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Living and working conditions in Poland

Living and working conditions in Poland

Living and working conditions in Poland

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ContentsI. General <strong>in</strong>formation about Pol<strong>and</strong> ................................................................ 4II. Residence <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> ..................................................................................... 5Enter<strong>in</strong>g Pol<strong>and</strong> ............................................................................................ 5Obta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g residence permit <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> ........................................................... 5Apartment lease ............................................................................................ 8Purchase of real property ............................................................................. 10Driver’s licence ............................................................................................. 11Movement of capital <strong>and</strong> payments .............................................................. 11III. Work<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> ......................................................................................... 13How to nd a job <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>? ......................................................................... 14How to write a CV <strong>and</strong> cover letter? ............................................................. 14Types of contracts applicable to <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> ...................................... 15Recognition of professional quali cations ..................................................... 20IV. Taxes ............................................................................................................ 23V. Carry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity .................................................................... 25Individual carry<strong>in</strong>g out of a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity as a natural person ................. 25Civil law partnership ...................................................................................... 27Partnerships .................................................................................................. 28Companies .................................................................................................... 28Branch or representative of ce ..................................................................... 29VI. Social security <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> ............................................................................... 30Pension <strong>in</strong>surance ........................................................................................ 30Disability <strong>in</strong>surance ....................................................................................... 31Social security for <strong>in</strong>dustrial accidents <strong>and</strong> occupational diseases .............. 31Social security for sickness <strong>and</strong> maternity .................................................... 32VII. Unemployment .............................................................................................. 35Unemployment bene ts ................................................................................ 36The possibility to transfer to Pol<strong>and</strong> unemployment bene t granted<strong>in</strong> the EEA country (Lichtenste<strong>in</strong>, Icel<strong>and</strong>, Norway) or Switzerl<strong>and</strong> .............. 37The possibility to transfer to Pol<strong>and</strong> unemployment bene t granted<strong>in</strong> another EU country ................................................................................... 372011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 1


Dear readers,It is with great pleasure that we present to you our brochure entitled <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong><strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>.This publication has been drawn up <strong>in</strong> three language versions: English, German <strong>and</strong>French by the Department of Labour Market of the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Labour <strong>and</strong> Social Policyunder EURES measures.EURES is an <strong>in</strong>ternational network for cooperation of public employment services <strong>and</strong>their partners on the labour market <strong>and</strong> its objective is to support job mobility on theEuropean labour market.Inform<strong>in</strong>g about liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> is one of EURES services providedto foreigners – citizens of the Member States of the European Union, EuropeanEconomic Area <strong>and</strong> Switzerl<strong>and</strong>, here<strong>in</strong>after referred to as “Union citizens”.This publication provides useful <strong>in</strong>formation for Union citizens who <strong>in</strong>tend to come toPol<strong>and</strong>, such as <strong>in</strong>formation regard<strong>in</strong>g residence permit, tak<strong>in</strong>g up work, recognition ofprofessional quali cations, sett<strong>in</strong>g up their own bus<strong>in</strong>ess, social <strong>in</strong>surance <strong>and</strong> liv<strong>in</strong>g<strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>.The <strong>in</strong>formation conta<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> this publication present legal status as of March 2011 <strong>and</strong>concern citizens of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,F<strong>in</strong>l<strong>and</strong>, France, Greece, Spa<strong>in</strong>, the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s, Irel<strong>and</strong>, Lithuania, Luxembourg,Latvia, Malta, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Hungary, UnitedK<strong>in</strong>gdom, Italy, as well as Icel<strong>and</strong>, Liechtenste<strong>in</strong>, Norway <strong>and</strong> Switzerl<strong>and</strong>.Electronic versions of this publication <strong>in</strong> the three abovementioned languages areavailable at the Polish version of EURES website http://www.eures.praca.gov.pl.It is our hope you will nd <strong>in</strong>formation <strong>in</strong> this publication useful when consider<strong>in</strong>g yourdecision to live <strong>and</strong> work <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>.Department of Labour Market2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 3


Residence<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>Enter<strong>in</strong>g Pol<strong>and</strong>European Union (EU) citizens may enterPol<strong>and</strong> on the basis of a valid travel documentor other document conrm<strong>in</strong>g theiridentity <strong>and</strong> citizenship.Family members of Union citizens withoutUnion citizenship may enter Pol<strong>and</strong>on the basis of a valid travel document <strong>and</strong>visa if required. Visa applications are submittedto the consul or comm<strong>and</strong>er-<strong>in</strong>-chiefof the Border Guard.Family members of Union citizens<strong>in</strong>clude:a) spouses;b) direct descendants of Union citizensor of their spouses (l<strong>in</strong>eal descendants:children) aged up to 21 ordependants of Union citizens ortheir spouses;c) direct ascendants of Union citizensor of their spouses (ascendants atthe rst degree: father, mother), dependantsof Union citizens or theirspouses.Obta<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g residence permit<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>1. Residence not exceed<strong>in</strong>g 3 monthsUnion citizens <strong>and</strong> their family memberswithout Union citizenship may reside <strong>in</strong>Pol<strong>and</strong> up to 3 months without the need toregister their stay. Dur<strong>in</strong>g this period, Unioncitizens are obliged to hold a valid traveldocument or other valid document conrm<strong>in</strong>gtheir identity <strong>and</strong> citizenship. Familymembers without Union citizenship are obligedto hold a valid travel document <strong>and</strong>a visa.2. Residence exceed<strong>in</strong>g 3 monthsUnion citizens may reside <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> forlonger than 3 months provided:1) they are employed or self-employed;2) they are covered by common health <strong>in</strong>suranceor they are entitled to healthcare benets <strong>in</strong> accordance with regulationsgovern<strong>in</strong>g coord<strong>in</strong>ation of socialsecurity systems <strong>and</strong> have sufcientfunds to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> themselves <strong>and</strong> theirfamily members <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>;3) they study or participate <strong>in</strong> vocationaltra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> they are covered by commonhealth <strong>in</strong>surance or they are entitledto health care bene ts <strong>in</strong> accordancewith regulations govern<strong>in</strong>g coord<strong>in</strong>ationof social security systems <strong>and</strong>have suf cient funds to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> themselves<strong>and</strong> their family members <strong>in</strong>Pol<strong>and</strong>;4) they are spouses of Polish nationals.Union citizens should have suf cientfunds to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> themselves <strong>and</strong> theirfamily members <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> so as notto be a burden for social assistancesystem. Proofs of suf cient funds toma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> oneself <strong>and</strong> one’s familymembers without the need to resortto social assistance bene ts <strong>in</strong>clude<strong>in</strong> particular:1) credit card;2) certi cate of cash at bank or atother nancial <strong>in</strong>stitution, certi edwith a seal <strong>and</strong> signature of an authorisedemployee of such bank or<strong>in</strong>stitution <strong>and</strong> issued no later thanone month before the submissionof residence permit application.2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 5


Residence<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>3. Residence registration dutyNOTE:If Union citizens reside <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> formore than 3 months, they are obligedto register their residence <strong>and</strong> theirfamily members without Union citizenshipare obliged to obta<strong>in</strong> a Union citizenfamily member residence card(karta pobytu czonka rodz<strong>in</strong>y obywatelaUE).Applications for registration or issuance ofthe Union citizen family member residencecard should be submitted personally to thevoivod competent for the place of residenceof the Union citizen. A valid travel documentor other valid document which conrms theiridentity <strong>and</strong> citizenship (<strong>in</strong> the case of Unioncitizens) or a travel document (<strong>in</strong> the case offamily members of Union citizens) should beproduced <strong>in</strong> the ofce.Applications for registration of residenceof Union citizens (wniosek o zarejestrowaniepobytu obywatela UE) should haveenclosed as appropriate:1) <strong>in</strong> the case of employees:a) written statement of the employer orother entity conrm<strong>in</strong>g their <strong>in</strong>tentionto employ the Union citizen <strong>in</strong> question,b) certicate of employment;2) <strong>in</strong> the case of the self-employed:a) extract from the National Court Registerif such entry to the Register isrequired under separate regulations,b) certicate of entry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>essActivity Register;3) <strong>in</strong> the case of students or persons undergo<strong>in</strong>gvocational tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g:a) certicate of acceptance for studiesfrom the university or referral to vocationaltra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g,b) document certify<strong>in</strong>g the right to healthcare benets,c) written declaration of hav<strong>in</strong>g sufcientfunds to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong> oneself <strong>and</strong> one’sfamily members without the need toresort to social assistance benets, orproof of hav<strong>in</strong>g such funds;4) <strong>in</strong> the case of spouses of Polish nationals:document conrm<strong>in</strong>g one’s marriagewith a Polish national;5) <strong>in</strong> other cases:a) document certify<strong>in</strong>g the right to healthcare benets,b) proof of suf cient funds to ma<strong>in</strong>ta<strong>in</strong>oneself <strong>and</strong> one’s family memberswithout the need to resort to socialassistance bene ts.6


Residence<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>4. Permanent residence <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>NOTE:After 5 years of cont<strong>in</strong>uous residenceon the territory of Pol<strong>and</strong>, Union citizensacquire the right of permanent residence.After 5 years of cont<strong>in</strong>uous residence onthe territory of Pol<strong>and</strong> with a Union citizen,family members without Union citizenshipacquire the right of permanentresidence.Applications for issuance of Union citizenfamily member residence card (wnioseko wydanie karty pobytu czonka rodz<strong>in</strong>yobywatela UE) should have enclosed asappropriate:1) certicate of registration of residence ofa Union citizen issued to the Union citizenwith whom the family member <strong>in</strong>question is stay<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>;2) photographs;3) document conrm<strong>in</strong>g one’s marriagewith a Union citizen (spouse);4) document conrm<strong>in</strong>g the existence offamily ties <strong>and</strong> document con rm<strong>in</strong>gage or dependence on a Union citizen(descendants);5) document con rm<strong>in</strong>g the existence offamily ties <strong>and</strong> document con rm<strong>in</strong>gdependence on a Union citizen (ascendants).The residence is considered cont<strong>in</strong>uousif the person <strong>in</strong> question has notleft Pol<strong>and</strong> for longer than 6 months <strong>in</strong>one year (total). This period does not<strong>in</strong>clude residence beyond the territoryof Pol<strong>and</strong> due to m<strong>and</strong>atory militaryservice or serious personal situation, <strong>in</strong>particular due to pregnancy, childbirth,illness, studies, vocational tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g ordelegation, provided this period doesnot exceed 12 consecutive months.Union citizens who acquired the right ofpermanent residence will receive, upontheir request, a certificate of the right ofpermanent residence (dokument potwierdzajcyprawo staego pobytu).Family members without Union citizenshipwho acquired the right of permanent residenceare obliged to obta<strong>in</strong> a Union citizenfamily member permanent residencecard (karta staego pobytu czonka rodz<strong>in</strong>yobywatela UE).Application for the right of permanentresidence (wniosek o przyznanie prawastaego pobytu) should be submitted perso-2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 7


Residence<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>nally to the voivod competent for the placeof residence of the Union citizen. Applicationfor the certificate of the right ofpermanent residence (wniosek o wydaniedokumentu potwierdzajcego prawo staegopobytu) or for a Union citizen family memberpermanent residence card (wniosek o wydaniekarty staego pobytu czonka rodz<strong>in</strong>yobywatela UE) should have enclosedphotographs <strong>and</strong> a valid travel documentshould be produced upon submission. Unioncitizens may produce other document con-rm<strong>in</strong>g their identity <strong>and</strong> citizenship.5. Denial to issue certificate of registrationor Union citizen family memberresidence cardThe voivod denies to issue the abovementioneddocuments if:1) the residence <strong>conditions</strong> provided for <strong>in</strong>the regulations have not been fullled;2) residence of the person <strong>in</strong> question constitutesa threat to defence or security ofthe state or to public safety <strong>and</strong> order,or3) marriage with a Union citizen has beenconcluded as a sham.The voivod is also the competent authorityfor cancellation of residence registration,exchange or issuance of a new certi cateof registration of residence of a Union citizen,issuance, exchange or cancellation ofthe Union citizen family member residencecard, as well as for issuance, exchangeor cancellation of the certicate of the right ofpermanent residence or the Union citizenfamily member permanent residence card.Appeals aga<strong>in</strong>st the voivod’s decisionsmay be led to the Head of the Ofce forForeigners.Addresses of departments competent forforeigners at Voivodeship Ofces whichaccept applications are available at theOfce for Foreigners website:http://www.udsc.gov.pl under ‘Cooperat<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>stitutions’.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.udsc.gov.plOfce for ForeignersAddress registration dutyEU citizens <strong>and</strong> their family membersstay<strong>in</strong>g at locations other than hotels,establishments provid<strong>in</strong>g rooms for thepurposes of work, studies, medical treatmentor recreation are obliged to registertheir temporary residence at thecity or gm<strong>in</strong>a office competent fortheir residence no later than before thelapse of the fourth day follow<strong>in</strong>g theirentry to the territory of Pol<strong>and</strong>.FEES:1) certificate of registration of residenceof a Union citizen: PLN 1 (approx.EUR 0.25);2) certicate of the right of permanent residenceof a Union citizen: PLN 30 (approx.EUR 8);3) Union citizen family member (permanent)residence card: PLN 30 (approx.EUR 8).Apartment leaseApartments for rent can be sought:• on your own, i.e. through ask<strong>in</strong>gfriends, brows<strong>in</strong>g press <strong>and</strong> onl<strong>in</strong>e announcements,post<strong>in</strong>g your own press<strong>and</strong> onl<strong>in</strong>e announcements or putt<strong>in</strong>g8


