French Domain Name Industry Report - 2009 Edition - Afnic

afnic.fr
  • No tags were found...

French Domain Name Industry Report - 2009 Edition - Afnic

IntroductionThis is the 2009 edition of the French Domain Name Industry Report drawn up in September 2009.Its figures have been taken from a variety of sources: non-confidential information extracted from theAFNIC database, public information websites and opinion surveys. AFNIC would like to thank all thosewho provided information that helped with the preparation of the report.The research was carried out under a contract between AFNIC and Télécom & Management SudParis, overa period of 3 months, from July to September 2009. It was not possible to incorporate later information inthis version of the industry report.Why have a French Domain Name Industry Report?There are already various providers offering information on domain names. Yet these organizations havea worldwide, generalist vision and cannot access the registries’ own data. Moreover they usually dot notundertake in-depth analysis of the various markets.Starting in 2007, AFNIC has undertaken this task of reporting annually on the domain names market inFrance, for the benefit of those involved in that market, the government authorities and the bodies taskedwith developing the Internet in France.The overall aims of this industry report are accordingly:●● to give a reliable picture of the market and its players,●●to provide the means of analysing the factors that influence the market and set its trends,●● to help promote understanding and recognition of this market and its special features within theprivate and public sectors,●● to identify the market’s strengths and weaknesses, putting forward recommendations for registrarsand/or the registry.The report’s object is to provide a summary for submission to the government authorities and made availableto all those involved in the Internet and to the public at large.- 6 -


Executive summarySalient facts about the .fr domain in 2008-20091.5 million domain names milestone reached on September 10, 2009Weathering the economic storm better than most Top Level Domains(25% growth in a year vs 8% average)Over 75% of new registrations in France since July 2008Median end-user price steady at €12/year +VAT, in line with other top level domainsConcentration still underway among registrarsSecondary market growing rapidly: mean value for .fr the highest of all TLDsMore DNS and Web servers supporting IPv6Business use on the Web still well ahead of use for personal sitesA growing number of registrants want to use personalised e-mail addressesFrance’s favourite domain - .fr• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The general climate of economic slowdown has also affected the ICT industry, and the world market indomain names has suffered along with others: It did indeed grow by 8% over the twelve months to mid-2009, but this was far slower than last year (19%). Some of the most severe corrections afflicted the fastestgrowing Top Level Domains in recent years, such as the Chinese country domain .cn, or the .mobi domainfor mobile devices.While country-code Top Level Domains (or ccTLDs) have generally weathered the recession better than thegeneric ones, the .fr domain has performed exceptionnaly well, growing another 25% between 2008 and2009. Since registration was open to individuals in June 2006, and thanks to recent improvements in termsof automation and a fall in registrars’ prices, .fr has become an even firmer favourite among the French.It has accounted for most of the growth in the domestic domain name industry, while .com registrationshave been marking time for over a year. Year after year the .fr domain has been nibbling away at competingdomains’ market share in the domestic market, and it now accounts for more than three quarters of newname registrations in France, and a third of all French domain names.At a worldwide level, the generic .com domain is still a long way in the lead, with more than 80 milliondomain names registered. Some other ccTLDs are also well placed, owing to their liberal registrations policiesas well as a very dynamic domestic market (China, Germany and the United Kingdom).- 7 -


.fr domain names are mainly used on the Web for business purposes• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •A study of the responses from the Web servers associated with .fr domain names shows that in 2009 threequarters of these names led to an operational website, either directly or by redirection to another address.Such redirections were within the .fr zone in 44% of cases.Another study, on a random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names, reveals how the names are used on the Web.Websites associated with French domain names are mostly business ones (nearly half of all names), whileonly 3% are obviously personal sites. Moreover, 23% of domain names were “parked” (holding pages, orpages listing sponsored links). Business websites cover a very extensive range of activities: the biggest categorywas that of online stores and other retail sites, but there were also services and leisure sites, 25% of them withe-commerce capabilities. The .fr domain therefore seems to be valuable to those involved in French onlinecommerce, and this tallies with AFNIC’s findings concerning perceptions.Various opinion surveys carried out have revealed a number of key points. The .fr domain still has a specialmeaning for the French public: they associate it primarily with the French language and the French-speakingworld. A overwhelming majority of respondents spontaneously look under .fr when searching for a Frenchfirm’s website. Prices are still the main factor when people are choosing a registrar or a domain. However,respondents do not always clearly identify the way they use domain names or how they might benefit fromsuch use. Lastly, most of them want to be able to use their .fr domain names for personalised e-mail addressesand to protect their details by means of anonymous Whois services.So far as legal aspects are concerned, a progressive set of measures has been implemented by AFNIC to dealwith any disputes relating to .fr domain names, ranging from conformity checks by the registry itself to courtproceedings, including alternative dispute resolution (ADR). Moreover, the dispute resolution procedurefor obvious breaches of the Decree of 6 February 2007 (PREDEC) has been used on many occasions sinceit was set up in July 2008: nearly a hundred cases have been brought in a year. For a number of yearsthe .fr domain has been one of those with the highest number of dispute resolution proceedings perdomain name. This fact reflects the importance that legitimate French holders attach to control their .frnames – comparatively with other less highly prized TLDs. It is also worth noting that the proportion ofWIPO complaints from French organizations concerning generic domains is more than four times greaterthan the proportion of generic names registered in France. This could indicate that French firms have astronger tendency than their foreign counterparts to adopt a policy of registering only a few names but goingto law to defend those registrations if tampered with.- 11 -


