Research Briefs No. 45Findings:First: Personal characteristics of the respondents:-The majority of respondents (52%) are in the age group 41 to 55 years.-35% of the respondents live in small families (4 individuals and less) while 32% live in large families (7 members).Members of small families have a better opportunity to practice voluntary work.-66% are involved in agricultural activities in addition to other activities; 29% have other jobs mostly in the governmentand 5% only are exclusively engaged in agriculture.-Respondents with intermediate educational degrees constitute 46% and those with a university degree 43%. 4% of thesample were illiterate.-67% of the respondents hold one feddan and less; 21% hold one to two feddans; 79% do not own cows and 14% own 1 to2 heads of cattle.-The work experience of 57% of the respondents does not exceed 5 years; 28% have work experience of 6 to 10 years.-62% had modest degree of official participation in the social sphere. Only 6% had considerable social participation.-69% had limited creative abilities; 10% had high creative abilities and much desire to take risks and undertake newactivities.-51% had limited exposure to sources of information;14% had high exposure.Second: Areas of activities1.Selected areas of NGO activities in Markaz Hehia-Community and environment development associations: 77.1% of the respondents stated that the area of culture receivesmuch attention, followed by the social domain (68.6%) and finally social solidarity (31.4%).-Islamic charity organizations: 100% indicated that religious awareness and Quran recitation rank on top of the activities,followed by care to child orphans (88%) and finally illiteracy eradication (24%)2.Activities of NGOs in Markaz Hehia:-Community and environment development associations: Social solidarity ranks on top (89.9%), followed by reciting theQuran and embellishing the streets (60% each), sanitation, Pilgrimage and small pilgrimage, and finally girls’ training.-Islamic charity organizations: Reciting the Quran comes first (96%) followed by religious competitions (92%), organizingreligious seminars, care to orphan children (64%) and marketing products particularly shoes (4%).Third: Obstacles undermining the efficiency of NGOs to achieve social and economic development-External problems: Among which is the limited volume of donations because of restrictions imposed by the NGOs law,followed by lack of enthusiasm among donors, lack of knowledge on how to obtain funds to undertake activities, andfinally lack of media interest in highlighting the role of NGOs-Internal problems: Weakness of administrative skills, reliance on one person (usually the board chairman) to the exclusionof others, modest financial management skills, non payment of membership fees, and finally weakness of organizationalstructure and lack of expertise.
Research Briefs No. 45Fourth: Suggestions to activate role of NGOs in achieving development:-Among the main suggestions is to reduce the interest on loans to undertake development projects; supplying NGOs withthe necessary information to undertake projects; highlighting NGOs activities; encouraging citizens to practice voluntarywork; giving young people priority to get promoted to higher positions; solving the problems facing NGOs throughgovernment agencies; organizing training sessions for members of the NGOs and raising awareness about the importanceof voluntary work.Fifth: Respondents’ satisfaction with NGOs services-79% of the respondents had low level of satisfaction with the services offered by Hehia community developmentassociation; 97% were modestly satisfied with the services offered by charity organizations, possibly because of the lowlevel of funding and modest expertise and knowledge on the part of board members.Sixth: Degree of respondents’ knowledge about rural development projects:-Findings indicated that 52% of the respondents had limited knowledge about rural development projects; respondentswith high degree of knowledge constituted 32% and only 5% had high level of knowledge, which emphasizes the need forawareness-raising efforts.Seventh: Relationship between personal variables and degree of knowledge or development projects:-Findings indicated a correlation between the respondents’ degree of knowledge of development projects and the numberof years of experience with NGOs-There is no correlation between respondents’ degree of knowledge of development projects and their age or theireducational status, land or animal holding and exposure to sources of information.-There is no correlation between the implementation of development projects and the profession of the respondent, thedegree of official participation in NGOs and the respondent’s age, land and animal holding and educational status.Recommendations:-Planning and implementing training and guidance programs for residents of rural areas in general, and members of theNGO boards of directors in particular so they would acquire knowledge and skills necessary to undertake ruraldevelopment projects.-Intensifying guidance services in Markaz Hehia, Sharkia and exerting efforts to enhance performance level in theseorganizations-Establishing cooperation and coordination between NGOs in the study site and executive officials in charge of voluntarywork and attempting to solve problems of NGOs-Implementing respondents’ opinions and suggestions with regard to activating the role of NGOs-Establishing cooperation between governmental agencies and NGOs in the areas of social and economic development andachieving integration between them-Highlighting the activities of NGOs and their role in achieving development
Research Briefs No. 45About the AuthorDr. Mohamed El Sayed Aranaout: Researcher, Institute of Agricultural Extension andRural Development, Agricultural Research Center, East of Delta Research Station.About the ProgramThe Egyptian Partnership in Development Research Program aims to informdevelopment policies and strategies by linking those who conduct researchwith those who can utilize its findings to promote development in localcommunities. It promotes a research agenda which is responsive to the needsand priorities of local communities. The program is characterized by a multidisciplinary,demand-driven, and participatory approach. The program beganin Egypt in 1999. The program is directed by an Advisory Board of prominentmembers who are concerned with development issues.About the SeriesThe PDR Policy Brief Series disseminates the results of research conductedunder the auspices of the Partnership in Development Research Programfunded by the Netherland Ministry of Foreign Affairs, DevelopmentCooperation. It is currently operative in nine countries, Bangladesh, Bolivia,Egypt, Kerala-India, Mali, Nicaragwa, Tanzania, Uganda and Vietnam.The authors are solely responsible for the content of the Policy Briefs.Copies of the Briefs can be ordered from the Secretariat of the Program orthrough the Program's web site.Partnership in Development ResearchAmerican University in CairoSocial Research Center11th Floor ,Cairo Center106Kasr Al-Aini StreetCairo-EgyptTel: 00202-797-6959Fax: 00202-795-7298Email: firstname.lastname@example.orgWebsite: www.aucegypt.edu/pdr