Vol 8 Number 3 - The Private Libraries Association

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Vol 8 Number 3 - The Private Libraries Association

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The Private LibraryQuarterly Journal of the Private Libraries AssociationHon. Editors: Roderick Cave and Geoffrey WakemanVol. 8 No. 3 Autumn 1967THE BOOK WORLDBRITISH BOOK DESIGNThe annual exhibition of British book design held at the National BookLeague closed at the end of September. We have been in the customof visiting these exhibitions fairly regularly in the past, and havegained a lot from them, so we took the opportunity of visitingAlbemarle Street a few days before it closed. It was a sad disappointment.It must be very difficult for the National Book League to mountan exciting show every year, and the judges must have a troublesometime in making their selection. This we can sympathise with, and muchof the dullness of this year's show must obviously be placed at the doorof the publishers (and of their typographic designers) and not at that ofthe organisers of the exhibition. Nevertheless therc was a perfunctoryair about it which was distressing. Anyone who has ever had to makesuch a selection can understand why the judges avoided annotations tothe catalogue entries and contented themselves with a brief generalnote on the commoner faults in production. Understand, but notexcuse: comparing our own opinions of the books with those expressedby the judges we have always found to be one of the most interestingand useful exercises in the past. Without these conlments we were morethan once at a loss to decide why certain books had been selected. Butthe way in which the exhibition had been mounted was also very poor.The NBL's rooms are very far from ideal as exhibition halls, but surelysomething can be done to dispel1 the atmosphere of peeling paint andmurky corners ill-concealed by hastily arranged pegboard? There areplenty of bookshops which manage to display their stock imaginativelyand economically, and to do so with genuine feeling for the books.Only in a very few cases-the display of the Folio Society books, forexample-was any real attempt made in the exhibition to show book


design at work. We would very much regret seeing these exhibitionscome to an end, but as we left we could not help wondering whethereuthanasia might not be justified.THE WALPOLE PRESSReaders who enjoyed reading Ann Barrett's article on this survivorfrom the great pre-1914 period of private printing in the summer issueof The Private Library will share our regret that its owner, Mr MartinKinder, died early in September. We learn from his widow that thePress is to be continued by a friend, Mr Andrew Anderson, and wish itmany years of vigorous life.PRINTING HISTORICAL SOCIETYThe Printing Historical Society has recently produced two worthwhilepublications for its members. One is the second book issued by subscription-CharlesManby Smith's The working man's way in the worldthereminiscences of a journeyman printer in the early nineteenthcentury. It is only rarely that material of this nature is available on theprinting industry and the text is not only valuable in its historical aspectbut surprisingly readable as well. The preparation for the press has beendone by Ellic Howe who has added an interesting preface and somevaluable notes and extracts in the appendix. In place of the third numberof the Society7s]ornrnal which has been delayed beyond the subscriptionyear, members have received a facsimile of Vincent Figgins's Typespecimens of 1801, one fold out sheet, and 1815, a substantial book.This has been edited with an introduction and notes by Berthold Wolpeand is a very handsome production, bound in green buckram. Typespecimen books are so rare-and so expensive when they can be found-that this is a very welcome addition to a small corpus. The introductionincludes an unusual illustration of a type foundry with extractsfrom the Penny magazine in explanation, one of the best concise accountsof a type foundry and its workings which we have seen. All in all thepublications of the Society offer excellent value for the modest subscriptionand may we have more publications like these.The Private LibraryDR BENTLEY'S PROPOSAL FORBUILDING A ROYAL LIBRARYRICHARD BENTLEY was born near Wakefield in 1662. He wentto Wakefield Grammar School and then to St John's College,Cambridge. After leaving the University he became domestic tutor toEdward Stillingfleet, then Dean of St Paul's, and when the latter wastransfered to the See of Worcester in 1689, Bentley became his chaplain.However, in the same year the Bishop's son was sent to Oxford. Histutor went with him and was soon joining in the activities of thelearned world and making himself a favourable reputation amongclassical scholars. He eventually became the greatest classical scholar ofhis age. Two years later he left Oxford to live in London and was thefirst holder of a lectmeship which had been established by the HonourableRobert Boyle for the defence of religion against infidels. Thisoffered Aso a year in return for eight lectures to be delivered inLondon churches.In September 1693, Henry de Justel, Keeper of the Royal Library atSt James's, died and after a certain amount of manoeuvering andnepotic manipulation such as was customary at the time for fillingappointments of this nature, Bentley succeeded him. He was confirmedin ofice in 1694. In 1700 he took ofice as Master of Trinity College,Cambridge. He remained there, a centre of turbulence and strife untilhis death in 1742, in spite of having been deprived in 1734.The Royal Library had existed since the time of Edward IV and hadits first recorded Keeper appointed in 1492 by Henry VII. Dependingon the interest in books displayed by the current monarch it stagnatedor grew, generally slowly, until the time of James I who bought thelibrary of Lord Lumley in 1609, strengthening the collection considerably.It survived a proposal under the Commonwealth to sell it andafter the Restoration was divided between Whitehall and St James's.The former part, containing the coins and medals, was largely lost intwo fires in 1691 and 1698. Shortly before Bentley became librariana catalogue of the library was made by the Masters of St James's andSt Paul's Schools. The Calendar of Treasury books records that L~owas paid to Mr Wright and Mr Postlethwayt for their pains in preparingthis catalogue. No complete copy of it has survived, but a roughdraft of part of it was in the British Museum in 1921 and the Keeper


