2008 Florida Caregiving Report 09-24-10 - Florida Office on ...

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2008 Florida Caregiving Report 09-24-10 - Florida Office on ...

ong>Caregivingong> and Older Floridians Brad Cannell ong>Floridaong> ong>Officeong> on Disability and Health University of ong>Floridaong> August 1, 20ong>10ong> [Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.] [Company Address]

Prepared by:Brad Cannell, MPHGraduate Research AssistantErin DeFries Bouldin, MPHProject EpidemiologistClaudia T. Kusano, MPHGraduate Research AssistantClaudia Tamayo, MPHProject ManagerElena M. Andresen, PhDProfessor and DirectorFor additional information, please contact:ong>Floridaong> ong>Officeong> on Disability and HealthPO Box ong>10ong>0231Gainesville, FL 326ong>10ong>-0231Phone: (352) 273-5286Fax: (352) 273-5365Email: fodh@phhp.ufl.eduFunded by:This project was funded by a grant from the National Center on Birth Defects andDevelopmental Disabilities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (#U59DD000273).Acknowledgements:We would like to thank Youjie Huang and Melissa Murray from the ong>Floridaong> BRFFSong>Officeong> for their helpful support.i

ong>10ong>,874 ong>10ong>,217 1,461 • Total number of respondents to the ong>2008ong> ong>Floridaong> BRFSS • Number of respondents that answered the caregiving question • Number of respondents indentiHied as caregivers Questions on the Caregiver Module include the age and gender of the care recipient andtheir relationship to the caregiver. Module questions also assess the major health problemof the care recipient, and up to two areas in which the care recipient requires the mostassistance. Other questions ask the caregiver how long they have provided care for therecipient, the average number of hours per week they provide care, how far they livefrom their care recipient, and their greatest difficulty faced as a caregiver. Finally, theCaregiver Module asks whether she has any concerns about the care recipient’s memoryor thinking, whether memory or thinking problems interfere with the care recipient’sdaily activities or quality of life, and whether the care recipient’s memory or thinking hasever been formally evaluated by a health care professional.The sampling design used by the ong>Floridaong> BRFSS in ong>2008ong> did not allow for descriptions atthe county level as has been possible in other years. Finally because the purpose of thisreport is not only to understand caregiving in general, but to also better understand theimpacts of caregiving among ong>Floridaong>’s older adults, results are presented in the followingcategories: caregivers overall, non-caregivers overall, caregivers who are 60 or oldercaring for someone who is also 60 or older, caregivers who are 60 or older caring forsomeone younger than age 60, and caregivers under age 60 caring for someone who is 60or older. All data reported are weighted to reflect the entire population of the state.Analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.2.ResultsCharacteristics of CaregiversIn this sample there were 532 caregivers that were age 60 or over and cared for someoneage 60 or above, 90 caregivers that were age 60 or over and cared for someone below age60, and 552 caregivers that were under age 60 and cared for someone age 60 or above.The mean age of both caregivers and non-caregivers was 48 years old. Caregivers underage 60 were equally likely to be male or female, while caregivers age 60 and over weremore commonly female (64% of those caring for someone age 60 and over and 60% of3