Residence<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>them <strong>in</strong> locations where you want tolive;• through real property agent – a realproperty agent is an <strong>in</strong>dividual hold<strong>in</strong>gprofessional licence <strong>in</strong> this respect<strong>and</strong> entered <strong>in</strong>to the central registerof real property agents.When decid<strong>in</strong>g to use the professionalassistance of a real property agent, it isworth check<strong>in</strong>g whether the agent holdsprofessional licence <strong>in</strong> this respect <strong>and</strong>whether he or she is has a third party liability<strong>in</strong>surance policy for damages <strong>in</strong>curreddue to agency activities. The M<strong>in</strong>ister ofInfrastructure is competent for issu<strong>in</strong>g professionallicences to real property agents<strong>and</strong> for consider<strong>in</strong>g compla<strong>in</strong>ts aga<strong>in</strong>stthe activity of real property agents. At theM<strong>in</strong>istry of Infrastructure website you may nd excerpt from the register of real propertyagents which enables you to checkat any time whether a given person holdsprofessional licence (http://www.mi.gov.pl,under: ‘Budownictwo, gospodarka przestrzennai mieszkaniowa’, ‘Gospodarka nieruchomociami’<strong>and</strong> ‘Rejestry’).Any activities carried out by a real propertyagent should be preceded by conclusionof an agency contract. The agencycontract should list speci c professionalactivities to be carried out by the agent<strong>and</strong> the related remuneration. The contractshould also specify the agent to be professionallyliable for its implementation,agent’s professional licence number <strong>and</strong>declaration of hold<strong>in</strong>g a third party liability<strong>in</strong>surance policy for damages <strong>in</strong>curred dueto agency activities. The agency contractmust be made <strong>in</strong> writ<strong>in</strong>g.Lease contract may be concluded fora de nite or <strong>in</strong>de nite period. The real propertyowner may term<strong>in</strong>ate the lease contractfor reasons speci ed <strong>in</strong> the act of law.Before execution of the contract, the ownermay request from the lessee to paya deposit secur<strong>in</strong>g liabilities due to apartmentlease (the deposit cannot exceedtwelve times the amount of rent). The depositis refunded with<strong>in</strong> one month follow<strong>in</strong>gthe date the premises are vacated,after deduction of any liabilities for thelessor due to apartment lease.The amount of rent depends on the city,st<strong>and</strong>ard <strong>and</strong> oor area of the apartment.The most expensive apartments are <strong>in</strong>Warsaw <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> other large cities; <strong>in</strong> order tolease an apartment you need to pay:• for a studio: from PLN 1,200 to PLN2,500 (approx. EUR 301 to 628);• for a double-room apartment: from PLN1,350 to PLN 3,500 (approx. EUR 339to 879);• for a triple-room apartment: from PLN1,600 to PLN 5,000 or 6,000 (approx.EUR 402 to 1,256 – 1,507).2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 9


Residence<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>The above rates do not <strong>in</strong>clude utilities.Gas, electricity, heat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> water are usuallynot <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> the rent.Press announcements of apartments forlease <strong>and</strong> for sale can be found <strong>in</strong> Oferta,Metro, Wednesday issue of Gazeta Wyborcza(Nieruchomoci <strong>in</strong>set), as well as atthe follow<strong>in</strong>g onl<strong>in</strong>e portals: www.trader.pl,www.gratka.pl, www.<strong>in</strong>teria.pl, www.wp.pl,www.oferty.net, www.gumtree.pl.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.mi.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of Infrastructurehttp://www.oferty.net/agencjelist of real property agencies broken downby respective voivodeshipsNOTE:Purchase of real propertyUnion citizens do not need to apply forpermit to the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Interior <strong>and</strong>Adm<strong>in</strong>istration if they <strong>in</strong>tend to purchaseseparate residential or commercialpremises, such as a garage or a realproperty not <strong>in</strong>tended for agricultural orforestry use. S<strong>in</strong>ce 1 May 2009, Unioncitizens no longer need to hold a permitfor purchase of the so-called secondhome, i.e. real property <strong>in</strong>tended forresidential or recreational developmentwhich will not be the place of permanentresidence for the foreigner. Unioncitizens are at present obliged to holdpermit for purchase of real property <strong>in</strong>Pol<strong>and</strong> solely <strong>in</strong> the case of purchaseof agricultural <strong>and</strong> forestry real property.Announcements concern<strong>in</strong>g apartments orhouses for sale can be sought <strong>in</strong> press, onl<strong>in</strong>eor at real property agencies. When us<strong>in</strong>gthe assistance of a real property agent it isworth check<strong>in</strong>g whether they hold professionallicence, whether they have third partyliability <strong>in</strong>surance <strong>and</strong> whether they havethe power to act on behalf of the agency<strong>and</strong> to execute contracts. Services of realproperty agencies <strong>in</strong>volve a commissionfee account<strong>in</strong>g for approximately 2 to 3%of the apartment price (for more <strong>in</strong>formationabout real property see Chapter Apartmentlease).A permit from the M<strong>in</strong>ister of Interior <strong>and</strong>Adm<strong>in</strong>istration for purchase of real propertyis necessary <strong>in</strong> the case of purchase ofagricultural or forestry real property (with<strong>in</strong>the period of 12 years follow<strong>in</strong>g Pol<strong>and</strong>’saccession to the European Union, i.e. until1 May 2016). To this end, you need to applyto the M<strong>in</strong>ister of Interior <strong>and</strong> Adm<strong>in</strong>istrationfor permit for the purchase of real property.The permit is issued if:1) the purchase of real property does notthreaten defence or safety of the stateor public order <strong>and</strong> it is not contrary tosocial policy <strong>and</strong> health;2) Union citizen proves circumstancesexist that conrm their connection withPol<strong>and</strong>.Application for permit for the purchase ofreal property should be addressed to theM<strong>in</strong>ister of Interior <strong>and</strong> Adm<strong>in</strong>istration: M<strong>in</strong>isterstwoSpraw Wewntrznych i Adm<strong>in</strong>istracji,Departament Zezwole i Koncesjiul. Batorego 5, 02-591 Warszawa.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.mswia.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of Interior <strong>and</strong> Adm<strong>in</strong>istration10


Residence<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>Driver’s licenceDriver’s licences issued <strong>in</strong> EU MemberStates rema<strong>in</strong> valid on the territory of Pol<strong>and</strong>.In order for Union citizens to obta<strong>in</strong> a Polishdriver’s licence, they should:1) be of age required for a given category(16 years old – A1, B1, T; 18 years old– A, B, B+E, C, C+E, C1, C1+E;21 years old – D, D+E, D1, D1+E);2) hold B category driver’s licence <strong>in</strong> orderto obta<strong>in</strong> C, C1, D or D1 categorydriver’s licence;3) have medical certicate stat<strong>in</strong>g lack ofmedical counter-<strong>in</strong>dications to drive <strong>and</strong>psychological certicate stat<strong>in</strong>g lack ofpsychological counter-<strong>in</strong>dications to drive,if required;4) complete tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g required for speciclicence category;5) pass the state exam required for a givenlicence category;6) stay on the territory of Pol<strong>and</strong> for at least185 days <strong>in</strong> each calendar year due totheir personal or professional connectionsor produce certicate conrm<strong>in</strong>gthey have been study<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> for atleast 6 months.Driver’s licence cannot be issued to persons:1) with regard to whom medical exam<strong>in</strong>ationrevealed active addiction to alcoholor to substances caus<strong>in</strong>g similar effectsto alcohol;2) with regard to whom a valid court judgmenthas been issued prohibit<strong>in</strong>g themto drive – for the period when such prohibitionrema<strong>in</strong>s valid.The obta<strong>in</strong>ed driver’s licence categorieshave been consolidated on the territory ofthe entire European Union.B category driver’s licence entitled,among others, to drive passenger cars.Detailed description of categories ofdriver’s licences can be found at:http://www.krbrd.gov.plMore <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.mi.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of InfrastructureNOTE:Movement of capital<strong>and</strong> paymentsPursuant to Article 63 of the Treaty onthe Function<strong>in</strong>g of the European Union,Pol<strong>and</strong> does not apply any restrictions tothe movement of capital <strong>and</strong> paymentsbetween Member States.Union citizens may carry out any nancialtransactions <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>, consist<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> e.g.open<strong>in</strong>g bank accounts <strong>and</strong> tak<strong>in</strong>g loans orcredits from nancial <strong>in</strong>stitutions seated <strong>in</strong>Pol<strong>and</strong>. Union citizens may also freelytransfer abroad the cash sent to Pol<strong>and</strong><strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>come generated <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>.In certa<strong>in</strong> cases <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> accordance with EUlegislation, to such transactions <strong>and</strong> operationscontrol procedures may apply aimedat counteract<strong>in</strong>g money launder<strong>in</strong>g or -nanc<strong>in</strong>g of terrorism. They consist <strong>in</strong> identi-cation of clients <strong>and</strong> registration of transactions.Control, also <strong>in</strong> order to counteract thosenegative activities, applies to import to Pol<strong>and</strong><strong>and</strong> export from Pol<strong>and</strong> of cash exceed<strong>in</strong>gthe equivalent of EUR 10,000 <strong>and</strong>gold <strong>and</strong> plat<strong>in</strong>um <strong>in</strong> the form of foreigncurrency (bars, co<strong>in</strong>s, semi-products) regardlessof their quantity. Such funds <strong>and</strong>2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 11


Residence<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>foreign currency should be declared <strong>in</strong>writ<strong>in</strong>g to Polish customs authorities orBorder Guard authorities when enter<strong>in</strong>gor leav<strong>in</strong>g Pol<strong>and</strong> 1 . However, obligation todeclare such funds <strong>and</strong> foreign exchangedoes not apply to cross<strong>in</strong>g the border ofPol<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> another Schengen Area state.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.mf.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of F<strong>in</strong>ance1S<strong>in</strong>ce 15 June 2007 import <strong>and</strong> export of cash <strong>in</strong> allEU Member States has been governed by Regulation(EC) No 1889/2005 of the European Parliament<strong>and</strong> of the Council of 26 October 2005 on controlsof cash enter<strong>in</strong>g or leav<strong>in</strong>g the Community (OJ L 309of 25.11.2005, p.9).12


Work<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>In practice, on 17 January 2011 theright to work <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> without the needto obta<strong>in</strong> a work permit has coveredthe citizens of Austria, Belgium, Denmark,France, the Netherl<strong>and</strong>s, Liechtenste<strong>in</strong>,Luxembourg, Germany, Norway<strong>and</strong> Switzerl<strong>and</strong>. Citizens of otherEU Member States had received thisright earlier, <strong>in</strong> accordance with thepr<strong>in</strong>ciple of reciprocity laid down <strong>in</strong> theTreaty.This means that any:1) citizen of a European Union MemberState;2) citizen of a member state of theEuropean Economic Area otherthan European Union Member State,<strong>and</strong>3) citizen of a state not party to theAgreement on the European EconomicArea who may benefit fromthe free movement of persons <strong>in</strong>accordance with agreements concludedby those states with theEuropean Community <strong>and</strong> itsMember States may take up work<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> without the need to obta<strong>in</strong>a work permit.Citizens of Bulgaria <strong>and</strong> Romania maytake up work <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> without any restrictionsfrom 1 January 2007, i.e. fromthe date of accession of those states tothe European Union.To citizens of Bulgaria <strong>and</strong> Romania,provisions of the Act of 20 April 2004 onemployment promotion <strong>and</strong> labour market<strong>in</strong>stitutions (Dz.U. No. 99, item 1001as amended), releas<strong>in</strong>g Union citizensfrom the obligation to obta<strong>in</strong> work permit,directly apply.1. Employment contract (umowa o prac)The ma<strong>in</strong> form of employment <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> isan employment contract. It is also the mostadvantageous contract <strong>in</strong> terms of additionalrights, so-called employee entitlements. Mattersrelated to employment contracts havebeen regulated <strong>in</strong> the Labour Code.As a rule, Union citizens conclud<strong>in</strong>gemployment contracts with Polish employersare subject to Polish labour lawregulations.The follow<strong>in</strong>g types of employment contractshave been provided for <strong>in</strong> the Labour Code:• employment contracts for a probationperiod – such contracts may precede anyother contract, yet they cannot be concludedfor a period longer than 3 months;• employment contracts for a def<strong>in</strong>iteperiod – i.e. for a specic period. TheLabour Code limits the number of suchcontracts concluded with one employee.If the employment contract for a deniteperiod has been concluded twice for twoconsecutive periods, the next contract istreated, <strong>in</strong> terms of legal effects, as anemployment contract for an <strong>in</strong>denite period(even if ofcially it has been concludedfor a denite period). Such an effect,i.e. conclusion of an employment contractfor an <strong>in</strong>denite period, occurs <strong>in</strong> a situationwhen the <strong>in</strong>terval between term<strong>in</strong>ationof the previous employment contractfor a denite period <strong>and</strong> conclusion of thenext employment contract for a deniteperiod does not exceed 1 month.Between 22 August 2009 <strong>and</strong> 31 December2011, employers be<strong>in</strong>g entrepreneursare obliged to comply with the rule accord<strong>in</strong>gto which the period of employment on2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 15


Work<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>the basis of an employment contract fora denite period, as well as total periodof employment on the basis of consecutiveemployment contracts for a denite periodbetween the same parties to labour relationship,cannot exceed 24 months. Thenext contract is considered a contract concludedbefore the lapse of 3 months follow<strong>in</strong>gthe term<strong>in</strong>ation or expiry of the previousemployment contract concluded fora denite period 2 .• employment contracts for the periodof performance of specific work;• employment contracts for <strong>in</strong>def<strong>in</strong>iteperiod.Conclusion of an employment contractAn employment contract should be made <strong>in</strong>writ<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> specify parties to the contract,type of contract, date of its execution <strong>and</strong>terms <strong>and</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> of work <strong>and</strong> remuneration,<strong>in</strong> particular:• type of work;• place where the work is to be performed;• date of commencement of work;• remuneration for work correspond<strong>in</strong>g tothe type of work, with <strong>in</strong>dication of remunerationcomponents;• <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> time.If the employment contract has not beenconcluded <strong>in</strong> writ<strong>in</strong>g, the employer should,no later than on the date of commencementof work by the employee,conrm <strong>in</strong> writ<strong>in</strong>g the arrangements regard<strong>in</strong>gthe type of contract, parties tothe contract <strong>and</strong> its provisions.2Restrictions regard<strong>in</strong>g conclusion of contractsfor a def<strong>in</strong>ite period by entrepreneurs have been<strong>in</strong>troduced by the Act of 1 July 2009 on mitigationof effects of the economic crisis for employees<strong>and</strong> employers.Amendment of provisions of an employmentcontractProvisions of an employment contract shouldbe amended <strong>in</strong> writ<strong>in</strong>g:• upon mutual agreement of the parties(with both the employer <strong>and</strong> theemployee consent<strong>in</strong>g for amendment ofcontractual provisions <strong>and</strong> specify<strong>in</strong>gthe date from which the amendmentswould become effective);• by the employer through term<strong>in</strong>ationamend<strong>in</strong>g terms <strong>and</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> regard<strong>in</strong>gwork <strong>and</strong> remuneration.In such situation, the employee may:– declare their consent for the proposedterms <strong>and</strong> <strong>conditions</strong>; after the noticeperiod, the new terms <strong>and</strong> <strong>conditions</strong>would become effective;– declare their lack of consent for the proposedterms <strong>and</strong> <strong>conditions</strong>; after thenotice period, the employment contractwould be dissolved;– make no declaration, which would implyconsent for the new terms <strong>and</strong> <strong>conditions</strong>;after the notice period, the newterms <strong>and</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> would become effective.Term<strong>in</strong>ation of an employment contractEmployment contract may be term<strong>in</strong>ated:• upon agreement of the parties;• by way of declaration of one of the partiesupon notice;• by way of declaration of one of the partieswithout prior notice;• upon the lapse of the period for whichit has been concluded;• on the date of completion of the work forthe purposes which it has been concluded.16


