in Light, whichwill be held annually in addition to theoriginal US event, will bring new focusto the LED market in Japan, where thereis a large number of LED manufacturers,LED users, and suppliers of equipmentand materials to the LED industry.Go to www.strategiesinlight.com/ledjapan2008 for more information.________Lightsavers Symposium:Low Carbon Lighting OpportunitiesOctober 06-07, 2008Toronto, Ontario, CanadaPhotometry and Spectroradiometry CourseOctober 06-08, 2008National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UKLow Carbon Lighting DesignOctober 22, 2008Cavendish Conference Center, London, UKRoadmapping the LED FutureOctober 30, 2008Hotel van de Valk, Eindhoven, NetherlandsLED lighting today: Tales or facts?November 07, 2008Naples, Italy10th Annual OLEDs World SummitNovember 10-12, 2008Hilton Torrey Pines, CA, United Stateselectronica 2008November 11-14, 2008Munich, GermanyInterlight Moscow 2008December 09-12, 2008Moscow, RussiaSPIE Photonics WestJanuary 24-29, 2009San Jose, CA, USAStrategies in Light 2009February 18-20, 2009Santa Clara, CA, United StatesLED China 2009February 28-March 03, 2009Guangzhou, ChinaSee www.ledsmagazine.com/events for eventreports, latest updates and related news.6 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


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Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSLIGHTINGSharp introduces newcommercial LED fi xturesnewsviewsBUSINESSJapanese manufacturer Sharp has introduced a range of newLED lighting fixtures for factories, offices and commercialspaces, which are intended to deliver high environmental performancecombined with high energy efficiency and long productlife. LED lighting manufactured by Sharp will be adopted asthe main lighting in all plants to be located within the company’s“Manufacturing Complex for the 21st Century.” This facilityis now under construction in Sakai City, Osaka Prefecture, andis scheduled to begin operations by March 2010. The companysays this will represent the world’s largest collection of LED lightinginstalled in buildings on this scale. Sharp says that it will be“working in the future to further expand its LED lighting businessinto factories, offices and commercial spaces around the globe.”Sharp has introduced 6 new downlights and 5 new oblong/square energy-efficient LED fixtures for factories, offices, andcommercial spaces to the Japanese market. The four oblong overheadswill have a brightness equivalent to the fluorescent lampfixtures currently in factories, offices and commercial spaces.The square overhead is for use in conference rooms and similarspaces. Of the six circular downlights, three have a brightnessequivalent to standard 150W incandescent lamps, says Sharp.All units have a design product life of 40,000 hours. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/7Lighting Science Group acquires Lamina LightingLED lighting manufacturer Lighting Science Group Corp. (LSG) hasacquired all of the assets of Lamina Lighting Inc., a manufacturer of highpowerLED light engines and modules. Lamina Lighting was founded (asLamina Ceramics) in 2001 as a spin-off from the Sarnoff Corp. Its lightengines and multi-chip LED arrays are based on low-temperature co-firedceramic on metal (LTCC-M) thermal management technology.Headquartered in Westampton, NJ, Lamina is funded by five premiertechnology venture funds. The company has received at least $44.5 millionin its financing rounds, including $7 million in April 2007 and $9 millionin June 2005. Investors are not receiving a great return; LSG has paidLamina $4.5 million in cash, and may also make “earn-out” payments toLamina of up to $10.5 million in the second quarter of 2010, based on 2009sales of Lamina products and components. Lamina’s revenues for the firstsix months of 2008 were ~$2.1 million. At the same time, LSG also secureda $20 million demand line of credit with Bank of Montreal, of which $4.5million will fund the acquisition of Lamina. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/7/30FINANCIALCree reports record revenueLED maker Cree announced record revenue of $135.9M forthe quarter ended June 29, 2008, representing a 9% increasesequentially and a 22% increase compared with the sameperiod last year. For its fiscal year ended June 29, 2008,Cree reported revenue of $493.3 million, another recordfigure that was 25% up on last year. However, the company’sGAAP net income fell to $33.4M, or $0.38 per dilutedshare, from $57.M, or $0.72 per diluted share last year.“Q4 represented a strong finishto a very successful year,”said CEO and chairmanChuck Swoboda.“Revenueexceededour previouslyannouncedguidance dueto strong LEDsales, which grew 11%sequentially and 27% from ayear ago.” In fact, Cree’s LED revenue was $116.6M for theJune quarter, and totaled $414M for the fiscal year.Swoboda said that Cree has executed its strategy totransform into “a broad-based LED company with chips,components and systems that are leading the LED lightingrevolution. While we recognize that there is cautionin the market about the global economic environment, weremain optimistic about the year ahead as the momentumcontinues to build for our new products and energyefficientlighting.”Among the drivers behind Cree’s successful quarter weredouble-digit growth in Cree’s XLamps, and the growth inLED video-screen production in China (for billboards, stadiumscreens etc). Swoboda said that the overall LED componentrevenue (i.e. packaged LEDs) for the quarter was~30% higher than LED chip revenue.Also during the quarter, Cree unveiled two new “lighting-class”LEDs — the XLamp XP-E and XP-C devices —with a very small footprint of 3.45 mm square by 2 mmhigh. Cree’s XLamp XR-E LEDs have a footprint of 7 × 9mm, with a height of 4.4 mm. The new Cree LEDs are likelyto be viewed as direct competition for the Luxeon Rebelfrom Philips Lumileds, which has a footprint of 3 × 4.5 mmwith a height of 2.1 mm. The highest-performance availablebins for the new XP-E LEDs are minimum 100 lumens at350 mA in cool white (5000 K–10,000 K) and minimum 80.6lumens at 350 mA in warm white (2600 K–3700 K). ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/13LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 9Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSnews+viewsBUSINESSCoolLED Ltd signs licensingagreement with Carl ZeissCarl Zeiss MicroImaging GmbH, a leadingmicroscope manufacturer, has signed a licensingagreement with UK company CoolLED Ltdfor the sale of the Coolled’s precisExcite LEDfluorescence excitation system in the US. Thelicense will provide microscope users in the USwith access to the LED excitation technologydeveloped by CoolLED. The precisExcite systemis flexible and modular, and uses interchangeableLED array modules (LAMs) to provideexcitation across the visible spectrum. precisExciteis integrated with many of the imagingsoftware packages from microscope and imagingcompanies.The LEDs in precisExcite are actively cooledto ensure high intensity, good stability andlong lifetime. The system comprises a mainunit that powers and cools the LAMs; a manualcontrol pod; light-guides that connect theunit to a combining collimator, which then fitsdirectly onto the microscope; and an adaptorwhich fits all current microscopes. Excitationof fluorophores can be achieved by selectingLAMs with the appropriate wavelength fromCoolLED’s range. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/5DEVICESLynk Labs enters LED devicemarket with Tesla AC LEDsLynk Labs Inc, a developer of AC LED technology,is expanding its product offering and enteringthe LED device market with AC LED devicesunder the brand name Tesla AC LEDs. LynkLabs has partnered with IntematixCorp, which is best knownas a supplier of phosphormaterialsfor LEDs,but recentlyintroduced arange of “chipon-ceramic”packagesand arrays. TheTesla AC LED productline will combineLynk Labs’ newly-patented“hybrid AC LED” technology at the circuitand die level with Intematix’ patentedceramic array packaging and phosphor technology,providing a totally integrated AC LEDsolution in a single SMT LED. The first TeslaLED is a 6.5 x 6.5 mm package designed to runat 1.2 W. Engineering samples are now availablewith volume production scheduled for lateSeptember. Tesla will be available in CCTs of2700, 3000, 3500, 4000, 5000, 6300K with astandard CRI of 75, and High CRI in all CCTsfor special orders. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/7/32PATENTSNichia and Seoul continueto lock hornsThe patent battle between Japanese LEDmaker Nichia and its Korean rival SeoulSemiconductor continues. On August 18, 2008,Nichia filed a patent infringement suit in theUS District Court for the Eastern District ofMichigan. The complaint against Seoul andits US subsidiary, as well as its US distributorAvnet, seeks an injunction from futureinfringements and an award of damages.The lawsuit once again targets Seoul’sAcriche AC LED product. Nichia allegesthat LEDs incorporated in Seoul’s productssuch as Acriche infringe uponNichia’s U.S. Patent no. 6,870,191.Nichia has also filed infringementlawsuits in the US, Japan, Korea, theUK and Germany against Seoul Semiconductorand/or its subsidiaries.Seoul Semiconductor responding quickly,saying it is “confident that the latest lawsuitby Nichia lacks merit” and that it plans to“vigorously defend” the claims. After reviewingNichia’s ‘191 patent, Seoul says that itbelieves that Nichia’s lawsuit lacks merit.Seoul says the patent describes an LED sub-_______10 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSstrate that is patterned with a protrudedand recessed trapezoid, which is differentfrom Seoul’s products. Seoul also said thatNichia’s latest lawsuit was a “misuse of thelegal process.”Currently, Seoul and Nichia are engagedin twelve lawsuits throughout the world.Recently, Seoul was successful in invalidatingin Korea one of Nichia’s core LED patentsfor lack of novelty (www.ledsmagazine.com/________news/5/7/31). In this latest Michigan lawsuit,Seoul will also seek to invalidate Nichia’s ‘191patent based on prior art.As this issue was going to press, we learnedthat Nichia has been awarded the princely sumof KRW 10 million (approx. $8860) by a courtin Korea for defamation by Seoul Semiconductor.The case arose after a jury verdict in the USthat found that Seoul had willfully infringed fourdesign patents owned by Nichia. Even so, Seouldisseminated the statements that “Seoul Semiconductorhas substantially prevailed in the litigation”and that the products at issue are “actuallynon-infringing”. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/PatentsDEVICESSeoul Semiconductor’s new TopView LEDs have high CRI, effi cacySeoul Semiconductor has introduced newtop-view LEDs with high CRI, high efficacyand high reliability. The warm whitepart (CAWT722-S) has a CRI of 96 andachieves 68 lm/W, while the pure white(CWT722-S) has a CRI of 92 and produces70 lm/W. However, it is important to notethat these figures are for a drive currentof 60 mA and a power consumption of0.192 W. The light output of the pure whiteand warm white devices is only 13.9 and13.1. lm, respectively. The company saysthat with high CRI, superior lumens perwatt and long life, its new top-view LEDs“are poised to dominate the lighting marketsegments where high-performance lightsources are a must.” ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/7/23OLEDSVitex and Novaled cooperateon OLED encapsulationVitex Systems, producer of thin film encapsulationtechnology, and Novaled, known forits organic LED technology, plan to combinethe advantages of the Vitex Barix thin-filmnews+viewstechnology with Novaled’s doping technologyand materials, targeting very thin and highefficiencylong-lifetime OLED products. Themajority of OLEDs are currently processedon glass substrates and encapsulated withglass for protection against air and moisture.The glass represents more than 90% ofthe device thickness. Vitex has developed aninnovative thin-film encapsulation targetingultra-thin OLED devices. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/28PROJECTSLEDs crown the Comcast CenterThe new Comcast Center in Philadelphia,PA, features a color-changing LED lightingsystem powered by Power Vector andilluminated by Winona Lighting. The tallestbuilding in the Philadelphia skyline at975 feet (297m), the center is designed toachieve LEED (Leadership in Energy andEnvironmental Design) certification fromthe US Green Building Council. The foyerof the Comcast Center contains the world’slargest 4 mm LED wall. The top tier of thebuilding has a lighting installation based onWinona’s V-Line linear LED fixtures, whichare driven and controlled by Power Vector’sIRIS LED driver dimmers (shown in photo).The color-changing linear fixtures are in adown-lighting configuration and will typicallydisplay a red color to reflect Comcast’slogo, but the color can be changed for holidaycelebrations or other events. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/7/33Optical softwarefor lighting designand engineeringImages courtesy of Color Kinetics Inc.Illuminate your designs,bring on TracePro!Model. Design.Analyze.Lumens exiting, absorbed andincident | Optical efficiency, luminanceand radiance | Candela distributions |IESNA and Eulumdat file formats |White light LED phosphorescence |Reflector design and optimizationLAMBDA SOFTWARELEDs | Lamps | Reflectors |Lightpipes | Luminaires |Architectural lighting |Automotive and aviation lighting |Displays and backlighting |Contact us todayto demo TracePro!1.978.486.0766sales@lambdares.comLambda Researchwww.lambdares.comLittleton, MA 01460, USALEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 11Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSnews+viewsARTLEDs in close encounteron Independence DayResidents of Gdansk, Poland were startled tosee a UFO hovering in the skies over their cityon July 4th. Flying up the coast, and then circlingthe town and dock areas, its dramaticlighting display of geometric color patternsdrew immediate attention. It turned out notto be little green men from Mars, but an ambitiousand inspired collaboration by New Yorkartist Peter Coffin with London-based CinimodStudios, and their design director DominicHarris. The complexity and logistics involvedin realizing the UFO vision are almost worthyof space flight; the mechanical, electrical andstructural needs of bringing this flight togetherincluded a 6kW generator, mountain-rescuepilots and an Mi2 helicopter. Suspended fiftymetres below the helicopter was the sevenmeter-diameteraluminum structure of theUFO, incorporating three thousand RGB LEDnodes from sponsor Philips/Color Kinetics. Theinaugural flight of this piece of art coincidedwith the Gdansk Festival of Stars, and further“encounters” are planned in other parts of theworld in the coming months. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/7/24OLEDSUniversal Display wins $1.9maward for OLED ceiling lightingOLED developer Universal Display Corp. haswon a $1.9 million, two-year contract from theUS Department of Energy (DOE) to develop aceiling-based white OLED lighting system,working with Armstrong World Industriesas a key subcontractor. The companies willdevelop and deliver an integrated ceiling illuminationsystem that is targeted to exceedthe DOE’s 2010 performance goals. The whiteOLED lighting panels will be designed and fabricatedby Universal Display using its high-efficiencyphosphorescent (PH) OLED technology,and will then be integrated by Armstrong intoits TechZone open-architecture ceiling system.In addition, the team will deliver a white OLEDlighting panel fabricated on a thin metallicfoil substrate to demonstrate the commercialproduct potential of white OLEDs with a flexibleform factor. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/7/26PROJECTSAgua Caliente hotel goesgreen with LED lightingLED cove lighting from Albeo Technologiesis being used on 14 floors of the $300 millionAgua Caliente Casino Resort Spa in RanchoMirage, CA. Although cold cathode or neonwas originally specified, Justin Knippel ofBerg Electric, the electrical contractor on thejob, knew that Albeo produced an LED covelighting fixture that could meet the project’saesthetic requirements, and also save onenergy and maintenance costs. “The designerhad wanted a very warm feel to the hall andelevator areas and had specified » page 15 n n n n ________________12 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