Major changes ahead• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The world market in domain names is expected to change significantly in coming years, as the new genericdomains planned by ICANN become available and new technologies arrive, including the Internet ofThings.Although the French domain name market as a whole is still relatively less developed than in othercountries, it seems that there will be a strong tendency towards vigorous growth over the next few years.This should be of direct benefit to the .fr domain because of its special status among French web users,who associate it with the French-speaking world, with the idea of being a member of the French Internetcommunity and hence feel a certain connection with a site’s publisher and its visitors. The .fr domainis here to stay. It is openly available and managed with an ongoing concern for protecting individualholders’ privacy and third parties’ rights; it may reasonably be expected to dominate the French market.This trend should be strenghtened by the ongoing standardization of registrars’ prices across Top LevelDomains.The .fr domain enjoys unquestionable advantages for its continued development in a market whichis weathering the economic storm better than most and is being boosted by an ever greater maturityamong users. This process of increasing market maturity should moreover help plans for meaningfulnew domains, such as .paris. Indeed .paris will benefit from the city’s worldwide brand recognition whiletaking its place as an utterly indispensable tool in the name-choosing strategies of firms and individualskeen to show off their connection with the French capital.- 12 -


Part One: BackgroundChapter 1Background facts & figures: the Internet in France●●Source of data: INSEE, Médiamétrie, ARCEP, Eurostat.This chapter gives a snapshot of Internet use in France: households’ ownership of equipment, number ofInternet users, number of Internet connections and the hardware available to French firms.Household equipment• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Household penetration of PCs and Internet access has been steadily increasing for many years 1 . At the startof 2008 nearly 6 French households in 10 had access to the Internet. The percentage of households with aPC but without Internet access for it fell noticeably (6% in 2008 compared with 15% in 1998).However, the ICT industry has not been immune to the fallout from the economic crisis. According to theINSEE, sales of ICT-related goods and services did continue to grow in 2008 (+6.9%), but slowed markedlyby comparison with 2007 (+14.4%). Purchases of data processing equipment grew 10.9% in 2008 comparedwith 23.7% last year; this was the slowest growth for 15 years.Internet users• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The number of Internet users in France is also continuing to rise: according to an analysis carried out bythe French Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment, it was somewhere between 30 million and32 million in 2008 (depending on the particular survey). According to Médiamétrie, 34.2 million peopleaged 11 and over had gone online during June 2009; more than 60% of French people.- 13 -


Internet access• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •In Q1 2009 the total number of Internet access points in France was 19.2 million, according to ARCEP 2 . Avery great majority of these (95%) use some form of broadband, mainly ADSL. The annual rate of growth inbroadband access is still very high (12% in Q2 2009), though it has slowed since the end of 2008.Moreover, one third of the mobile phones in use can access multimedia services (WAP, i-Mode, MMS,e-mail), and 22% can access 3G services 3 . Mobile Internet access devices are currently proliferating very fast:the total number of active 3G devices has doubled since a year ago (to 13 million customers), as well as thenumber of Internet-only SIM cards (PCMCIA cards and 3G/3G+ Internet dongles).French Internet statistics, 2009(Sources: INSEE, Médiamétrie, GfK and ARCEP)Parameter Value Year's changeHouseholds’ IT statusPC ownership 62% of households at the start of 2008 +8 pointsInternet access 16.5 million, or 61% of households in Q2 2009 +17.1%Internet usersInternet users 33.1 million, or 61.9% of the population in July 2009 +4.1%Broadband users 28.7 million, or 95.8% of household internet users July 2009 +8.5%Internet accountsInternet access 19.2 million in Q1 2009 +8.9%Broadband access 18.7 million in Q2 2009 +12%DSL access 17.6 million in Q2 2009 +10.9%Dial-up access 0.8 million in Q1 2009 -38.8%Mobile phonesNumber of mobile phones 58.9 million, or 91.8% of the population in Q2 2009 +5.2%Number of multimedia-enabled mobiles 19 million, or 1/3 of mobile phones in Q1 2009 +13.3%Number of 3G-enabled mobiles 13 million, or 22.4% of mobile phones in Q1 2009 +97%Internet-only SIM cards 1.2 million in Q1 2009 +104%Table 1 – French Internet statistics, 2009- 14 -