of Manuscripts informs me that so far as he knows it is still there. Aprinted catalogue of the manuscript was produced in 1724 by DavidCasley, deputy librarian from 1719.The library was removed from St James's Palace in 1708 and by 173 Iwas at Ashburnham House when the fire which badly damaged theCotton collection broke out. The Royal collection suffered very littlefrom the fire and was eventually incorporated into the British Museuma few years after its foundation in 1753.The proposals are printed on both sides of one sheet of papcr 124 insby 7+ ins. The sheet is undated but is assigned to 1697.A PROPOSAL FOR BUILDING A ROYAL LIBRARY AND ESTABLISHING IT BYACT 01: PARLIAMENTThe Royal Library now at St. James's, designed and founded forpublick use, was in the time of KingJames I in a flourishing condition,well stored with all sorts of good Books of That and the precedingAge, from the beginning of Printing. But in the succeding Reigns ithas gradually gone to Decay, to the great dishonour of the Crown andthe whole Nation. The Room is miserably out of Repair; and so little,that it will not contain the Books that belong to it. A collection ofancient Medals, once the best in Europe, is embezzled and quite lost.There has been no supply of Books from abroad for the space of Sixtyyears last; nor any allowance for Binding; so that many valuableManuscripts are spoil'd for want of Covers: and above a ThousandBooks printed in England, and bought in Quires to the Library, as daeby the Act for Printing, are all unbound and useless.It is therefore humbly proposed, as a thing that will highly conduceto the Publick Good, the Glory of His Majesty's Reign, and the Honourof the Parliament;I. That His Majesty be graciously pleased to assign a Corner of St.]arnes's Park, on the South side, near the Garden of the late Sir JohnCutler, for the building of a new Library, and in the Neighbourhoodof it a competent Dwrlling for the Library-Keeper.II. This Situation will have all the advantages that can be wished.'Tis an elevated Soil, and a dry sandy Ground; the Air clear, and theLight free; the Building, not contiguous to any Houses, will be saferfrom Fire; a Coach-way will be made to it out of Tuttle-street, Westminster;the Front of it will be parallel to the Park-Walk; and thePark will receivc no injury, but a great Ornament by it.60 The Privclfe LibraryIII. That the said Library be built, and a perpetual yearly Revenue f o~the Purchase of Books setled on it by Act of Parliament: WhichRevenue may be under the Direction and Disposal of Curators, whoare from time to time to make report to His Majesty of the State andCondition of the Library. The Curators to beIV. The choice of a propcr Fund, whence the said Revenue may beraised, is left to the Wisdoni of the Parliament. In the meantime,This following is humbly offer'd to Consideration.V. That, as soon as the present Tax of 40 per Cent. upon ForeignPaper, and 20 per Cent. upon Et&h, shall either expire or be takenoff; there be laid a very small tax of. ... per Cent. (as it shall be judgedsufficient for the uses of such a library) upon Imported Paper only,leaving our own Manufacture free. Which Tax may be collected byHis Majesty's O6cers of the Custon~s, and paid to such Person orPersons, as shall be appointed by the Curators.VI. This being so easie a Tax, and a Burthen scarce to be felt, cancreate no Damp upon the Stationer's Trade. And whatsoever shall bepaid by them upon this foot, being to be laid out in the purchase ofBooks, will return among them again. So that 'tis but giving wit11 onehand, what thcy will receive with the othcr.VII. And whcreas our Own White-paper Manufacture, that wasgrowing up so hopefully, and deserves the greatest Encouragement,being all clear gains to the Kingdom, is now almost quite sunk underthe weight of the present Tax; this new one upon Imported Papcr,with an Exemption of our Own, will set Ours upon the higher Ground,and give it new Life. For whatsoever is taken from the one, is as goodas given to the other. So that even without regard to this design of aLibrary, the Tax will be a publick Benefit.VIII. A Library erected upon this certain and perpetual Fund, may beso contriv'd for Capaciousness and Convenience, that every one thatcomes there, may have 200,000 Volumes, ready for his use and service.And Societies may be formed, that shall meet, and have Conferencesthere about matters of Learning. The Royal Society is a noble Instancein one Branch of Knowledge; what Advantage and Glory may accrueto the Nation, by such Assemblies not confined to one Subjcct, butfree to all parts of good Learning.IX. TheWall that shall encompass the Library, may be cased on theinside with Marbles of ancient Inscriptions, Basso Relieve's, &c.either found in our own Kingdom, or easily and cheaply to be had