Work<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>Term<strong>in</strong>ation of an employment contractupon agreement of the parties – boththe employer <strong>and</strong> the employee consentfor term<strong>in</strong>ation of the employment contractwith<strong>in</strong> the deadl<strong>in</strong>e agreed upon by theparties.Term<strong>in</strong>ation of an employment contractupon notice – the employment contractis term<strong>in</strong>ated through a written declarationof the employee or the employer uponnotice.The period of notice of an employmentcontract concluded for an <strong>in</strong>de niteperiod depends on the period of employmentby a given employer. Thenotice is respectively 2 weeks if the employeehas been employed for less than6 months, 1 month if the employee hasbeen employed for at least 6 months,<strong>and</strong> 3 months if the employee has beenemployed for at least 3 years. In theevent of contracts for denite periodlonger than 6 months, the parties mayprovide for their early term<strong>in</strong>ation upon2 weeks’ notice.Term<strong>in</strong>ation of an employment contractwithout prior notice – the employmentcontract is term<strong>in</strong>ated through a writtendeclaration of the employee or the employerwithout prior notice. The employermay term<strong>in</strong>ate an employment contract <strong>in</strong>such a way due to employee’s fault <strong>in</strong> thecase when:• the employee has committed a gravebreach of their basic employee duties;• dur<strong>in</strong>g the validity period of the employmentcontract, the employee has committedan offence which prevents themto be further employed at their currentposition, if the offence is obvious or ithas been stated by way of a valid judgment;• the employee has lost licence necessaryfor their performance of work at theircurrent position due to their own fault;or for reasons other than employee’sfault:• <strong>in</strong> the case when the employee is <strong>in</strong>capablefor work due to illness last<strong>in</strong>g fora specic period, <strong>in</strong> accordance with thelabour law;• <strong>in</strong> the event of a justied absence of theemployee at work for reasons other thanillness, last<strong>in</strong>g for more than 1 month.The employee may term<strong>in</strong>ate the employmentcontract without prior notice:• if, by way of a medical op<strong>in</strong>ion, harmfulimpact of the performed work on theemployee’s health is stated <strong>and</strong> theemployer fails to move them to anotherwork that would be more appropriate fortheir health <strong>and</strong> professional qualicationwith<strong>in</strong> the deadl<strong>in</strong>e specied <strong>in</strong> themedical op<strong>in</strong>ion;• if the employer commits a grave breachof their basic obligations towards theemployee.Work<strong>in</strong>g timeWork<strong>in</strong>g time cannot exceed 8 hours perday <strong>and</strong> on average 40 hours per averageve-day <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> week <strong>in</strong> a given settlementperiod. Weekly <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> time <strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g overtimecannot exceed on average 48 hours <strong>in</strong>a given settlement period. In the calendaryear, an employee can work the maximumof 150 hours overtime due to special needsof the employer.Work<strong>in</strong>g overtime entitles the employee toreceive additional remuneration or time offwork.2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 17


Work<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>Remuneration for workRemuneration for work should be agreed <strong>in</strong>such a way so as to correspond to the typeof performed work <strong>and</strong> qualications requiredfor performance of such work, as wellas to take <strong>in</strong>to account the quantity <strong>and</strong>quality of the performed work.Terms <strong>and</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> regard<strong>in</strong>g remunerationfor work are determ<strong>in</strong>ed by companycollective agreements or by supra-companycollective agreements (concluded byemployers where company trade unionsexist), regulations for determ<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g remuneration(<strong>in</strong> the case of employers hav<strong>in</strong>g atleast 20 employees not covered by companyor supra-company collective agreements),<strong>and</strong> employment contracts. Remunerationis paid for the performed work.The employee keeps their right to remunerationfor the time when work has not beenperformed only if labour law regulations soprovide. Remuneration is paid at least oncea month on a date that is xed <strong>and</strong> agreed<strong>in</strong> advance.In order to protect remuneration for work,Polish Labour Code provides that an employeecannot waive their right to remunerationor transfer it to a third person.Pol<strong>and</strong> has a statutorily guaranteedm<strong>in</strong>imum remuneration for work. Atpresent it amounts to gross PLN 1,386(as of 1 January 2011) for full-time employees.Holiday leaveHoliday leave for a full-time employee <strong>in</strong>a calendar year is:• 20 days if the employee has been employedfor less than 10 years;• 26 days if the employee has been employedfor at least 10 years.In a calendar year, an employee tak<strong>in</strong>g uptheir rst job is entitled to holiday leaveupon the lapse of each month of work <strong>in</strong> theamount of 1/12 of the holiday leave theywould be entitled upon the lapse of oneyear of work.Holiday leave for a part-time employee isdeterm<strong>in</strong>ed proportionally to the <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong>time of that employee.Upon employee’s request, the leave maybe divided <strong>in</strong>to parts. In such case at leastone part of the leave should take no lessthan 14 consecutive calendar days.The employee is entitled to remunerationfor the period of leave <strong>in</strong> the amountthey would receive if they were <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong>at the time.Other types of leave <strong>and</strong> time off workApart from holiday leave, the Labour Codeprovides for the follow<strong>in</strong>g types of leave:• unpaid leave granted upon a writtenrequest of the employee (the leave isnot <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> the period of work onwhich employee entitlements depend);• maternity leave for female employeeswho have given birth, <strong>in</strong> the amount of:– 20 weeks <strong>in</strong> the case of one childdelivered at one childbirth;– 31 weeks <strong>in</strong> the case of 2 childrendelivered at one childbirth;– 33, 35 or 37 weeks <strong>in</strong> the case of 3,4 or 5 <strong>and</strong> more children delivered atone childbirth.Such employee is also entitled to additionalmaternity leave granted upon their requestdirectly after the end of maternity leave, <strong>in</strong>the amount of:– up to 2 weeks <strong>in</strong> the case of one childdelivered at one childbirth;18


Work<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>– up to 3 weeks <strong>in</strong> the case of morethan one child delivered at one childbirth.Part of the maternity leave can be used byan employee be<strong>in</strong>g the father br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g upthe child.For the period of maternity leave, anemployee is entitled to receive maternitybenet account<strong>in</strong>g for 100% of remuneration.• paternity leave for an employee be<strong>in</strong>gthe father br<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g up the child,upon their request, until the child reachesthe age of 12 months; the leaveis 1 week. Dur<strong>in</strong>g the paternity leave,the employee is entitled to receivea maternity bene t,• parental leave of up to 3 years for anemployee <strong>in</strong> order to take personal careof their child, yet no longer than until thechild reaches the age of 4; <strong>in</strong> order touse this type of leave, the employeeneeds to have been employed for at least6 months. The leave can be used byemployees be<strong>in</strong>g a mother or a father ofthe child;• time off work is also granted e.g. <strong>in</strong>the case of:– marriage of the employee or birth oftheir child or decease <strong>and</strong> funeral ofthe employee’s spouse or child, father,mother, stepfather or stepmother– 2 days;– marriage of the employee’s childor decease <strong>and</strong> funeral of the employee’ssister, brother, mother-<strong>in</strong>-law,father-<strong>in</strong>-law, gr<strong>and</strong>mother, gr<strong>and</strong>fatheror other person dependant onthe employee or under their directcare – 1 day.If the reason for time off work is e.g.marriage, childbirth or funeral, the employeeis entitled to receive the remuneration<strong>in</strong> the amount they would receiveif they were <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> at the time.NOTE:Substantiated periods of employmentof Union citizens abroad at foreignemployers are <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> the periodsof employment <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> for the purposesof employee entitlements.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.mpips.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of Labour <strong>and</strong> Social Policyhttp://www.pip.gov.plNational Labour Inspectorate.2. Contract of m<strong>and</strong>ate (umowa zlecenia)Contract of m<strong>and</strong>ate is a frequently usedbasis for performance of work due to thefreedom <strong>in</strong> formulat<strong>in</strong>g such elements ofits content as time or place of work. Thistype of contract is subject to the CivilCode. Contract of m<strong>and</strong>ate is a contractconcluded for a de nite or <strong>in</strong>de nite period.The contractor commits to carry outspeci c activities for the employer. It isa so-called due diligence contract, withcontractor perform<strong>in</strong>g their work as bestas they can. The contractor performs thework be<strong>in</strong>g the subject matter of contracton their own (without the subord<strong>in</strong>ation<strong>and</strong> work supervision requirement which ischaracteristic for employment contracts);the contractor may also determ<strong>in</strong>e thedate <strong>and</strong> place of work (contract of m<strong>and</strong>ateusually determ<strong>in</strong>e only the nal deadl<strong>in</strong>efor the performance of commissioned2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 19


Work<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>work). Contract of m<strong>and</strong>ate can be term<strong>in</strong>atedby any of the parties. If the contractof m<strong>and</strong>ate is term<strong>in</strong>ated by the employer,they should refund the expenditures <strong>in</strong>curredby the contractor <strong>and</strong> pay the part ofremuneration correspond<strong>in</strong>g to their activitiescarried out to date. If the contract isterm<strong>in</strong>ated by the contractor, they are obligedto liquidate the damage suffered bythe employer due to contractor’s failure toimplement the contract.After execution of the contract of m<strong>and</strong>ate,the contractor is subject to social <strong>in</strong>surance<strong>and</strong> tax regulations.3. Contract for specific work (umowao dzieo)Contract for speci c work is also a contractconcluded for a de nite period, subjectto the provisions of the Civil Code. It isa so-called result-based contract, with contractorcommitt<strong>in</strong>g to perform a speci cwork <strong>and</strong> the employer committ<strong>in</strong>g to payremuneration <strong>in</strong> the amount speci ed <strong>in</strong>the contract.Please note that conclusion of a contractof m<strong>and</strong>ate or contract for speci cwork <strong>in</strong> order to bypass social <strong>in</strong>surance<strong>and</strong> employee entitlements regulationsis a misdemeanour. Performanceof work dur<strong>in</strong>g xed <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> hours withthe xed scope of responsibilities <strong>and</strong>under employee’s supervision can beregarded by audit authorities as workperformed under employment contract.Recognition of professionalqualificationsRecognition of professional quali cationsacquired <strong>in</strong> Member States of the Euro-pean Union <strong>and</strong> EFTA – parties to theAgreement on the European EconomicArea, as well as Swiss Confederation, areregulated by Directive 2005/36/EC of theEuropean Parliament <strong>and</strong> of the Councilof 7 September 2005 on the recognitionof professional quali cations (OJ L 255 of30.09.2005, p. 22, as amended) 3 . The Directivehas been implemented to Polishlaw by way of the Act of 18 March 2008 onthe rules govern<strong>in</strong>g recognition of professionalquali cations acquired <strong>in</strong> the EUMember States (Dz.U. No. 63, item 394),as well as by way of separate regulationsfor respective sectoral professions: doctor,dental practitioner, nurse, midwife,pharmacist, veter<strong>in</strong>ary <strong>and</strong> architect,as well as counsellor at law <strong>and</strong> barrister.Recognition of professional qualicationsis based on:• sectoral qualications recognition system;• general qualications recognition system.1) Sectoral qualifications recognitionsystem is a system of automatic recognitionof quali cations cover<strong>in</strong>g sevenregulated professions: doctor (general<strong>and</strong> specialised practitioner),dental practitioner, pharmacist, generalnurse, midwife, veter<strong>in</strong>ary <strong>and</strong> architect.The fact that a person <strong>in</strong> questionhas appropriate quali cations speci ed3Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament<strong>and</strong> of the Council of 7 September 2005 on therecognition of professional qualifications (OJ L 255of 30.09.2005, p. 22, as amended) consolidatedthe so-called general system directives (89/48,92/51, 99/42) <strong>and</strong> the so-called sectoral systemdirectives separate for the professions of: doctor,dental practitioner, veter<strong>in</strong>ary, pharmacist, nurse,midwife <strong>and</strong> architect.20


Work<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong> the Directive (<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g e.g. diplomaor professional title referred to <strong>in</strong> Directive2005/36/EC) is suf cient for recognitionof quali cations <strong>and</strong> for tak<strong>in</strong>g upwork.2) General qualifications recognitionsystem is a system of recognition ofqualications for regulated professions<strong>and</strong> activities other than the ones coveredby sectoral qualications recognitionsystem. They are not recognisedautomatically, but considered <strong>in</strong>dividuallyby competent authorities ofthe host state. If the differences betweentra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g or pursuit of a givenprofession are signi cant, the competentauthority may condition recognitionof quali cations on application ofone of compensation measures, i.e.adaptation period or aptitude test,whereas <strong>in</strong> most cases the choice ismade by the applicant. Professionalexperience of the person apply<strong>in</strong>g forrecognition of quali cations is also taken<strong>in</strong>to account.Application for recognition of professionalquali cations with appropriate annexesshould be submitted to the <strong>in</strong>stitution <strong>in</strong>dicatedas the authority competent for recognitionof qualications for pursuit of a givenregulated profession.In the event when de ciencies <strong>in</strong> documentationare revealed, the competentauthority will request the applicant to completeit. Decision on recognition of professionalquali cations should be issued with<strong>in</strong>3 months from the date when completedocumentation of the case has been submitted;<strong>in</strong> exceptional cases this deadl<strong>in</strong>ecan be extended to 4 months.Dur<strong>in</strong>g the qualications recognition proceed<strong>in</strong>gsthe competent authority may requestan op<strong>in</strong>ion on the foreign level ofeducation of the applicant at the M<strong>in</strong>istry ofScience <strong>and</strong> Higher Education or at theschool <strong>in</strong>spectorate.Provision of cross-border servicesUnion citizens who pursue their professionor activity <strong>in</strong> one EU Member Stateare entitled to provide services on theterritory of another Member State with regardto the same profession or activitywithout the need to recognise their professionalquali cations. In the case of professionsrelated to health or public safety, thecompetent authority may verify provider’sprofessional quali cations (so-called priorcheck) 4 .NOTE:Union citizens who have professionalquali cations acquired <strong>in</strong> one of theEU Member States <strong>and</strong> who would liketo pursue their profession <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>should rst check whether their professionis a regulated profession <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>(the list of regulated professionscan be found at the website of the M<strong>in</strong>istryof Science <strong>and</strong> Higher Education):http://www.nauka.gov.pl/szkolnictwo-wyzsze/mobilnosc-akademicka-izawodowa/uznawanie-kwalikacji-zawodowych/4The list of professions related to health <strong>and</strong>public safety has been provided for <strong>in</strong> theOrd<strong>in</strong>ance of the Prime M<strong>in</strong>ister of 5 March2009 on specification of regulated professionswith regard to which qualifications recognitionproceed<strong>in</strong>gs can be <strong>in</strong>itiated (Dz.U. No. 38, item302).2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 21