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Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSnews+viewsBUSINESS AND PATENTSPhilips quarterly resultsPhilips said that its strong results in the 2Q08were largely due to growth in its LightingDivision. From overall sales of EUR 6.46 B duringthe quarter, Lighting accounted for EUR 1.739 B,compared with EUR1.464 B in the same quarterlast year. The main driver for the increase wasgood performance by Genlyte. Philips said thatLumileds accounted for roughly 4% of Lightingsales, which equates to ~EUR 70 M ($110 M).Beta fi les 100th LED patentBeta-Kramer, a Ruud Lighting company,says it has filed its 100th patent applicationrelating to LED luminaires. The latestone relates to an Off-Axis Total InternalReflection (TIR) NanoOptic; this technologywill enable the KramerLED recessed seriesto deliver recessed downlight efficiency andoptical control while maintaining specificationgrade 45-degree visual cutoff.New US patents for LuminusPower LED manufacturer Luminus Devices hasreceived its 21st US patent for its PhlatLight technology.The company also has 120 additional patentspending in the US and foreign countries. Thecompany’s patent portfolio covers a wide rangeof patented technology including large-area LEDdevices, high-power wavelength-converting LEDdevices, and LED packaging technology.ON Semiconductoracquires CatalystON Semiconductor Corp. of Phoenix, AZ, andCatalyst Semiconductor, Inc. of Santa Clara,CA, have signed a definitive merger agreement.Both companies supply driver ICs for LEDlighting. Catalyst shareholders will receive0.706 shares of ON Semiconductor commonstock for each share of Catalyst common stockthey own. This represents an equity value of~$115 M and an enterprise value of ~$85 M.Sylvania LS acquires AmtechSylvania Lighting Services (SLS), a subsidiaryof Osram Sylvania, has signed an agreement tobuy the operating assets of Amtech LightingServices from ABM Industries Inc. The transactionis expected to close prior to Oct. 31, 2008,subject to customary closing conditions.Proceeds from the sale of the lighting business,and amounts anticipated to be realizedover time from retained assets, are expectedto yield Amtech ~$70-$75 M, the companyreported.SLS has worked with Amtech in the paston LED projects involving signage, docklights, and freezer case lighting. Amtech providesservices, such as the survey, design, andinstallation of retrofits, to more than 35,000US locations.The acquisition will allow SLS to expandinto new local and regional markets andstrengthen its presence in the banking, officeand industrial markets. ◀____________14 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSnews+viewsan almost amber color for the lights,” said Knippel. “We worked withAlbeo to select the right color temperature for their LED cove lighting,and we had no trouble getting it approved.” ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/9CHIP MAKINGLuxtaltek orders Obducat systemfor photonic crystal LEDsObducat, the Sweden-based supplier of nanoimprint lithography (NIL)and electron beam lithography systems, has received an order fromLuxtaltek Corp., a Tawian-based LED maker. The order is worth 22.5MSEK ($3.55 million) and concerns one Sindre 400 system and one Sindre60 system, to be used for mass production of photonic crystal LEDs. Anagreement has also been signed concerning the supply of consumablesused in the NIL systems and the potential value of this agreement is upto 80 MSEK during the next 3-5 years, in addition to the above mentionedorder value. One Sindre 60 system will be delivered during September2008, followed by the Sindre 400 system by end of 1Q09. The fully automatedSindre 400 will have production capacity of 30 wafers per hourfor any wafer size between two and four inches. ◀MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/19PROJECTSLED structure made of wine bottlesprovides a taste of SpainUntil September 14, the Expo Zaragoza 2008, Saragossa, Spain, will showcasethe regional Castilla y Leon Pavillion, with a large room-size LEDdisplay by Spanish lighting company Indal. This pavilion is among hundredsof country and province displays at the show on the themes ofwater and sustainable development. Indal’s Optical Systems Departmentwas in charge of most aspects of lighting for this 375 sq.m. pavilion. Thestructure consists of three wooden walls in the shape of a wine rack holding30,370 bottles, with an RGB LED placed inside each bottle. To connectthe LEDs together, Indal created a cable mesh to be attached to thewine rack together with electronic control systems specially designedfor the occasion (each bottle has a connector).MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/4_______________LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 15Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSILLUMINATION DESIGN SOFTWAREOptimize using the power ofLightTools and SolidWorksLink optical and mechanical design software to accelerate your illumination design process.The LightTools SolidWorks ®Link Module allows you todynamically link SolidWorksmechanical models to LightTools,where you can assign opticalproperties, optimize, and directlyupdate your SolidWorks designs.Optical precision and rapiddesign evaluationsDeliver innovative illuminationsystems withLightTools’ full opticalaccuracy and fast, powerfulanalysis features. Opticalproperties are preservedduring bidirectionalcommunications betweenLightTools and SolidWorksto reduce time and effortduring iterative design.Automatic design refinementLightTools’ integrated optimizationcapability improves systemperformance automatically withalgorithms specially tailored tosolve illumination problems.When you link your SolidWorksmodel to LightTools, you canoptimize parts, assemblies, andoptical components to meet oreven exceed your design goals.Seamless data managementFull parametric interoperabilitybetween LightTools andSolidWorks ensures that allparameter changes in LightToolsare immediately updated inSolidWorks. This integratedenvironment provides your teamwith a collaborative, streamlineddesign process.After 3 iterations, LightTools optimization improved the on-axis intensity by more than 100x.www.opticalres.comCorporate Headquarters: 3280 East Foothill Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107-3103 (626) 795-9101Fax (626) 795-0184 E-mail: info@opticalres.com Web: www.opticalres.comOffices: Tucson, AZ | Westborough, MA©2008 Optical Research Associates. LightTools is a registered trademark of Optical Research Associates. SolidWorks is a registered trademark of SolidWorks Corporation.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSfundingprogramsDOE workshops create tools tobuild a strong SSL industryThe latest DOE workshop in Portland, OR, continued the invaluable job ofcommunicating DOE’s SSL program goals to the industry, reports BRIAN OWEN.DOE and NGLIA advocatequality in SSLA new SSL Quality Advocates initiative,developed by the US DOE and the NextGeneration Lighting Industry Alliance(NGLIA), was introduced at the Portlandworkshop in July (see main article). The aimis to ensure that LED lighting, as it reachesthe marketplace, is represented accurately,preventing a recurrence of the CFL marketintroduction mistakes.“It is extremely important that earlyadopters of this technology have a goodexperience,” said Jim Brodrick, who headsthe DOE SSL program. While Energy StarBRIAN OWEN is a Contributing Editor of LEDsMagazine and Program Advisor to greenTbiz,which facilitates the LED City Toronto initiative.He is actively involved in the development andoperation of energy conservation programs forgovernment, municipalities and utilities. Email:Brian@greenTbiz.org.You need the right tools to do the job right. Inthe case of the Solid State Lighting (SSL) programrun by the US Department of Energy(DOE), the workshop series has been responsiblefor the education of the industry, providingthe tools that are necessary to delivera strong SSL program, under the direction ofJim Brodrick, Master Craftsman. This review,which is timely because it leads up to thelaunch of Energy Star for SSL on September30, 2008, will recognize the DOE for its effortsin providing an extremely valuable workshopseries to the industry, including both developersand manufacturers, as well as potentialbuyers and specifiers of SSL.I have been fortunate to attend the threemost recent DOE SSL workshops, which havebeen personally interesting, productive andrewarding. The events were the “Voices forSSL Efficiency” workshops (July 2007 in Boston,MA, and July 2008 in Portland, OR), andthe “Fifth Annual DOE SSL R&D Workshop” inJanuary 2008 in Atlanta, GA. The two events in2008 each had more than 300 attendees.In Boston, one of the most interesting outcomeswas the general consensus that LEDluminaire marketing and packaging shouldhave some form of identification of the technology,such as “LED Inside”, borrowing fromthe highly identifiable and visible “Intel Inside”marking on computer products. In Atlanta, Ihad the opportunity to interview presenterSamantha LaFleur, lighting designer withAtelier Ten Environmental Designers. AskingSamantha what was the best attribute oropportunity with LED, she responded that iswas the addition to the lighting designers’ toolbox.To the contrary, asking her what may bethe greatest negative attribute, she respondedthat it was the risk in liability and reputationor simply, “What if it doesn’t perform…or evenwork at all?”Portland workshopAt the most recent workshop, in Portland, OR,on July 9-11, more than 270 attendees weregiven an excellent overview of DOE programsto date, a comprehensive review of the statusof Energy Star and an introduction to some ofthe many new programs either currently beingreleased or in development. The only glitch inPortland was the sounding of the fire alarmsystem, causing an evacuation and leavingattendees to wonder whether gremlins fromthe Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)were playing havoc at the DOE’s event.This workshop, as in the previous two,explored how federal, state, and private-sectororganizations can work together to guidemarket introduction of high-performanceSSL products. The workshop brought togethera diverse gathering of participants, includingenergy efficiency organizations, utilities,government, and industry, to share insights,Efficacy and lumen output are reported according to IESNA LM-79-2008Draft Lighting Facts label. Courtesy ofDOE / D&R International.will help consumers distinguish betweenLED products, the DOE still feels that moreunderstandable information is needed.Therefore, it is launching a voluntary productlabelling program that is akin to theFood & Drug Administration (FDA) labelfound on food packaging. A draft versionof the Lighting Facts label, which is subjectto revision, is shown above.Brodrick explained that participation in SSLQuality Advocates will require stakeholders tosign a voluntary SSL Quality Pledge. They willthen need to affix a label either on the productor its package, or on product literature, providingessential performance information in fivecategories — lumen output, luminaire efficacy,power input, correlated color temperature, andcolor rendering index.LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 17Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


fundingPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageprogramsABE FMaGSideas, and updates on the rapidly evolving SSLmarket.DOE SSL portfolio manager Jim Brodrickkicked off the workshop with an overview ofDOE market introduction activities. Brodrickprovided a brief overview of DOE pathways tomarket, including CALiPER testing, Gatewaydemonstrations, Energy Star and the TechnicalInformation Network.Steven DenBaars from the University of California,Santa Barbara, followed with a tutorialon the physics behind how LEDs work, and howthey differ from conventional light sources.Describing the difference between lamp efficiencyand system efficiency, DenBaars notedthat commercial LED fixtures are unable toachieve laboratory-device efficiency levels dueto efficiency roll-off or “droop,” fixture designissues, heat-sink realities, and losses due toscaling up for mass production.Kelly Gordon of Pacific Northwest NationalLaboratory (PNNL) followed with a tutorial onLED applications, explaining that LED technologyadvances so rapidly that next generationLED products are introduced about everysix months. “One year in SSL Land is like sevendog years,” she summarized. With respect to thelinear LED tube solution, Gordon stated that thehigh-performance linear fluorescent is hard tobeat and that you have to know where to useLED products, such as in a new installation. Shereminded the attendees to ask, “What’s comingnext?” and to “Think outside the bulb!”Mike Grather of the Luminaire Testing Laboratory(LTL), focused on LED measurementand how it differs from traditional methodsfor measuring lighting performance. Gratherexplained the importance of photometric testingfor LED products using absolute photometry,rather than relative photometry, becauseit allows more accurate measurement of thecomplete LED device performance versus barelamp performance.On Day 2 of the Portland workshop, AlanRuud of Beta LED gave an excellent keynoteaddress separating LED fact from fiction, andoffering guidance on how to specify and evaluateLED products. Ruud advised the audienceon evaluating SSL products, recommendingthey look for photometric performance data(using the new LM-79 standard, energy consumptionor efficacy data), aesthetics, and “awarranty you can trust”. Ruud declared LEDsare “ready,” but warned that it is “incumbenton everyone to not settle for a luminaire thatdoes not perform to your standards.”Daryl DeJean of Emerging Technologies Associatesoffered insights on customers’ perspectivesand needs, including accurate productdata sheets and technical information, such asindependent test results or Energy Star qualificationwhere applicable. Also required are materialsafety data sheets, testimonials and otherassessment results, warranties, and a local“Specifi ers should consider an SSL system'sstrengths and weaknesses in each application,as you would do for any other light source orluminaire.” —RANDY BURKETTinstallation to tour where possible. He concludedby urging attendees to “keep the explanationscustomer-focused, using their lingo.”DeJean coined a new acronym in his presentation,where LED stood for Listen, Educate andDemonstrate. This definitely illustrates the correctmethodology and steps in working with thepotential buyer, a lesson that should be learnedby all industry personnel from the manufacturingand marketing side of the equation.Energy StarWith respect to the implementation of EnergyStar for SSL, Richard Karney from the US DOEshared DOE’s concerns about the competingEnergy Star criteria for residential luminairesissued by the EPA, stating that significantconflict and overlap exists between thetwo criteria. Karney stated, “There can only beone Energy Star criteria for SSL, and the DOEcriteria stand as the valid guidance for SSL.”Karney noted that DOE is working to resolvethe issue as quickly as possible. Karney thenreviewed the current status and timeline forthe first Energy Star SSL products to arrive onthe market starting September 30, 2008.Derek Greenauer of D&R Internationalthen explained how to become an EnergyStar partner. A manufacturer’s guide andonline product qualification process willbe available this summer. He also discussedtesting requirements, quality assurance,and other program elements designed toprovide end-users with a high level of confidencein labelled products. Jeff McCulloughof PNNL concluded the Energy Star sessionwith details on DOE’s plans to keeppace with rapid technology advances, referringto how DOE’s transitional, two-phasedapproach allows early participation of alimited range of Category A products. CategoryB sets more rigorous performance targets,and future product advances are considered.McCullough shared DOE plans toadd new product applications to Category A(see www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/22),as well the proposed ratcheting of efficacytargets in a timely manner with respect totechnology advancements. Unlike the EPA,the DOE will continue to engage industry ina public consultation process for feedbackregarding changes to the Energy Star forSSL program.More program notesMike Grather of LTL shared more on LED measurement,and reviewed new test procedures formeasuring LEDs, including ANSI C78.377-2008,Specifications for the Chromaticity of Solid-StateLighting Products; IES LM-79-2008, Electricaland Photometric Measurements of Solid-StateLighting Products; and IES LM-80, Method forMeasuring Lumen Maintenance for SSL LightSources. Mia Paget of PNNL presented the latestresults and analysis from round 5 of the CALiPERprogram, which included testing of recesseddownlights, replacement lamps, task lights, andseveral outdoor applications. More than 100 productshave been tested to date. Paget noted thatwhile “some products do perform well, most productson the market today don’t.” She counselledthe audience to request and understand testingwhen evaluating products.Randy Burkett of Randy Burkett LightingDesign reviewed perspectives from the LightingDesigner Roundtable hosted by DOE, theInternational Association of Lighting Designers(IALD), and Illuminating Engineering Society(IES) in March 2008. He and other designersat the Roundtable see a strong future forSSL as a design tool, but Burkett cautions“specifiers should consider an SSL system’sstrengths and weaknesses in each application,as you would for any other light source orluminaire.” Burkett also discussed the DOE/IES Design Guide for SSL, unveiled in draftform at the Roundtable for review » page 2018 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSGlow at sea.Rescue is near.Saved by the light.NuSil Technology.Bold and bright. New LED technology. Shining in places wherelight never went before. That’s the imagination and innovationthat NuSil Technology is bringing to designers and engineersin a rapidly changing competitive environment. Our advancedchemical engineering helps create the most efficient andstress-free packaging. So you can provide the most powerfuland reliable LED light transmission possible.Whatever your scientific needs, look to NuSil for innovativesolutions. From LEDs to fiber optics, large batches to small,our Lightspan brand of products delivers precise, customformulations and the most complete line of high-refractiveindex-matching adhesives, encapsulants and thermosetsavailable. All backed by more than 25 years of engineeringexpertise. Follow the light to NuSil.What? When? Where? If it’s NuSil, it’s no problem.©2007 NuSil Technology LLC. All rights reserved. LED0207-PH2What’s your challenge?www.nusil.comEurope +33 (0)4 92 96 93 31USA +1-805-684-8780Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


fundingPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageprogramsABE FMaGSDOE workshops from page 18 and comment.The Guide provides technical information onLED performance and design guidance forspecific applications according to space andbuilding type. The final Guide is expected tobe issued by IES in late 2008.Ruth Taylor of PNNL highlighted competitionssuch as the L Prize and Lightingfor Tomorrow (www.ledsmagazine.com/________news/5/1/23). Taylor also introduced a newcommercial luminaires design competitioncalled Next Generation Luminaires, sponsoredby the DOE, IALD, and IES (www. ____ledsmagazine.com/news/5/6/35). The goalof both this competition and Lighting forTomorrow is to spotlight product manufacturerswho are “getting it right” and to recognizeand promote high quality, energy-efficientluminaires.As mentioned in a previous article (LEDsMagazine, Jul/Aug 2008, p. 14), the L Prizecompetition requirements include technicalspecifications to ensure compliance withthe general requirements outlined in the2007 US energy legislation, with additionaldetails specified for quality, performance andmass manufacturing. As this initiative is USfunded,there is a domestic economic mandate,as manufacturers are required to be USbasedcompanies. Interestingly, the LED dieor chip must be manufactured in the UnitedStates as well. This was confirmed in a Q&Asession by Jim Brodrick.A panel presentation focused on what utilityand efficiency program managers can do nowto prepare for high-performance SSL products.Charlie Grist of the Northwest Power and ConservationCouncil next discussed balancingrisks and rewards, and shared an electric utilitysystem perspective on the economic issuesof implementing SSL technologies.Grist evaluated costs and benefits of severalSSL technologies, comparing SSL to traditionalsources on the basis of performance,cost-effectiveness and “the unknowns.” Hesummarized that “mileage may vary” andthat costs and benefits must be carefully calculated;one must carefully consider alternatives;and that it is essential that the audience“do their homework.” Panel members sharedtheir strategies regarding SSL initiatives. Alsodiscussed was how utilities can benefit fromand get involved with DOE’s Gateway demonstrationprogram.ConclusionsJim Brodrick concluded the proceedings of theworkshop by asking the participants to “jointhe wave of opportunities to partner and participatewith DOE, and shape the future of lighting.”He reminded everyone to keep informedwith ongoing updates on DOE SSL activitiesand events by registering for SSL Updates atwww.netl.doe.gov/ssl.Great stars shine bright into the night skyand Energy Star for SSL is no exception. Evenwith bumps in the road with respect to therecent dispute regarding the EPA’s release ofconflicting Energy Star criteria, the industrywill overcome these growing pains and not letEnergy Star become a “falling star.”On the eve of Energy Star for SSL, LEDs Magazinesalutes the work of the DOE, one avenue beingthe development and progression of its workshopseries. The work of the DOE has always confirmedmy “Owenism” that there is no shortage of inferiorproduct and overstated claims AND onlyquality standards and testing will overcome thisunfortunate practice. The workshops have alwaysidentified and highlighted this, supporting the “XFiles” adage, “The truth is out there…but trust noone until they earn it!” ◀_____________________________________20 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABfunding programsE FMaGSLifecycle analysis of SSL technologiesThe US DOE has commissioned a study tolook at energy and environmental aspectsrelated to the manufacturing, use, and disposalor recycling of LEDs and SSL products.The DOE’s Jim Brodrick described the studyas a “soup to nuts” assessment of energy andmaterials costs associated with SSL technology.“I view this study as an importantstep in understanding how the advent of SSLwill have an impact on energy consumption,energy and product economics, pollution prevention,and ultimately, environmental decision-making,”he said.Currently the Life Cycle Analysis study isin its first phase, under the direction ofScott Matthews, research director of theGreen Design Institute at Carnegie MellonUniversity. The first phase, due to be completedthis fall, will define the study’sparameters including the identification ofkey energy and materials issues, the availabilityof relevant data, and a definition ofthe study’s scope and boundaries. At theRaw materialsEnergyInputsSource: EPARaw materials acquisitionManufacturingUse / re-use / manufacturingRecycle / waste managementPortland, OR, Workshop (see main article),Matthews invited attendees to provideinput on relevant data sources and concernsor issues to address. The secondphase will encompass a comparison of SSLAtmospheric emissionsWaterborne wastesSolid wastesCo-productsOutputsOther outputsStages of the product lifecycle. Courtesy of Scott Matthews / DOE / D&R International.Original diagram source: EPA.to mature lighting technologies in both theresidential and commercial markets. It willbegin with a valuation of raw materials andevolve through the entire product lifecycle,ending with disposal.Jet Dispensing for Power LEDsAsymtek Brings Dispensing Solutions to the Power LED IndustryEncapsulation with phosphor-filled optical materialsPrecise, consistent manufacture results in small chromatic variations,increasing yield and value of products.UnderfillJetting technology enables underfill of power LEDs for improvedbrightness and thermal management.Conformal CoatingState-of-the-art cooling systems for LED printed circuit board assembliesfor signage and automotive applications. Closed-loop process control andindustry-leading speed deliver high yield and low cost of ownership.Visit Asymtek at LEDs 2008 Booth #42.HEADQUARTERS2762 Loker Avenue WestCarlsbad, CA 92010-6603 USAU.S. Toll Free: 1-800-ASYMTEKTel: (760) 431-1919Fax: (760) 431-2678Email: info@asymtek.comINTERNATIONAL SALESwww.asymtek.com/applications/LEDEurope: +31 (0) 43-352-4466China, Guangzhou: +8620-8554-9996China, Shanghai: +8621-5854-2345Japan: +81 (0) 3-5762-2801Korea: +82-31-765-8337S.E. Asia: +65 6796-9514Taiwan: +886-229-02-1860 Recipient of Intel Corporation’s SCQI Award: 2003-2006.LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 21Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS___________Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSLED chips | EPITAXIAL GROWTHBluGlass opens pilot plant todemonstrate LED growth processAustralia’s Environment Minister says that BluGlass' technology fi ts well with the country’sintention to move towards energy-effi cient lighting, reports TIM WHITAKER.BluGlass, an Australian company thathas developed low-cost manufacturingtechnology for growing GaNbasedmaterial for LEDs, has opened its newheadquarters and demonstration plant atSilverwater, Sydney. The facility was openedby Peter Garrett, Australia’s Federal Ministerfor the Environment, Heritage and the Arts.The new pilot LED demonstration plant featuresBluGlass’ first commercial-scale semiconductorgrowth system that is fitted withthe company’s home-grownremote plasma chemical vapordeposition (RPCVD) technology.RPCVD can be used togrow the multilayer semiconductorstructures that are thestarting point for the fabricationof GaN-based LEDs. Currently,commercial productionof LEDs uses the metal-organicchemical vapor deposition(MOCVD) process to depositmaterial onto sapphire or siliconcarbide substrates.BluGlass plans to use itsnew plant to demonstrate “significantcost benefits” of theRPCVD process to LED devicemanufacturers, with the aimof winning substantial equipment supply contracts,licensing deals and royalty income.In his speech, Garrett said that LEDs will “playan increasingly important role in the future oflighting worldwide, including in our homes. TheBluGlass process is an Australian innovation,and advances in this area will make significantinroads in reducing the costs of LEDs.”Garrett said that one of the key barriersrestricting the uptake of LEDs has been their cost.“And up-front cost is an important issue when itTIM WHITAKER is Editor of LEDs Magazine.BluGlass’ pilot manufacturing reactor in operation.comes to deploying energy-efficient technologies,”he said. “The federal government is committed totaking energy efficiency mainstream.”On June 5 this year, which was World EnvironmentDay, Garrett announced that theplanned phase-out of inefficient lighting inAustralia will be brought forward to November2008, when the importation of inefficientincandescent bulbs will be restricted.“Our focus right now is on encouraging Australiansto switch to existing efficient alternatives,like compact fluorescent lamps, but it’salso on fostering innovation, and that’s why thework of companies like BluGlass has the potentialto become part of taking energy efficiencymainstream,” said Garrett.“This means there is going to be a hugedemand for efficient lighting here and aroundthe world in the near future. Australian innovationas represented by BluGlass is wellplaced to help in meeting this de mand —helping to both drive our economic growthand our efforts to reduce the levels of greenhousegas emissions.”An important global roleBluGlass was created from research at Sydney’sMacquarie University. In 2007 the AustralianGovernment awarded BluGlass a $5 milliongrant to advance its innovative technology.Also in 2007, BluGlass reported what it claimedto be the world’s first blue light emission fromthe uniform deposition of gallium nitride on a6-inch diameter coated glass wafer.“Our new demonstration reactor is designedto show the world that BluGlass has a commerciallyviable and attractive technology,”said BluGlass’ chairman MikeTaverner. “We expect that amongmany applications, this groundbreakingAustralian developmentwill have an important globalrole in improving the efficiencywith which we use energy in lighting,with flow-on benefits to theenvironment.”BluGlass recently appointedGiles Bourne as CEO after a periodas interim CEO. “With the launchof our new plant, we will invite toplevel corporations from Asia, the USand Europe to come and see exactlywhat we can do,” said Bourne. “Wehave delivered on all of our promisesto investors about commercializingour technology, and we are now liftingour sales push in the global market.”BluGlass says it is already in advanced discussionswith universities for orders for itspilot-scale reactors, a smaller version of itscommercial technology that also incorporatesits RPCVD technology. The company’s plan isthat customers, including commercial enterprisesand universities, can buy pilot reactorsto conduct their own testing. The hope is thatthis should speed the uptake of BluGlass’ patentedtechnology.MORE DETAILS: www.bluglass.com.auLEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 23Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


