in the Universltyof Khartoum'

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in the Universltyof Khartoum'

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'The Student Communityin the Universltyof Khartoum'byTS NmrdffinstarnLIJ Sha\ndThe Institute of Developrnent Studiesat the LJniversityof $ussexrIIl_ll.r:.tf\r'I

D?.-_llSIIE STUIEU|T Co}I]/IUNIIT .IN THE UNffERSIIY 0F lErrRI'0i[\LTO S ' NORDENST/,IID. J. SHÅWThe -trnstitqte of Develgpment Stgåiesat tJre,. Univqrsity g{_r§uEsexJanuary 1967

1-Intro duet ionc0r§TqrTS-1==--aThe Student PopulationThe Sa:ap1ePro c edurejjStructure of the Student PopuiationStudent Background.Economie BackgroundStudent QualityStudent rispirationsD isc uss ionb-7t1 {TÅBLffiTable 1. Stude.nts by year and facultyTable 2, Str-rdents b5r year of entry jnto the U.nivers-i.tyTab1e 3. Students by ageTable Å,. Stud.ents by $econdary SehoolsTable 5, I'lunber of private candidates?able 6, Students by Prov jnceTable 7. Students by NationalityTable 6. I'h.rnber of §tudents with deceased fathersTable 9. §tudont GuardiansTab1e 10. Fathers t monthly incomeTab1e 11. Guardj.ans t monthly j.ncomeTab1e 12. Student§ t feesTable L3 . Students t Bursar j-esTable L4, Types of School CertificateTable L5. School Certificate gradesTable L6, Students t first cho j-ce of facultyTab1e L7 . §tudents t second choice of facultyTable 18. Students t thi-rd choice of faculty

THE STLTDTNT COI\fl\iiN\TITY-7-IN THE In\iIIIIRSITYOF IGIARTOU,:IntroductionMuch though is currently b.eing given to the role of universitiesin the newly ind.ependent countries in Africa. Attempts are being mad.e. toreshape those existing institutions, vrhich t'rore: modelled. on Europeanuniversities, to meet the need. of their oountries.ri Th".u is an urgentd.emand. for research into the prohl)-ems of university development in Africato æsist in the re-ap.praisal of higher" ed.r-rcatlon pollcies and, theevaluation of existing teaching and. researeh progralnmes. Ån essentj-alpart of such research should. be analyses of data on student populations,Such analyses are vital for evaluating tcaching progralnmes and studentperformance, ancl should. provifu some of the information necessary forplanning uni versity d.evelopment, Re,search on. stud.ent population r,r,'ou1d.seem to be particularly relevant in developi-ng countries vuhere resource§,are scarce and. attempts are being macl-e to bring about rapid. e conomicd.evelopment. Furthermore , such studie s should be of value in d"e signingpolicies for effectively dravring on capital and- technical aid ava:llablefor higher education in Africa.This is a first report on a pilot study of the stnrcture and.ecology of the stud.ent community in an African university. This stu(1rforms part of a wiåer study of the University of Khartoum as, a casestudyof Åfrican unlversities in tran.itiorr.2)1) See esp. Final Re-port-gl thq Cgnlerenpe-of A{rican §tateg on thepS-g"}np er ,4962) ancl &g__Lg-yglopment_qll Higheg Educ_?ti_glr iq.4.tl.icq. Repor! .qI the"agBfelgncg__gp the_ qevelopment ,of Hisher E_dlJc.qtion Lq ii{,rigq,*tqp""qfye-962, (Unesco ED. 62/D,20/1,2 L965) "?) il*^" authorst s,taff irttit*t1eå ,Ln an /ifrican university, stencilled.report, The Institute of Develapment §tudies at the University of SussexJanuary 1967. iTfe wish to thenk the V,ice Chancellor and. the ;,dmini-stration of theUniversity of Khartoum for their co-operation in this research; thestuåents l''rho assisted. in the analysis of the d.ata; the Research C:ommitteeof the University of iilrartoum and. the lGmpe Found.ation at the University ofUme8. for financial support; and. the Institute of Development Stud.ies at theUniversiQr of Sussex for providing facilities for producing this report.