those caring for someone under age 60). All caregivers most commonly reported theirrace and ethnicity as white, non-Hispanic (61-84%); however, caregivers age 60 and overwere less likely to report Hispanic ethnicity than caregivers under age 60. Caregivers age60 and over who cared for someone under age 60 had lower levels of education andincome compared to other caregivers. Education levels were similar across all categoriesof caregivers except one: Caregivers over 60 and caring for someone under 60 tended tohave less formal education (23% did not graduate high school vs. 9% of caregiversoverall). A similar trend is also present in income. While the distribution of income levelis similar across most categories, caregivers age 60 or older and caring for someoneunder age 60 were more likely to be in the lowest income category than caregiversoverall (26% vs. 15%). Caregivers over age 60 were less likely to be employed thancaregivers overall or non-caregivers; they were also much more likely to be retired. Only27% of caregivers age 60 and older who cared for someone over 60 were divorced,separated, or widowed, while 49% of those 60 and older who care for someone under age60 were divorced, separated or widowed. Not surprisingly the group with the highestproportion of never married individuals was the caregivers who were under age 60(29%). Finally, caregivers age 60 and over had a higher proportion of veterans (19% ofthose caring for someone 60 and over and 30% of those caring for someone under 60)than caregivers under age 60 (9%).In addition to analyzing demographic information about ong>Floridaong>’s caregivers, using theBRFSS also allows us to explore information about Health Related Quality of Life(HRQL) and self-reported health behaviors. Caregivers were more likely to have adisability than non-caregivers, and caregivers age 60 and over had the highest frequencyof disability (34% of those caring for someone age 60 and over and 37% of those caringfor someone under age 60, compared with 23% of caregivers under 60 and 20% of noncaregivers).Caregivers who were 60 and over caring for someone under age 60 had thehighest proportion of individuals reporting that they always or usually received theemotional support needed (87%). However, they also have the lowest proportionreporting a high level of satisfaction with life (88%), the lowest proportion reportinggood or better health (78%), the lowest proportion engaging in physical activity outsideof work (74%), the highest proportion of obese individuals (32%), and the highestproportion of current smokers (30%). We were also curious as to whether or notsatisfaction with life was correlated with reporting a lack of time for self as one of theprimary difficulties of being a caregiver, and it was not (correlation coefficient =-0.0236). All categories of caregivers were less likely to report being a heavy drinker thannon-caregivers. However, binge drinking varied dramatically across caregiver categories.Those who were age 60 and over caring for someone who is 60 and over is almost onethirdas likely to report being a binge drinker than caregivers who are under age 60 andcaring for someone over age 60 (6% compared to 17%). Caregivers who were age 60 andover had at least twice the proportion (64% of those caring for someone age 60 and aboveand 47% of those caring for someone under age 60) of individuals reporting they hadreceived a flu vaccine as caregivers under age 60 (ong>24ong>%). While caregivers age 60 andover had a higher proportion of individuals reporting having fallen in the past 3 months(16.4% of those caring for someone age 60 or above and 14.7 for those caring forsomeone under age 60), it was similar to the proportion of falls among individuals who4

Figure 1. Mean Age of Care Recipients, ong>Floridaong>, 2007.90 80 70 65.5 80.9 75.9 60 50 40 41.8 30 20 ong>10ong> 0 All Caregivers Cagivers 60+, Recipients 60+ Cagivers 60+, Recipients

Figure 3. Care Recipient’s Relationship to the Caregiver, ong>Floridaong>, 2007.70 Percent 60 50 40 30 20 Grandparent Parent or Parent-­‐in-­‐law Spouse Sibling Child ong>10ong> 0 All Caregivers Cagivers 60+, Recipients 60+ Cagivers 60+, Recipients

http://www.census.gov/population/projections/PressTab5.xls. Published April 2005.Accessed August 20ong>10ong>.4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Disease Control andPrevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, ong>2008ong> withChartbook. Hyattsville, MD: U.S. Government Printing ong>Officeong>. 20ong>09ong>.5. National Alliance for ong>Caregivingong> and AARP. ong>Caregivingong> in the U.S. 2004.Washington, DC: National Alliance for ong>Caregivingong> and AARP; 2004.6. Pinquart M, Sörensen S. Correlates of physical health of informal caregivers: Ameta-analysis. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2007 Mar;62(2):P126-37.7. Schultz R, Beach SR. ong>Caregivingong> as a risk factor for mortality: The caregiver healtheffects study. JAMA. 1999 Dec 15;282(23):2215-9.8. Albert SM, Schulz R, Colombia A. The MetLife Study of Working Caregivers andEmployer Health Care Costs: New insights for Reducing Health Care Costs forEmployers. New York: MetLife; 20ong>10ong>.9. Wolff JL, Kasper JD. Caregivers of frail elders: Updating a national profile.Gerontologist. 2006 Jun;46(3):344-56.ong>10ong>. MetLife Mature Market Institute and National Alliance for ong>Caregivingong>. TheMetLife ong>Caregivingong> Cost Study: Productivity Losses to U.S. Business.http://www.caregiving.org/data/Caregiver%20Cost%20Study.pdf. Published July 2006.Accessed August 20ong>10ong>.11. US Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 20ong>10ong> (conferenceed, in 2 vols). Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2000.12. US Department of Health and Human Services. Proposed Healthy People 2020Objectives. http://www.healthypeople.gov/hp2020/Objectives/TopicAreas.aspx. UpdatedOctober 20ong>09ong>. Accessed August 20ong>10ong>.13. Gentry EM, Kalsbeek WD, Hogelin GC, et al. The behavioral risk factor surveys:II. Design, methods, and estimates from combined state data. Am J Prev Med. 1985 Nov-Dec;1(6):9-14.14. Remington PL, Smith MY, Williamson DF, et al. Design, characteristics, andusefulness of state-based behavioral risk factor surveillance: 1981-1987. Public Healthong>Reportong>s ong>10ong>3(4) 366-375.15. Neugaard B, Andresen EM, DeFries EL, et al. The characteristics of caregivers andcare recipients: North Carolina, 2005. MMWR 2007; 56(21):529-532.11