Work<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>A regulated profession is a professionthe pursuit of which is subject to the possessionof specic professional qualicationsspecied by legal regulations.In Pol<strong>and</strong> over 300 professions are regulated(<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g specialities <strong>and</strong> positions).If a profession is not regulatedthere is no need to ofcially recogniseprofessional qualications <strong>and</strong> the decisionregard<strong>in</strong>g employment is made bythe employer.The list of regulated professions <strong>and</strong> activities,necessary documents to be submitted<strong>in</strong> order to recognise professional qualicationsas well as detailed <strong>in</strong>formation aboutrecognition of professional qualicationsare available at the website of the Polishprofessional qualications recognition <strong>in</strong>formationcentre: http://www.nauka.gov.pl/szkolnictwo-wyzsze/mobilnosc-akademicka-i-zawodowa/uznawanie-kwalifikacjizawodowych/Address:M<strong>in</strong>isterstwo Naukii Szkolnictwa Wyszegoul. Wspólna 1/300-529 WarszawaTelephone No.: +48 22 628 67 76Fax: +48 22 628 35 34E-mail: kwalikacje@mnisw.gov.plhttp://www.nauka.gov.pl22


TaxesThe follow<strong>in</strong>g types of taxes apply <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>:1) direct taxes:• Personal Income Tax (PIT),• Corporate Income Tax (19% CITapplies <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>);2) <strong>in</strong>direct taxes:• Value Added Tax (VAT, also referredto as the Goods <strong>and</strong> Services Tax;Pol<strong>and</strong> has 4 VAT rates: 23%, 8%,5% <strong>and</strong> 0%),• Excise Tax,• Gambl<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> Lottery Tax;3) property taxes:• Inheritance <strong>and</strong> Donation Tax,• Civil Law Transactions Tax,• Agricultural Tax,• Forestry Tax,• Real Property Tax,• Vehicle Tax.Personal Income Tax is levied on all <strong>in</strong>dividualsgenerat<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>come. This ruledoes not apply to <strong>in</strong>come exempted fromtax <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>come on which tax collection hasbeen waived. Persons whose place ofresidence is <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> to whom theso-called unlimited tax obligation apply aresubject to tax obligation with regard totheir entire <strong>in</strong>come regardless of the locationof the sources of <strong>in</strong>come. Personswithout place of residence <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>are subject to the so-called limitedtax obligation. This means that only <strong>in</strong>comegenerated on the territory of Pol<strong>and</strong>is subject to taxation, e.g. <strong>in</strong>come fromwork performed <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> on the basis ofservice or employment relationship (regardlessof the location where the remunerationis paid), or <strong>in</strong>come from bus<strong>in</strong>essactivity pursued on the territory of Pol<strong>and</strong>through an establishment.Method of <strong>in</strong>come tax calculation dependson the source of revenue on the basis ofwhich the <strong>in</strong>come has been generated.The follow<strong>in</strong>g tax calculation methods canbe used:• progressive tax scaleProgressive tax scale applies e.g. to <strong>in</strong>comefrom contract work or pensions.Taxpayers us<strong>in</strong>g progressive tax scaleto their <strong>in</strong>come, unless they do not meetthe <strong>conditions</strong> provided for by the law,may take advantage of jo<strong>in</strong>t spouses’taxation <strong>and</strong> preferential tax rates for s<strong>in</strong>gleparents.Tax returns for a given year are submittedon an appropriate form by 30 Aprilof the year follow<strong>in</strong>g the year of thereturn to the tax ofce competent fortaxpayer’s place of residence.Applicable scale for Personal Income Tax:Tax assessment basis <strong>in</strong> PLNoverup to85,52885,528Amount of tax18% m<strong>in</strong>us the deductibleamount of PLN 556.02PLN 14,839.02 + 32%of surplus over PLN 85,5282011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 23


Taxes• flat-rate <strong>in</strong>come taxFlat-rate <strong>in</strong>come tax applies e.g. to w<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>gs<strong>in</strong> games of chance, <strong>in</strong>terest <strong>and</strong> discounton securities, <strong>in</strong>terest on cash (unrelated tothe pursued bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity) accumulatedon the taxpayer’s bank account.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.mf.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of F<strong>in</strong>ancehttp://www.podatki.pltax <strong>in</strong>formation portal run by a privateorganisation.• taxation of <strong>in</strong>come (revenue) fromnon-agricultural bus<strong>in</strong>ess activityThe ma<strong>in</strong> form of taxation of <strong>in</strong>come fromnon-agricultural bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity is generalrules based on progressive tax scale. Incomefrom non-agricultural bus<strong>in</strong>ess activitycan also be subject to a 19% tax rate if thetaxpayer so chooses, submitt<strong>in</strong>g to thecompetent head of the tax ofce a writtendeclaration of selection of such taxationmethod. Tax return for a given year is submittedon a separate form to the competenttax ofce by 30 April of the year follow<strong>in</strong>gthe year of the return.Taxpayers may also choose, unless theydo not meet speci c <strong>conditions</strong>, one of the at-rate forms of taxation of <strong>in</strong>come (revenue)generated from non-agriculturalbus<strong>in</strong>ess activity, i.e. at-rate on registered<strong>in</strong>come or at-rate tax card.• consolidated 19% tax rateConsolidated 19% tax rate applies to certa<strong>in</strong>capital <strong>in</strong>come (e.g. from paid disposalof securities or derivatives), for whichthe <strong>in</strong>come is settled <strong>in</strong> a separate returnsubmitted with<strong>in</strong> the deadl<strong>in</strong>e speciedabove.24


Carry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>essactivityPolish law offers a broad range of availablelegal forms which guarantees the possibilityto choose between <strong>in</strong>dividual carry<strong>in</strong>gout of a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity, a civil law partnership,a non-corporate partnership, <strong>and</strong>a company. The factors which determ<strong>in</strong>ethe nal decision concern<strong>in</strong>g the form are,<strong>in</strong>ter alia, the requirements connected withthe <strong>in</strong>itial capital, scope of responsibility ofpartners, <strong>and</strong> formalities connected withthe establishment of a company.An entrepreneur can start a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activityon the day of submitt<strong>in</strong>g the applicationfor the entry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>ess Activity Registeror after receiv<strong>in</strong>g the entry <strong>in</strong>to theRegister of Entrepreneurs <strong>in</strong> the NationalCourt Register. A company <strong>in</strong> an organisationcan start a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity before receiv<strong>in</strong>gthe entry <strong>in</strong>to the Register of Entrepreneurs.NOTE:An EU citizen can carry out a bus<strong>in</strong>essactivity <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> on the same basis asa Polish citizen.Individual carry<strong>in</strong>gout of a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activityas a natural personCarry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity on thebasis of the entry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>ess ActivityRegister concerns a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity carriedout on the basis of its own capital.In order to carry out such a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity,the EU citizen shall undertake the follow<strong>in</strong>gactivities:Activity 1 – submitt<strong>in</strong>g an application for theentry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>ess Activity RegisterAn application for the entry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>essActivity Register shall be submitted <strong>in</strong>the city office or gm<strong>in</strong>a office – with jurisdictionover the place of carry<strong>in</strong>g outa bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity. The application for theentry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>ess Activity Registercan be submitted <strong>in</strong> person, sent as a recordeddelivery letter (then the applicationhas to be signed by the applicant, whichhas to be done <strong>in</strong> the form of a notarial act)or <strong>in</strong> an electronic version by send<strong>in</strong>g theapplication form available on the websiteof the city of ce or gm<strong>in</strong>a ofce signed bymeans of an electronic signature (if not,the of ce shall <strong>in</strong>form the applicant aboutthe date <strong>and</strong> place of sign<strong>in</strong>g the application).The register<strong>in</strong>g authority makes anentry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>ess Activity Registerimmediately after receiv<strong>in</strong>g the signed application<strong>and</strong> delivers the certi cate of theentry to an entrepreneur.(From 1 July 2011 the application can bealso submitted on one’s own by meansof a special national webpage <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> anygm<strong>in</strong>a ofce <strong>and</strong> Revenue Ofce, regardlessof the place of liv<strong>in</strong>g or carry<strong>in</strong>g outa bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity).Data from the application for the entry <strong>in</strong>tothe Bus<strong>in</strong>ess Activity Register are sent,without the participation of an entrepreneur,to the Revenue Ofce, Statistical Ofce,<strong>and</strong> Social Insurance Company or Farmers’Social Security Fund of proper jurisdictionalong with the copy of a certicate of theentry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>ess Activity Register.The application for the entry <strong>in</strong>to theBus<strong>in</strong>ess Activity Register is at thesame time the application for REGONnumber assignment, the application forNIP number assignment (Tax IdentificationNumber) <strong>and</strong> the declaration ofa social security premiums payer to theSocial Insurance Company.2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 25


Carry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>essactivityREGON register is a computer set of<strong>in</strong>formation about national economy entities(not only entrepreneurs). It providesgeneral characteristics of entitiesfunction<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> is the basisfor creat<strong>in</strong>g databases <strong>and</strong> data banksabout these entities.NIP number (Tax Identification Number)is a ten-number code for the identi-cation of entities which pay taxes <strong>in</strong>Pol<strong>and</strong>.Social security premiums (pension,disability pension, sickness, accident)<strong>and</strong> health <strong>in</strong>surance premiums shall bepaid monthly.The follow<strong>in</strong>g data shall be <strong>in</strong>cluded <strong>in</strong> theapplication form:• designation of an entrepreneur <strong>and</strong> theirPESEL identication number, if theyhave one;• designation of an entrepreneur’s placeof liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>and</strong> address, if they permanentlycarry out a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activityoutside the place of liv<strong>in</strong>g – <strong>in</strong>dicat<strong>in</strong>gthe place <strong>and</strong> address of the ma<strong>in</strong>company;• an entrepreneur’s NIP number, if theyhave one;• specify<strong>in</strong>g the classication of activity(<strong>in</strong> accordance with the Polish Classicationof Activity (PKD);• specify<strong>in</strong>g the date of the beg<strong>in</strong>n<strong>in</strong>g ofa bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity;• telephone number <strong>and</strong> e-mail address,if an entrepreneur has one.The application for the entry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>essActivity Register is free of charge.(After 1 July 2011 it will be necessary towrite an entrepreneur’s date of birth <strong>in</strong> theapplication form, <strong>in</strong>formation about theircitizenship <strong>and</strong> prenuptial agreement,<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>formation about civil law partnerships,if an entrepreneur concluded suchcontracts. It will also be possible tochoose the form of taxation of personal<strong>in</strong>come tax).Activity 2 – mak<strong>in</strong>g a stamp with thecompany’s nameA stamp with the company’s name canbe needed to perform nancial <strong>and</strong> bankactions. It shall conta<strong>in</strong> (at least) the follow<strong>in</strong>gdata: full company’s name, company’sseat <strong>and</strong> Tax Identi cation NumberNIP.Activity 3 – open<strong>in</strong>g a company’s bankaccountAn entrepreneur <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> is not obligedto have a personal or company’s bank26


Carry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>essactivityActivity 4 – choos<strong>in</strong>g a form of taxation <strong>in</strong>the Revenue OfceAn entrepreneur is obliged to choosea form of taxation, before the date of start<strong>in</strong>ga bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity, or on the date ofstart<strong>in</strong>g a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity. In order to dothis, they shall go to the Revenue Of ceor send <strong>in</strong>formation by mail. There are thefollow<strong>in</strong>g possibilities to choose from:• xed amount tax;• lump-sum tax on registered revenue;• revenue <strong>and</strong> expense ledger (scale oftaxation, at tax);• <strong>in</strong>tegrated accounts.account. Nevertheless, hav<strong>in</strong>g a bankaccount is necessary when mak<strong>in</strong>g big -nancial transactions <strong>and</strong> it facilitates arrang<strong>in</strong>gformalities <strong>in</strong> ofces. In order to opena bank account it is required to have, depend<strong>in</strong>gon the requirements applied byparticular banks:• an identity card;• before 1 July 2011 a copy of the certicateof the entry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>ess ActivityRegister (the orig<strong>in</strong>al available for<strong>in</strong>spection);• sometimes a copy of the certicate ofREGON number assignment (the orig<strong>in</strong>alavailable for <strong>in</strong>spection);• sometimes a stamp with the company’sname.The Revenue Of ce shall be <strong>in</strong>formedabout open<strong>in</strong>g a company’s bank account.After 1 July 2011 the selection of the formof taxation can be done <strong>in</strong> the applicationform for the entry <strong>in</strong>to the Bus<strong>in</strong>ess ActivityRegister.It has to be declared <strong>in</strong> the Revenue Of cewhether a company will be VAT withhold<strong>in</strong>gagent.Addresses of <strong>in</strong>dividual Revenue Ofcesare available on the website:http://www. pit.pl/urzedyskarbowe/Activity 5 – notication concern<strong>in</strong>g the premises,where a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity will becarried outInformation about the premises which arethe company’s seat shall be given to thecity office or gm<strong>in</strong>a office due to the necessityto pay real property tax.Civil law partnershipA civil law partnership is a non-corporatepartnership; a civil law partnership is notan entrepreneur, it is partners who registeras entrepreneurs <strong>in</strong> the Bus<strong>in</strong>ess ActivityRegister. In order to register a civil lawpartnership it is not required to have capital.Each partner is responsible for a civil2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 27