IThq. SJuSent Popu1a'§ion- 3 FThe Universit,v of Ll:artourrr has expanded rapidly sinee itsinauguretion in L956. fn L95G57, the University had 802 students; inSeptember 7965, it had 21596 students. It has been suggested, that thestudent populatron shor:Id reach 51000 by 1970 and that a second university1)should be established in L970 taking another 51000 students by 1980.The SanpleThe sasrple of thls s-fÅåycomprlses all students jncluded in thelists of candidates for the iularch L966 examlnations, a total of 2 /*37students .Pro.c e4qIeAn attempt was rnade to code and analyse the inforrnation on theadnission forms of the stud.ents includeC in the sernple. Jt r.ras notpossi-ble to find the f iles of 65 of the students, so that the nrrnber ofstudents for whora informatlon was available was 21372.The coding and analysis of the material was carrj-ed out manuallywith the help of stuidents. This exercise was intended to give thestudents some training in the handling of research data. I{e feel thatstudents generally should be associated with staff on research programroesas an integral part of their undergraduate training.Since processing was done manually, the analy'sis had to belimited to basic tabulations. It is planned to carry out further a.nalysesof sone of the data by cornputer.1) 1,1.0. Beshlr, ItFinancing University Education in the Sudan, tr fu1ffi.ucati-on in the §udaE Philosophieal Society of the Sudan, I(hartoum, ,.

åtructur:e-pf the student popula!-Lon (Tables I - 2)The distributj.on of the 21372 etudents for whom informationwas available over faculti-es was ,:1s follows IFaculty Nu:rber of stuCentso,6AgricultureArtsEconomic and. soci,alstudiesEngineering andarchite;cture- Engineeri-ng- i\rchit.ictureLaw- Civil Lar^rSharia law14edici.neFharmacyScience- Science (giot.)- »cience (uattrs.)L36463l+/+72201?8l+21/*8L34u2/r33762A3452755.7Lg.518.89.37,51.86.25,60.610.21.626.1L4,-5]"]-.6Veterinar.r,rScience 58 2.LStuclents entering the Iiniversity go j-nto one of the four core1)faeulties : Årts, Econornics, Lar,r, and §cience. i\t the end of theirfirst ye.rr, students fron the F*culty of Science (Aiology Stream) najproceed to the Faculties of Agriculture, i'ied.ic5-ne, Pharraacy, orVeterinarlr 5" j-ence, md fron Seience (i,iathernaties Stream) to Årehitec'ture.Engineering students spend tirelr first two years in the Universi't y in theI'acuJ-ty of Seience (l:laths.) . The length of the courses varies betr.ii:en th:faculties froin four to sjx )r€ars. iionours students in the Faculties ofarts, Econo'nics, and Sc j-ence take an extra fifth year (taUte 1) .The distribution of the 21372 students over stages in theircareer uas as follows :Yeeg Nmber %Ist2nd3rdlnth5th6th72457 /*/+Å,5353190s634.524.218.8u.98.07.6Ths proportion of students enrolled in scientific and technologlcalfc'culti€§ i,Iårs 55./"11t a h:-gher figure than rn most Africanuniversi-ties,1) Ås from)rear i-ntg66/61, stude,',tsthe ilniver,s'!t). inin the faeult;. ef Laueither the F cult.i ofspenc. their first;,rts or Lcononi-cs.

-5-Stndent Facksroqnd (Tabl-es 3 - 7)78 dh of the students in the first j/ear ix the Univers:.*,-;-;=r= 2:)rears o1cl or u-nder, according to their admission forms, 0n1;. 3 'F oi -ul3stud.ents ',.rere over 25 yel'rs oId. In the absence of birth certi.iic't=s,these f igures can only be taken as approxinrtlons. 83 'n of the studen-iscame fron boys t schools and 7 'k frora girls t sbhools in the Sudan . 6 ftwere private candidates, and L 7" fron or-rtsiCe the Sudan. The na;orityof the students were recruited from a small number of schools in theSudan. ?he njne largest schcols (those havi-ng supplied over 100 students)accounted for 6B i6 of the student population. The figures of recruitmeni;from secondary schools show that certain faculties tend to drew theirstud.ents frorn certain schools. For instance, the propcrtion of studentsfrorn Wadi Seidna who go to the Facultlr of liedicine i.q higher than fromother schools . Few women students go to the prof e*