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Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSLED chips / RECORD RESULTSLED chips set new R&D recordsOver the summer, both Philips Lumileds and Osram Opto Semiconductorsunveiled some pretty impressive lab results for power LEDs.Two of the leading power LED chipmakershave announced “record breaking”research results for their LEDs,with values as high as 155 lm and 140 lm/Wfor white LEDs made using 1 mm 2 chips anddriven at 350 mA.We’ve said this in the past in LEDs Magazine,but it bears repeating; these are resultsfrom superstar devices in the research lab,not from commercially available products.Our advice is this: be careful not to draw thewrong conclusions from these numbers, butrecognize they are important. More thanthe values themselves, the results indicatethe continued progress being made by LEDmanufacturers.Innovation is also happening in the labsof other companies that haven’t made recentannouncements. And, perhaps most importantly,many of the technology enhancementsthat have resulted in these higher numberswill eventually move across to the next generationof production devices. Direct comparisonof the numbers quoted below is notadvised; wait until you can purchase productionquantities of the devices and then seehow they perform in your luminaire.Osram Opto SemiconductorsOsram reported a power LED driven at 350 mAwith an output of 155 lumens and 136 lm/Wefficacy. The prototype whiteLEDs were built with 1 mm 2 LEDchips, and had a color temperatureof 5000 K, with color (x,y)coordinates at (0.349, 0.393). Asshown in the graph, the LEDs canbe driven at 1.4 A, and produce upto 500 lm, with a correspondingefficacy of around 90 lm/W.Without giving away any details, the companysaid the key to success was a perfectlymatched system of optimized chip technology,a highly advanced and extremely efficientlight converter (phosphor) and a specialhigh-performance package. RüdigerMüller, CEO of Osram Opto Semiconductors, consumption is below 1 W at 350 mA. This,commented: “It was the successful combinationsays Craford, is a direct result of lowering theof Osram know-how in different fields forward voltage of the LED while maintain-that led to these new records in efficiency ing high external quantum efficiency. Theseand brightness. Startingwith the light converter,we will be graduallyLuminous flux (lm)Wall-plug efficiency (lm/W)moving the new 600300developments into production.”Osram says ithas already applied for500250patents for the technologiesthat lie behind400200these records.300150Philips LumiledsMeanwhile, back inthe lab (a different onein California), PhilipsLumileds has also beenworking hard. Thecompany’s CTO GeorgeCraford announced atthe China SSL conferencea range of performancehighlights for20010000.00.2white LEDs with drive currents from 350mA to 2 A, again based on 1 mm 2 chips. At350 mA, Lumileds reported an output of 138lumens with an efficacy of 140.1 lm/W. Theresults were for LEDs with a CCT around5000 K, and were pulse tests conductedunder standard conditions.This is almost certainly the first exampleof a power LED where the numeric valuefor efficiency is higher than the flux value at350 mA. Of course, this means that the power00.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4Forward current (A)R&D results from power LEDs demonstrated by Osram.Recent results from the Lumileds chip labDrive current (mA) Efficiency (lm/W) Flux (lm) CCT (K)350 140.1 138.0 49541000 111.7 339.8 50311500 100.0 478.8 50812000 86.0 562.5 5060100advances continue to positively affect theresults as the test current is increased. Evenat 1.5 A, the Philips Lumileds lab LEDs canachieve 100 lm/W and 479 lm from a singlechip.Lumileds says that deliveringmore light, more efficientlyis key to the future of LEDs ingeneral lighting. “Our continuousfocus on epitaxy, LED chip,phosphor and packaging developmentsleads to innovationsthat have real-world impact,”said Werner Goetz, director ofEpitaxy Technology at Philips Lumileds.“These latest results show clear progressthat will enable the solid-state lightingindustry to grow and provide a more sustainable,energy efficient solution soonerthan many had imagined.”50LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 25Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSfocus onAlthough the Olympics hadplenty of human celebrities, i thereal stars of the show were theLEDs. Here is a brief review ofsome of the places where LEDswere used, including the BeijingNational Aquatics Center (WaterCube) and the Beijing NationalStadium (Bird’s Nest).Rolled LED stage lighting bDuring the Opening Ceremony, it was hard tomiss the glowing, ever-changing scroll displayon the floor of the Bird’s Nest stadium.Apcus Technologies and Beijing Leyard workedtogether under the brand name Apcus Leyardto develop, manufacture, test and installthis ground-breaking display, as well asthe illuminated Olympic Rings in thestadium and other features.For the scroll, Apcus Leyard suppliedover 1300 sq. ft. of its “Ground Bar” LEDproduct, a unique type of LED display thatcan be walked, danced, and even drivenupon. It provides 3500 nits of brightness,and has a durable magnesium/aluminumalloy casing.PolyBrite LED channel letterslight up Bird’s Nest doorwaysThe Borealis modular lighting system fromPolyBrite International illuminates the entrywaysfor the Beijing National Stadium with10-ft, 2-in tall channel letters, A throughL, to designate each section of the stadium.PolyBrite and Trycool Logo & Sign ProductsCo. in Beijing were awarded the contract toinstall the systems.MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/16MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/press/1673726 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSightens ceremony at Bird’s NestFocus Lighting says ithelped in the designof the lighting for theribboned facade of theOlympics basketball venue,Wukesong Arena, while thefaçade itself was built byHOK Sports. The drivingconcept in the lightingdesign was to emulate alotus fl ower by highlightingand defi ning each of thefragile petals.Cree LEDs make Water Cube, Bird’s Nest glowXLamp LEDs from Cree were used to provide effects lightingfor the new Water Cube and the Bird’s Nest. The Water Cube,which was the home for nearly all of the 2008 Summer Olympicsaquatic events, spans some 80,000 sq. m. and has ~496,000 LEDsembedded throughout the exterior of the structure.A Cree spokesperson said that the Water Cube wasdesigned by a consortium of companies, including Australia'sPTW Architechs and Arup International EngineeringGroup, the China State Construction Engineering Corp,and China Construction Design International. The Australianteam conceived of the bubble design, Arup Lightingexecuted the lighting design, and Grandar was the lightingsupplier. The EFTE bubble membrane was made by adifferent company.The lighting of the Bird's Nest stadium was done byArup Lighting. The main lighting supplier was Landsky,which also custom-designed the fixtures. The exterior ofthe Bird’s Nest stadium used ~258,000 Cree XLamp LEDsin white, amber and red colors. Cree LEDs were alsoused in two installations inside the Bird’s Nest: the videoscreen behind the main stage, and the LED Ground Barscroll lighting up the floor during the Opening Ceremony(see separate story).MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/4/10/28Fast facts about the Water Cube wallsand lighting, courtesy of Cree• Approximately 496,000 Cree XLamp LEDs in red, green and blue illuminatethe exterior of the Water Cube.• The Water Cube is made of 3,000 “bubbles,” each with the ability to displaymillions of different colors.• The Water Cube displays a different color pattern each evening. The patternsare computer-controlled. The Water Cube is programmed to displaydifferent colored designs, including ones inspired by themes including“Blooming Flowers,” Rainy Day” and “Night at the Disco.”• Modules of 8-16 LEDs are integrated into the steel structure of all fourwalls and the roof. Each module is uniquely designed to focus the light onthe individual bubbles.• The Water Cube design was inspired by soap bubbles.• The bubbles are made of 100,000 sq. m. of plastic that was originally developedto provide insulation for airplanes.• Each of the bubbles in the Water Cube can resist the weight of a car. A pieceof the 0.008-inch material can hold up to 300 times its own weight.• The Water Cube’s bubbles trap more heat than glass, reducing total energyrequirements by 30 percent. This is the equivalent of mounting solar panelson the roof.• Now that the games are over, the Water Cube will be converted into amulti-functional facility for sports, culture and recreation, including acafé and waterslide.LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 27Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSMore LED projects in BeijingPanasonic, an official worldwide Olympic partner,installed 25 Astrovision LED displays at 18Olympic Games venues. The screens had a totalarea of 1291 sq. m.Neo-Neon supplied color-changing LEDpathway lighting to illuminate the walkwaysleading into the Bird’s Nest stadium, as well asother products for an LED display to entertainvisitors at Festival Walk.Chinese enterprise Shenzhen Sansun Hi-TechCo. told LEDs Magazine in March that it has supplied4 LED screens for the two highest-profilevenues at the Olympics. Two P24 LED displays,at a size of 16.42 x 9.24 m or 152 sq. m (around1636 sq. ft.), were used in the Birds Nest stadium.The two others — also P24s with a size of6.14 x 4.61 m, or 28.3 sq. m — were installed inthe Water Cube (see www.ledsmagazine.com/_______news/5/3/11).LED lighting products from GE were usedto light the Beijing Organizing Committee’sheadquarters building, and solar-poweredLED street lighting fixtures were used at theBarco provides LED screensAt the 12 Olympic Live Sites, Barco’s LEDscreens made it possible for millions ofBeijing people to watch the games in largegroups, live and outdoors.At the landmark Jingxin Building, China’slargest outdoor LED screen, at 758 sq.m, beamed Olympic images to millionsof visitors on Beijing’s 3rd Ring Road. TheOlympic soccer field in Shanghai was alsolit up by a 391 sq. m Barco LED screen.Fengtai Softball Field.Beijing Leyard installed 5 LED displays, eachmeasuring ~100 sq. m, at the Olympic CulturalSquares in Beijing. Leyard integrated its colorcorrection technology with Macroblock’s 16-bitPWM LED driver-MBI5030 in order to achievehigher display performance and enhanced colorresolution. The screens broadcast the Games liveto outdoor viewers (see www.ledsmagazine.com/press/15979).LED dragons illuminate fountainsOsram Opto Semiconductors and Tong Fang Co. Ltd. used Osram Golden Dragon LEDs to illuminate the elegant water fountainsin Beijing’s Olympic Park. These LEDs, with lens and enhanced thin-film LED components, provided the “dragon” withits characteristic golden glow. Installed in July in Beijing, the fountains are located along the north east side of the Bird’s Nestand the Water Cube in Olympic Park. The 600 m long fountain is formed by thousands of tiny water jets arranged in a long,gentle curve cutting through the Olympic Park, creating a river stretching two kilometers long. The dynamic jets launchwater columns as high as 6 m, creating a kind of rolling wave, like the body of a dragon as it glides through the air.MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/1428 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