Table 1. Weighted demographic and health behavior characteristics forcaregivers and non-caregivers, ong>Floridaong> Behavioral Risk FactorSurveillance System (BRFSS), ong>2008ong>CaregiversOverall(n=1,461)Non-CaregiversOverall(n=8,756)Caregivers60+Recipients60+(n=532)Caregivers60+Recipients

Marital status (%)Married or coupledDivorced, widowed, orseparatedNever marriedCaregiversOverall(n=1,461)61.720.4Non-CaregiversOverall(n=8,756)63.720.3Caregivers60+Recipients60+(n=532)71.026.9Caregivers60+Recipients

ong>Caregivingong> Duration (%)1 month or less1 -12 months1 year2 years3 – 5 years5 yearsWeekly time spent oncaregiving (%)0 – 9 hoursong>10ong> – 20 hours21 – 29 hours30 hours or moreCaregiver difficulty (%) 4Financial burdenNot enough time for selfNot enough time forfamilyInterferes with workCreates or aggravateshealth problemsAffects familyrelationshipsCreates stressOtherDistance from carerecipient (%)In same house< 20 minutes away20 – 60 minutes away1 – 2 hours awayMore than 2 hoursConcerns about carerecipient’s memory orthinking (%)CaregiversOverall(n=1,461)8.626.912.68.312.231.447.521.6ong>10ong>.120.723.7ong>24ong>.314.712.84.25.655.ong>09ong>.641.440.0ong>10ong>.41.66.6Non-CaregiversOverall(n=8,756)-----------------------Caregivers60+Recipients60+(n=532)8.819.7ong>10ong>.7ong>10ong>.114.136.648.818.213.919.212.929.411.

3. The denominator used to attain the proportion of those injured from falls, werecaregivers who reported a falling incident, as opposed to all caregivers.4. Caregivers were asked to identify the two greatest difficulties they experience as aresult of caregiving. For example, 23.7% of caregivers overall said that the financialburden of caregiving was either their first or second biggest difficulty. This should not beinterpreted to mean that the other 76.3% of caregivers overall experience no financialburden from caregiving.Table 2. Characteristics of Care Recipients, ong>Floridaong> Behavioral RiskFactor Surveillance System, ong>2008ong>CaregiversOverall(n=1,461)Caregivers60+Recipients60+(n=532)Caregivers60+Recipients

Major health problem (%) 1Alzheimer’s diseaseArthritisCancerCerebral PalsyDiabetesHeart DiseaseStrokeTraumatic Brain InjuryCare recipient needs help with(%) 2Learning, remembering, &confusionSeeing or hearingSelf care (such as eating, bathing,dressing)Communicating with othersMoving aroundGetting along with peopleFeeling anxious or depressedMemory or thinking interfereswith quality of life (%)Had memory or thinkingproblems evaluated by aphysician (%)CaregiversOverall(n=1,461)7.58.319.>10ong>.236.4ong>10ong>.442.26.519.0Caregivers60+Recipients60+(n=532)12.66.614.>10ong>.039.6ong>10ong>.841.14.213.2Caregivers60+Recipients

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