.rmuu? Jad spunod ooJr{+ ,(+æ; +R po+,eu[+so.:Yt.,.r?+ce§ u{epgu 1t{3- r9.+ ?ulS.cul_o8yretE ai{$ 'm(T

_6stated. to be required fro the asses;sment of fees and. bursarles. :'.'€valid.ity of lnter-faculty variai;ions 1s therefore d.ifficult to assesson the basis of this material. There might have been a higher proportionof fathers with no income a,mongst the stud.ents in the Faculties ofLaw (Sharia) and. Pharmacy than in the other faculties. The proportionof fathers with a monthly i-ncome of over tv'rentyfive pound.s per monthwas consiåerably lower for the stud.ents in the Faculty of Agriculturethan in the other fa,cult ies.15,81[ of tbe stuCents I fathers were d.ead. In tbe lth and. 6thyears, the percentage of d.ead. fathers rras significantly lower (9.5% analj-.6% respectively), wbich suggests ttra,t students ha,ve to terminate theiracad.emic career on the d.eath of their fa.ther.t9.6o/" of the students stated that they had guard.ians. 56.4of the guardians were brothers, 28.1% were uncles , 5.2fo nothers, 4.1/ograndfathers, 3. 4{o cousins,Guard.ians I montbly inooues are more heavily eoncentrated inthe el-even to twentyfive pound month.ly income bracket (lt'1, compared witht5{, for fathers).LfÅ of the stud.ents pay the fee for non-Sud.anese nationals(fl,SZlO) e L/, pay the maxj-nn:n fee for Sud.anese nationals,,(e,S84), 55/, ofthe stud.ents pay no fees , Zflfo pay betrveen six and. twelve pound.s per yea,r.2S/, of the stud.ents receive burso.ries, accord.ing to theadmission form material. No informa,tion was record"ed. for 3q, of theformsr whieh rnakes interpretation of inter-faculty differences impossible.Student quality (faUtes t4 -15)ur{" of the stud.ents had. obtained. tb.e sudan schoor cert if icate ,31å 0eneral Certificate of Education from the United Kingd.om, aecording tothe admission forms. 39/, of the forms did. not give any information on-grades of school certifica,tes. The availa.ble informa,tion suggests tha.tMed.icine and to a lesser extent Engineering receive the highest proportionsof Grad.e I students , and. the t Arts receives the highest proport 1onof Grade III stud.ents.§trldent Aspi.rat ions (f bUtes 16 18 )Two third.s of the students gave Science as their first ehoiceof facultye and one fifth Economics, 5% cbose Law (Cfvif ) *rrd 4/o Lyts.Tbe most popular second choices were Seience (lt{r1 a,nd. Economics 1Zl%),

-l-t§tu$ent Prefere?ces For P:,euLties (i:: oercent)F a cultylst Choice Znd Choice 3l.o ChoieeArtsE conomicsL aw ( civ:-r)L aw ( snaria)Law (Unspecified)Science (sior.)S c ience (tltatrrs. )Science (Unspecified) 0.10 the r allsluerNo answer4,42l.ob.10.4a.,42,-524,30.10.513.729.211. Bo.39.623.317.'228.818.217.70.64.? number of points a.rise out of this stu.dy of the student populationin the University of I{rartoum. Thc follorving poinis seeri to us to be ofpart icular importance.( u) Student record.s g Efflcient kecping and. analysis of student re cordsis essential for tl:e evalua.tion of the functions of a universityl) Thisstudy points to the rued for:iore accuratc recordlrtg of student data.It is suggested that a rcgulariscd procedurc for the analysis of studentd ata should be set upr drar',ring upon computer facilities where such areavailable. Hecord keeping should preferably be standardised to aIlor,'rfor inte::-u:rivcrsity comparisons. The recorCing and evaluation ofstudent c'lata shoulcl be seen as a permanent fcature of universities, i,hichwill over time provide a basis for better planning of university development.( t) lr3nls-c Timc-series sh.ould, be constructcd. out of s*r,uderrt riata sothat trend-s may be disccrned. This r,,oulcl help to provide en ttearlywarning systorn"2) rvhich woulci revee.i any deficiencies in the universitystnrcture. Trend ro,'atching sccrns particularly important for ra.pidlyexpanding r.miversities in dcveloping cconomies. fn the absence of otherrecord,s, an attempt l-'as made to discern trenCs in thc University ofKhartourn by grouping studcnts by year in the univcrsltyr r,'rhich givcs somcinformation about developments in the last fel years. 0n the'Lrasis ofthis rnaterial, the charactcristics of the studcnt population in theUnivcrsitl' appcar to havc becn ste,ble ovcr the recr:nt past.