Firms’ Internet Use• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •According to Eurostat’s figures 4 , French firms are some of Europe’s best equipped when it comes to broadbandaccess: 92% have broadband, against a European average of 81% (Figure 1). What is more, broadbandconnectivity has improved in every company size group, and among firms with more than 250 employeesthe rate actually exceeds 99%.European firms’ broadband Internet access, Jan 2008(Source: Eurostat)100%99%Percentage of firms with 10 employees and more90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%IcelandSpain92%92% 92% 91% 89% 89% 88% 87% 87% 86% 86% 84% 84% 83% 81% 81% 80% 79% 79% 79%76%72%FranceFinlandBelgiumMaltaSwedenEstoniaLuxembourgUnited KingdomNetherlandsNorwayGermanySloveniaIrelandItalyPortugalDenmarkCountryFigure 1 – European firms’ broadband Internet useCzech RepublicCyprusSlovakiaAustriaHungaryBulgariaLatviaPolandLithuaniaRomaniaEU mean: 81%62% 62%59%56%44%- 15 -


Most French firms deal online with their banks and with government. Teleworking and e-training, on theother hand, are less well developed (Table 2).French Firms’ Internet Use in 2007(Source: INSEE)Internet Use %Use online banking or financial services 76%Use online teaching or training 23%Deal with government online 72%Complete administrative form online 65%Submit public tenders online 13%Teleworking 21%Equipped with collaborative work tools 13%Use a free (open source) operating system 14%Table 2 – French firms’ Internet useThe situation concerning the setting up of websites is very different: only 54% of French firms had a websitein 2008, compared with a European average of 64%, which puts France in the lowest quartile of EU countrieson this measure (Figure 2). This finding should be seen in conjunction with the lesser use of domain namesin France by comparison with countries of similar economic development.100%European companies with a website or home page, January 2008(Source: Eurostat)90%87% 86% 85%82%Percentage of firms with 10 employees or more80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%DenmarkSweden77%NetherlandsFinlandAustriaGermanyIcelandBelgiumUnited KingdomCzech RepublicSlovakiaNorwaySloveniaEstoniaIrelandCountryLuxembourgItalyMaltaPolandFigure 2 – European firms: websitesEU mean : 64%54%LithuaniaSpainFranceCyprusHungaryPortugalLatviaBulgariaRomania33%27%79% 77% 76% 76% 74% 73% 73% 71%66% 65% 64%58% 57% 57% 55% 54%48% 48% 46%42%- 16 -


The service sector in general (and financial, ITC-related and property services in particular) has a majorpresence here; but the same cannot be said of transport, retailing or construction (Figure 3).French companies with a website or home page, January 2008by industry (Source: INSEE)Services; 61%Financial services; 94%ITC-related services; 87%Other corporate services; 57%Property services; 78%IndustryTransport; 51%Hotels and restaurants; 59%Industry incl. agro-food andenergy; 58%Commerce; 54%Retailing; 39%Construction; 33%Mean : 54 %0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Percentage of firms with 10 employees or moreFigure 3 – French firms: websitesCompany size is another factor in website development: only 44% of French firms employing 10 to 20 staffhave a website, while for 85% of those with over 250 employees have one.Many of those French firms which do have a website put their product catalogue online (nearly 70%),though far fewer offer online ordering (one in four) or online payment (one in ten).French firms' use of websites, 2008(Source: INSEE)Website functions %Offer a catalogue or price list 69%Offer online ordering or reservation of goods and services 24%Offer online payment facilities 11%Offer ways for regular visitors and power users to customize the site 15%Display job offers or accept CVs online 21%Table 3 – French firms’ website functions- 17 -