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Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSconferences | CHINA SSLChina SSL highlights nationalfocus on solid-state lightingAt its annual forum, the Chinese LED industry showed it is addressing product quality and reliabilityissues, developing standards and trying to deal with patent issues, reports ROBERT STEELE.The Fifth China International Forum onSolid-State Lighing (China SSL 2008) washeld from July 24-26 in Shenzhen. As inprevious years, the Forum was organized by theChina Solid-State Lighting Alliance, with supportfrom seven Chinese government ministries andorganizations, including the Ministry of Scienceand Technology and the Chinese Academy ofSciences, as well as a number of domestic and foreignphotonics associations such as the ChineseOptical Society, SPIE and OIDA (US), OITDA(Japan), and KAPID (Korea).The Forum was accompanied inthe Shenzhen Convention Centerby an exhibition of 196 companiesdisplaying their solid-state lightingproducts. Overall attendancewas reported as 613 for the Forum(including 140 from overseas), and8,212 for the exhibition (including 525 fromoverseas). Although there are a number ofLED-related conferences and trade showsin China throughout the year, China SSLcan be considered to be the premier suchevent as determined by its breadth of contentand support by various governmentand professional organizations.The Forum was preceded by a day ofworkshops and a short course on MOCVDtechnology. The workshops included “InternationalSSL Standards and Measurements”and “Solid-State Lighting Patents”.Both subjects reflect the ongoing high level ofinterest in China. The standards and measurementsworkshop included discussion of effortsin China as well as internationally to developstandards for SSL ranging from devices to systems.The workshop on patents was conductedin Chinese only, whereas all other conferenceevents were bilingual.ROBERT STEELE is director of optoelectronics atmarket research firm Strategies Unlimited.Government supportThe main Forum consisted of two plenary sessionsplus two parallel tracks — one on Epitaxy,Chips and Equipment and one on Packagingand Applications. The beginning plenary wasaddressed by Cao Jianlin, the new Vice Ministerof Science and Technology, who was appointedto replace the former Vice Minister Ma Songde,who recently retired, and who had addressedall previous Forums. Like Minister Ma beforehim, Minister Cao expressed strong support forPhotos courtesy of Scott Riesebosch, CRS Electronicsthe Chinese national solid-state lighting programand confidence in the future growth ofthe LED industry in China.As was announced at previous Forums, thecurrent Chinese national SSL program runsfrom 2006-2010, and is funded by the nationalgovernment at the level of RMB350 million(~US$51 million). Also, local governments willbe contributing 2–3× the amount contributedby the national government. One of the program’snear-term goals is to produce a whiteLED with an efficacy in the 60–70 lm/W rangein 2008, up from 30–40 lm/W in 2006. The program’sgoal for white LEDs in 2010 is 100 lm/Win production and 130 lm/W in the lab.From the various presentations at theForum, it is clear that the Chinese SSL industryhas ambitious plans to become a major playerin the world market. There is a large domesticmarket in China, and the bulk of the progressis in the area of applications rather thantechnology. Therefore, there is a strong focus onstrengthening the LED technology base.The Chinese are keenly aware of some of theproduct quality issues that plague the domesticSSL market at present, both at the device andsystem level. They clearlyrealize that in order to fullyparticipate in the internationalSSL market, they willhave to come to terms withproduct quality and reliabilityissues, develop standardsthat are consistentwith those under developmentelsewhere and dealwith patent issues.At the same time, there area number of Chinese companiesexhibiting a high degreeof sophistication at the SSLsystem and application level.This was illustrated in severalpresentations at the Forum on applications developedfor the 2008 Beijing Olympics and plannedfor the Shanghai World Expo. The opening andclosing ceremonies at the Olympics in Augustwere an opportunity for the Chinese SSL industryto put its best foot forward, with a variety of colorfuland spectacular effects that illustrated a highlevel of creative imagination as well as sophisticationin control systems. The Shanghai World Expoin 2010 promises to be even more innovative in itsuse of solid-state lighting.LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 31Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


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Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSluminaires / COLOR CONTROLDesign considerations for intelligent,color-changeable LED luminairesPurpose-designed LED modules built using chip-on-board technologyare capable of demonstrating very high effi ciency and high colorrendering index, according to JAMES MCKENZIE and MAJD ZOOROB.Due to soaring electricity prices andever-growing environmental concernsabout energy consumption and wastedisposal, lighting is experiencing a technologyrevolution. In the future, LED lightingoffers the promise of efficiencies exceeding150 lm/W coupled with high color renderingindex (CRI), illumination-grade luminousflux levels and long lifetimes exceeding150,000 hours. The ideal future general lightingsource should also aim to emulate thecolor temperature and quality of sunlight atdifferent phases of the day.Other benefits include dimming, highspeedswitching and instant-on capability,while additional features such as color controland more recently high CRI values havedramatically diversified the possible lightingapplications. Architectural, mood and decorativelighting already make widespread useof RGB LED modules to provide color-changingflexibility, but these sources have sufferedfrom poor color fidelity (typically quantifiedusing the CRI) and poor luminous efficiency.When LED lighting is viewed as a replacementfor illumination-grade lighting, themain drawback hindering adoption is initialcost, along with issues associated withcolor binning, mediocre CRI and the needto achieve a good design that can meet thepromised specification targets, especiallyfor lifetime. This article reviews typical LEDlighting systems that generate white lightand the associated issues with binning, theimpact on manufacturers and customers,and system level approaches to help alleviatethe drawbacks.Not all white LEDs are the sameThere are several different techniques togenerate white light from LEDs, each withbenefits and drawbacks, as shown in Fig. 1.The simplest and most efficient single-chipmethod is to combine a blue LED chip withSingle-chip LED moduleWhite LED moduleMulti-chip LED modulePros Cons Pros Cons Pros Cons Pros Cons Pros ConsGoodCRIHighefficiencyLowcostBlue LED +Y PhSortingandbinningFixedCCTGoodCRILowcostUV LED +RGB PhCurrentlylowefficiencySortingandbinningFixedCCTHigh CRILowcosta yellow phosphor, resulting in commercialLEDs that currently achieve a maximum efficiencyof 100–110 lm/W at 350 mA, with acorrelated color temperature (CCT) of 6500K. However, such LEDs suffer several drawbacks,including low yield due to binningissues, which translates to increased cost forthe LED module as well as longer lead timesJAMES MCKENZIE (James.Mckenzie@photonstarled.com) is CEO and MAJD ZOOROB(majd.zoorob@photonstarled.com) is CTO of PhotonStar LED Ltd. (www.photonstarlighting.com), basedin Southampton, UK. The company was founded in 2007 with the aim of producing world class LEDlighting products for general illumination.Blue LED +RG Phfor the desired color bins. The mediocre CRIvalues (typically Ra = 70–80) and the CCTrange of >10,000 K to around 4,500 K rendersthese LEDs inadequate for direct incandescentlamp replacement (which requires ~2700K and Ra = 98–100).SortingandbinningFixedCCTFlexibleCCTR + G + BLEDsPoor CRIHighcostPoorefficiencyR + G + B + A + WLEDsFlexibleCCTGoodCRIAging ofdifferentLED colorsComplexcontrolHighestcostAverageefficiencyFIG. 1. The most common methods for generating white light with LEDs (Ph = phosphor, Y =yellow, R = red, G = green, B = blue, A = amber, W = white).In some LEDs, yellow phosphors arereplaced with complexes of red and greenphosphors mixed to provide a broader yellowemission capable of improved matchingto warmer CCT white with good CRI in theRa = 80–90 range. Warm white LEDs at CCTof ~3000 K currently achieve state-of-the-artefficiencies of about 90 lm/W.These systems also suffer from a fixedchromaticity color emission that cannot bemodified or changed following fabrication.For many general lighting applications, thisis acceptable only if the CCT and CRI areLEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 33Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSluminaires | COLOR CONTROLmatched to the values achieved by incandescentor halogen lighting. However, in mostcases the low color-binning yield leads to alarge percentage of LED modules with undesirablecolor chromaticity.In order to improve colorbinning yield, some manufacturerssuch as Osram andCree employ in situ sorting ofLED die for wavelength andflux during fabrication, followedby chip-level depositionof conformal layers ofphosphors to improve coloruniformity, while others suchas Philips Lumileds employmatched phosphor plateletspositioned on the surface ofthe LED die.In the case of multiplechipLED modules (examplesinclude PerkinElmer’s Aculedand Osram’s Ostar), the lightfrom red, green and blueLEDs is mixed to provide thedesired white light emissionor other color schemes. Theseare typically only employedfor projection, and architectural,decorative and mood lighting,rather than general lighting. They sufferfrom poor color fidelity and chromatic discrimination(typical Ra values are 70–80),due to the non-continuous superpositionof narrow band RGB spectra forming thewhite spectrum, as well as poor overallsystem efficiency. More recent colorchangingmodules, such as those fromPerkinElmer and Enfis, have increased thenumber of different primary colors by theaddition of amber LEDs while also mixingwhite LEDs to improve CRI, chromaticity,color gamut and overall efficiency, and toenable the modules to function for bothdecorative as well as general lighting.The primary drawback of these LEDmodules is that each LED semiconductorages differently and hence tends toshift the color temperature with lifetimeas well as temperature. In order to alleviatesome of these problems, luminairemanufacturers such as Cree LightingSolutions (formerly LLF Inc) and Philips(with its Lexel and Color Kinetics Intelliwhiteproducts) have adopted system-levelsolutions combining both white LED modulesand/or single color LEDs as well as feedbacksystems that continually monitor and adjustthe CCT and color chromaticity.PhotonStar LED Ltd has adopted a novel systemlevel approach to solve some of the issues,Warm white Neutral white Cool whiteFIG. 2. Color-changing capabilities of the ChromaWhite LEDmodule embedded in a standard PhotonStar CeilingStar5recessed downlighter with a CCT and intensity controller box.The luminaire is running off two 9V batteries.RGB LED 6000K CRI 70 Fluorescent - 2700K CRI 80PhotonStar module - 3500K CRI 95 Incandescent - 2700K CRI 100FIG. 3. Demonstrating the importance of CRI through the irradianceof colored objects using a variety of light sources.and has implemented this at the LED modulelevel, enabling a unified single-LED modulefor use in general lighting applications aswell as color-changing applications. The multichipLED module employs system and dielevel corrective and preventative mechanismsto enable high efficiency (currently exceeding80 lm/W at 4000 K and reaching over 100 lm/Wfor higher CCT) and excellent color fidelity (Ra>95) as well as ability to shift the chromaticityto suit the lighting application. It is importantto note that there are no limitations in theunderlying efficiency of the LED module technologyand this will continue to match stateof-the-artcommercial fixed wavelength whiteLED module efficiencies.The ultra-low thermal resistance of the PhotonStarLED ChromaWhite LED module (


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSHIGH BRIGHTNESSHIGH EFFICACYHIGH RELIABILITYCOLOR POINT STABILITY50,000-HOUR LUMENMAINTENANCELighting-Class LEDs.Cree XLamp ® LEDs.Bright + EfficientLuminous flux up to:251 lumens at 1A114 lumens at 350mAEfficacy up to99 lumens per watt50,000 hours at >70%lumen maintenance2,600K to 10,000K CCTLeading the lighting revolution. Cree XLamp LEDs deliver lightingclassperformance that transforms ordinary light into bright, energy efficientlight. Available in warm to cool temperature ranges, Cree XLamp LEDs arepowering general illumination applications offering significant energy andmaintenance cost savings.Contact a Cree Solutions Provider or authorized distributor about yourlighting-class application at www.cree.com/xlamp or call +49 89 5484 2200.Cree XLamp LEDPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


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Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSluminaires | COLOR CONTROLyield problem. However, this still does notcompletely eliminate color binning due todifficulties with in situ prediction of lightscattering and optical thicknesses associatedwith deposited or attached phosphorlayers. This affects the overall color chromaticityof the LED module.PhotonStar ChromaWhite LED moduleseliminate the color binning problem by employingfactory pre-set LED modules locked to aLuminousefficiency(lm/W)1201101009080706050403030Low CRI Med CRI High CRIR LED40Tunable color50 60Philips CK IntelliWhiteFixed colorTunable whiteCW LEDT5 fluorescentRGB LEDWW LEDHPS lampPhotonStar LEDcolor change moduletunable colorNW LEDCRIFIG. 4. Comparison of different lighting technologies. For tunable white and RGBmodules, the effi ciencies are based on mixing of fi xed-color LEDs and are projected fromcommercially-available state of the art LEDs. Performance of actual commercial productsmay be considerably lower than shown. For LED products, lower-fl ux LED bins are typicallyselected for reduced cost and lead-time. For traditional lamps, the light output ratio isnot included. (CW LED = 6500 K cool white, NW LED = 4000 K neutral white, WW LED =2700 K warm white.)desired color chromaticity using a novel, module-level,color-control approach (Figure 2).This enables the manufacture of a unified singleLED module for use in most general lightingapplications with customer-defined color chromaticityin proximity to the Planckian locusand in the 2500–6500 K range. The LED modulemay also be set for more elaborate colorchangingapplications. By employing proprietarycolor-changeable white light, it is possibleto achieve luminous efficiencies greater than80 lm/W, subject to color chromaticity, specificationstypically associated with single-colorwhite LED modules, while also having best-inclassCRI of >95.Importance of high CRIFigure 3 shows the importance of color renderingfor general lighting applications. CRIis a quantitative measurement providing anindex of the ability of a light source to reproducecolors faithfully in comparison with anideal or natural light source. The ChromaWhiteLED module provides increased content acrossa broad wavelength spectral range, whichincreases the reflectance of light matched tothe surface of the objects.The design of multiple-chip LED modules forgeneral lighting can usually be a compromiseCFLRGBA LED70 80 90 100Halogenbetween CRI and luminous efficiency. Increasingthe spectral coverage of the light emissionis typically achieved by the introduction ofadditional LED sources interspaced betweenthe red, green and blue sources. This in turnreduces the overall efficiency of the systemwith an ROAGB LED engine having typical figuresin the range of 33 lm/W (based on best-inclasscommercial InGaAlP LED die).Figure 4 highlights the efficiency andCRI of current state-of-the-art commerciallight sources. The efficiency of differentLED products is plotted when the modulesare powered at optimum 350mA (usuallyaround 1.15W).Several different tunable-color LED technologiesare plotted, including traditional RGB andRGBA color-changing LED modules that providelarge color chromaticity tuning flexibilitybut poor luminous efficiency. IntelliWhite byPhilips SSLS (Color Kinetics) employs the mixingof two white LEDs at different CCT temperaturesto enable CCT tuning between thetwo white points. Values for PhotonStar ChromaWhiteLED modules are based on actual inhousetest results. The red area representingefficiency and CRI coverage is large due to theflexibility in color chromaticity.Full spectrum approachPhotonStar ChromaWhite LED modules provideillumination-grade lighting and the abilityto modify — as well as factory pre-set — thecolor chromaticity within a specific color triangleas depicted by the region bounded by thesolid black triangle in Figure 5. Due to the flexibilityof the intelligent ChromaWhite modules,they may be configured as follows:• Factory pre-set at a specific color chromaticitywith or without active feedback forimproved color lifetime performance.