.B9r.d 5 .1Tc .do ,+eq.sTli .g.f {e,996I roq'rrocoO q+elsuopuol Jc .(11s.roa1ug 'uoT+tscnpg ;oq81g o+uT qcJzosou JoJ f,1o1cogoq+ Jo ocuo;roJuo0 TCnuidY puz 6,, ocueuuoJJo(r +uopnls Jo sp;ocai{ Jooso or{ttr å +ooqs ocuBleg cTuroplscy oi{,lrr rro JtsuTuros oq? +e po+uoso.:ds;odtsc or{+ pue gogf-gg?.ctd ,gg6t.+dos ,3.o1d roz.ro^ {f,lffiEffi6.,Ocueuuo3:;ilc1ui:pn1s8u11ctPOJcrr,+oq.sT$.o.f""q(t

Fs-(")Uastage c Univcrsitie s in derrclopinrt cconomics shoulci pay .'i?r:-r;-:lattcntion to tl:e problcms of siudent v,ras-i,agc in vic; of thc rclaiiv:l]'higher costs of trainiirg third-1evc1 manpolrer in devoloping countlf'es a::ithe immcdiate dcnands for such rnanpowcr. Failure rates, repetitionratcs, and dismissal ancl c1isruption ratcs have not been systcmaticallyexa.rnined in the University of Khartoum. The admission form nratcrialgives some information on repetition rirtes. Comparing year of cntry lvithyear in the unlvcrsity, trve find that 5f" of thc first year students t?ererepeating thc ycar, l)fo vere rcpoating thc sccond year, 20$ werc rcpeatingthe third ycar, and 18lo werc repeating thc fourth Uuur.l)(a) Student gugl]tg gng gslirations : Thc conccntration of high qualitystudents in a fcvr fe.cultics, -,-.ilrich is clearly noticcably ln thc Univcrsityof lCrartolxn, resul.ts in shortages in othcr fields. The conccntration of1or-r quality stuclents in thc Faculty of Arts sccms particularly alarmingin view of thc fact that this facult:, should bc thc main supplier ofs ocondary school teachers. A vicious circle might thus bc creatcd bywhich loiv cluality teachcrs produce still lolver quallty students. Aparticularly scnsitive problem ls to bring individual aspirations in linewith national objcctivcs ',vhj-ch involves political Cecisions conccrnlngthc provision of diffcrcntial inccntives.(") ln§eryliLisatign-agd-n§sgsg gf-s§i]rg s A rclat.d problcm conccrnsthc \Yeys in r&ich si

