Standards

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Standards

IT industriens institutionelle placering ifælles offentlig åben standardisering -Balancen i offentlig-privat samspil -hvem skal træde på speederen?Mogens Kühn Pedersen, prof.InformatikCBS


Offentlig-privatsamspilStandarder har historisk set spillet enafgørende rolle ved industrialisering og iverdenshandlenIndustrien har spillet en afgørende rolle i alstandardiseringIT og teleområdet har vidt forskelligehistoriske traditioner for standardiseringNy rolle for regeringer?


Standarders økonomiskebetydningStandards in the developing world are a sign of transitionfrom low quality, traditional goods to the world ofcommodities and standard products. Export led growth hasbeen decisive to all newly industrialized countries in theworld.The choice between the conformance or non-conformance torelevant standards the export markets are willing to buy, isthe choice between the growth in incomes and poverty forthe developing nations (WTO 2005).Nu tegner nyindustrialiserede lande sig for omkr. 30% afverdenshandlen! (Kina, Indien, Brasilien, Indonesien, etc.)


Standarder iverdenshandlen80% af verdenshandler er påvirket afstandarder og af reguleringer som baseres påstandarder (Kammer 2000).Vurdering af de økonomiske relationer mellemUSA og Europa viser at over $200 mia. itransatlantisk handel kan henføres tilstandarder (Kammer 2000).


Standarder har betydningfor markedseffektivitetStandarder letter handlen mellem anonyme markedsaktørerStandarder letter forenelighed mellem produkterStandarder letter teknologisk spredningStandarder løser koordinationsproblemer ved netværkseksternaliteterStandarder løser markedsfejl hidrørende fra imperfektinformation og negative eksternaliteter


Industriens rolle istandardisering“By the end of 2004, the International Organizationfor Standardization (ISO) had published some 14,900international standards.Perinorm, a consortium of European standardsorganizations, maintains a database of around650,000 standards (national, regional andinternational) from about 21 countries (WTO 2005,p.xxv).”


Standardiseringsomfanget i IT og teleEn CEN konsortie survey fandt mere 400 fora errelevante for adoption af standarder indenfor IT ogtele (Keith Dickerson, British Telecom, Sept.2005)>1000 private konsortier igang med at standardisereinden for IT og tele (Carl Cargil, Sun Microsystems2006)


I dagIndustrien har en ledende rolle!“The government(s) currently don't have thecompetence, skill, will, or money to accomplishmonitoring emerging standards. And, in the ICTsector, they'd have to join any of the 1000+consortia that really make the standards. Andcoordinate internally and severally. Not achance.” (Carl Cargil, 2006)


Tele vs IT industri


TeleindustrienFælles grænsesnit mellem mellem regionale ognationale selskabers netværk en forudsætningfor national og international telefoni.Tidligt etableret InternationalTelecommunicatioins Union (ITU) hvistekniske komiteer står for standardiseringStandardisering udviklet til at omfatteafregningsprincipper! Et monopol!


Standarder iteleindustrienOffentlig ejede eller koncessionede teleselskaberLiberaliseret marked med telelovgivning ogteleråd som regulering af service typer, vilkår ogpriser (og XXXX)Standardisering i ITU og ISO på initiativ aftelevirksomheder og teleindustri (med offentligmyndigheders deltagelse i ISO). Stærk traditionfor standarder. (tilsvarende for radio og TV, exEBU TC)


IT industrienProprietære formater og grænsesnitkarakteriserer IT fra industriens start (1965-)Unix platforme (HW) ikke std. - Unix SWtilpasset hver sin HW - derfor source codeIT SW-industri opstået da én HW arkitekturblev standard - PC’en i 1983. Microsoft skabteen ny SW industri (binært leveret) omkring PCarkitekturen.


Standarder i ITindustriTidlig standardisering knyttet til basale data(tegnsæts-)definitioner (ASCI)OSI referenceramme for systemer (ISO)Proprietære std. alm. i SW (konsortier, ex)Unix-verdenen skaber kommunikationsprotokoller - Internettet - som arbejdsredskab i70’erne. ARPA-net er forsvarets robuste Internet.Fysiker på CERN skaber World Wide Web- dvshttp og html protokollerne (W3C std)


Nye aktører ?1- Since the 1980s, there was a shift in the driving force for creation of technicalinteroperability standardization in the ICT domain from being driven bystandard creators (agents motivated to develop new standards) to being drivenby standards implementers (agents motivated to produce new products thatembody a standard) (Krechmer 2006).2- In addition, the users of implementations standards (who usually do notparticipate in the IT standardization process) have a growing interest in seeingthe concept of openness address their requirements (Krechmer 2006).3- This movement resulted in a peculiar character of the modern ICT world: dueto the fact that virtually all producers in the ICT industry are now members ofone open systems group or another, the users (in particular, government bodiesboth in Europe and in the United States) are becoming more and moreinsistent on open systems in their procurement specifications. As a result,producers can and do offer products conforming with open systemsspecifications.


Kan off få en (bi-)rolle?In the ICT domain, where most systems emerge fromstandardization process, the move away from formalstandardization processes reflects a trend in technologyinnovation of moving away from reactive standardizationto a proactive (anticipatory) one (Jacobs 2003).Anticipatory standardization being the earliest stage oftechnological innovation and development (Jacob 2003), theexistence of adequate national policies for early standardsadoption and development becomes an importantgovernmental issue.

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