from the African Coast, and Greece, and Asia the Less. Those fewAntiquities procured from the Greek Islands by the Lord Arundel, andsince published both at home and abroad, are an evidence whatgreat advancement of Learning, and honour to the Nation may beacquired by this means.X. Upon this Parliamentary Fund, the Curators, if occasion be, maytake up Money at Interest, so as to lay out two or three years Revenuesto buy whole Libraries at once: As at this very time, the incomparableCollections of Thuanus in France, and Marquardus Gudius in Germany,might be purchased at very low Value.XI. And since the Writings of the English Nation have at prcscnt thegreat Reputation abroad, that many Persons of all Countries learn ourLanguage, and several travel hither for the advantage of Conversation :'Tis casie to foresee, how much this Glory will be advanced, byerecting a free Library of all sorts of Books, where every Foreignerwill have such convenience of studying.XII. 'Tis our Publick Interest and Profit, to have the Gentry of ForeignNations acquainted with England, and have part of their Educationherc. And more Money will be annually imported and spent herc bysuch Students from abroad, than the whole Charge and Revenue ofthis Library will amount to.The Act for Printing rcferrcd to in the preamble is 17 Car. I I cap. 4of 1666 which required every printer to deliver three copies of thebest and largest paper of each book printed by him to the Master of theStationers' Company for the use of the King's Library and the twoUniversities. It lapsed in 1695 but Bentley continued to press the printersfor the arrears.Sir John Cutler (1608?-1693) was a wealthy London merchanttraditionally celebrated for personal avarice and for the benefactionswhich he made to the Grocers's Company, Gresham College, and StMargaret's, Westminster amongst others. He was said to have diedworth ~300,ooo.Bentley's concern for the situation of the new library was shared byother seventeenth century librarians who tended to be sensitive aboutthe siting of their libraries. Gabriel Naudt's Instructions concerningerecting ofa library translated by John Evelyn and published in 1661 saysit should be situated 'in a part of the house the most retired from thenoise and disturbance, not onely of those without, but also of thefamily and donxsticks; distant from the streets, from the kitchcn, the62 The Private Librarycommon hall, and like place; to situate it (if possible) within somespacious Court, or small Garden, where it may enjoy a free light, agood and agreeable prospect; the air pure, not near to marshcs, sinksor dung-hills . . .'The Customs and Excise duties on paper varied according to thesize and shape of the sheets. The figures given in the Proposal arc asimplification. Paper was taxed at hgher rates than customaryfrom 1696-99. (See D. C. Coleman, The British paper industry, 1958,p. 67, 124.)The Lord Arundel referred to was Thomas Howard, second earl(1586-1646) who was restored to the family titles following his father'sattainder and death in the Tower. In 1605 he was introduced to Court,and became one of the favourites of James I. After travelling in Italyhe flourished as a collector, assembling at Arundel House a collectionof classical statues and inscribed marble slabs. He left for Italy in 1641and died there without returning to England. His successors were notinterested in the collection which suffered considerable neglect. In1667 the inscribed marbles were given to the University of Oxford.Two books were published on the collection. John Selden was responsiblefor Marrnora Arundelliana in 1628 assisted by Richard James andPatrick Young. After the collection got to Oxford, Humphrey Prideaux,with some reluctance but goaded by the indefkigable Bishop Fell,produced Marrnora Oxoniensia in 1676. This was more probably thebook Bentley was familiar with.THE PRIVATE PRESS TODAY -an exhibitionby Juliet Standin.S part of the 17th Kings Lynn Festival I was asked to arrange anA exhibition of private press books. In order to impose some limit ona very wide field it was decidcd to show only work produccd withinthe last ten years. I started to collcct material during the early spring,trying to find as wide a range of work as possible to show in the spaceavailable. Choice was very difficult. In the end, the work of forty-threepresses was assembled, and the exhibition mounted (by Rigby Graham,Trevor Hickman, my husband and nlyself) in a raftcrcd room ovcrlookinga small delightful garden, and with a wide view of the estuaryAutumn 1967 63


of the Great Ousc. 011 the river wall were two magnificent bronzes byMichael Ayrton-versions of the Icarian theme, one striving but carthbound,one soaring to the seagulls overhead.The majority of presses were, of course, English, but work fromGermany (Drei Konig Presse), Italy (Ofiicini Bodoni), Poland (MClissaPress, working now in France, and the Oficyna Stanislawa Gliwy,working in England), Tasmania (Wattle Grove) and the USA (Adagio,Bird and Bull, Eden Hill, Karuba, Press of the Nightowl) was shown.Of all the English presses represented, it is probably Morris Cox of theGogmagog who is the producer of the inost poetic and creative handworkin England today. It was possible to show a sequence of openingsof all Fotir Seasons, and blocks and openings from Mummers Fool andTriads, and the unique quality of these twentieth-century block bookswas quite apparent. One interesting book, froin the Compton Press, wasillustrated and bound with abstract monotypes, each one different forthe whole edition of zoo. Proof sheets, drawings, panlphlets and printsshowed the energy and illustrative quality of much of Rigby Graham'swork for the Pandora, Cog, and Brcwhouse presses-in particular, thePickworth Fragment (Brewhouse Press) was an exciting treatment of animaginative theme. Classically fine printing was shown from StanbrookAbbey (Prayer of Cassiodorus, Patriarch Tree,) Rainpant Lions Press(Rime of the Attcierlt Mariner) and, on a miniature scale, Cuckoo HillPress (Elizabeth II Numismata). A different way of thought was shownby the work of the Wild Hawthorn Press, Trigrain Press, Fantasy Fressand Keepsake Press-all publishing new and/or experimental work,and concerned with printing as a vehicle for this rather than as an essayin pure typography. There werc also the works of artistlprinters, booksfrom Kenneth Lindley's Pointing Finger Prcss, Ben Sands' ShoestringPress, and Joseph Low's Eden Hill Press. But each press shown wasindividual in quality and outlook, and there is not enough space toattempt a full catalogue.The exhibition was open from zmd to 29th July, and during thattime there werc nearly 1000 visitors. The greater number werc peoplelittle aware of printing and its possibilities. Many people returnedseveral times, and expressed a lively interest in the work shown, and adesire to discuss inaiiy aspects of it. A most pleasant and fruitfulatmosphere prevailed during all the time that the exhibition was open,and I think that something of value was achieved.This note started by being an attempt to describe THE PRIVATE PRESSTODAY. But the act of assenlbling the material and handling so much of64 The Private Library