-: -(f) Recruitmgn! 3n3 3a!i-gn31_d-evelgpBent_e The recruitment of the siuåea'upopulrtion at the Unirrersity of Kl:artoum in rela.tion to tbe populationsof the provinces in tire Sud.an in 1966 was as follovrs tProvince Total r \ Economically Sturlents inPopulai;ion'/ .nctive r \ University ,j,'.Populat ion (fr)' t of Khart oum (Zo)NorthernKJrart ournBlue Nile[ot alSudanKassal"aKord"of anDarfr-rRiverain[otal Rainland.Suda.nt""to"="2)8.5AO''f. /20.1trD)a-3.814,525.L23.425.833.5 ?3,5 75, O9.217,2L2,939.3B.oL9.215.76,28.53.8ADOJ 18.6-La)'l D slaL 32,8 4,2!g!*-EsteL-------11e11L999-----{e4iL999 ----3rll]--*-There is a. skew clistribution of students in tire Universltyof Khartoum in relation to both tbe total popul;,tions and. thc economicaIlyact ive populat ions of the -provinces in the Sudan. fhe se f iguresshoulC be seen in relation to political anå economic developrnents in theSud.an" The concentration of investment in third.-level manpower 1n riverainSudan is in line i'rith the short-term objectives of Sud.na.ts [en Yea,rPlan for tbe current decade. Such concentration Coes hor,,;ever , ca.TTy vlithit certain risks for long-term developrnent in tha,t it may serve to perpetuatepolitical and. econoinic imba,lancies betvreen different regions inthe country. The figures point to the need. for a review of educationalpolicy in ttre Sud.an at the macro-level rela;ing investuient in manpowertraining at all levels to political and econoniic aims. Ai the highereduca.tional level, there is a particular need. for co-ordination between theinstitutions of higher ed-ucation in the Sudan irrb.ich rrrould. take intoaccount also the tra,ining of third-level manpower abroad..1) Sources ilianpower, The lianpower arid" Employment Division, La,bourDepertment, I{inistry of Information of La.bour, stencilled report,K &rortorxt October 1967,Z) nufur, §L Srs.*&, Equatoria., Uppcr idile.

fable 1.SruDE[\iTS BY YI],:iR ÅND FiiCUtTYfacultyI4riculturei''l,rtskonomicsIngineeri-ng &,rchitectureEngineering.irchltectureLawCivil LawSharia Lawi'iedicinePharmacyScienceScience ( giot-Science (Mathsr/eterinaryScience'1st14o (3o .z)13? (30,5)4Z3511(11.8)Q6.91(78.5 )4oo (64.5;265 Q6,B)135 (49. r )Year in Un:iversity2nd 4ttr ,th 5u:44 (32.3)EO(28.1)125 (28. O )t-l28 (rB.g)25 (8.?)3 (ar.4)59 G4;719 15r.4)161(25 "A)35 (10.1 )tz6(45.8)g ( rl,g)3rd, |4t (]0. r )96 (ao.71112(25.1)59 11t.4)56 (3t.5)13 (31.o)22 ( t4.g)22 (16.4)o (o.o)58 Q3.g)1t (48.6)25 (4.o)19 $.r)6 (z,z)4 (6.9)3? (z? .z)80 (t? .3)59 U7.a)4g (za J)3? (ao.B)12 (28.6)26 1t7.5)26 (t9.4)o (o"o)4S (18.5)o (o.o)14 (5.5)25 Q,5)g Q,g)23 Gg.?)1417t4(to.3)(3.?)(3.1)53 Q4.t)4z Q3.6)11 (26.2)25 u5.9125 ( 18.7)44 ( 1B.t0 (o.o)o (0.0o (o.o)o (o.o)23 (}9,?)))4g (22,374l (24. r )5 ?4J)3? .rl23 39.?)TotalE6 (toc4Ø (1oc44r ( toczzo (toc1ZB ( 1oc4z ( 1oct48 ( 1oc114 ( roct4 ( 1oc243 ( toc3? ( toc6zo ( 1oc145 (1ocz?5 (1ocf8 ( 1ocTotalUnlversity lz4 (3o,5) 574(24.2) 44s (18.8) 353(14,9) t9o(8.o) 86 (3.6) 23ZZ( 1oCPereentages in brackets.r-)- :\s"' Probably included in Science (ltaths. ) 2nc1. Year.