• Factory set to simulate a Planckian whitelight source ranging between warm white(CCT = 2500 K) and daylight (CCT = 6500 K).A simple switch can control the module totravel along the Planckian locus.• Full color tunability enabling any desiredlight chromaticity inside the triangle.Thermal management and COBGood thermal management is key to efficient,long-lifetime LED lighting. LED modulesthermally de-rate with increased temperatureand experience a reduction in usefullifetime. Lifetime is an exponential function ofthe LED junction temperature (T j); as an example,reducing T jby only 6°C from ~70°C to 64°Cprovides a 22% increase in lifetime. Assumingno modification to the heat sink, this impliesthat a step improvement in lifetime requires anorder of magnitude improvement in the thermalresistance. The change should be from6–8°C/W for current state-of-the-art LEDmodules down to ~0.6–0.8°C/W to achieve thedesired 6–8°C T jdrop.In order to achieve the desired improvementin thermal resistance, the ChromaWhite moduleadopts a novel chip-on-board (COB) design.The thermal solution is designed at both theboard and LED chip level and achieves a thermalresistance of below 0.8 K/W. A proprietaryisolation layer may also be adopted for ultrahighperformance applications, reducing thethermal resistance down to < 0.3 K/W.The adoption of low thermal resistance LEDmodules enables larger flexibility in designingLEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 37Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSluminaires | COLOR CONTROLluminaires for general lighting applications.As well as higher light output andlonger lifetime, the luminaires can havesmaller embedded heat sinks, a loweroverall cost thermal management solution,and a larger ambient operating temperaturecapability.The selection of COB as the underlyingtechnology for ChromaWhite moduleproducts provides high packing den-ysity and the capability to use high drivecurrents. It also provides high accuracychip placement and easy assembly andincorporation into existing luminaireheat sinks. COB is a flexible technologythat can integrate additional embeddedelectronics, and is a low cost alternativeto high power LED packages.However, COB modules are typicallyperceived to suffer from complexity ofproduction scaling when small to mediumvolumes are exceeded. In the case of lightingapplications, the scaling problems arealleviated by incorporation of multiple highpowerLED chips (typically 6 to 24 power chips)on a single COB module capable of generating400–2500 lm of white light. This approach is0.90.80.70.60.50.40.30.20.10.0500490480520470460380540T c (°K)5600.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4x5804000 30002500600010,0002000 1500able to generate adequate luminous flux anddirectly replace a lamp such as a 25W T5 fluorescentlamp, a 2 × 26 W CFL lamp or even acluster of LED modules on an IMS board. This6006200.5 0.6 0.7 0.8FIG. 5. The white triangledefi nes the color space regionfor the ChromaWhite module.dramatically reduces the numberof light sources to be manufacturedand hence lends itselfto the model of one light sourceper luminaire.Proprietary optics700 In order to fully benefit fromthe high efficiency of LED lighting,it is necessary to identifyan appropriate light extractionand far-field light-shapingmethod from the LED moduleto the luminaire. Typical CFLor metal halide luminaires sufferfrom poor light output ratio(LOR) values (typically 55% to75%) due to the isotropic emissionnature of the light source requiring multiplereflections to re-direct the light into thedesired far-field profile. By adopting boardlevelprimary optics the ChromaWhite module________38 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSluminaires | COLOR CONTROLdramatically minimizes the far-field angularCIE chromaticity variations as well as reducingthe need for secondary optical componentsfor general lighting applications.Low cost LED modules for general lightingEven though COB LED module solutions typicallyinvolve higher-cost manufacturing processes,such as special wire-bonding surfacetreatments, they are ideally suited for generallighting applications. The increased functionalityand flexibility of the ChromaWhite modulesreduces the overall cost on many levels.For example, reduced manufacturing costs areenabled by zero color binning; a reduced bill ofmaterials results from the manufacture of onemodule for all color bins; and the use of multichip,high-power LED COB modules enables alow cost per LED die.At the customer and system level, benefitsinclude a minimal requirement for secondaryoptics due to the use of board-level optics, andthe ability to use smaller, lower-cost heat sinksdue to a reduced thermal luminaire load. Theuse of board-level LED drivers means that onlysimple, low-cost power supplies are required.Due to the system level complexity and zerobinning, the price per kilo-lumen for ChromaWhiteLED modules can be 50% lower thanfor conventional single-color white LED clusters.However, when the ChromaWhite LEDmodules are embedded in the lighting application,the compounded benefits enable dramaticallygreater benefits, with up to 80%reduction in overall luminaire cost.ConclusionsLED lighting technology has recently reachedefficiency levels matching or exceeding themost efficient conventional lighting technologies.With the added benefits of superiorlifetime and unlimited flexibility, LEDtechnology is widely considered the futureof intelligent lighting.The transformation of dumb luminaires intofully color-tunable, intelligent lighting solutionsopens up the design space while providingfurther impacts in areas of lifestyle, healthLINKSand well-being. As an example, the emulationof sunrise, daylight and sunset (in both colortemperature and time during the day) duringthe winter seasons can help in the regulationof circadian rhythms and minimization in thesymptoms commonly associated with lack ofsunlight such as seasonal affective disorder(SAD). The ability to adjust the CCT and boostspecific wavelengths can also help in alertnessand potentially benefit adult concentration inthe work environment and learning in students.By providing the necessary breakthroughsin LED lighting, the PhotonStar ChromaWhiteLED module, available in 1Q09, willhelp accelerate mass-market adoption and fulfillthe future creative desires of lightingdesigners as well as the energy efficiencyrequirements of environmentalists. Photon-Star LED is currently seeking partners toexplore the full potential of the technology andthe applications.PhotonStar LED Ltd. expands, secures funding (May 2008) www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/5/3PhotonStar LED unveils high-efficiency CeilingStar5 downlight (Aug 2008)www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/8/10LED Drive Total SolutionsAC/DC Solutions- Universal AC input from 100-240Vac, 277Vac is available in several models- Both Constant Current and/or Constant Voltage mode available- IP66 rated for dry, damp and wet location applications- Convection cooled, UL, cUL, FCC B, CE compliant0-10VDimmingLP4240 Series - 240 Watts Quad or Triple Class 2 outputLP41000 Series - 100 Watts Quad or Single Class 2 outputLP1090 Series - 96 Watts Single Class 2 output 277VACAvailableLP1060 Series - 60 Watts Single Class 2 output277VACLP1040 Series - 40 Watts Single Class 2 output AvailableLP1025 Series - 25 Watts Single Class 2 output 277VACAvailableLP1020 Series - 20 Watts Single Class 2 outputLP1017 Series - 17 Watts Single Class 2 output 277VACAvailableL121 / L07U / L03U Series -12W/7W/3W Class 2 outputLA1012 / LD-CU / LD-PI Series -12W/7W/3WDC/DC Solutions- Wide range input voltage with Constant Current or Constant Voltage output- IP66 rated for dry and damp applications- Convection cooled, FCC B, CE compliantBuck-boost Drivers - 3 to 25 Watts single outputBuck Drivers - 3to 25 Watts single outputBuck Drivers with 0-10V dimmingOther Power Supply SolutionsIndustry Standard 3 x 5 Open Frame - 45-Watts to 150-WattsWall-mount and Desktop Adaptors - 5-Watts to 150-WattsIndustry Standard DINRail Mount - 35-Watts to 1000-Wattswww.magtechind.com5625-A S. Arville Street, Las Vegas, NV 89118Tel: 702-364-9998 Fax: 702-364-1562LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 39Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSLED Driver Solutions for aBroad Range of ApplicationsBacklightingDigital camerasDVD playersGamesGPSMobile phonesLaptopsLCD HDTVsLCD PC monitorsAutomotiveDaytime running lightsInterior lightsStop/turn/tail lightsAllegro MicroSystems, Inc. offers a growing portfolioof LED drivers used for signs, display backlighting,architectural and automotive lighting applications.Allegro’s process technology and applications expertisehave enabled the development of highly integrated LEDdriver ICs with on-chip FETs and diverse control options,providing flexibility and functionality in a small solutionfootprint.Allegro’s LED Driver portfolio covers a wide variety oftopologies, channel counts, output currents and featuresets, to help customers optimize their solutions.Displays and SignageBillboardsChannel lettersLED video displaysMessage boards andscoreboardsIllumination and SignalsHeadlamps (mining, camping)Interior decorative andornamental lightingEmergency lighting andexit signsFeatures within the portfolio of devices include:■ Buck, Boost, Charge Pump, and Linear topologies■ Series and Parallel configurations■ Single and multiple (up to 16) channel outputs■ Output currents up to 350 mA per channel■ Multiple intensity control methods including PWMcontrol with high resolution per channel■ Current-control for color calibration (dot correction)■ Open LED and shorted LED detection■ Thermal shutdown and undervoltage lockout■ Automotive voltage and temperature ratings available■ Excellent current matching and accuracy■ Low quiescent current■ TQFN, SOIC, HTSSOP, and PLCC packageswww.allegromicro.com/promo469115 Northeast Cutoff, Worcester, Massachusetts 01606 USA ■ 508.853.5000High-Performance Power ICs and Hall-Effect SensorsPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSoutdoorlightingNew York architect firm, LSG tobuild prototype LED streetlightsUnder a $1.175M contract, OVI and LSG will produce and test 6 LEDprototype streetlights for New York City, reports Julie MacShane.The Office for Visual Interaction Inc. (OVI), anarchitectural lighting design firm, has beenselected by The New York City Department ofDesign and Construction (DDC) to engineer,produce and test the winning design of the CityLights Design Competition.The DDC created this two-stage, internationalcompetition to select a new streetlightdesign for New York City for the 21st century.OVI was selected for its LED-based streetlightdesign back in December 2004 (see "LED designwins New York City streetlight competition,"www.ledsmagazine.com/features/1/12/2).Now, following its success in the secondstage of the competition, OVI has partneredwith Lighting Science Group Corp. (LSG) toengineer, produce and test six prototypes ofits winning design.A NYC spokesman confirmed to LEDsMagazine that a sealed competitive bid wasawarded by DDC on August 11, 2008, to OVIfor $1.175M.That comes out to about $195,833 perstreetlight.“We registered the contract for the prototypetest in the city record, as required bylaw. All this is is a prototype test and whenthe prototype test is done, it will be enteredinto the city’s catalog/inventory of streetlightsand the city will make a determinationof where it goes from there,” said Scott Gastel,the Deputy Press Secretary in » page 42FIG. 1. Mock-up of prototype NYC LED streetlight design. Courtesy of OVI/LSG.Two US cities,two LED plansManassas, VirginiaThe city of Manassas, VA, is hoping thatnew LED lights will cut down light pollutionand discourage vandalism andother crimes. The city’s Electric Utilityis working with the city’s police departmentto identify a “preferable neighborhood”to test out new LED streetlights,said a recent article in the city’s August2008 Utility Connection newsletter. Thepolice want to see what effect the higherquality white lights have on vandalism,graffiti, and other crimes.“A lot of power companies have lookedat the technology and determined it’s earlyto implement an LED program because thecapital cost is so high and it’s over sevenyears before you get payback,” said GreggPaulson, assistant director, Electric Utility,in an interview with the newsletter.“But if you look in terms of the environmentalimpact, that’s really what’s pushingit, to reduce our emissions and our carbonfootprint.”Installation for the pilot starts this fall andis expected to take about three months.Anchorage, AlaskaAnchorage mayor Mark Begich announcedhis city’s participation in Cree’s LED Cityprogram in conjunction with an energyrelatedinitiative calling for the retrofit ofall 16,000 municipal roadway lights withhigh-efficiency LED fixtures. Begich saidthat the city has allocated $2.2 millionto purchase LED fixtures to change outroughly 25% of Anchorage’s streetlights.Deb Lovig, Cree LED City programmanager, said that lighting is absolutelycritical to daily life in Anchorage,where ~85 days a year see