the work being produced these days has led me to question the positionand purpose of the private press in the 1960's. People print for manyreasons. But it secms that many of them are still fighting - - battles thatwcre won in the early years of the century. Surely by now we can takethe existence of good types, good papers, good taste for granted, and goon to use a press because there arc things that need printing, are unlikelyto be produced connnercially (for one reason or another) and are ofvalue and interest to various sections of society. Experiment is then bentto a purpose, and can only gain from this. The modern 'private press'started at Kelmscott House, Hammersmith in 1891. Surely such anattitude would have been regarded by William Morris as the necessaryoutcome of his own experiments in following the work of thcmediaeval scribes and early Renaissance printers.(The descriptive catalogue of this exhibition has now been published, withfouradditional illustrations, and a numbered list of exhibits tipped-in. It nmay beobtained, price 3z/6d., from T. C. Hickman, The Orchard, Wymondharn,Leicestershire).JOHN NEWBERY - publisher andbookseller, I 7 I 3 - I 7 6 7 by M, F. ThwaiteWO hundred years ago, on zznd December 1767, this 'philan-T thropic bookseller of St Paul's Church-yard' died at his countryhome at Canonbury House, Islington-'sincerely lamented by all whoknew him' according to the brief report in the Gentleman's Magazine.He is now chiefly renmnbercd as the pioneer in modern publishing forchildren, and his name has been comnlcmorated in the United Statessince 1921 by the institution of the 'Newbery Medal' awardedannually for a book of outstanding quality published for youngreaders in that country. Over here he is less honoured, except by somebook-collectors and bibliophiles. The many 'Lilliputian' volumes heproduced in repeated editions for the boys and girls of GeorgianEngland are now as scarce as snowflakes at midsummer. But they aretherefore the more highly prized. The scarcity of copies, particularlyof the more amusing con~positions, goes to prove how eagerly childrenseized on the pretty little books, gay in flowered and gilt paper covers,66 The Private Libraryand read them to pieces in those far-off days when the publication ofsuitable books for thcir recreation and delight was little heeded.A few attempts, however, were being made to fill the gap, beforeNewbery came to London at the end of I 743, from Reading, wherc hewas already established as publisher, newspaper proprietor, and vendorof patent medicines, although the most famous and most profitable ofthese, Dr James Fever Powder, was not marketed by the booksclleruntil 1746. It was realised that something more than manuals ofinstruction or fervent religious histories wcre now required for theyouth of an enlightened and more secular era. By no means should thcirreading matter convey the 'useless trumpery' of fairylore and hobgoblins,condemned to oblivion with all the superstition and fanaticismof the century just ended. So John Locke decreed, expressing the spiritof the new rationalism invading thc nation. What was wanted by therising middle-classes for their offspring were little books of attractivesimplicity, persuasive of a sobcr and sensible morality, yet alluring thechild to read by harmless diversions and entertaining stories and rhymes,adorned with cuts to enhance their appeal. Several booksellers had triedtheir hand, but thcir publications were few and sporadic. Newberycame along and went into the business with zest, unflagging energy,persistence, and much ingenuity, devising clever advertisements, andpublishing not one or two isolated successes, but a numerous series ofpopular little books over twenty-three years.Was Newbery himself the 'Jack-the-giant-killer' who wrote theplayful if admonitory letters to Master Tommy and pretty Miss Pollyin his first book for children in 1744-A Little Pretty Pocket-Book?It is very likely, for it was affirmed by those who knew him that he wasas much writer as publisher ofjuvenile wares, although later Giles andGriaths Jones, Christopher Smart, Oliver Goldsmith and maybe othersassisted him with his numerous compilations. 'Writer of Children'sStories and Publisher and Friend of Oliver Goldsmith and Dr Johnson'is one of the inscriptions on his tomb in the churchyard at WalthamSt. Lawrence, the parish in Bcrkshire wherc he was born.The spotlight on Newbery's publishing activities for children hasobscured his services as a promoter of literature for the general publicin an age when the private patron was giving place to the commercialpublisher, who was usually bookseller and often printer as well.Newbery was important as one of these entrepreneurs who employed(and sometimes exploited) men of letters-great writers as well as manyunknown hacks long forgotten. Newbery was reputed to be a genialAutumn 1967 67