-t \1(0. e)z(0.:)r (.oi)r(:"2)llo. ofSturi"ont724 ( ro574 (rou5(10a:5:( roc19o (t86 (rc1J,).. t,it ycft,}n the Univcrs_itlft965 tg64 1953 tg62 Lg67 r.g60t9591g5B 1957NoAnsv,;oror carlicrI ;r t, ycerI'ttr1 yr:,:lt"I rtl /or'3{ l,h yc,arr) t,lr ycal(r t,lr y'c:aI59r ( 95.4)r(0, z)1( . 03)3i( 4.5)4s?( B,+. B) urt r+. ,) i 4( s.7)t(r.. |) 354( 79.5)84( 18. g)zgo(82 . z)i-iI Ilz("';)| -. -br( re. i)IIrit( Bz.6)It-Ir(0. z)4( 1. 1)zIGa,.z)tA( Be. o):.(0. E)5Q.6)11( 12.8,)T'OTAL6%(29.2) 521(zZ.o)435( rB.4)I3?B (r5.P) zl|(g. 1) r-06( 4,5) rt(o.f)I I

Ovcn 30 Othcr Ansi,'cr IIo "^/ \z\G.,i-J 1(0. z )z(o.lt ) r(o,z)r(o.T)r( o. ?)r(0. z)_t \1(0.3)o"[' lr lrlt),ri (* J,' \tr4( \ (r,4t ( ( l,22)1l:)År) Li('-1,1[]131..t42i',3376zofza..527',)6ll)r r')ro)l, r)( l.' ';( too)( t.r,;( toi ,)('trn)( trl, ,;( trl,,;( too)( : or,)( tri,r)( loo)( t rt, i).i'åitl,E 1!-1. . 9f= {ritt".l-l l tISTUDM{T.S BY AGANo Anslc-;l' Und cr 2A 91 2qL4 1_' 26.3o:Ai;.r'i cu.l-ture/rrl,r:i,l conorcics & Socir:,1- Studic-'rEn ginc e ringLlcdicinr:Pharmac;'S cicnccEngincc.;:ingArchltccturcCivilSlr::,riai3i.o1ogr- l"[athcmaticsV ctcrnary Scicncc42( 3c. g)LgZ(41.5)17t( 39. B)1g( E. 6)u( g.6)2( 4. B)5B( 39. 2)49( 36.5)9( d,t. 3)5r( e5. r)r+( l?. B){1?( 67 ,2)n (58.1)182( 66"z)B( 13. B)8n(52,5)229(1+9.5)23r.( 51.7)184( 83.5)150( Bti.5)35( 83. 3)19$3.4)75( 56.0)r1.( 28. 6)159( 65 "r+)20( 54 .0)153( 26.2)86( zI.o)77( zB.o)4a( 8z " T)lQ,z)1B(3"9)ro( e. z)t( l. z)5( 3.4)l(2.1,)e( +.r)e(+.5):g( r. t)3(0.5)3(0,9)3" 4)T O'[ÅI,1r9( 5.0) 2172 ( t.rl,,;

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TÅBIE E (,)NUI,tBffi. 0F ?RIVÅTE C-."I}I,åTESÅgr icultur eårtxEconomics &,Sccial stuåiesnngr-neer].ng- Engineeri-ng- ^rchitectureTt)'-\ --.. iCiv:-lShariaP':a rmacyScienceSiology- i,iaths.VeterinarySci-enceNo Ånswers3102633225IA+(2, z)(z,z)(5. a)(r,4)(r.T)(r.4)(r.5)(0. g)(0.3)qr.+)Private NotPrivat eI otnu,Ca.ncidatei Ånswers1 (r. ?)43(.oz)0,2)t)1408 z (0.5)12 $. +) 379 (84.8)(0.9) 2t5 0l .t)]-75 (98.3)(+. s) 40 (g5, z)7 Q"r) 13g (g:. g05 G,5) tz6 (9+.0)I (?. r) 13 (gZ, g)4 (r.e) 239 (98,4),/.\a (5.5) 35 0+,5)421072(6" B)(z. g)(rr.?)57 3 (gz, +)334 (96. B)239 (86.9)iqg(z.t) i Lt+4 (6.0) i 2l.77 (gr. B)Iz (0. r)No. ofStudents13543(roo)(roo)447 ( roo)22o (roo)UB (roo)42 ( roo)148 (roo)134 (roo)t4 (roo)243 ( roo )37 ( roo)620 (roo)345 (roo)275 (roo)237 z ( too)(r)No AnsvrersPrivat eCanciid.ateNotPrivite0therÅnsvrersNo. ofStud"ents]st year2nd. yearlrd. year4tn yeayIth year5th yeart997112I(2" a)(r. o)(r. e)(:. r;(r.r)(r. e),o (6.9)15 (t,e)27 (5. r)t4 (+. o)8 (+,2)655 (90.5)518 (90.2)4tt q92,3)328 (gz.g)180 (g+.1)Bl (98. B)z (, 03)7'24 ( roo )574 (roo)445 (roo)353 (roo)190 (roo)86 (roo)TOTÅL i I49 (2. r) t44 (5" o) zttT (9i.8) i z(.or) 2372 (roo)