Carry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>essactivitylaw partnership’s liabilities, without any limitations,with all his assets.28Partnerships1) Registered partnership – the basicform of a partnership. Its characteristicfeature is the scope of partners’ responsibility.They have subsidiary unlimitedresponsibility for registered partnership’sliabilities. Each partner has theright to represent it.2) Professional partnership – designatedonly to work as freelancers, enumerated<strong>in</strong> the Code of CommercialCompanies. Partners <strong>in</strong> a partnershipcan be persons entitled to work <strong>in</strong> thefollow<strong>in</strong>g professions: a lawyer, a pharmacist,an architect, a civil eng<strong>in</strong>eer, anauditor, an <strong>in</strong>surance broker, a tax adviser,a stockbroker, an <strong>in</strong>vestment advisor,an accountant, a doctor, a dentist,a veter<strong>in</strong>ary surgeon, a notary, a nurse,a childbirth assistant, a legal adviser,a patent agent, a property appraiser,<strong>and</strong> a sworn translator. The provisionsconcern<strong>in</strong>g a professional partnershipfavourably regulate the issues of responsibility;a partner <strong>in</strong> a partnership isnot responsible for partnership’s liabilitiescreated due to the fact that the restof partners <strong>in</strong> a partnership are freelancers.Partners <strong>in</strong> a professional partnershipcan appo<strong>in</strong>t the managementboard.3) Limited partnership – is designatedboth for natural <strong>and</strong> legal persons, <strong>and</strong>it enables considerable limitation ofresponsibility. At least one of partners –a general partner – is responsible forpartnership’s liabilities without any limitations;however, the responsibility ofthe rest of partners – limited partners –is limited to a certa<strong>in</strong> amount – comm<strong>and</strong>itesum.4) Limited jo<strong>in</strong>t-stock partnership – isdesignated for carry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>essactivity on a large scale. Accord<strong>in</strong>g tothe law, the m<strong>in</strong>imum contribution isPLN 50,000 (approx. EUR 12,600). Thescope of responsibility <strong>in</strong> a limited jo<strong>in</strong>tstockpartnership is regulated analogicallyto a limited partnership.Companies1) Limited liability company – is a legalperson; both natural <strong>and</strong> legal personscan be the founders of a limited liabilitycompany. A company is responsible forany liabilities with all its assets withoutany limitations. A necessary requirementis share capital of at least PLN5,000 (approx. EUR 1,260). Partners,as a matter of pr<strong>in</strong>ciple, are responsibleup to the amount of share capital.The highest authority of a company isthe assembly of partners. A company isrepresented by the management board(consist<strong>in</strong>g of at least one member) onthe basis set out <strong>in</strong> a company’s articlesof association. A supervisory boardor an audit<strong>in</strong>g committee or both ofthem can be set up <strong>in</strong> a limited liabilitycompany.2) Jo<strong>in</strong>t stock company – is a legal person;both natural <strong>and</strong> legal persons canbe the founders of a jo<strong>in</strong>t stock company.A necessary requirement is sharecapital of at least PLN 100,000 (approx.EUR 25,100). A jo<strong>in</strong>t stock company isresponsible for entity’s liabilities, as amatter of pr<strong>in</strong>ciple, up to the amountof share capital. The highest authority


Carry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>essactivityIn the case of partnerships, companies<strong>and</strong> branches of a foreign entrepreneurit is required to enter them <strong>in</strong>to the Registerof Entrepreneurs <strong>in</strong> the NationalCourt Register.of a company is the Assembly of Shareholders.A jo<strong>in</strong>t stock company is representedby the management board(consist<strong>in</strong>g of at least one member) onthe basis set out <strong>in</strong>a company’s articlesof association. A supervisory boardshall also be established <strong>in</strong> a jo<strong>in</strong>t stockcompany.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.paiz.gov.plPolish Information <strong>and</strong> Foreign InvestmentAgencyhttp://www.mg.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of Economyhttp://www.twoja-rma.plweb portal for small <strong>and</strong> mediumenterprises, carried out by the entityGrupa Bankier.plhttp://bip.ms.gov.pl/pl/rejestry-iewidencje/okrajowy-rejestr-sadowy/the National Court RegisterBranch or representative officeA branch, <strong>in</strong> accordance with the provisionsof the freedom of economic activity,is a separated <strong>and</strong> organisationally <strong>in</strong>dependentpart of a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity carriedout by an entrepreneur beyond its ma<strong>in</strong>seat. The activity of a representative of -ce, on the other h<strong>and</strong>, can <strong>in</strong>clude onlyactivities with<strong>in</strong> the eld of advertisement<strong>and</strong> promotion of a foreign entrepreneur.In the case of a representative of ce, it isrequired to enter it <strong>in</strong>to the Register ofRepresentative Of ces of Foreign Companiescarried out by the M<strong>in</strong>istry of Economy.2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 29


Social security<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>Social security system <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> is of a general<strong>and</strong> compulsory character. Socialsecurity – <strong>in</strong> the eld of selected risks – coverspersons who are, <strong>in</strong>ter alia, employees,persons who work on the basis ofcommission agreements or who carry outa bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity.NOTE:Social security <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> covers EUcitizens on the same basis as Polishcitizens.30Pension <strong>in</strong>surancePension <strong>in</strong>surance is an <strong>in</strong>surance <strong>in</strong> casea person is unable to work because of anold age. Persons who pay premiums, ensuretheir <strong>in</strong>come at the moment of stopp<strong>in</strong>gprofessional work, after achiev<strong>in</strong>g pensionableage.The reform of the pension system entered<strong>in</strong>to force on 1 January 1999. It <strong>in</strong>troduceda three-pillar system:Pillar I is governed by the public <strong>in</strong>stitution– Social Insurance Company,Pillar II is governed by private <strong>in</strong>stitutions– open pension funds (OFE). Anopen pension fund is a legal person,which aim is to collect funds from <strong>in</strong>surancepremiums <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>vest them onthe nancial market. These funds aredesignated for pensions for the openpension fund’s members after achiev<strong>in</strong>gby them pensionable age.Pillar III, voluntary, which is to ensureextra benets for additional premiums|is occupational pension schemes (PPE)<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>dividual retirement accounts(IKE).Pension <strong>in</strong>surance premium is 19.52% ofthe basis of the amount of premium – theamount of premium depends on the <strong>in</strong>suredperson’s <strong>in</strong>come. 12.22% of the basisof the amount of premium is forwarded tothe Social Insurance Company. 7.3% ofthe basis of the amount of premium is forwarded,by means of the Social InsuranceCompany, to a an open pension fund selectedby the <strong>in</strong>sured person. The divisionof the premium between a pension fundwhich is at the Social Insurance Company’sdisposal <strong>and</strong> an open pension fund is obligatoryfor the <strong>in</strong>sured persons born after31 December 1968. Insured persons bornafter 31 December 1948 , <strong>and</strong> before 1 January1969 could jo<strong>in</strong> a selected openpension fund to 31 December 1999. Personsborn before 1 January 1949 could not<strong>and</strong> still cannot jo<strong>in</strong> an open pension fund,their whole premium is forwarded to theSocial Insurance Fund.Pension premium is nanced equally byan employer <strong>and</strong> an <strong>in</strong>sured person, butthe whole premium paid to the open pensionfund is from the part paid by the <strong>in</strong>suredperson. An employer is responsible forpay<strong>in</strong>g premiums to the Social InsuranceCompany.The new pension system is based on thetight connection between the amount ofthe benet <strong>and</strong> the amount of actually paidpremium. The basis for calculat<strong>in</strong>g the pensionis the (total) amount of premiums forpension <strong>in</strong>surance.In accordance with the new pr<strong>in</strong>ciples, pensionshall be granted to women who are atleast 60, <strong>and</strong> men who are at least 65. Thereis no m<strong>in</strong>imum <strong>in</strong>surance period requiredfor grant<strong>in</strong>g the pension.Decisions about grant<strong>in</strong>g pensions aremade by the Social Insurance Company’s


Social security<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>bodies which are of proper jurisdiction dueto the place of liv<strong>in</strong>g of a person who is apply<strong>in</strong>gfor the benet. The proceed<strong>in</strong>gs forgrant<strong>in</strong>g pensions start after submitt<strong>in</strong>g theapplication by an applicant.Disability <strong>in</strong>suranceDisability <strong>in</strong>surance guarantees cash benets<strong>in</strong> case of los<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>come connectedwith the risk of disability (<strong>in</strong>ability to work ordeath of a breadw<strong>in</strong>ner <strong>in</strong> a family). In sucha situation persons who pay disability <strong>in</strong>surancepremiums are granted disabilitypension for <strong>in</strong>capacity for work, whichis a substitution for remuneration or <strong>in</strong>come,<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> the case of death of an <strong>in</strong>suredbreadw<strong>in</strong>ner <strong>in</strong> a family, the members of hisfamily are granted family pension.Premium for disability <strong>in</strong>surance is 6% ofthe basis of the amount of premium, where4.5% is from the funds of an employer, <strong>and</strong>1.5% from the funds of an employee.1. Disability pension for <strong>in</strong>capacity forworkDisability pension for <strong>in</strong>capacity of work canbe granted to an <strong>in</strong>sured person who fullsall of the follow<strong>in</strong>g <strong>conditions</strong>:• is considered a person who is partiallyor entirely unable to work;• has proven contributory <strong>and</strong> non-contributoryperiods;• <strong>in</strong>ability to work started <strong>in</strong> the periodsstrictly set out <strong>in</strong> the Act.A person who is entirely unable to work isa person who lost the ability to do any job.A person who is partially unable to work isa person who to a considerable degree losthis or her ability to do a job which is equivalentto the level of that person’s qualications.Inability to work <strong>and</strong> its level is certied bya board certied occupational medic<strong>in</strong>ephysician from the Social Insurance Companyas the rst certify<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>stance. An applicanthas the right to raise an objectionto the physician’s op<strong>in</strong>ion to the Social InsuranceCompany Medical Board – as thesecond certify<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>stance.2. Family pensionFamily pension is granted to the familymembers (children, widow, widower, parents)of a person who at the moment ofdeath took pension or disability pension for<strong>in</strong>capacity for work, <strong>and</strong> a <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> personwho had the required periods for grant<strong>in</strong>gpension or disability pension for <strong>in</strong>capacityfor work. When analys<strong>in</strong>g the right forfamily pension, it is assumed that a deadperson was entirely unable to work.3. Tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g allowanceTra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g allowance is granted to a personwho fulls the <strong>conditions</strong> for grant<strong>in</strong>g disabilitypension for <strong>in</strong>capacity for work, <strong>and</strong> withreference to whom retra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g has been statedas appropriate due to the <strong>in</strong>ability towork <strong>in</strong> a current profession. It is granted forthe period of 6 months. This period can beshortened or lengthened up to 30 months.The amount of tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g allowance is 75%of the basis of an assessment, <strong>and</strong> whenthe <strong>in</strong>ability to work is the result of an accidentat work or occupational disease –100% of the basis of its assessment.Social security for <strong>in</strong>dustrialaccidents <strong>and</strong> occupationaldiseasesSecurity for <strong>in</strong>dustrial accidents <strong>and</strong> occupationaldiseases covers persons, <strong>in</strong>teralia, employees, persons who work on the2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 31


Social security<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>basis of commission agreements, <strong>and</strong> personscarry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity.Benets for <strong>in</strong>dustrial accidents <strong>and</strong> occupationaldiseases can be granted to a personwho is <strong>in</strong>sured for such cases. Theseare:• sickness benefit – for an <strong>in</strong>sured personwhose <strong>in</strong>ability to work has beencaused by an <strong>in</strong>dustrial accident or occupationaldisease;• rehabilitation benefit – is paid after thesickness benet has nished, if an <strong>in</strong>suredperson is still unable to work, <strong>and</strong>further treatment or rehabilitation givehim a chance to rega<strong>in</strong> ability to work;• compensat<strong>in</strong>g benefit – is for an <strong>in</strong>suredperson who is an employee, whoseremuneration has been lowered due topermanent or long-term damage to hishealth;• one-time compensation – for an <strong>in</strong>suredperson whose health has been damagedpermanently or for a long periodof time, or for the members of a family ofa dead <strong>in</strong>sured person or a person whotook disability pension;• disability pension for an <strong>in</strong>dustrialaccident or occupational disease – isgranted to an <strong>in</strong>sured person regardlessof the period of be<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>sured (even if anaccident took place on the rst day ofwork), <strong>and</strong> to a person whose <strong>in</strong>ability towork started after 18 months from thedate on which the <strong>in</strong>surance nished. Ifa person is aga<strong>in</strong> able to work, <strong>and</strong> atthe same time he loses the right fordisability pension, <strong>and</strong> then he is aga<strong>in</strong>unable to work, the right for disabilitypension is restored regardless of theperiod which passed from the lost of theright for disability pension. Benets for<strong>in</strong>dustrial accidents are not granted if32the only cause of an accident was provenviolation of provisions concern<strong>in</strong>gthe protection of life <strong>and</strong> health by an<strong>in</strong>sured person, which was done deliberatelyor due to gross neglect of duty.Benets are also not granted to an <strong>in</strong>suredperson who contributed considerablyto caus<strong>in</strong>g an accident while be<strong>in</strong>gdrunk or under the <strong>in</strong>uence of <strong>in</strong>toxicat<strong>in</strong>gagents or psychotropic substances;• tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g allowance – is granted toa person with reference to whom retra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>ghas been stated as appropriatedue to the <strong>in</strong>ability to work <strong>in</strong> a currentprofession because of an <strong>in</strong>dustrial accidentor occupational disease;• family pension – for the members ofa family of an <strong>in</strong>sured person who isdead because of an <strong>in</strong>dustrial accidentor occupational disease <strong>and</strong> allowanceto family pension – for an orphan;• attendance allowance – for a personwho is entitled to pension, consideredentirely unable to work <strong>and</strong> existence onhis or her own, or who is over 75;• cover<strong>in</strong>g the costs of treatment – <strong>in</strong>the eld of dentistry <strong>and</strong> preventive vacc<strong>in</strong>ation<strong>and</strong> supply of orthopaedic equipment.Accident security premium is from 0.40%to 8.12% of the basis of a premium assessment<strong>and</strong> is entirely covered from anemployer’s funds.Social security for sickness<strong>and</strong> maternityPersons who are obligatorily <strong>in</strong>sured <strong>in</strong>case of sickness <strong>and</strong> maternity are ma<strong>in</strong>lyemployees. Persons covered by obligatorypension <strong>and</strong> disability pensions, who, <strong>in</strong>ter