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSoutdoor lightingthe Office of Public Information for the NewYork City Department of Transportation.Nothing has been said about any futureinstallations and no determination has beenmade of where the test will be held, although itwill be in one of the city’s five boroughs, addedDeputy Press Secretary Gastel.The scheduleOVI and LSG intend to commence the engineeringwork this month, followed by testingof the prototypes in spring 2009 for theCity Lights Streetlight project. The goal is toprovide a model for widespread lighting ofstreets, sidewalks and parks within the city’sfive boroughs.In this phase of the project, OVI and LSG will:• fabricate working prototypes, including allnecessary parts; and• perform all testing necessary to ensure designand performance criteria are met.There are more than 300,000 streetlights inNew York City, the majority of which are basedon high-pressure sodium technology. Replacinga commonly used 150W high pressuresodium lamp with the proposed LED lightingsolution will reduce the energy consumption byFIG. 2 How an LEDstreetlight mightlook in NYC withits assorted signs.Courtesy: LSG.25-30% to an estimated 105 W per LED module,LSG says.The designThe design challenge facing the competitorswas to "create an innovative, state-of-the-artdesign that responds to the unique diversityof the city's architecture and urban landscapewhile meeting the appropriate technical performancestandards".The winning design developed by OVI combineshi-flux LED technology with state-of-artlensing optics in a small oval-shaped profile,which provides the structural framework andheat sink for the LED modules.Linear arrays of LEDs are grouped into segments.Each segment has a primary and secondaryoptics system to achieve the requiredlight distribution pattern. This modular designstrategy of components allows usage and interchangeabilityamong the various streetlightconfigurations.The segmented, modular lighting designinnovation for the new streetlight also streamlinesfabrication and product handling, andcan accommodate future generations of LEDtechnology as these become available. ◀Supertex LED Drivers:The Gold Standard in Driving Solid State LightingFor their performance and reliability, Supertex’s LED driver ICs were selectedfor controlling the solid state lighting in Beijing’s “Water Cube” Aquatic Center.We bring quality to light.LED Test and MeasurementThe drivers feature wide input voltage ranges (8 - 450V) and deliverperformance in a wide range of solid state lighting applications:► Offline lamps and fixtures with dimming capability► Variable building accent lighting► Multicolor decorative lighting► Energy efficient solid-state signage► Rugged and reliable industrial lighting► Street lamp lighting with power factor correctionMeasure all optical and electricalparameters of single LEDs, highpowerLEDs and LED modulesin conformity to internationalstandards accurately and withinseconds. With equipment fromInstrument Systems – the worldleader in LED metrology.Ï Luminous intensity (candela)Ï Luminous flux (lumen)Ï Dominant wavelength (nm)Ï Color coordinates (x, y, z)Ï Spatial radiation patternÏ Thermal behaviorFor more information on any of Supertex’s LED drivers, visit:www.supertex.com/feature_LED_general.htmlSupertex inc.1235 Bordeaux Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 ♦ (408)222-8888 ♦ E-mail: mktg@supertex.comlight measurementPhone: +49 89 45 49 43 0 · info@instrumentsystems.com · www.instrumentsystems.com42 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSCity LED prototypes to be adjustedGrand Rapids, MI, mayor George Heartwell recentlycommented that some of the new prototype cobrahead35-foot LED streetlights outside his home didnot spread illumination far enough back behindthe pole to light the sidewalk, according to a recentarticle in the The Grand Rapids Press newspaper.Public Works Director Patrick Bush said that heshares the mayor’s concern, but believes future prototypeswill perform better. In reply to the newspaperstory, Bush told LEDs Magazine: “They forgotto mention that we said there was tremendousprogress from the first generation prototypesto the second and third.”“We also pointed out thatwe are dealing with modelsfrom 4 different suppliersand some suchas the Relume modelswere performingmuch better than others,”Bush added.“The only negativewith the streetlightswas that the light didn’tspread behind the pole 15feet more onto the sidewalk,” said Bob Hahn, the GMof Lumecon, the national distributor for Relume Technologies.He added that Relume is planning on fixingthe spread issue by deploying new prototypes to thecity within 60 days.“The City of Grand Rapids as a general rule has avery high standard for their outdoor lighting,” continuedHahn. “It exceeds the IES (Illuminating EngineeringSociety) standards by quite a bit, by as muchas 3 times the minimum requirements. They do thatfor safety and aesthetic reasons – they like thecity to be well lit.”“I would also like to continuetesting the Relume modelsbut in a location other thanFulton Street,” GrandRapids’s Bush said.“Fulton Street wasthe ultimate in worstRelume’s GrandRapids cobra-styleLED streetlightscase scenario. I wouldlike to install themin a two or three laneroadway configurationto see if we can achievebetter results.” ◀outdoor lightingWireless controlof LED beaconsSolar-powered LED technology providerCarmanah Technologies Corp.has partnered with Encom WirelessData Solutions Inc. to add a wirelessinterface capability to its lineof stand-alone solar-powered trafficbeacons.Encom technology will provideremote interface and control capabilitiesto add versatility and flexibilityto Carmanah’s solar-poweredflashing beacons.“A key benefit of a solar-poweredbeacon is convenience – it’s easy toinstall, generates its own electricity,and operates automatically for yearswith little or no maintenance,” saidRichard Chesson, Carmanah VP ofmarketing and business development,“so how do you make it evenbetter? We believe the answer iswireless interactivity.”_____________________LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 43Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS___________Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSmarkets | LIGHTING, LCDs & TAIWANIllumination and LCD backlightingare major drivers for growthA new report indicates healthy growth for lighting applications using LEDs, while theincreasing demand for LED backlights in LCD panels is providing a boost for Taiwan’s LEDindustry, writes TIM WHITAKER.High-brightness LEDs have shown dramaticimprovements in performancein recent years, as well as significantcost reduction, such that they are undergoinga period of rapid market growth in a varietyof niche and general lighting applications,says a new report by Strategies Unlimited. Themarket research firm has analyzed the marketstructure for LED lighting, and the driversthat will enable HB LED technology to penetratethe lighting market, as well as the barriersto market growth. The report, entitled “TheMarket for High-Brightness LEDs in Lighting:Application Analysis and Forecast – 2008,”also provides detailed analysis and quantitativemarket forecasts for 12 LED lighting applicationsthrough 2012.In 2007, the worldwide market for HB LEDsused in lighting applications reached $337 million,up from $205 million in 2006. The majorityof lighting applications used RGB LEDs in marketssuch as architectural lighting, channel lettersigns, accent and decorative lighting andentertainment lighting. However, white LEDsaccounted for 48% of the market, and this percentagewill grow in selected applications suchas consumer portable lighting (e.g. flashlightsand headlamps) and machine vision, the reportsays. White LEDs have recently begun to beused on a limited basis in applications such asretail display lighting, commercial and industriallighting and outdoor area lighting.In the coming years, LED lighting will reachbeyond single color and color-changing applicationsinto the general illumination arena,enabling residential, commercial and off-gridapplications. The LED lighting market is forecastto reach $1.65 billion in 2012, but this willTIM WHITAKER is Editor of LEDs Magazine.LCD backlights are seen as a major marketfor LEDs. Sony’s new Bravia ZX1 40-inch LCDTV has a minimum thickness of only 9.9 mm,comparable with a DVD case. This is enabledby a backlight comprising white LEDsaround the edge of the screen, a uniquearrangement for such a large LCD panel.MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/9/3.________represent just the first stage in the replacementby LED lighting of conventional lightsources, including high-efficiency fluorescentand high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps.Sapphire supplier sees growthCompared with end users, companies supplyingmaterials and equipment to LED chipmanufacturers have a different perspective onthe LED market. One such supplier is Rubicon,a leading manufacturer of sapphire wafers.Materials such as sapphire and silicon carbideare used, in the form of thin circular wafers,as the substrate for the deposition of semiconductormaterial layers. These complex layerstructures are then used to make LED chips.The deposition process is known as epitaxy,and takes place in large, million-dollar piecesof equipment. The German company Aixtron isa leading supplier of epitaxial growth systemsthat use the metal-organic chemical vapordeposition (MOCVD) process.In the company’s recent quarterly earningsconference call, Rubicon’s CEO, Raja Parvez,said that 60% of the company’s revenue comesfrom the LED market and estimated that, overall,the LED market is expected to continue togrow at more than 20% per year over the nextseveral years. Bill Weissman, Rubicon’s CFO,added that “the company’s LED revenue grew14% year-over-year and 8% sequentially” in thesecond quarter as applications for LEDs continueto expand.Parvez said that high-performance LEDapplications, such as large area backlightunits and solid-state lighting, are growingrapidly. “LED backlight units are penetratinginto the notebook computer and LCD TVmarket faster than expected,” he said. Theseapplications are being supported by majorLEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 45Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSmarkets | LIGHTING, LCDs & TAIWANLED chip manufacturers inJapan, Europe, and the US. “Asa result, our sales continue toincrease in these regions,”said Parvez. “We are alsoreceiving orders for 6-inchsapphire products for the LEDmarket to support next-generationLED wafer developmentefforts by MOCVD equipmentand LED chip manufacturers.We expect this large diameterdevelopment to ramp goingforward as LED manufacturerscontinue to increase deviceperformance and drive LEDcosts down to further penetratelighting applications.”Parvez said that Taiwanand Korea are in early stagedevelopment for large-diameterLED chip production andtherefore remain largely focused on smalldiameter wafers. The LED markets in Taiwanand Korea have been affected by worldwidemacroeconomic conditions, causing reducedrate of growth in cell phone and small displayThe Philips 42PFL9803 is a 42-inch LCD TV with a backlight comprising1152 RGB LEDs distributed across the backplane. This enables localdimming of the backlight, leading to enhanced contrast (Philips claimsa contrast ratio of 2,000,000:1). The TV also uses LEDs to emit ambientlight (seen on the adjacent wall) that ties in with the screen image.MORE DETAILS: www.ledsmagazine.com/news/5/9/3.applications. “Consequently, the rate of growthfor LED applications that utilize 2-inch diametersubstrates has slowed in the past quarter,”said Parvez. “Slower-than-expected growth inTaiwan has increased pressure on pricing forsmaller diameter products as customersstrive to increase their marketshare.”According to Rubicon, the marketin Taiwan and Korea is expectedto pick up in 2009 as the demandfor displays and general illuminationincreases, and also as liquidcrystal display (LCD) manufacturerssuch as AU Optronics (AUO)and Chi Mei Optoelectronics (CMO)enter the LED market.Aixtron buoyed by backlightingAlthough Aixtron sells its MOCVDsystems into a number of markets,the most important is the LED sector.In the first half of 2008, the companygenerated EUR 128.2 M (~$180M) in revenue, of which around 74%came from equipment sales intothe LED market. The company saidthat sales of its latest-generation, high-capacityMOCVD systems have been sustained by“long-term purchase orders from importantLED market-players such as Epistar [Taiwan],Samsung [Korea] and many other» page 49_____________________________________________________46 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSMonday, November 10 – Wednesday, November 12Hilton Torrey Pines, La Jolla, CA, USPart 1 of Organic Electronics Week 2008Assessing the business opportunity and commercialization potential for OLEDsNow in it’s 10th year, OLEDS World Summit will serve as a leading forum for attendees to receive the most current information in this ever-changing competitiveindustry. With over 150 leading industry executives expected to attend, this year’s program is set to include an exhibit area featuring the latest technology, 20 speakerpresentations, various question-and answer sessions, panel discussions, networking functions and more! Confirmed speakers include: Cambridge Display Technology,Samsung SDI, Nokia, Universal Display Corp, Display Search, OLED-T, OLED Association, OLLA Project, Vitex Systems, IGNIS Innovation, Aixtrox andFUJIFILM Dimatix. For the latest program updates visit: www.organicelectronicsweek.comBook before Friday, September 26, 2008 and receive 10% off the conference fee!To register contact Mike Robert at mrobert@intertechusa.com or +1 207 781 9631www.organicelectronicsweek.comMedia partners:mt xcutivscos.ntrprnurs.invstors.nginrs.buyrs.managrs.trndsttrs.visionaris.Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSSAVE $50 – REGISTER FORTHE CONFERENCE BY AUGUST 29!Register onlineatwww.strategiesinlight.com/ledjapan2008FREEEXPO PASSFEATURED SPEAKERS INCLUDE:Keynote SpeakerDr. Tsumemasa TaguchiProfessor of Electrical+ Electronic EngineeringYamaguchi UniversityDr. Alfred FelderPresident and CEOOsram OptoSemiconductors Ltd.Asia, Hong KongSumio ShimodeSenior Councilor andGeneral Manager ofLEDs, Custom Products+ New MarketDevelopment CenterMatsushita ElectricWorks, Ltd.Dr. Robert V. SteeleConference ChairDirector ofOptoelectronicsStrategies UnlimitedOctober 16–17, 2008 • TEPIA • Tokyo, JapanThe Leading Events for the Global LED IndustryAdvancing LED Technologyand MarketsParticipate in the leading HB LED Industry event in Japanand learn about the latest innovation in HB LED markets,applications, products, and manufacturing.