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17Q.1)21(3.7)14(1.1)1? (4.8)iQ,6)5(5. B)Otherlinswers273,?)l? (3 .O)N(6.7137?o.5)t9( ro.o)14(16J)No. ofStuclents7e4(1oo )5?4(1oo )44y(1oo)353(1oo )190( 1oo)86 ( roo)TOTr'L 651(?? .2) 218(9.2) z?5(11 .6) zg8( 12.6 349(14.?) 206( 8"',7) Bt+(3.5) 68(z.B) 7e3J) r 44( 6.1) zS7z(1oo )Table 11.NoAnswerNi].,NoneUp tofl5§,6-10 fl11 -25 fr25-5o fl51 -75 §,76-1OC 0verfl1001st year2nd year3rd year4th yearlth year6th year2A1(e? .B)179(31.2)129(29.O)8? (24 .6)44(a3.a)11 ( 12. B)85( 1 1 .9)5rG.5)29rc.5)26(?.4)Erc.B)9(o.5)92(12.7)?1(12.4)36(8.1)47(13J)15Q.9)14(16.3)96(1'3"6)6?(1 .7)6l(4.2)39(11 .o)28(14.7)5$.8)10(14.4)B>(t4. B)69(5.5)49(rj.9)32(6. B)10(1r.6)58(B.o)41(7 .1)45(rcJ)36(1o.2)18(9.5)7( 8.1 )2B(3.9)24(4.2)15(3.4)7 (2 .A)6(3.2)4(4.?)15Q.1)14(2.4)14(3.1)B(2.3)10(5.3)7(8.t1

ltro.StudSTUDU\IT FEESTable 12.NorliIISWefFree 9,6-12 §,13-3O fl31-45 s46-5o §,61-BO n84 {i25O 0therAnswersÅgriculturerirtsEcon,:mics & Socia1StuciiesEngineeringLawEngineering- Arctr-ltectureCivilit{ec1i-ci-nePharmacySheriaSciencesBiologyMaths "Veterinary Sciences38(27 .9)?6(16.5)31Q.4)8(}.6)B( 4., )7Q.71? (5 .z)6(2.5)Bo( t 2.9)32o.3)48(1?.5)11(1g.O)?4(54.5)232(50.1)265(59.2)16(6 i.B)110(51 .B)z6(6t .9)1OO( 6?.5)88(65.?)12(86.C)1fi(6a.9)zgQB.B)294(4?.?)148(4a.8)146(53.o)eB(48.e)I15(11 .o)l84(18.1)l84(18.8)lI4eQzr)l1r(9.il\t4(lt.l)126(12 "6)25(J8.7)1(?.1)4l(t? .z)1(8.2)148( 21 ,8)104( 10.1)44(16.0)lz(2o.6)9(6.6)50( 10. B)43G.6)21(g .5)ao(11.2)I (z ,4)1l(8.8)12 ( B.g)1(?.1)34(14.0)5u3.5)6g(t1 .z)4g(r4.3)?o(?,3)4(6.9)?(1 .5)10(2.2)1(O.5)1 (O.5 )lf t -z>B( r .l)3@.915(1.8)1(1 .?)1@.6)e(o.5)r (o.5 )t (o.5)r (o.z)1(O.B),