Chapter 2Background facts & figures: domain namesaround the world●●Source of data: AFNIC, CIA World Factbook, Dot and Co, CENTR, WebHosting.info, ISC,Security Space.This chapter gives statistical data on the use of domain names around the world (all domains), and onInternet hosts and web servers.Use of the various domains around the world• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •• • • • • •The figure below shows the ranking of the main domains (generic and country-code) in June 2009. Thestatistics used here have been compiled by AFNIC on the basis of the official websites of these domains’registries (Figure 4).The .com generic domain is still far ahead, with more than 80 million domain names registered. Next,though far behind, comes a very close cluster of three domains with over 10 million names: .cn (China), .de(Germany) and .net (generic). The .cn domain is growing fast: it has overtaken first .net two years ago, then.de during the last year, before being overtaken by it once again in August. The French domain is still in 16thplace in this league table, with nearly 1,500,000 names.- 18 -


Domain.cn (China); 12,963,685.net; 12,337,971.uk (United Kingdom); 7,708,174.org; 7,699,874.info; 5,226,580.nl (Netherlands); 3,441,405.ru (Russia); 2,160,583.biz; 2,045,860.ar (Argentina); 1,815,000.br (Brazil); 1,725,000.us (United States); 1,634,491.pl (Poland); 1,438,818.ch (Switzerland); 1,278,125.ca (Canada); 1,226,413.es (Spain); 1,147,475.jp (Japan); 1,098,360.dk (Denmark); 1,008,543.kr (South Korea); 1,004,115.be (Belgium); 925,748Number of domain names registered, June 2009, by domain(Source: AFNIC, Study of 50 largest domains worldwide).de (Germany); 12,869,216.eu (European Union); 2,918,908.it (Italy); 1,708,193.fr (France); 1,458,754.se (Sweden); 886,816.com; 81,209,3830 10,000,000 20,000,000 30,000,000 40,000,000 50,000,000 60,000,000 70,000,000 80,000,000 90,000,000Number of domain namesFigure 4 – Number of domain names per Top Level Domain- 19 -


The figure below shows the growth over the last year in the number of domain names registered for eachTLD (Figure 5). The domains .ro (Romania), .lv (Latvia) and .ru (Russia) all grew by more than 40%. TheFrench domain has had a reasonable position here ever since it became available to individuals; its annualgrowth of 25% is considerably above the mean (+ 9%) for the 50 biggest TLDs worldwide which werestudied here. Global growth over the past year has indeed been led by the ccTLDs (+ 13%) rather than thegTLDs (+ 6%).One year's growth in the number of names registered in June 2009, various domains(Source: AFNIC, Study of 50 largest domains worldwide).ro (Romania); 69%Domain.fr (France); 25%.mx (Mexico); 24%.si (Slovenia); 21%.tr (Turkey); 21%.ie (Ireland); 21%.br (Brazil); 21%.se (Sweden); 19%.sk (Slovakia); 19%.ar (Argentina); 19%.ca (Canada); 17%.fi (Finland); 17%.hr (Croatia); 17%.es (Spain); 16%.cl (Chile); 16%.is (Iceland); 16%.il (Israel); 15%.be (Belgium); 15%.nl (Netherlands); 15%.pl (Poland); 34%.pt (Portugal); 33%.cz (Czech Republic); 30%.lt (Lithuania); 27%.ru (Russia); 43%Mean growth, 50 largest TLDs:+ 9% in one year+6% on gTLDs+13% on ccTLDs.lv (Latvia); 53%0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70%Increase in one year ((June 2008 - June 2009)Figure 5– Annual growth in the number of domain names per Top Level DomainAs to the number of domain names registered per head, the .fr domain is still lagging, with 2.3 names per 100inhabitants. However, this ratio has doubled since two years ago (1.2 in 2007). The domain for Montenegro.me has been top of this ranking since it became available during 2008: it is marketed as a domain forpersonalized sites, with a play on the English word “me” (for example “ask.me”). The next domains in thislist are the Dutch (.nl), Danish (.dk), Swiss (.ch), German (.de), British (.uk) and Austrian (.at), all with over10 names per 100 inhabitants.We may note that the number of domain names per head of population is not necessarily representative of anational domain’s real usage by the people in the country concerned: some of the domain names have beenregistered by firms and not by individuals. On the other hand, in the case of domains without any territorialrequirements, some of the names are registered by people who do not belong to the country concerned(the most blatant case being the Montenegro domain, mainly registered by English-speaking people). Thismeans that the “number of domains per head of population” turns out to be largely connected with thedegree to which a domain is openly available: the ratio should be viewed with care. The .fr domain is one ofthose which has kept a territorial requirement: its domain names are only available to French residents andcorporate bodies registered in France or owning registered trade marks covering France.- 20 -