Social security<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>alia: work on the basis of an agency agreementor commission contract, carry outa non-agricultural bus<strong>in</strong>ess (a bus<strong>in</strong>essactivity, authors, artists, freelancers) canalso be <strong>in</strong>sured, voluntarily, <strong>in</strong> case of sickness<strong>and</strong> maternity.The amount of premium for <strong>in</strong>surance forsickness <strong>and</strong> maternity is 2.45% of the basisof the premium assessment. Premiumis covered from an <strong>in</strong>sured person’s funds.The follow<strong>in</strong>g benets are paid due to <strong>in</strong>surance<strong>in</strong> case of sickness <strong>and</strong> maternity:• sickness benefitSickness benet is granted to an <strong>in</strong>suredperson who became ill dur<strong>in</strong>g the period ofsickness security. Generally, the right forsickness benefit is granted after the socalledwait<strong>in</strong>g period. A person who is obligatorilycovered by sickness security, ga<strong>in</strong>sthe right for sickness benet after the periodof 30 days of cont<strong>in</strong>uous sickness security.A person who is covered by this securityvoluntarily, ga<strong>in</strong>s it after the period of90 days of cont<strong>in</strong>uous sickness security.Sickness benet is granted to an <strong>in</strong>suredperson <strong>in</strong> the amount of 80% of the basisof an assessment, <strong>and</strong> for the periodof be<strong>in</strong>g hospitalized – <strong>in</strong> the amount of70% of the basis of an assessment.If the <strong>in</strong>ability to work which was causeddue to an accident on the way to or fromwork started dur<strong>in</strong>g pregnancy or concernstissue, cell or organ donors, then sicknessbenet is paid <strong>in</strong> the amount of 100% of thebasis of an assessment.• rehabilitation benefitRehabilitation bene t is granted to an <strong>in</strong>suredperson who can no longer be givensickness bene t but still is unable to work<strong>and</strong> further treatment or rehabilitation givehim a chance to be able to work aga<strong>in</strong>.This bene t is granted for the period necessaryto give him a chance to rega<strong>in</strong>ability to work but not longer than for theperiod of 12 months.• compensat<strong>in</strong>g benefitCompensat<strong>in</strong>g benet is granted only to<strong>in</strong>sured persons who are employees. Thisbenet is granted to employees whose remunerationhas been lowered due to undergo<strong>in</strong>gprofessional rehabilitation or whohave been moved to another post due tothe state of health.• maternity allowanceMaternity allowance is granted to an <strong>in</strong>suredperson who at the time of sickness securityor at the time of child care leave:– gives birth to a child;– takes a child up to 7 years of age forupbr<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g, <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> the case of a childwith regard to whom there has beena decision about an adjournment ofcompulsory education – up to 10 yearsof age, <strong>and</strong> who started legal proceed<strong>in</strong>gsfor adoption <strong>in</strong> the GuardianshipCourt;– takes for upbr<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g, as surrogate parents,except for professional surrogateparents not related to a child, a child upto 7 years of age, <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> the case ofa child with regard to whom there hasbeen a decision about an adjournmentof compulsory education – up to 10 yearsof age.Provisions concern<strong>in</strong>g the right for maternityallowance <strong>in</strong> the case of tak<strong>in</strong>g a child forupbr<strong>in</strong>g<strong>in</strong>g are also to be followed <strong>in</strong> thecase of an <strong>in</strong>sured person.2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 33


Social security<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>under 8, a sick child who is under 14 orother sick member of a family.Attendance allowance is granted for notmore than 60 days <strong>in</strong> a calendar year ifa person takes care of a healthy child whois under 8 or a sick child who is under 14. Ifa person takes care of a sick child who isover 14 or other sick member of a family,the allowance is granted for not more than14 days. The allowance is paid <strong>in</strong> theamount of 80% of the basis of the allowanceassessment.Maternity allowance is paid dur<strong>in</strong>g the periodof maternity leave – for 20 weeks <strong>in</strong> thecase of giv<strong>in</strong>g birth to one child (possiblylonger, <strong>in</strong> the case of giv<strong>in</strong>g birth to morethan one child at a time – from 31 to maximum37 weeks).Maternity allowance can be also grantedto an <strong>in</strong>sured father of a child for the periodof 1 week (from 2012 this period will last2 weeks) as the period of maternity leavewhich can be granted to an employee-fatherrais<strong>in</strong>g a child.The amount of maternity allowance is100% of the basis of the allowanceassessment. The basis of the allowanceassessment is an average monthlyremuneration paid for the period of12 months before a month <strong>in</strong> which theright for allowance is created.Premiums for pension <strong>and</strong> disabilitypension are calculated from maternityallowance (These premiums are nancedfrom the state budget).• attendance allowanceAttendance allowance is granted for theperiod of a special leave, when it is necessaryto take care of a healthy child who isMore <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.zus.plthe Social Insurance CompanyThe bodies which are entitled to decideupon the right for a benet, exam<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g<strong>and</strong> assess<strong>in</strong>g the submitted documentsare only the Social Insurance Company’sbodies of proper jurisdiction due to theplace of liv<strong>in</strong>g of a person who is apply<strong>in</strong>gfor a benet.Information concern<strong>in</strong>g tak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to account<strong>in</strong>surance periods abroad for grant<strong>in</strong>g pension<strong>and</strong> disability pension benets whichare coord<strong>in</strong>ated by the Community is providedas a liaison body by:Foreign Pensions Departmentof the Social Insurance Company:ul. Senatorska 1000-082 WarsawTel.: +48 22 826 05 53Fax. +48 22 827 40 09E-mail: drz@zup.pl34


UnemploymentUnemployment is one of the most seriouseconomic <strong>and</strong> social problems <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>.The unemployment rate has been grow<strong>in</strong>gsuccessively <strong>in</strong> the recent years: <strong>in</strong> 1998 itwas 10.6%, <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> 2002 almost 20%. Thisunfavourable trend changed <strong>in</strong> 2003. Thebiggest drop of the unemployment rate tookplace, however, <strong>in</strong> 2006 when the unemploymentrate fell below 15%, reach<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>September 2008 8.9%. It was the effect ofan economic boom which brought morework offers <strong>and</strong> the growth of the number of<strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> persons. In January 2011 theunemployment rate was 13.0% <strong>and</strong> was by0.1 percentage po<strong>in</strong>t higher than <strong>in</strong> theanalogous period <strong>in</strong> 2010.The characteristic feature of the unemployment<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> is its regional diversication,for example, <strong>in</strong> Mazowieckie <strong>and</strong>Wielkopolskie voivodeship the unemploymentrate <strong>in</strong> January 2011 was 9.8%, <strong>and</strong><strong>in</strong> Warmisko-Mazurskie voivodeship –21.1%. Problems with nd<strong>in</strong>g a job haveyoung people, women <strong>and</strong> the long-term(over a year) unemployed.Public employment services (the networkof voivodeship <strong>and</strong> poviat labour of ces)are there to help <strong>and</strong> give advice to theunemployed <strong>and</strong> persons who look for a job<strong>in</strong> order to get an appropriate employment<strong>and</strong> to employers to nd appropriate employees.With reference to that the employmentservices provide a number of services,<strong>in</strong>clud<strong>in</strong>g: act<strong>in</strong>g as job agency, professionalagency or help<strong>in</strong>g to look for a job <strong>in</strong>an active way. Labour ofces also carry outvarious programmes which support localor regional labour market, register theunemployed <strong>and</strong> persons look<strong>in</strong>g for a job,pay unemployment benets, organise tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>gs<strong>in</strong> order to give the unemployed greaterchances to nd a job. The unemployedcan take part <strong>in</strong> various activities which facilitatetheir professional activation, <strong>in</strong>teralia, <strong>in</strong>tervention works, tra<strong>in</strong>eeship, professionalpreparation <strong>in</strong> the place of work,tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g loans, tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>gs or support of a bus<strong>in</strong>essactivity.On 1 May 2004 Polish public employmentservices became the member of the EuropeanEmployment Services – EURES. Labourofces carry out activities for EURES,especially, <strong>in</strong>ternational employment agencyalong with advisory <strong>in</strong> the eld of earn<strong>in</strong>gmobility on the European labour market.EURES employees – EURES advisors<strong>and</strong> assistants help EU citizens <strong>in</strong> labourofces to nd an appropriate job.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.eures.praca.gov.plnews bullet<strong>in</strong> of Polish EURES serviceshttp://www.psz.praca.gov.plnews bullet<strong>in</strong> of public employmentservices2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 35


UnemploymentNOTE:EU citizens can bene t from the servicesof voivodeship <strong>and</strong> poviat labourof ces on the same basis as Polish citizens.36Unemployment benefitsThe follow<strong>in</strong>g <strong>conditions</strong> have to be fullled<strong>in</strong> order to be granted unemployment bene-t <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>:• registration <strong>in</strong> a poviat labour of ce ofproper jurisdiction concern<strong>in</strong>g the placeof residence (the list of poviat labourof ces is, <strong>in</strong>ter alia, on the webpagehttp://www.psz.praca.gov.pl <strong>in</strong> the bookmark“Addresses of poviat labour of -ces”);• <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> (on the basis of an employmentcontract, a commission agreement,a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity, etc.) for at least365 days <strong>in</strong> the period of 18 months beforethe day of registration <strong>and</strong> achiev<strong>in</strong>gdur<strong>in</strong>g this period <strong>in</strong>come whichis at least equivalent to the m<strong>in</strong>imumremuneration from which premiums forsocial security <strong>and</strong> Labour Fund werepaid;• lack of possibility to be employed or tobe professionally activated with<strong>in</strong> theeld of activities proposed by a poviatlabour ofce (<strong>in</strong> the eld of, for example,<strong>in</strong>tervention works, public works, tra<strong>in</strong>eeship,proposed job offer).The period of be<strong>in</strong>g granted unemploymentbenet depends ma<strong>in</strong>ly on the situation onthe local labour market:• 6 months – for the unemployed who,dur<strong>in</strong>g the period of tak<strong>in</strong>g the benet,live <strong>in</strong> the poviat area, if the unemploymentrate <strong>in</strong> this area as of 30 June ofthe year preced<strong>in</strong>g the day of achiev<strong>in</strong>gthe right for the bene t was not higherthan 150% of the average nationalunemployment rate;• 12 months – for the unemployed who,dur<strong>in</strong>g the period of tak<strong>in</strong>g the benet,live <strong>in</strong> the poviat area, if the unemploymentrate <strong>in</strong> this area as of 30 June ofthe year preced<strong>in</strong>g the day of achiev<strong>in</strong>gthe right for the benet was higher than150% of the average national unemploymentrate or if an unemployed personis over 50 <strong>and</strong> has at least 20-yearperiod which entitles him for the benet,or an unemployed person who supportsat least one child below 15, <strong>and</strong> theunemployed person’s spouse is alsounempployed <strong>and</strong> lost the right for thebenet s<strong>in</strong>ce the period of tak<strong>in</strong>g it hasnished (after the day of achiev<strong>in</strong>g theright for the benet by the spouse).The amount of unemployment benet dependsalso on work experience <strong>and</strong> fulll<strong>in</strong>gadditional <strong>conditions</strong>:• basic benet (100%) <strong>in</strong> the period of therst three months – PLN 742.10 (approx.EUR 187);• basic benet (100%) <strong>in</strong> the period of nextmonths of hav<strong>in</strong>g the right for the benet– PLN 582.70 (approx. EUR 147);• lowered benet (80%) <strong>in</strong> the period ofthe rst three months – PLN 593.70(approx. EUR 150);• lowered benet (80%) <strong>in</strong> the period ofnext months of hav<strong>in</strong>g the right for the benet– PLN 466.20 (approx. EUR 118);• higher benet (120%) <strong>in</strong> the period ofthe rst three months – PLN 890.60(approx. EUR 224);• higher bene t (120%) <strong>in</strong> the periodof next months of hav<strong>in</strong>g the right


Unemploymentfor the bene t – PLN 699.30 (approx.EUR 176).NOTE:The period which is required to achievethe right for the benet <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong>cludesalso the periods of employment <strong>in</strong>other EU countries.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.mpips.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of Labour <strong>and</strong> Social Policyhttp://zielonal<strong>in</strong>ia.gov.plEmployment Services Centrefor Information <strong>and</strong> ConsultationThe possibility to transferto Pol<strong>and</strong> unemploymentbenefit granted <strong>in</strong> the EEAcountry (Lichtenste<strong>in</strong>, Icel<strong>and</strong>,Norway) or Switzerl<strong>and</strong>An unemployed person who would like tolook for a job <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> take unemploymentbenet which is granted to him or her<strong>in</strong> another EEA country (Lichtenste<strong>in</strong>, Icel<strong>and</strong>,Norway) or Switzerl<strong>and</strong> should:• stay at the disposal of employment servicesfor the period of at least 4 weeksbefore leav<strong>in</strong>g the country <strong>in</strong> which heor she has the right for the benet;• before go<strong>in</strong>g to Pol<strong>and</strong>, take E-303 formwhich concerns keep<strong>in</strong>g the right forunemployment benet;• after arriv<strong>in</strong>g to Pol<strong>and</strong>, register as a personwho looks for a job <strong>in</strong> a poviat labourofce of proper jurisdiction concern<strong>in</strong>g theplace of liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> – <strong>in</strong> the periodof up to seven days from the date of leav<strong>in</strong>gthe country of the last employment;• go to a voivodeship labour ofce of properjurisdiction concern<strong>in</strong>g the place ofliv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> order to submit E-303form there (a voivodeship labour ofce<strong>in</strong>forms a poviat labour ofce about thedecision concern<strong>in</strong>g keep<strong>in</strong>g the rightfor unemployment benet ga<strong>in</strong>ed <strong>in</strong> theEEA country or Switzerl<strong>and</strong>);• stay at the Polish labour ofce’s disposal.Unemployment benet is paid to a beneciaryby a poviat labour ofce <strong>in</strong> an amount<strong>in</strong> which it is given to him <strong>in</strong> a country <strong>in</strong>which it was granted to him – after calculat<strong>in</strong>git <strong>in</strong>to the Polish currency. This benetcan be taken for the period for which itis granted to him but not longer thanfor three months from leav<strong>in</strong>g the countryof the last employment. If an unemployedperson does not nd a job with<strong>in</strong> this period<strong>and</strong> still has the right for the benet, <strong>in</strong> ordernot to lose it, he should come back to thecountry of the last employment before theperiod has nished.The possibility to transferto Pol<strong>and</strong> unemployment benefitgranted <strong>in</strong> another EU countryAn unemployed person who would like tolook for a job <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong> take unemploymentbenet which is granted to him or her<strong>in</strong> another EU country, should:• stay at the disposal of employment servicesfor the period of at least 4 weeksbefore leav<strong>in</strong>g the country <strong>in</strong> which heor she has the right for the benet;• before go<strong>in</strong>g to Pol<strong>and</strong>, take PD U2 documentwhich concerns keep<strong>in</strong>g theright for unemployment benet;• after arriv<strong>in</strong>g to Pol<strong>and</strong>, register asa person who looks for a job <strong>in</strong> a poviatlabour ofce of proper jurisdiction concern<strong>in</strong>gthe place of liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> – <strong>in</strong>2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 37