1 (o.1 )z(o.3)1(O.2),(o. B)r (o.5)1(1 .2)0rrerf,100f(o.4)4(o. Z)3@.771 (C. J)1(l.z)OtherÅnswersE8(19.1)53(9.2)?5(6-9)14? (41 .6)3??9.5)46(fi.5)Itlo. ofStudent924( 1oc5?4(too445( too3fi(oa1go( 1oofOT;L 1514(63.7) 25(1 "1) 68(2.9) 66(z.B) 1E(4. B) 53{2.2) 15 (O.5 ) 9 (o.4) lz(o.5) 496(zt.o) 2372( 1co85( tooTable 12.NoJtnswerNil,NoneUp tofl59,5-10 §,11-25 -§,25-5Ofl51-75 §,?6-1001st ye&r2nd year]rC year4th yeerjth year5th year4Zo(64.9 )441 ( ?6.8)304(68.3)14? (41 .6)126(66 J)z6(3o.2)12(16,6)5 ( o.9;5(1 .1)l(o. B)r (o.5)263.6)15(2.6)12(2.?)9Q.513(.6)33.5)15(2.1)19G.3)15(3.4)10(2,8)4(2,9)33.5)2B(3.9) 263.6)zz(3.8)19(4 J)22(6.2)1Z(8.9)5 (t.8 )B( 1 ,4)B( 1 .8)9Q,51r (0.5)l(t.a)5@.715(o ' 913@.712 (O.5)

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1TÅBI,E _ 14 (")TYPtr OF SCHOOL CMTIFICATESAnslrer i SudanII othersÅgrlculArt sEconom icCSSocial Stu DEngine er-Enginee-ArchiteLavr- Civil- SharlaMed.ic inePha.rmacyScienceSiology- l'{aths"Vet er ina rySc ienc eTOTAITUrret1rinudngETec.tILj (tr,o36 (2.8)n0. I46 (r0.3iesIi31 (14.IrI,nB 31 (tl,+IturfII33(2. o)l"'( o. .,1)23 (r.l)t5 (+.e17 (2.5)"9 ( r5. 5)(6.9)120 (BB. z)4o9 (88.3)386 (86.4)1841434tL4.5131t428335564301263(Br. o)( Bc. 3)0l ,e)( la. o;(9t. e;( roo)(gr. B)0+,e1( 9r. o)(gz. z)05. ø)IB11211L52zE253((o" Bl1.7)l( 2.5)tl\io.,p)l( o. d)l(t,rl(5. a)(:. +)@,5)(z.z)(r. r)M fi5,9) 5 (8.6)IIt4 ( o.g)53 (r.4)3 (r. ?)(o.3)(o.r)6 (r.3)5 (r. r)4 (r.e)3 (o:f)3 ( 0.9)r:6453( roo)(roo)447 ( roo)zzo (roo)1?B (roo)42 (roo)148 (too)r34 9roo)t1 (roo)243 (roo)3I ( roo)52o (roo)345 (roo)275 (roo)58 ( roo)2rro (89. o) 72 ( t. o;1 9 (0.,1)ire (0.8 ztTz( roo)(r)il{o Answer Sud.an B. C. G.C"E"Oxf ord.No, ofStudentslst year i 4O,i?nd. yea,r | 35IIIi$,5)(0. r)0,2)66:. (9r.3)510 (88.9)3rd. year,32tr 396 (Bg. o)II4th yea.r |129 (8.2)IJtln year [ 10 (5.:)I5th yearL^ lraifB ( zors) 5o (69.7) -\i :ro (grie)i rzr (9r.0)IrorAl it64 (5"9) | zrro(9p. o)it723t475(6(2.3(4. \io )iII(3. t\i(z.o )l2.6))i,i)i,II!i1 (o.t2 (0.32 (o.rlz (roo1(0.56 (8.3)4 (o.t)1 (o.2)5 (r.+)1 (0.'5 )I(T.o )t 1 (1.e )l 1 (r. z))i)li)iirI)it)i1z+574Å Åtr,'T't)85:190B6(roo)( roo)( roo)( roo)( roo)( roo)72 (l.o)ig (0.;)ir8(o.e) z37z (roo) I

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