The “adjusted” figures for the number of domain names in the various principal TLDs show that therehas been a rapid increase in those domains which have recently undergone an extension of availability or arelaxation in their conditions of registration: .cn (China), .ru (Russia), .pl (Poland), .es (Spain), .mobi (sitesfor mobile phones). For instance, the .pl domain offers naming rules that are very favourable to domainers(the secondary domain name market). Some of these domains – (.cn, .mobi) – have, however, seen a severecorrection in their volume of registrations in recent months. The French domain has grown considerablyfaster than the average for the domains studied (national or generic), and with remarkable steadiness overtime (Figure 6).“Adjusted” number of domain names (base 100 April 2007)180170160150140130120110Changes in “adjusted” number of domain names, by domain type, since 2007(Base 100 April 2007 - Sources: CENTR and Dot and Co - Study of 25 major domains worldwide).frTotal ccTLDsTotalTotal gTLDs100Apr-07May-07June-07July-07August-07Sept-07Oct-07Nov-07Dec-07Jan-08Febr-08March-08Apr-08May-08MonthsJune-08July-08August-08Sept-08Oct-08Nov-08Dec-08Jan-09Febr-09March-09Apr-09May-09Figure 6 – Changes in “adjusted” number of domain names, by type of domainThe rolling annual rate of growth is falling for all TLDs, partly as a consequence of the current economiccrisis. The .cn and .mobi domains, which had been enjoying spectacular growth just a little while ago, haveseen their growth rates fall drastically since 2008, and even (in the case of .mobi) become negative. The .frdomain, on the other hand, is seen to have steady or hardly slowing growth, now well above the mean rate forgeneric and national domains. The ccTLDs generally are holding up better than the gTLDs, with an annualrate of growth to mid-2009 of 12%, as 6%.- 21 -


Geographical breakdown of domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The site WebHosting.info 5 provides estimates of the geographical distribution of generic domain namesaround the world (Figure 7). These indicate that nearly two thirds of such domain names were registeredin the United States, followed by Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada and China. 2.5% of genericdomain names were registered in France; the 2007 figure was 2.2%. Unlike last year, France is now ahead ofAustralia.Breakdown of gTLDs by country .com /.net /.org /.info /.bizJuly 2009 (Source: WebHosting.info)Hong Kong; 1.1%Italy; 1.1%Spain; 1.2%Japan; 1.5%Australia; 2.1%France; 2.5%Other countries; 9.2%gTLDs mean growth:+ 4.1% last yearChina; 3.2%Canada; 3.4%United Kingdom; 3.6%Germany; 5.7%United States; 65.3%Figure 7 – Breakdown of generic domain names by country- 22 -


Chapter 3Background facts & figures: domain names in France●●Source of data: ZookNIC, AFNIC.This chapter gives figures on the distribution of domain names registered in France among the principaldomains used (.fr and generic domains).The figure below shows the distribution among principal Top Level Domains registered in France in July2009 (Figure 8). The domains most frequently used in France are .com (42% of all names) and .fr (one thirdof names). The other generic domains come far behind.The changes of the last year have been broadly positive for the French domain (up more than 4 percentagepoints) but decidedly negative for the .com domain (-5.5 percentage points). Of the 400,000 new namesregistered since July 2008, more than three quarters belong to the .fr domain and nearly 20% to the .orgdomain. Conversely, the .com domain actually shows a net loss of 60,000 names. The fact that the .fr domainis moving ahead of the other domains available in its national market clearly shows a growing preferenceamong French users for .fr ever since it was made available to individuals in 2006.Breakdown of the main domain names registered in France in July 2009(Sources: ZookNIC and AFNIC).eu 5.7%(+0.2 in one year).info 3.5%(-0.1 in one year).biz 1.7%(+0.3 in one year).mobi 0.4%(+0.4 in one year).org 6.4%(+1.1 in one year).net 7.3%(-0.5 in one year).com 41.7%(-5.5 in one year).fr 33.3%(+4.1 in one year)Figure 8 – Breakdown of domain names registered in France- 23 -