personality as well as an enterprising man of busincss-'a man ofmojecting head, a good understanding, and great integrity', accordingto one of his contemporaries, Sir John Hawkins, a biographer ofDr Johnson.Dr Johnson was writing for Newbery from about 1751, and llisessays, ?'he Idler, were published by him in 1761, after first appearing inthe Universal Chrorzicle, another Newbery venture, from April 1758.No. 19 consisted of a sketch of the character of 'Jack Whirler', said tobe founded on Newbery, but no doubt exaggerated by Johnson tomake his essay more diverting. Jack is portrayed as a man of muchactivity 'whose business keeps him perpetual motion, and whosemotion always eludes his business'. Johnson makes n~uch fun of thistrait of always 'wanting time', but there are more serious and perhapsmore sincere references to Jack's 'cheerfulness and civility'. It may be acaricature, but the portrait as a whole is of a man of dynainic activityand kindly and honest disposition.About the same period as Newbery met Johnson, he becameacquainted with the poet, Christopher Smart, who was to marry hisstep-daughter, Anna Maria Carnan. Smart wrote much for Newbery'svarious periodicals-including that peculiar hot-potch, The MidwijiandNewbery published various poems of Smart, including therapturous Hymn to the Supreme Being (1756). Smart may have had agood deal to do with the publisher's attempt to establish the firstperiodical for children in 1751-The Lilliputian Magazine. It wasadvertised that year but it is only known in a collected volunle issuedthe following year.Early in 1758 Oliver Goldsnlith extricated himself from his taskmaster,the bookseller, Ralph Grifiths, and found more congenialenlployment for his talents with Newbery, who engaged himregularly on various compilations for both adult and junior readers,advancing him money frequently, and trying to keep the tangledaccounts of the writer in some kind of order. It was Newbery whopublished The Citizen of the World-Goldsnlith's famous 'ChineseLetters'-which first began to appear in the publisher's newspaper, thePublic Ledger in January 1760. These are only a very few of the multifariouspublishing activities of Newbery in the field of gcileralliterature.The interest aroused in John Newbcry by the bi-centenary of hisdeath this year underlines the value of a most important recent contributionto the bibliography of his publications for youth. Mr S. Roscoe,68 The Private Librarywho is working on a conlplete revision of the list of Ncwbery bookscompiled by Charles Welsh and included in his biography, A Booksellerof the last century (1885), 113s issued an interim list of the books whichNewbery and his successors published for young readers. This isentitled Newbery-Carnan-Powcr: a provisional check-list of books for theentertairment, iitstruction and education of childrerl and young people, iss~redunder the inaprints ofJohn Newbery nnd hisfatnily in the period 1742-1802.It was published in 1966, and is obtainable from William Dawson &Sons, 16 Pall Mall, London S.W.I. price two guineas.This check-list contains more than 400 titles, with details of separateeditions, and location of copies, both in public libraries and institutions,and in private collections. More than seventy books on the list werepublished by John Newbery before his death, and many of themcontinued to be reprinted or re-issued by his successors. The location ofcopies shows the importance of the private library and the individualcollector for any systematic study of children's books issued byNewbery. At least fourteen items in first or earliest editions extant archeld by private libraries only, including the very scarce Easter Gift(1781 copy), The Fairing (1768 copy), and a first edition of theValentine's Gij dated 1765-all three works being advertised andapparently issued that same year. All three copies are in the UnitedStates, where many Newbery publications haw emigrated. In additionto many copies of English editions there are also American editions ofthe more popular Newbery books, chiefly issued by Isaiah Thomas, ofWorcester, Massachmetts, in the 1780's.The detailed information in Mr Roscoe's check-list about edi~ionsand re-issues enables the enquirer to obtain some idea of the relativepopularity of the various Newbery books for boys and girls. Thepublisher's first productionl-A Little Pretty Pocket-Book-seems to havebeen a regular favourite, for there were apparently at last fourteenseparate printings from 1744 to 1783. Another work continually beingreprinted was A Pretty Book of Picturestir little Masters and Misses; or,Tommy Rip's History of Beasts and Birds (1752). Thc cuts of animals andbirds, with verses and descriptions, are preceded by gallant episodesabout the little champion, 'not much biggcr than Tom Thumb', littleTrip, who rides his dog, Jouler, and defies the great giant Woglog.But the most famous of and beloved of all the Newbery books isundoubtedly The History of Little Goody Two-Shoes, first published in1765, and reaching four editions before Newbery's dcath. Thereafter itwas continually re-issued, pirated, abridged, and adapted, appearing inAutumn 1967 69


various forms until the end of the ninetecnth century and aftcr. WalterCrane illustrated a shortened version in the Routledge Shilling series ofhis Toybooks in 1875, and something of the charm of style of theoriginal lingered in a brief retelling included in Arthur Mce's Children'sEncyclopaedia first published in 1908. This tale of a poor orphan whotaught herself to be a 'trotting tutoress', after she had sccured two shoesinstead of half a pair, and who rose to be Lady of the Manor, may claimto be a minor classic of children's literature.For a long time the earliest edition of Goody Two-Shoes available wasthe third edition of 1766, from which a facsimile was made by CharlesWclsh in 1881. The earliest copy known to be extant was the secondedition published the same year, of whicha copy is in the Opie collection.But abo~~t two years ago a copy of the first edition of 1765 was acquiredby the British Museum-perhaps the most important Newbery 'find'for many years. (See the article by Julian Roberts in the British MuseumQuarterly vol. xxix, 1965).Mr Roscoe is rcvising his published check-list from many sources,and already the information in it is out-of-date. Nevertheless it is a mineofinformation about the Ncwbery books for children and reveals muchncw evidence about dates of their publication. For example, The PrettyBook for Children can now be assigned to 1748 or earlier, not 1750:Be Merry and Wise, by 'T. Trapwit', to 1753, not 1758: Nurse Trzdove'sNew Year's Gift to the same year, not 1759: A Aetty Book ofPictures to1752, not 1759. Advertisements in the press have been relied upon forthese earlier dates to a great extent, but although it has bcen affirmedthat Newbery sonletimes issued notices of his books long