• Preview the HB LED Market Overview and 5-Year Forecastby Strategies Unlimited, world’s leader in photonics marketresearch• Learn about the latest trends in LED-based illuminationfrom major luminaire manufacturers• Explore emerging HB LED applications with the foremostindustry experts• Receive the latest updates on solid-state lighting technology• Network with your peers from the global LED community.FOR MORE INFORMATION ON EXHIBITING OR SPONSORING:USA, Europe, and Asia (Outside Japan): Tim Carliat (650) 941-3438, x23 or tcarli@strategies-u.com.Japan: Manami Konishi +81(3)3556-1578 ormanami.konishi@ex-press.jpVisit www.strategiesinlight.com/ledjapan2008 for up-to-dateinformation on the conference, expo, and other event activities.PRESENTED BY:FLAGSHIP MEDIA SPONSOR:MEDIA SPONSORwww.strategiesinlight.com/ledjapan2008OWNED & PRODUCED BY:Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSmarkets | LIGHTING, LCDs & TAIWANprominent customers. With the industry’songoing expansion of LED production capacity,these larger market players are taking theinvestment initiative, especially for emergingLED backlighting applications.”Aixtron also says that it has received enquiriesfrom new, large customers in adjacent sectors,for example silicon semiconductor manufacturersthat have expressed interest ininvesting in LED equipment so they can participatein the growth potential of the LEDmarket. “Moreover, several Taiwanese LCDmanufacturers have recently announced theirvertical integration intent by placing directpurchase orders for MOCVD systems,” saidAixtron’s financial report.Panel players establish LED subsidiariesAs mentioned above, AU Optronics (AUO)and Chi Mei Optoelectronics (CMO), the twomajor LCD panel makers in Taiwan, haveboth taken steps towards vertical integrationwithin their companies for the productionof LED backlight modules. In April 2008,AUO established an LED subsidiary, Lextar,to develop LEDs for LCD panel backlighting.According to Taiwan’s Photonics Industryand Technology Development Association(PIDA), the company has started trial runsand is scheduled to commence operationin 2009. The company plans to purchase5–10 MOCVD systems in the first phase,says PIDA. Meanwhile, Chi Mei LightingTechnology (CMLT), CMO’s LED subsidiary,is also accelerating its development in theLED backlighting market. CMLT currentlyowns 10 MOCVD systems and has startedproduction in small volumes, says PIDA, addingthat the company will expand its MOCVDequipment capacity to 20 units by the fourthquarter of this year.Taiwan’s government recently gave a boostto the domestic LED industry by announcingplans to replace all the island’s incandescent-typetraffic lights with LED lamps inthree years. Traffic signals that use LEDs consume80–90% less energy and generally last5–7 years, compared to just a year for a comparableincandescent light signal. The governmentalso wants to replace all the incandescentlamps throughout the island with energy-savinglamps in four years, although this will obviouslyinvolve compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs)as well as a contribution from LED lamps.Meanwhile, the Taiwan External TradeDevelopment Council (TAITRA), which promotesTaiwan’s foreign trade and competitivenessin world markets, says that LEDsales by Taiwan-based companies “soared”during the first half of this year, helped bythe Beijing Olympics and higher energyprices that are encouraging the use of lowercostlighting.Taiwan’s LED makers reported that theirsales rose 16.1% in the first half of this year toreach NT$24.2 billion (US$771.3 million), comparedwith NT$20.8 billion in the same periodlast year, according to information the companiesprovided to the Taiwan Stock Exchange. Inaddition to the beneficial effect of the Olympics,new applications such as backlights fornotebook computers, as well as street lightsand factory lighting, are boosting the LEDmarket. TAITRA’s press release says that Taiwanhas the world’s second largest LED industrywith a 20% share of the global market, sittingbehind Japan with a 37% share. However,forecasts suggest that Taiwan will have a 30%share of the market by 2010 as many of Taiwan’sflat-panel display makers start to enterthe LED business.Register online and enjoy the benefits: www.electronica.de/ticketmeet executivesceos.entrepreneurs.investors.engineers.buyers.managers.trendsetters.visionaries.get the whole pictureelectronica: the world’s leading trade fair with the focus areas automotive, wireless, embedded andmicronano-systems. It is an international industry gathering and the place to do business directly withexperts, movers and decision-makers. www.electronica.deBe sure to visit the concurrent trade fairwww.hybridica.deelectronica 2008components | systems | applications23rd world’s leading trade fairNew Munich Trade Fair CentreNovember 11–14, 2008LEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 49Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSPRODUCT focusTO PROMOTE YOUR PRODUCT HERE, PLEASE CONTACT JOANNA HOOK AT joannah@pennwell.comOR MARY DONNELLY (U.S. SALES) AT maryd@pennwell.comALPHA ONE ELECTRONICS LTD.Thin Film – COLOR IR WINDOWPatented by Tokai Optical Co., Ltd.Normally, the color of IR tranmissive filter is only ‘black’ to maintainthe transmissivity. However, Alpha-One introduces the onewith optional interference colors, COLOR IR WINDOW, whichwas developed with an excellent technology to produce dielectricfilms, without reducing the IR transmissive efficiency. COLOR IRWINDOW offers a wide varietyof the color tone to design theproducts.Fax: +81 46 292 7113Email: info@alpha1-eg.comWeb: www.alpha1-eg.comAlpha-One is a sales agency for COLOR IR WINDOW in European market.www.iLEDco.comTel. 1.860.269.3243Fax 1.860.269.3271Email: info@iLEDco.comArticulux Brand Light-Sheet and Panels are the newest option for Designers,Architects and Luminaire Manufactures. Adding NEW form to lighting designs,following contours, draping pillars and bollards, is all part of the unfoldingdesigner's paletteexperience.Use Articulux as accentlighting, components inmobiles, panels to matchdecor, or as RGB whitelight in office cubicles.Articulux has thedesign flexibility to helpyour products stand outas truly unique.AVAGO TECHNOLOGIESEnhanced 0.5W White PLCC-4 LEDsfor Decorative and Mood LightingAvago, one of the largest producers of visible LEDs, ships billionsof products annually. Known for its LEDs’ performance, efficiencyand reliability, Avago offers an extensive product portfolio.Avago Technologies´ half-Watt PLCC-4 LEDs for decorativeand mood lighting applications are available in the full colourrange including a new white enhanced version with 24lumen. ThePLCC-4 package enables a higher drive current of 150mA, is veryreliable and has a long lifetime.Tel: +49-6441-92460Fax: +49-6441-924646Email: info@promotionteam.deWeb: www.avagotech.com/ledCARCLO TECHNICAL PLASTICSCarclo Technical Plastics yourworldwide optical partnerWe design, mould and market standard off the shelf plastic opticalcomponents for LED optics. We are also experts in custom opticaldesign/manufacture; full optical solutions from idea/production.We support all the major LED manufactures with off the selfoptical solutions.Please listen to our multi chip optics talk and visit our stand 64 totalk through your needs.Tel USA: 724-539-6982Tel UK: 0044(0)-1753-575-011Email: sales@carclo-optics.comWeb: www.carclo-optics.comFAVOUR TEC CO., LTD.New Innovation: RevolutionaryIllumination under LED NovaDownlightWith unique Focus Control mechanism, the LED Nova downlight(GD0307RCW) offers unrivalled flexibility of 10-30 degrees illuminationby a simple twist. UV and IR-free illumination guarantees usersafety and enables high visual comfort, while DC input reduces shockhazard. With remarkable energy-efficiency at8W input, GD0307RCW is a great saver ofpower, maintenance and environmental costs.Tel: +852 2321 6294-7Fax: +852 2352 0882Email: sales@favourtec.comWeb: www.favourtec.comFUSION OPTIXDurable & ReliableAdvanced Diffusion Films & LensesFusion Optix Advanced Diffusion Films & Lenses are durablebecause we design our LightControl Technology into the film leavingboth input surfaces free of fragile coatings and exposedsubstrates. Both are easily cleaned with standard solvents andwithstand handling stresses.Our in-house custom die-cutting and adhesive-free slide-in formfactor designs give architectural lighting fixtures a new look and asecond life.Tel: 617-649-1010Email: info@fusionoptix.comWeb: www.fusionoptix.com50 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSThe plan to make yourLED LightingSolutions SimpleFuture Lighting Solutions has theexperience to help OEMs maximizeperformance and reliability. YouFDQ EHQH¿W IURP RXU VXSSRUW DWevery stage of development, fromthe design cycle through to productionand leverage our proprietary tools andexpertise to minimize time and cost.Register for FREE access to LED design toolsat www.FutureLightingSolutions.comDONGGUAN KINGSUNOPTOELECTRONIC CO., LTD.Unparalleled uniform lighting effectby innovative quadric optical lensKingsun high-powered LED street lights adopt special quadric opticallens which cast the rays of every LED onto a rectangular area. Withthe Non-imaging Optics system, the lens can focus almost all light ontodesired area , accordingly the light utilization rate is higher than that ofHPS lights and other LED lights. In road illumination, the rectangularlight spots could perform an excellent link-up, thus the illuminationuniformity exceeds farfrom road lighting industry standard.Making LED Lighting Solutions SimpleTel: 86-769-83395677, 83395678Email: ks_sherry@kingsun-china.comWeb: en.kingsun-china.comLYNK LABS INC.AC LED Light EnginesBreakthrough - Simple LED Retrofit Product Design SolutionsTMEfficientSimpleContact: Lynk Labs Inc.Tel: 847.783.0123Fax: 847.783.0130Email: acled@lynklabs.comAC LED light engines accelerate and simplify LED product design and integration.Delivering The AC LED AdvantagePALOMAR MICROELECTRONICSLED Light Engine AssemblyPalomar Microelectronics (a division of Palomar Technologies)provides High-Value-Added process development, prototyping,assembly services and test including: eutectic and epoxy directchip attach, advanced wire bonding, wedge emulation, goldball bumping and precision component placement for HighPower LEDs as well as MEMS devices, microwave and RFcomponents, optoelectronics, MCMs and hybrids.STELLARNET, INC.LED Test and Measurement SolutionsStellarNet’s low cost GREEN-Wave spectroradiometers are reliable toolsfor LED light measurement. These miniature instruments are ruggedizedfor portability and are calibrated using NIST traceable sources with modelscovering 350-1100nm. The instruments can be coupled to cosine receptors &integrating spheres via fiber optic cable or direct attach. The SpectraWiz softwareprovides absolute measurements in Lumens/m2, luminous flux, watts/m2, uwatts/cm2, radiant flux, footcandles, 1931 xy chromaticity, purity,dominant wavelength, and correlated color temperature, all in real-time.Tel: +1 760-931-3600Fax: +1 760-931-5191www.palomartechnologies.comTel: +1 813-855-8687; Web: www.StellarNet.usEmail: ContactUs@StellarNet.usLEDsmagazine.com SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 51Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


Previous Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGSlast wordUK incentives for LED lightingANDRE DOBRASZCZYK of LIGHTHOUSE ELECTRONICS describes how two incentiveschemes will assist the penetration of LEDs into the UK lighting market.With the imminent phase-out ofincandescent lamps, and clear UKgovernment targets to make significantenergy savings over the next 10 years, arecent report commissioned by the UK’s CarbonTrust identified that LEDs have the opportunityto replace the majority of light sources onthis planet by 2050. Influential “energy-saving”schemes are now embracing LED technology,creating a route into the mainstream lightingmarkets. There are two core schemes setto revolutionize opportunities for white lightLED technology penetration within the domesticand non-domestic markets.First is the Energy Saving Recommended(ESR) scheme run by the Energy Saving Trust(www.energysavingtrust.org.uk). This has promotedenergy-efficient domestic products,including lighting, with the aim of reducingdomestic energy consumption. The ESR schemehas been responsible for the successful introductionof compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) intothe UK market. UK energy suppliers provide inexcess of £800 million a year in subs with theaim of making new energy-saving technologyaffordable in this price-sensitive market.An LED working group coordinated by theLighting Association was established in 2007to assess opportunities for LED technologyto benefit the domestic market. The intentionwas to include LEDs within the ESR scheme.After much consultation, the proposed draftspecification comprises two LED groups.Group 1 — Lamps with integral drivers — isaimed at replacing mains-voltage GU10 incandescentand halogen reflector lamps. Group2 — LED lamps with non-integral drivers —covers replacements for low-voltage halogenreflector lamps.The second scheme, the Enhanced CapitalAllowance (ECA) scheme run by the Carbon Trust(www.carbontrust.co.uk), is aimed solely at thenon-domestic market where energy consumptionis significantly higher. This scheme promotes abroad spectrum of energy-efficient products,technologies and control systems, again with theaim of reducing energy consumption. The ECAscheme provides an incentive to the consumerwithin year 1 in the form of tax relief againstcapital expenditure. Normally such tax reliefon expenditure would have to be claimed over a3-year period. After much consultation and testing,LEDs have only recently been included withinthe scheme, with a focus on using LEDs to replaceamenity, accent and display lighting.So how do the schemesstack up against what isactually achievable whenintegrating white LEDsinto lamps? It is clear thatthe LED market requires ameasure of “best practice”to successfully put to restthe question of actual performanceof a finished product.It is a fact that manyLED lamps and luminariesavailable within the lighting market areincorrectly measured and labeled, which iscausing confusion and lack of confidence inthe market.It is encouraging to see that both schemes haveidentified this disparity in the market and haveset out criteria to ensure that all products thatseek to be included within the schemes are suitablytested. Both schemes focus on the key elementsassociated with LED performance: photometrictesting to determine whether the productis bright enough with a suitable color temperature;thermal testing to ascertain product life;electrical testing to ensure that the product is safeand meets a minimum efficiency; and life testingto ensure that the product is reliable.The ECA scheme for LEDs specifies that thecircuit efficiency of the lamp must be ≥46 lm/Wfor all specified lighting categories with a colorrendering index Ra≥80. The lumen output fromthe lamp source must achieve a specified levelfor each category of lighting, with a forwardbeam light output ratio ≥0.95. All efficacy andillumination measurements are conductedafter 100 hours of continuous operation andlife tests completed after 4000 hours based onnot less than 96% depreciation in light output.A power factor of ≥0.7 must also be achieved,with drivers meeting British safety standards.The ESR scheme is very different and morethorough in its approach to specifying requiredlight levels, as well as electrical specificationand life testing. Light levelsare expressed against individual lamptypes based on achieving a minimumlumen level and peak beam candelaat 1m, with specified beam angles.Color temperature is also specified.The philosophy is that the LED lampshould meet the exact lighting levelsand color temperature of the lamp thatis replaces, so it can be an acceptablealternative.Specified efficacy values range from 24 lm/Wfor GU10 lamp replacements to 70 lm/W forexterior flood lighting. ESR also specifies aminimum product life of 15,000 hours basedof 30% degradation of light, as this is more thanadequate in a domestic installation. Life testsshould be conducted at 100, 1000, 2000, 4000,10,000 and 15,000 hour intervals. The ECA doesnot specify a minimum product life. Power factoris higher and in some instances must be≥0.9. A classification has also been added forLEDs lamps and drivers that can be dimmed.The schemes, although very different, sharea common goal — to drive LED technology intothe mainstream lighting market, providingopportunity for high volume market penetrationby setting “best practice” in the industry.Will your products make the grade?MORE DETAILS: www.le-lighting.com52 SEPTEMBER/OCTOBER 2008 LEDsmagazine.comPrevious Page | Contents | Zoom in | Zoom out | Front Cover | Search Issue | Next PageABE FMaGS


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