A study of changes over time shows that the .fr domain is enjoying sustained and regular growth in France,even at a time when the leading domain (.com) has been marking time since the summer of 2008.Changes in the “adjusted” numbers of domain names show that the ones which have shown the mostvigorous growth in the last two years are the .biz and .fr domains, well ahead of the mean growth in all namesregistered in France. It should be noted, though, that the .biz domain is starting from a very low base (40,000names in July 2007, 850,000 for the .fr domain).Since the principle of entitlement to a name was abandoned in May 2004, the .fr domain has practicallyalways come top or second in terms of annual rate of growth, sometimes behind the .info or .biz domainswhose market share in France is only a few percent.- 24 -


Chapter 4Trend in numbers of .fr domain names●●Source of data: AFNIC6 .This chapter gives figures on the registration of .fr domain names: changes in the number of names registered,distribution as between individuals and corporate bodies, and operations carried out (name creations anddeletions, name renewal rate).Looking at the graph of changes in the total number of .fr domains, we clearly see the impact of the successiveamendments to the naming rules (abolition of entitlement to a name in May 2004, followed in June 2006 byavailability to individuals). The growth rate has risen from 25,000 new names a year at the start of the decadeto 300,000 new names a year in 2009 (Figure 9). On 1 August 2009 there were 1,475,750 .fr domain namesregistered in the AFNIC database.Changes in the total number of .fr domain names1,600,0001,400,0001,200,000Entitlement abolishedAvailable toindividuals+ 300,000 names/yrNo. of domain names1,000,000800,000600,000400,000+ 120,000 names/yr200,000+ 25,000 names/yr0Febr 2000August 2000Febr 2001August 2001Febr 2002August 2002Febr 2003August 2003Febr 2004August 2004Febr 2005August 2005Febr 2006August 2006Febr 2007August 2007Febr 2008August 2008Febr 2009August 2009MonthsFigure 9 – Changes in the total number of .fr domain names- 25 -


Individuals and legal entities• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •.fr domain names may be registered by individuals (natural persons) as well as by corporate bodies (juristicpersons – companies, associations, public bodies, etc.). Until June 2006 individuals could only register.fr names in the sub-domains (.nom.fr and .com.fr). Second level names are now also available to adultindividuals with an address in France.The breakdown between the two types of holder shows that the corporate bodies still are in the majority: inJune 2009 there were more than 900,000 domain names registered by corporate bodies, and around 500,000names registered by individuals.However, the proportion of registrations carried out by individuals is steadily rising: since the domain becameavailable to individuals in 2006, half of new name registrations have been by individuals. Individuals held37% of all .fr domain names in June 2009, compared with 27% two years earlier (Figure 10).Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals since 2007(cumulative totals and new names)70%Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals60%50%40%30%20%10%0%Febr-07March-07New .fr domain namesCumulative totals of .fr domain namesApr-07May-07June-07July-07August-07Sept-07Oct-07Nov-07Dec-07Jan-08Febr-08March-08Apr-08May-08MonthsFigure 10 – Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individualsJune-08July-08August-08Sept-08Oct-08Nov-08Dec-08Jan-09Febr-09March-09Apr-09May-09June-09- 26 -


Renewal of .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The renewal rate of a domain is the proportion of its domain names renewed by the holder on expiry. Inthe case of the .fr domain, this renewal rate is around 80% and has remained fairly steady over time – apartfrom some particular, clearly identified and expected effects (Figure 11). The fall observed in July 2007,for instance, was due to non-renewal of names registered a year earlier (as soon as this was possible forindividuals). That of February 2009 was due to non-renewal of names registered in January 2008 when oneregistrar was offering ( .fr domain names free of charge for a short promotion).Renewal rates of .fr domain names since 2007100%95%90%Renewal rates85%80%75%70%65%60%86% 86%86% 86%85%84% 84% 84% 84% 84% 84% 84%83%83% 83% 83% 83% 83% 83% 83%82%82%82% 82%81% 81%69%77%Febr-07March-07Apr-07May-07June-07July-07August-07Sept-07Oct-07Nov-07Dec-07Jan-08Febr-08March-08Apr-08May-08June-08MonthsFigure 11 – Renewal of .fr domain names72%July-08August-08Sept-08Oct-08Nov-08Dec-08Jan-09Febr-09March-09Apr-09May-09June-09- 27 -


A study of the impact of one registrar’s promotion in January 2008 indicates that about one third of the20,000 .fr domain names registered on the day of the promotion seem to have been kept in being by theirholder a year later (Table 4).Impact of the 10 January 2008 promotionNumbers of names registered during the promotionRegistrations in January 2008 59,061Mean registrations, July 2007 – July 2008 36,565New registrations presumably due to the promotion 22,496Name deletions a year after the promotionDeletions in January 2009 31,497Mean deletions, July 2008 – June 2009 16,882Deletions of names presumably due to the promotion 14,615Estimate of the promotion’s success rateNames kept a year after the promotion 7,882% of names kept after a year 35%Table 4 – Impact of one promotion on .fr domain names- 28 -