before thedatc of publication, it is hardly likely that such an astute business manwould create a demand for something hc could not supply, as a regularpractice.A few new titles, chiefly of an educational or instructional nature,have also been discovered by Mr Roscoe. Thcse include a work issucdby Newbery with his partner Micklewright in Reading in 1742-athird edition of John Mcrrick's Festival Hymnsfbr the Use of- CharitySchools. Although this was a work designed for a special religiouspurpose, and not a book with any element of amuscment for the youngreader-as his first London production, A Little Pretty Pocket-Book-it isnotable as the first publication Newbery issucd for youth.The range of the Newbery books for children is indeed impressive.They include aids to learning, from simple 'battlcdores', primers, andpicture alphabets, to grammars, school-books, and a compendium of70 The Private Libraryknowledge in ten volumes entitled The Circle ofthe Sciences; editions ofthe Bible and other religious works for youth; natural philosophypresented in popdar form, vol~nnes of history, and Plutarch 'abridgedfor young Gentlemen and Ladies'; and many volumes of morc entertainingfare in the form of riddles, jests, poems, nursery rhymes, fables,and stories, many of these fictions relating the history of deserving littlccharacters who make good. Such werc Little Two-Shoes, the mostfamous of them all, and Giles Gingerbread who learnt his lctters as heate them, and so much impressed a grcat man by his character that theboy was taken with him to London to win his way in the world.Animals also play an important role in the Newbery books, and kindnessto them was evidently a fecling Ncwbcry himself had at heart.John Newbery's achievement did not end with his death. In the fieldof books for children he had shown that there was an expanding marketfor a continual supply of both entertaining and educational publicationsof a new type, and his publishing and bookselling business was effectivelycontinued and extended by his family who inherited it. At first thebook business at No. 65, St Paul's Church-yard (formerly The Bible andSun) was carried on by Ncwbery's son, Francis, in partnership with hisstep-son, Thomas Carnan. About 1779 Francis Newbery abandonedthe book business and transferred the profitable trade in medicines tonew premises nearby. Thomas Carnan then carried on the book tradeby himself until his death in 1788, and for a few years it came into thepossession of Franck Power, the son of Newbery's daughter, Mary.Meanwhile, another n~cmbcr of the family, Newbery's nephew,another Francis Ncwbcry, was established as a rival concern at No.20'at the corner of St Paul's Churchyard', and eventually the whole of theNewbery book business passcd to the nephew's widow, ElizabethNewbery, who sccnls to have taken ovcr her husband's publishingbusiness about 1780. Under Eli~abeth Ncwbery thc n~~mber of booksfor children increascd considerably. But few of the new publications,many of them accentuating morality at the cxpcnse of playfulness andhumour, could compete with the charm of style which was imprintedon the little books produced by thc foandcr of the house of Newbery.The volumes which survive (would there werc lnany more of them!)are a lasting and treasured memorial to their creator, who pleased thelittlc rcaders of his day not so much by his clever talents, but because hefelt himself to be and inscribed himself, thcir friend.Azrtrrmn 1967 71


REVIEWSJOHN CARTER AND GRAHAM POLLARD, Precis ofPaden or the sources of 'The newTimon' (Working Paper No. I). Pp. 24 and The fayeries of Tennyson's plays(Working Paper No. 2). Pp. 21. Both, Oxford, distributed for the authors byB. H. Blackwell Ltd., 1967. Limited to 140 copies ofwhich 105 are for sale. 21s.For several years past it has been one of those open bibliographical secrets thata new edition of Carter and Pollard's Enqtriry was in course of preparation.These two working papers contain supplementary material which may proveto be too long or too dctailed for inclusion in the new ecLtion in their presentform. For this reason separate publication has been decided upon.In Studies in bibliography, 1965, Professor W. D. Paden wrote an account ofthe curious printings of Tennyson's The Lover's Tale. In 1870 and 1875 RichardHerne Shepherd had printed a most complicated series of unauthorised editionsof this togetlicr with other minor poems. As a result of this action Tennysonsued him for breach of copyright and obtained an injunction against Shepherd.Professor Paden's investigation of thc circumstances surroundmg these publicationswas 35 pages in length and extrcmely detailed and involved. In thsworking paper Carter and Pollard have produced a 'precis of Paden' and addedfurther conclusions of their own.In addition to Shepherd's piracies two editions exist which are forgeries of thepiracies. One, dated 1870, and called by T. J. Wise the 'First Pirated Edition',was certainly printed later than 1880 and was dealt with in the Enquiry (pp.307-314). The second is a forgery of a collection of eighteen poems originallymade by Shepherd in 1870. The forgcd edition exists in two forms, differingody in the wording on the recto of the first Icaf; one of which has 'POEMS',thc other 'The new Timon and the poets . . . with other omitted poems'.Professor Paden deduced that thc forgeries were produced 'about 1898', Carterand Pollard suggest 'during 1896 and 1897'.Professor Paden regarded it as 'a virtual certainty' that Wise was responsiblefor both these forgeries. It is here that Carter and Pollard reach their mostimportant and far-reaching variation from Professor Paden's conclusions. Theyhad access to the stock records of Mcssrs. Quaritch and thesc show quite clearlythat Quaritch bought them in one lot from the estate ofHarry Buxton Forman.A few pages later the Enquirers are able to conclude their investigation ofThe New Timon with the perfect curtain sentence '. . . wluch has led us toattribute this forgery to Buxton Fornlan instead of to T. J. Wise'.The second working paper