Unemploymentthe period of up to seven days from thedate of leav<strong>in</strong>g the country of the lastemployment;• go to a voivodeship labour ofce of properjurisdiction concern<strong>in</strong>g the place ofliv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> order to submit PD U2document there (then a voivodeship labourofce gives to the proper <strong>in</strong>stitutionof a country of the last employment SEDU009 document with <strong>in</strong>formation that anunemployed person fullled the obligationto register <strong>in</strong> Polish employmentservices <strong>and</strong> that he or she is undercontrol);• stay at the Polish labour ofce’s disposal.Unemployment benet shall be paid directlyby the proper <strong>in</strong>stitution of a country ofthe last employment to an unemployedperson, for example, to a bank account. Anunemployed person can take this benetfor the period of three months from leav<strong>in</strong>gthe country of the last employment butupon the request of an unemployed personthe proper <strong>in</strong>stitution which granted theright for the benet can lengthen this periodto six months. If an unemployed persondoes not nd a job with<strong>in</strong> this period <strong>and</strong>still has the right for the benet, <strong>in</strong> order notto lose it, he should come back to the countryof the last employment before the periodhas nished.38


HealthcareRight for health servicesAn EU citizen can receive free health services<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>, if:• he or she has health <strong>in</strong>surance <strong>in</strong>another EU country dur<strong>in</strong>g a temporarystay <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> (e.g. for touristicpurposes, <strong>in</strong> order to study or whilelook<strong>in</strong>g for a job <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>, if he or shereceives unemployment benet granted<strong>in</strong> another EU country). An EU citizencan then be treated <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> <strong>and</strong>the costs of treatment are covered bya health <strong>in</strong>surance <strong>in</strong>stitution of a country<strong>in</strong> which he or she has such <strong>in</strong>surance.This law, however, <strong>in</strong>cludesonly receiv<strong>in</strong>g bene ts which can betreated as necessary due to medicalreasons, while tak<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>to account thecharacter of these bene ts <strong>and</strong> probableperiod of stay <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>. Nevertheless,before leav<strong>in</strong>g Pol<strong>and</strong> a personshall get a European health <strong>in</strong>surancecard;• he or she is covered by Polish health<strong>in</strong>surance (obligatorily or voluntarily).Obligatory health <strong>in</strong>surance covers the follow<strong>in</strong>gpersons:– <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> on the basis of an employmentcontract or a commission agreement;– registered <strong>in</strong> a poviat labour ofce asthe unemployed;– carry<strong>in</strong>g out a bus<strong>in</strong>ess activity.Obligatory health <strong>in</strong>surance does not coverpersons who work on the basis of a contractfor specic work.If there is one person <strong>in</strong>sured <strong>in</strong> a family,then the <strong>in</strong>surance also covers: spouse,children (before they are 18 or – if they study– 26) <strong>and</strong> parents (if they live togetherwith an <strong>in</strong>sured person), if the persons donot have their own right for health <strong>in</strong>surance.Citizens of other EU countries, who livepermanently <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>, <strong>and</strong> who are notcovered by obligatory <strong>in</strong>surance, can paypremiums voluntarily <strong>in</strong> a voivodeshipbranch of the National Health Fund(NFZ).The right for free healthcare is grantedonly if services are received from medicalfacilities which have signed the agreementwith the National Health Fund(NFZ).Receiv<strong>in</strong>g health servicesUsually the first visit <strong>in</strong> a selected medicalfacility is connected with register<strong>in</strong>g<strong>and</strong> selection of a general practitioner,who is also referred to as a primary caredoctor.In order to be registered the follow<strong>in</strong>g documentsare needed:• A document which conrms the fact ofpay<strong>in</strong>g premiums for health <strong>in</strong>surance(the document can be, for example,a certicate from an employer or a documentfrom the Social Insurance Company,the so-called pay stub on whichpremiums are enumerated);• PESEL number, if it has been assigned.PESEL number (Common ElectronicSystem of Population Register) is an11-number symbol which identies a particularnatural person. The number consistsof the follow<strong>in</strong>g elements: dateof birth, an ord<strong>in</strong>al number, a numberwhich identies the sex <strong>and</strong> a controlnumber. The application for assign<strong>in</strong>gPESEL No. shall be submitted <strong>in</strong> a gm<strong>in</strong>aofce or city ofce.2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 39


HealthcareMedic<strong>in</strong>es are available <strong>in</strong> pharmacies,generally on the basis of a prescription givenby a doctor:• after pay<strong>in</strong>g a lump-sum – <strong>in</strong> the case ofbasic medic<strong>in</strong>es – PLN 3.20 <strong>and</strong> compoundeddrugs – PLN 5;• after pay<strong>in</strong>g 30% or 50% of the medic<strong>in</strong>e’sprice (<strong>in</strong> the case of supplementarydrugs);• for the full price – <strong>in</strong> the case of medic<strong>in</strong>eswhich are not <strong>in</strong> the list of reimburseddrugs.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.nfz.gov.pl/ueNational Health Fundhttp://www.mz.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of HealthA general practitioner carries out basic treatment<strong>and</strong> – if there is a need – givesa referral to doctors of different specialities(visits are free of charge <strong>and</strong> are coveredfrom health <strong>in</strong>surance). It is not requiredto have a referral <strong>in</strong> order to go to the follow<strong>in</strong>gspecialists: a gynaecologist <strong>and</strong> anobstetrician, a dentist (<strong>in</strong> the eld of dentaltreatment only few services <strong>and</strong> bene- ts are covered from the National HealthFund), a dermatologist, a venereologist,an oncologist, an optician <strong>and</strong> a psychiatrist,<strong>and</strong> also <strong>in</strong> case of an accident, <strong>in</strong>jury,poison<strong>in</strong>g or other sudden risk forhealth.A referral is necessary <strong>in</strong> the case of receiv<strong>in</strong>ghospital services (it is not necessary <strong>in</strong>case of an accident, <strong>in</strong>jury, poison<strong>in</strong>g orother sudden risk for health). Treatment,exam<strong>in</strong>ation <strong>and</strong> medic<strong>in</strong>es while be<strong>in</strong>g athospital are ensured free of charge.40


<strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>in</strong>Pol<strong>and</strong>Income <strong>and</strong> costs of liv<strong>in</strong>gThe m<strong>in</strong>imum remuneration laid down<strong>in</strong> the legislation for a full-time employee<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> is at the moment PLN 1,386gross (approx. EUR 348.3) – as of January2011. The average monthly grossremuneration <strong>in</strong> December 2010, <strong>in</strong> theenterprise sector, was PLN 3,391.59 (approx.EUR 852.2).The costs of liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> are different,the highest are <strong>in</strong> Warsaw <strong>and</strong> other big cities.Examples of prices of basic products<strong>in</strong> Warsaw:PLN EURbread 2.5 0.63milk (1 l) 2.5 approx. 0.63yoghurt 2 approx. 0.5m<strong>in</strong>eral water 2.2 approx. 0.55butter 4 approx. 1ham 1 kg 24 approx. 6cheese (1 kg) 19 approx. 4.8apples (1 kg) 3 approx. 0.75soupvegetables3 approx. 0.75eggs (10 items) 4.5 approx. 1.13jam 4 approx. 1tomato (1 kg) 5 approx. 1.26a ticketto the c<strong>in</strong>ema12–26 approx. 3–6.5a ticketto the theatre20–100 approx. 5–25ShopsOpen<strong>in</strong>g hours of shops are determ<strong>in</strong>ed bytheir owners but it is often the case that:• groceries – are open from 6.00 (7.00)a.m. to 6.00 (7.00) p.m., some of themlonger (some of the shops are also openon Sunday);• shops other than groceries – are usuallyopen from 11.00 a.m.;• supermarkets (usually located <strong>in</strong> thesuburbs of big cities) – usually from 9.00a.m. to at least 10:00 p.m., open 7 daysa week.In Pol<strong>and</strong> people usually pay by cash but <strong>in</strong>most shops you can also pay by a debitcard.TransportPublic transport <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>:• buses: city <strong>and</strong> suburban (PKS) – run<strong>in</strong> all of the country;• trams – run <strong>in</strong> big cities;• underground – <strong>in</strong> Warsaw.Buses, trams <strong>and</strong> underground run froma very early morn<strong>in</strong>g to about 11.00 p.m. Inbig cities there are night buses.Tickets can be bought <strong>in</strong> newsagent’sst<strong>and</strong>s (“Ruch”), some shops <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> theunderground stations.Ticket mach<strong>in</strong>es are available <strong>in</strong> some cities.One type of tickets is used <strong>in</strong> (city)buses, trams <strong>and</strong> underground but theyare different <strong>in</strong> each city. It means that <strong>in</strong>Warsaw, for example, tickets bought <strong>in</strong> Krakówcannot be used. The tickets can be:one-time, 24-hour, three-day, one-week <strong>and</strong>monthly. There are two types of ticketsused depend<strong>in</strong>g on the city: one-time <strong>and</strong>season. A one-time ticket is valid for onlyone trip – regardless of its length. In thiscase, after chang<strong>in</strong>g the bus, it is requiredto punch a new ticket – unless it is a 24-hour,one-week or monthly ticket (these k<strong>in</strong>dsof tickets are used, e.g.: <strong>in</strong> Warsaw). A seasonticket is valid for a certa<strong>in</strong> period of time2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 41


<strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>in</strong>Pol<strong>and</strong>(e.g. 10 or 30 m<strong>in</strong>utes) dur<strong>in</strong>g which themean of a public transport can be changed(these k<strong>in</strong>ds of tickets are used, e.g.: <strong>in</strong>ód). Tickets for suburban buses (PKS)can be bought from a driver or <strong>in</strong> ticket countersat bus stations. In suburban areas<strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> some cities there are also privatebuses <strong>and</strong> the so-called “busy” (small buses)<strong>in</strong> which the fare is paid to a driver.There are four k<strong>in</strong>ds of tra<strong>in</strong>s <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>.The quickest <strong>and</strong> the most comfortable areExpress <strong>and</strong> Intercity – they stop only <strong>in</strong>bigger cities <strong>and</strong> often have only 2 to 3stops before the nal station. Fast tra<strong>in</strong>sstop at a bigger number of stations but similarlyonly <strong>in</strong> bigger cities <strong>and</strong> are cheaper.Slow tra<strong>in</strong>s stop at every station <strong>and</strong>are the cheapest. Tra<strong>in</strong> tickets can be bought<strong>in</strong> ticket counters at railway stations or<strong>in</strong> travel agencies.International airports <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>: Warsaw--Okcie, Gdask-Rbiechowo, Kraków--Balice, Pozna-awica, Wrocaw-Strachowice,Katowice-Pyrzowice. National ightsoffered by Polish Airl<strong>in</strong>es LOT cover all thecities enumerated above as well as Bydgoszcz,Szczec<strong>in</strong>-Goleniów, Zielona Góra--Babimost, ód-Lubl<strong>in</strong>ek <strong>and</strong> Rzeszów--Jasionka. Flight tickets can be bought <strong>in</strong>travel agencies <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> ticket counters atthe airports.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.pk,p.plPolskie Koleje Pastwowe (Polish StateRailways)http://www.lot.plPolish Airl<strong>in</strong>es LOTCulture <strong>and</strong> enterta<strong>in</strong>mentMuseums, c<strong>in</strong>emas, theatres <strong>and</strong> concerthalls function ma<strong>in</strong>ly <strong>in</strong> big cities wherecultural life <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> is concentrated. Informationconcern<strong>in</strong>g cultural life <strong>and</strong> enterta<strong>in</strong>ment<strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> is available <strong>in</strong> dailynewspapers (the biggest daily newspapers<strong>in</strong>clude on Fridays cultural guides forthe whole follow<strong>in</strong>g week) <strong>and</strong> on the <strong>in</strong>ternet.Museums – have <strong>in</strong>terest<strong>in</strong>g collections ofboth modern <strong>and</strong> old art – they are usuallyopen from Wednesday to Sunday to about4.00 p.m. Entry fees are not high <strong>and</strong> onselected days the entry <strong>in</strong> some museumsis free of charge.Theatres – function <strong>in</strong> all big cities.They are closed <strong>in</strong> the summer period (holidaybreak).The most famous theatres:The Contemporary Theatre, The PowszechnyTheatre <strong>and</strong> The National Theatre<strong>in</strong> Warsaw as well as The Old Theatre<strong>and</strong> Sowacki Theatre <strong>in</strong> Kraków.The most famous musical theatres:Musical Theatre <strong>in</strong> Gdask, operettas <strong>in</strong>Kraków <strong>and</strong> Gliwice as well as MusicalTheatre “Roma” <strong>in</strong> Warsaw.In order to see an opera or a ballet it isworth to go to the Gr<strong>and</strong> Theatre <strong>in</strong> Warsawor to Warsaw Chamber Opera Theatre.Concert halls function <strong>in</strong> big cities. Themost reputable is Warsaw Philharmonic.Open-air concerts take place, <strong>in</strong>ter alia, <strong>in</strong>the Royal azienki <strong>in</strong> Warsaw <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> elazowaWola – the place where the famouscomposer Frederic Chop<strong>in</strong> was born.C<strong>in</strong>emas – there are lots of them <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>,both big <strong>and</strong> small. In the big c<strong>in</strong>emasthere are screen<strong>in</strong>gs of current lm42


<strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>in</strong>Pol<strong>and</strong>hits <strong>and</strong> there is a bigger selection of lmsthan <strong>in</strong> small c<strong>in</strong>emas. Foreign lms presented<strong>in</strong> Polish c<strong>in</strong>emas are usually notdubbed.Tourist attractions – Pol<strong>and</strong> is a touristicallyattractive country. In the UNESCOWorld Heritage Site there are the follow<strong>in</strong>gplaces <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong>: historic centre of Kraków<strong>and</strong> Warsaw, Wieliczka Salt M<strong>in</strong>e, Old Cityof Zamo, Biaowiea Forest, MedievalTown of Toru, Castle of the Teutonic Order<strong>in</strong> Malbork, Kalwaria Zebrzydowska, woodenchurches of southern Maopolska.More <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.pol<strong>and</strong>.gov.plOfcial Promotional Websiteof the Republic of Pol<strong>and</strong>http://www.pol<strong>and</strong>.pl<strong>in</strong>ternet guide through Pol<strong>and</strong> carriedout by the Research <strong>and</strong> AcademicComputer Network (NASK) <strong>in</strong> Polish <strong>and</strong>English2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 43


Private LifeGiv<strong>in</strong>g birth to a childThe fact of giv<strong>in</strong>g birth to a child shall beregistered <strong>in</strong> the Registry Ofce of a gm<strong>in</strong>aofce. The fact of giv<strong>in</strong>g birth to a child canbe registered by his or her father or mother,a doctor, a midwife or other person presentat the birth. If the parents of a child are married,then also a shortened transcript ofmarriage certicate shall be enclosed. Ifa child is born <strong>in</strong> the Health Care Institution(ZOZ), it is the responsibility of this <strong>in</strong>stitutionto register the birth.The Head of the Registry Ofce draws upthe Birth Certicate which is given <strong>in</strong> 3 copiesfree of charge.MarriageMarriage <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> takes place whena man <strong>and</strong> a woman at the same time makea statement <strong>in</strong> the presence of the Headof the Registry Ofce that they enter <strong>in</strong>tomarriage. Marriage also takes place whena man <strong>and</strong> a woman who enter <strong>in</strong>to marriage,under the <strong>in</strong>ternal law of the churchor other religious association recognisedby national law, <strong>in</strong> the presence of a clergym<strong>and</strong>eclare their will to concurrently enter<strong>in</strong>to marriage under the Polish law (thenthe Head of the Registry Ofce draws upa marriage document).A man <strong>and</strong> a woman can enter <strong>in</strong>to marriagewhen they both full the follow<strong>in</strong>g <strong>conditions</strong>:• are over 18;• are not legally fully <strong>in</strong>capacitated;• are not mentally ill or retarded;• are not married to another person; thereare no family relations (blood relationship)between them.Persons who want to enter <strong>in</strong>to marriageshall present to the Head of the RegistryOf ce documents which are necessaryto enter <strong>in</strong>to marriage. If receiv<strong>in</strong>g anyof the documents becomes hard to achieve,the court can free the person from theobligation to submit or present this document.An EU citizen who wants to enter <strong>in</strong>to marriageis obliged to submit to the Head of theRegistry Ofce the document which saysthat he or she can do this <strong>in</strong> accordancewith the law of his or her citizenship. If receiv<strong>in</strong>gsuch a document becomes hard toachieve, the court <strong>in</strong> the non-contentiousproceed<strong>in</strong>gs, upon the request of an EUcitizen, can free the person from the obligationto submit this document. Dur<strong>in</strong>g theseproceed<strong>in</strong>gs, the court establishes <strong>in</strong> compliancewith the proper law whether theperson can enter <strong>in</strong>to marriage.The evidence of cessation of marriage isan abridged copy of the death certicate ora copy of a legally b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g decision concern<strong>in</strong>ga statement of death or recogniz<strong>in</strong>ga previous spouse dead, an abridged copyof a marriage document with an endorsementabout its cessation by a divorce ora copy of a legally b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g decision of thecourt about a divorce.The evidence of marriage cancellation isan abridged copy of a marriage documentwith an endorsement about marriage cancellationor a copy of a legally b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g decisionof the court about marriage cancellation.The evidence of non-existence ofmarriage is a copy of a legally b<strong>in</strong>d<strong>in</strong>g decisionof the court concern<strong>in</strong>g non-existenceof marriage.Surname (surnames) which will be used byspouses <strong>and</strong> surname which will be usedby children from a marriage are entered<strong>in</strong>to a marriage document on the basis ofwritten statements of spouses.44


Private LifeDeathDeath shall be registered <strong>in</strong> the RegistryOfce not later than 3 days from the day ofdeath. Persons obliged to register deathare <strong>in</strong> the order of appearance: spouse orchildren of a dead person, the closest relativesor related persons, persons liv<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong>an apartment where death took place, personswho were present there when deathtook place or who saw it, an adm<strong>in</strong>istratorof a build<strong>in</strong>g <strong>in</strong> which death took place. Ifdeath took place <strong>in</strong> a hospital or other <strong>in</strong>stitution,the hospital or the <strong>in</strong>stitution is obligedto register death.Educational systemIn the Polish educational system there isa dist<strong>in</strong>ction between the compulsory education<strong>and</strong> the compulsory school<strong>in</strong>g.School<strong>in</strong>g is compulsory to 18 years ofage, whereas compulsory education <strong>in</strong>cludestwo types of school: 6-year primaryschool (7–13 years of age) <strong>and</strong> 3-year lowersecondary school (13–16 years ofage). Children who are 6 are obliged tohave one-year k<strong>in</strong>dergarten preparation<strong>in</strong> a k<strong>in</strong>dergarten, k<strong>in</strong>dergarten division <strong>in</strong>a primary school or <strong>in</strong> other forms of k<strong>in</strong>dergarteneducation (nursery po<strong>in</strong>ts <strong>and</strong>nursery education complexes). Childrenwith special educational needs learn atspecial schools or <strong>in</strong> <strong>in</strong>tegration classes atpublic schools. A school year <strong>in</strong> a primaryschool, lower secondary school, uppersecondary schools <strong>and</strong> postsecondaryschools lasts from September to June. It isdivided <strong>in</strong>to two semesters.In accordance with the amendment to theEducation System Act, from the schoolyear 2011/12 there shall be the obligation ofone-year k<strong>in</strong>dergarten preparation for veyearold children, <strong>and</strong> from the school year2012/13, the compulsory education forsix-year old children.Educational system <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> consists of:• k<strong>in</strong>dergarten (ISCED 0) – for childrenbetween 3-6 years of age (3–5 from theschool year 2011/12); children at theage of 6 (5 from the school year 2011/12) are obliged to have one-year k<strong>in</strong>dergartenpreparation <strong>in</strong> a k<strong>in</strong>dergarten,k<strong>in</strong>dergarten division <strong>in</strong> a primary schoolor <strong>in</strong> other forms of k<strong>in</strong>dergarten education,<strong>and</strong> k<strong>in</strong>dergarten education at theage of 3–5 (3–4 from the school year2011/12) is not obligatory;• six-year primary school (ISCED 1) –for children at the age of 7–13, the criterionwhich decides upon the enrolmentto school is age. There is a compulsorytest at the end of the primary school, (<strong>in</strong>accordance with the amended EducationSystem Act, the compulsory educationhas been lowered by one year).From the school year 2012/13 the compulsoryeducation shall <strong>in</strong>clude all six--year old children. Education at theprimary school shall nish at the ageof 12;• three-year lower secondary school(ISCED 2) – for children at the age of13–16 (after lower<strong>in</strong>g the school age,12–15); the criterion for the enrolment toa lower secondary school is the certicateof complet<strong>in</strong>g a primary school.There is a compulsory test at the end ofthe lower secondary school which coversknowledge <strong>and</strong> skills <strong>in</strong> the eld ofliberal arts <strong>and</strong> mathematics <strong>and</strong> naturalsciences. The results of the test <strong>and</strong> lowersecondary school exam are placedon the certicates given to pupils;2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 45


Private Life• upper secondary schools (ISCED 3)– three-year high school, three-yearspecialised secondary school, four-yearvocational high school, 2- or 3-year basicvocational school, two-year supplementaryhigh school <strong>and</strong> three-yearsupplementary vocational high school(the last two types of schools are forthe graduates of a basic vocationalschool). In order to be enrolled to uppersecondary schools – (three-year highschool, three-year specialised secondaryschool, four-year vocational highschool, 2- or 3-year basic vocationalschool) it is necessary to have a lowersecondary school leav<strong>in</strong>g certicate.Graduates of these schools (exceptfrom basic vocational school) have theright to take high school nal exams.Persons who pass the exam are givena general certicate of secondaryeducation which is necessary to applyfor the enrolment at a university. Graduatesfrom basic vocational schools<strong>and</strong> vocational high schools are givena school leav<strong>in</strong>g certicate, <strong>and</strong> afterpass<strong>in</strong>g the exam which conrms theprofessional qualications, also a diplomawhich allows to work <strong>in</strong> a certa<strong>in</strong>profession. Graduates from basic vocationalschools can also cont<strong>in</strong>ue education<strong>in</strong> 2-year supplementary highschool or 3-year supplementary vocationalhigh school, <strong>and</strong> supplement theireducation as well as take high schoolnal exams. Moreover, if they cont<strong>in</strong>ueeducation at a supplementary vocationalhigh school, they can also take anexam which certies professional quali-cations <strong>in</strong> another profession;• postsecondary schools (ISCED 4) –these schools can be attended by personswho have secondary education,education lasts not more than 2.5 years,<strong>and</strong> graduation enables to achieve a diplomawhich certies professional quali-cations after pass<strong>in</strong>g the exam;• teacher tra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g colleges <strong>and</strong> teachertra<strong>in</strong><strong>in</strong>g colleges of foreign languages– educate future k<strong>in</strong>dergarten, primaryschool as well as care <strong>and</strong> educationalcentre teachers, <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> the case offoreign language teachers, also lowersecondary school <strong>and</strong> upper secondaryschool teachers. In order to be enrolledto this type of college, a c<strong>and</strong>idate musthave a general certicate of secondaryeducation. Graduates achieve a diplomaof graduat<strong>in</strong>g from a college or a diplomaof graduat<strong>in</strong>g from higher vocationalstudies. Achiev<strong>in</strong>g a diploma of graduat<strong>in</strong>gfrom higher vocational studies enablesto go to supplementary MA studies;• higher education – higher education <strong>in</strong>Pol<strong>and</strong> consists of the follow<strong>in</strong>g studies:– higher vocational studies – last3–3.5 years, <strong>and</strong> <strong>in</strong> technical, agriculturalor economic mayors 3.5–4years,– supplementary MA studies – last2–2.5 years,– uniform MA studies – last 5–6years.In order to apply for the enrolment at a university,it is necessary to have a generalcerticate of secondary education. The <strong>conditions</strong>for the enrolment to the rst year ofstudies are set out <strong>in</strong>dependently by universities,which can, e.g. organise entranceexams or competitive admission based ongrades on a general certicate of secondaryeducation.46


Private LifeStudies can be carried out as a full-time,part-time, extramural or extension studies.Academic year lasts from October to June.It is divided <strong>in</strong>to two semesters.Degrees awarded to graduates of highereducation <strong>in</strong>stitutions:• licencjat (Bachelor of Arts) – aftergraduat<strong>in</strong>g from higher vocational studies;• <strong>in</strong>ynier (Bachelor of Eng<strong>in</strong>eer<strong>in</strong>g) –after graduat<strong>in</strong>g from higher vocationalstudies <strong>in</strong> technical, agricultural or economicmayors;• magister (Master of Arts) <strong>and</strong> equivalentdegrees: magister sztuki (Masterof F<strong>in</strong>e Arts), magister <strong>in</strong>ynier(Master of Science), magister <strong>in</strong>ynierarchitekt (M.Sc. Eng<strong>in</strong>eer <strong>in</strong> Architecture),lekarz (medical doctor), lekarzdentysta (dental practitioner) or lekarzweterynarii (veter<strong>in</strong>ary surgeon) – aftergraduat<strong>in</strong>g from 5–6 year uniformMA studies. The degree of magister(Master of Arts) can also be awardedafter graduat<strong>in</strong>g from 2–2.5 year supplementaryMA studies, which can betaken up by persons hav<strong>in</strong>g a highervocational studies diploma.Learn<strong>in</strong>g PolishPolish language courses are organised byuniversities <strong>and</strong> private language schools.These can be holiday courses, semestercourses, whole-year courses, Polish languageworkshops or post-graduate studiesof teach<strong>in</strong>g Polish culture <strong>and</strong> Polish languageas a foreign language. These courseshave to paid for. The courses are organisedby selected universities:1) Polonicom of the University of Warsawhttp://www.uw.edu.pl2) Jagiellonian University <strong>in</strong> Krakówhttp://www.uj.edu.pl3) The School of Polish for Foreigners atthe University of ódhttp://www.uni.lodz.pl4) School of Polish Language <strong>and</strong> Cultureat the University of Silesia <strong>in</strong> Katowicehttp://www.us.edu.pl5) School of Polish Language <strong>and</strong> Cultureat the Catholic University of Lubl<strong>in</strong>http://www.kul.edu.pl6) The Polish Language <strong>and</strong> CultureCentre for Polish People fromAbroad <strong>and</strong> Foreignersat Maria Curie-Skodowska Universityhttp://www.umcs.lubl<strong>in</strong>.plMore <strong>in</strong>formation:http://www.buwiwm.edu.plBureau for Academic Recognition <strong>and</strong>International Exchangehttp://www.mnisw.gov.pM<strong>in</strong>istry of Science <strong>and</strong> Higher Educationhttp://www.men.gov.plM<strong>in</strong>istry of National Educationhttp://www.mazowieckie.pl/kuratoriumThe Education Ofce (Mazowieckievoivodeship)2011 <strong>Liv<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>and</strong> <strong>work<strong>in</strong>g</strong> <strong>conditions</strong> <strong>in</strong> Pol<strong>and</strong> 47


The M<strong>in</strong>istry of Labour <strong>and</strong> Social PolicyLabour Market DepartmentYOUR JOB IN EUROPEwww.eures.praca.gov.plwww.eures.europa.eu

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