Part Two: .fr domain namesChapter 5Number of domain names per holder●●Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (breakdown of numbers of names registered perindividual and per corporate body).This chapter gives figures for the number of .fr domain names registered per holder, for both holder types(individuals and corporate bodies).AFNIC makes every effort to identify holders of domain names in its database unequivocally, by analysingthe information supplied when the names are registered. It is possible, however, for a person to appear as aholder more than once in the AFNIC database, if that holder has registered domain names through differentregistrars and given different details on each occasion. This also applies to firms, if their domain names havebeen registered by different subsidiaries or bodies which AFNIC has no means of cross-referencing. Holdernumbers in the AFNIC database are accordingly a slight overestimate of the actual situation. The figuresgiven in this chapter for the number of domain names per holder will therefore be slightly below the truevalues.Individuals• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •A great majority of individuals who hold .fr domain names have only one such name (81%). A few holdtwo .fr domain names (11%), but the registration of three or more names is very much rarer (Figure 12).Over the last year the number of individual holders and the number of names registered by individuals haveboth risen by 36%. The mean number of names per holder (individuals) is unchanged at 1.64 names perperson.- 29 -


Number of .fr domain names per holder for individuals, July 20095 names; 0.9%4 names; 1.7%2 names; 10.9%3 names; 3.4%More than 5 names;2.6%Mean:1.64 .fr domain namesper individual1 name; 80.7%Figure 12 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (individuals)Some individuals hold a very great number of domain names; these are probably domainers who are sellingthese names on the secondary market. Two of them actually have portfolios of over 5,000 names .fr.Legal entities• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The distribution of the number of names per holder among corporate bodies is fairly similar to that forindividuals (Figure 13). The percentage of holders with only one .fr domain name is however slightly higherfor the corporate bodies: 85% (against 81%).Over the last year the number of corporate holders and the number of names registered by corporate bodieshave both risen by 20%. The mean is unchanged at 1.7 names per holder (against 1.6 for the individuals).The proportion of corporate bodies with only one .fr name has risen by 3 percentage points, however, whilethat of holders with two names has fallen by the same amount. This trend might be due to the developmentof a clientele of small firms which had no Internet presence before.- 30 -


Number of .fr domain names per holder for legal entities, July 20095 names; 0.8%3 names; 2.6%2 names; 8.1%4 names; 1.4%More than 5 names;2.6%Mean:1.71 .fr domain namesper legal entity1 name; 84.6%Figure 13 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (legal entities)Lastly, some corporate holders have very great numbers of .fr domain names (up to 12,000). These may befirms in the domainer business, trading in the secondary market in the .fr domain.Trend• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The number of names registered per holder has grown steadily since 2007, among individuals as well as firms.The ratios currently stand at 1.65 (individuals) and 1.71 (corporate bodies).- 31 -


The maximum length allowed under the registration policy is 63 characters (not counting the suffix).There are four .fr domain names of this length in the database; they consist of keyword concatenationsdesigned to boost their search engine referencing above its natural level.Distribution of .fr domain names by length, July 20099%Mean length : 12 characters (11.6 in 2008; 11.3 in 2007)8%Frequency of names of the given length7%6%5%4%3%2%1%0%2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63Length of domain namesFigure 14 – Length of .fr domain namesUse of hyphens and numerals in .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Hyphens are very frequently used in .fr domain names: 33% of names contain hyphens, usually just one(26%). Moreover, the mean number of hyphens per domain name is steadily rising: up 38% in 2007, then41% in 2008 and 44% in 2009.Numerals, on the other hand, are used much less frequently (some 6% of names, evenly split between thoseusing one numeral and those using two). The mean number of numerals per domain name is also steadily onthe rise (0.10 in 2007, 0.11 in 2008 and 0.12 in 2009).- 33 -