concerns itself with the forgeries of four ofTennyson's plays: The Falcon '1879', The Cup '1881' and The Promise ofMay'1882' (pp. 323-33s of The Enqiiiry), together with Bccket '1879'. These were'trial books', printed it had been suggested for stage purposes. Apart from thatpossibility it was known that Tennyson had his draft versions printed onoccasions ready for further revision. At thc time of Wise's forgeries of these fourplays, he did not know that genuine 'trial copies' were held by the Tennysonfamily. These later came to light and presented textual inconsistencies whichwere difficult to explain. Possibly the most important result of this fact is theknowledge that the statcrnent sonlctimes made that Tennyson had the habit of72 The Private Lihrary'restoring discarded lines' was largely fostered by Wise and has no real validity.These two pamphlets arc valuable additions to the Wise story on whlch theauthors have been engaged for about 35 years. Their erudition, their skd, theirclarity of expression; all these we have learned to take for granted. Neverthelessone aspect of the working papers is puzzling. It is stated that they containevidence and conclusions to which the authors will need to refer later, presumablyin the second edition of the Enquiry, because they are too long to beincluded as they stand. Why then was it thought desirable to issue only 105copies for sale? The market for the new Enquiry will doubtless run intothousands. What a curious situation will follow when all those readers will bechasing essential supplementary material found only in a few, very rare (theyare already out of print) copies. There is no reason to suppose that the methodof printing precluded a larger issue or that the distributors (Messrs. Blackwell)could not handle more. Had this been so, then both printing and distributorshould have been changed. It is also difficult to believe that anyone could havejudged the demand to be so limited. Perhaps by the time this review appears weshall have hard of a reprint. Otherwise it will scem that, in memory of T. J.Wise-and Buxton Forman, a rarity has becn manufactured.ROY STOKESBETTINA HURLIMANN, Three centuries of children's hooks itl Europe. Translated andedited by Brian W. Alderson. Oxford University Press, 1967. Pp. xv111+zg7,28 plates, illus., bibliog. 45s.The first edition in English of a book originally published by Atlantis Vcrlagof Zurich in 1959 and revised by the author for a second cdition in 1963. In herpreface to the second edition Bettina Hiirlimann says, 'It has become quiteimpossible today for one person, however conscientious, to survey the wholefield in just one country, let alone a continent or the world itself'. BrianAlderson, the translator and editor of this third edition, has accepted the workin this sense as 'an informal introduction to a neglected field of study', but anintroduction based on wide knowledge and on the author's own extensivccollection of children's books, assembled over a period of some twenty years.In this new edition the chapters have been rearranged in order to emphasize thecomparative and historical aspects of the subject, the introduction has been rewrittenand both bibliograpl~ical notcs and thc bibliography of books aboutchildren's books expanded.It is a book which will undoubtedly givc pleasure to those who alrcady havean intercst in children's books as literature and i's sho~~ld attract many who maynot have realised for themselves the fascination of the subject. It is written witha critical perception and, though in general limited to certain aspects of children'sliterature such as nursery rhymes, fairy tales or the modern use of photographyin illustration, the book singles out Hans Andersen, Robinson Crusoe, SaintExupery's Petit Prince and the work ofJean de Brunhoff for particular attention.English readers may be surprised to fnld that a chapter on fantasy omits Tolkienand C. S. Lewis, that Lewis Carol1 is includcd because of his importancc in thefield of 'nonsense' which Mrs Hiirlimann condcrs to bc tllc great contribution


of the British to children's literature. They may also be surprised to find that.although the names of artists from many Europea~i countries appear in thechapter on Twentieth Century picture books no English artists are mentioned;one would have hoped for at least Ardizzone and Brian Wildsmith. Yet,perhaps it is this objective approach, this opportunity to see our own literaturetlirough the eyes of another, to see it in relation to books from Germany, Franceor Switzerland, which makes Mrs Hiirlimann's book not only interesting, butalso stimulating and thought-provoku~g, leading to a new appreciation of ourown authors and artists. Certainly the publishers consider tlus a work of majorimportance for they have presented it in a fine and attractive edition, a reminderofthe fact that in recent years the Oxford University Press has added to its manyachievements the reputation for outstanding productions in childrc~i's litcraturc.F. P. P.T. C. HANSARD, Typograpkia, 1825. London, Gregg-Archive, 1966. Pp. 1042,5 folding plates. Offset lit110 facsimile. L17 10s. or $49.00.For many purposes this reprint of one of the key printers' manuals will serveas well as the original edition, and to the extent that it will save wear and tear onthe cxtant copies of the lattcr it is n~uch to be welcomed. It will also presumablybe bought by institutional and p~~blic libraries wl~icll have no copy of theoriginal, or would not wish to lend it if they have, and in making such animportant text more readily available to students it will serve a f~rther usefulpurpose.But the private collector who can afford to buy it will probably prefer to paya bit more to get a copy ofthe 182s edition. Thcre are far too many faults in thisreprint to justify its use as anything more than a reading edition, as a comparisonbetween it and the St Bride's copy from which it was made will only too readilyreveal. These faults would not matter very much perhaps if there had been anysort of editorial comment listing what had been changed, but unfortunatelythre is not. So the casual reader will not realise that several plates have beenbacked up whicli originally were not. Nor will he know that the folding plateof the Cogger Press should have been upright and not sideways; nor that twoother folding plates werc printed in ochre which are now in black; nor that theinitial B from the Gutenburg Bible should have had the letter in red and thesurrounding decoration in blue, instead of as now with the bowls of the letter inred and the rest in black! More scrious are the odd letters and words which havebeen lost in the process of reproduction. I have noted such faults on the platesfacing pages 416, 417, 637, 697, 744 and 913, on the third and fourth inkspecimens and on pages 619 and 823. The printing was done in Germany and isnot particularly good, the type being much coarsened and most of the fme linesin the engravings lost entirely. The inner margins have been reduced by aquarter of an inch or more, and the overall height of the page by rather morethan half an inch. The binding is in a waterproof buckram, and is neat if notelegant.Hansard was a good and collscientious printer. He deserved better than this.And for A17 ros., so do wc. D. J. c.74 The Privntr. LibraryGrahamGreeneMAY WEBORROWYOURHUSBAND?And other Comedies ofthe Sexual LifeA few copies still remain of thelimited edition of numbered copiessigned by the author. 5 gnsBodley Head


Titles now published in Gale's distinguishedlist of REPRINTED CLASSICSTHE AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY SERIESAllibone, S. Austin. Critical Dictionary of EnglishLiterature and British and American Authors.1858-1871.3 v. 3,140 p. $84.00Kirk John Foster. Supplement to Allibone's Criticalbictionaryof English Literature andBritishand American Authors. 1891.2~. 1.562~. $43.00Duyckinck, E.A.and C.L: Cyclopedia ofAmericanLiterature. 1875 revrslon 2 v. 2.044 p. $43.00Lawrence, Alberta. Who's Who Among LivingAuthors of Older Nations. 1931.482 p. 815.00Warner, Charles Dudley. Biographical Dictionaryand Synopsis of Books Ancient and Modern.Vol. 1. Biographical Ddonary of Authors.1902.619 p. $17.00International Bibliophile Society. BibliophileLibrary of Literature, Art, and Rare Manscripts.Vols. 29-30. Bibliophile Dictionary. 1904. 1 v.767 p. $22.00Biographical Dictionary of the Living Authorsof Great Britain and Ireland. 1816.499 p. $47.00THE ASSOCIATION REFERENCE SERIESCarnegie Institution uf Washington. Handbookof Learned Societies and Instltut~ons: America.1908. (Publicat~on No. 39.) 592 D. $17.00~riffi;, A. P. C. Bibliography of American HistoricalSocieties. 2nd ed. 1907. 1,374 p. $35.00Hume Abraham Learned Societies and Printing~lubsbfthe~niied~ingdom. 1835.380~. $12.50Illustrated Catalog of Society Emblems Pinsand Charms. 1885 Catalog of Charles ~.'~rons:Manufacturing Jeweler. 176 p. $6.00Preuss. Arthur. Dictionary of Secret and OtherSocieties. 1924. 543 p. $15.00Stevens, Albert C. Cyclopedia of Fraternities.1907.444~. $12.50THE LITERARY AND HISTORICALDICTIONARY SERIESAdams, W. Davenport. Dictionary of EnglishLiterature. 188-. 708 p. $21.00Brewer, E. Cobham. A Dictionary of Miracles.1884.582 p. $13.50Brewer, E. Cobham. The Historic Note-Book,1896.997 p. $27.50Brewer, E. Cobham. Reader's Handbook ofFamous Names in Fiction, Allusions. . . 1898.2 v. 1,243 p. $29.50Chambers, Robert. Book of Days. 1899. 2 v.1,671 p. $38.50Prey, AlhertR. Sobriquets and Nicknames. 1887.482 p. $14.00Harbottle, Thomas Benfield. Dictionary ofBattles. 1905.298 p. $8.00Hone, William. The Every-Day Book. Vol. 1(1826) 860 p.; Vol2(1827) 856 p. Each $22.50Hone, William. The Table Book, 1827-28.2 v. in1.874 p. $22.50Hone,William.TheYearBook.1832.824p.$22.50Write for the complete list of reprint titlesLatham. Edward. Dictionarv of Names. Nicknames,and Surnames of Persons, P~acks, andThings. 1904. 334 p. $9.50Phyfe, William Henry P. 5000 Facts and Fancies.1901.816n. $23.00Walsh, whim S. Curiosities of Popular Customsand of Rites. Ceremonies. Observancesand Miscellaneous Antiquities. 1898. 1,018 p:227 511Walsh, William S. Heroes and Heroines of Ficction. Vol 1. Classical Mediaeval Legendary.1915. 379p.'~ol. 2: ~odern prose' and Poetry.1914.391 p. Each $12.00Walsh, William S. Handy-Book of LiteraryCuriosities. 1892. 1,104 p. $28.50Wheeler, William A. Dictionary of the NotedNames of Fiction. 1917.440 p. $12.00Wheeler, William A. Familiar Allusions. 1882.584 p. $16.00Fifteen Other Important TitlesAvailable for Immediate ShipmentBrockett, Paul. Bibliography of Aeronautics,1910. 940 p. (Smithsonian Misc. Coll., v. 55)537.00Burke, W. J. The Literature of Slang. 1939.1800. $9.00Davis, Edward Ziegler. Translations of GermanPoetry in American Magazines. 1741-1810.1905.229 n. $8.00 ...-.Dohell, Bertram. Catalogue of Books Printed forPrivate Circulation. 1906.240 p. $10.00Gough, Henry. A Glossary of Terms Used inHeraldry. 1894.659 p. $14.50John Crerar Library. List of Books on the Historyof Industry and the Industrial Arts. 1915.486 ----- n. $18.50 ------Lowe, Robert W. A Bibliographical Account ofEnglish Theatrical Literature from the EarliestTimes to the Present Day. 1888.384 p. $14.00Meyncn. Emil. Bibliography on German Settlements m Colonial North America. 1937. 636 p.820.00Nares, Robert. Glossary of Words. Phrases,Names, and Allusions in the Works of EnglishAuthors. Reissue of the 1858 revision. 981 p.$22.50O'Callaghan, Edmund Bailey. A List of Editionsof the Holy Scriptures and PartsThereof Printedin AmericaPrevious to 1860.1861.415 n. $15.00Rogers, May. Waverley Dictionary. '2nd ed.1885. 357 D. $16.00Smith, ~lsdon C. Personal Names: A Bibliography.1952.226 p. $9.00Truhner Nikolaus. Trubner's Bibliographical~uidetd~merican~iterature. 1859.554p.$27.50.U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. History ofWages in the United States from Colonial Timesto 1928 (with supplement). 1934. (Bulletin 604).574 p. $21.00Yonge, CharlotteM.History ofChristianNames.1884.484~. $13.501400 BOOK TOWERGale Research Company DETROIT, MICHIGAN, 48226

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