Numerals are sometimes used in domain names to denote dates (Table 5). As might be expected, recentyears’ dates are falling in popularity (2007, 2008) while those of future years are more in demand. 2009 wasthe date whose popularity grew most. The year 2000 remains symbolic, and is widely used, as is 2012 (Frenchpresidential elections; London Summer Olympics). This means we may get some measure of users’ tendencyto register names connected with major events that take place in one particular year (but could well recur inothers).Use of years in .fr domain namesYear No. of names in 2009 No. of names in 2008 Year’s change2000 676 593 +832001 32 24 +82002 11 12 -12003 21 20 +12004 25 27 -22005 36 39 -32006 60 84 -242007 281 580 -2992008 945 2,263 -1,3182009 790 208 +5822010 402 175 +2272011 130 55 +752012 339 213 +1262013 90 38 +522014 160 141 +192015 51 35 +16Table 5 – Use of years in .fr domain namesTerms used in .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Some domain names are created from ordinary words separated by hyphens (for example, “hotel-in-paris.fr”). The figure below (Figure 15) shows a league table of words most often used in .fr domain names, leavingaside small link-words (the articles, conjunctions, prepositions, etc.).We notice geographical names (“france”, “paris”), words that identify an organization’s type (“groupe” [group],“agence” [agency]), or the holder’s industry or line of business:●●●●●●property services (“immobilier” [real estate], “immo” [estate]),tourism and leisure (”hotel”, “location” [hire], “art”, “club”, or “restaurant”),everyday living ( “maison” [house], “auto” [car], “info”, “sante” [health]),●● services generally (”services”, “conseil” [advice], “formation” [training], “info”, “design”, “service”,or “consulting”),- 34 -


●●●●IT services ( “web”, “informatique” [IT], or “online”),retailing ( “vente” [sale], or “boutique”).Under AFNIC’s non-mandatory naming conventions the terms “mairie” and “ville” [city council] are usedfor municipalities: “mairie commune.fr” and “ville-commune.fr” (where «commune» is the name of the cityor town).While the use of most of these terms has remained much as in 2007, we do find that the share of theexpressions “mairie” and “ville” has declined sharply over the year. This situation might indicate that localauthorities are increasingly tending to register their domain name without adding the words “mairie” or“ville” (where «commune» is the name of the city or town).Words most commonly used in .fr domain names, July 2009 (excluding link-words)hotelmairielocationsaintmaisonservicesconseilwebvilleventeformationimmoautoinformatiquegroupeonlineartinfoclubdesignagenceserviceprorestaurantboutiqueconsultingsanteparisimmobilierfrance0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000No. of occurrences of the given word in .fr domain namesFigure 15 – Words most commonly used in .fr domain names- 35 -


Proportion of letter/numeral combinationsactually registered as .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Combinations of 2 to 5 letters and/or figures were analysed (bearing in mind that two-letter combinationsare forbidden by AFNIC policy). These combinations are worth studying since they may be acronyms –company names, for example.The findings show that almost all permissible two-character combinations have been registered, and alsoalmost all three-letter or three-digit combinations (only 60% of three-digit combinations had been registeredin 2008). The ratio is lower (40%) for three-character letter-numeral combinations, and still lower (7% orunder) for longer ones (Figure 16).Letter/numeral combinations registered as .fr domain names, July 2009100%100.0% 99.8%92.5%99.6%90%80%% of combinations registered as .fr domain names70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%2 numerals 2 letters ornumerals42.9%3 letters 3 numerals 3 letters ornumerals7.2% 6.3%2.3%4 letters 4 numerals 4 letters ornumerals0.4% 0.5% 0.1%5 letters 5 numerals 5 letters ornumeralsTypes of combinationFigure 16 – Proportion of letter/numeral combinationsactually registered as .fr domain names- 36 -


Investigations using various lists of names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Next, this analysis considers the proportion of words from various sources which were registered as .fr domainnames on the date we examined the AFNIC database:●●●●●●●●words appearing in the French dictionary,French first names and surnames,French place-names,names of French or worldwide companies or brands.Some of the words in these lists contain characters disallowed in .fr domain names (accented characters,spaces, punctuation, etc.). Accented characters have been replaced by the corresponding string of unaccentedletters. As to the other special characters, we allow for two ways of dealing with them: deleting them, orreplacing them with a hyphen. For the town name “Pont-l’Évêque”, for instance, we test for the presence oftwo strings “pont-leveque” and “pont-l-eveque”.Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •We used three lists of French words:●● the French Ministry of State Education’s list of the commonest words in written French, containing1,364 frequently used words 7 ,●● the Dubois-Buyse graduated spelling list, containing 3,725 common words that all adult Frenchspeakers are expected to know (having picked them up by degrees from primary school to highschool) 8 ,●● Christophe Pallier’s list of French words, containing 336,527 words (with plurals and conjugatedforms of verbs in all tenses) 9 . We should note, however, that the conjugated forms of verbs areunlikely to be registered as .fr domain names.The results indicate that out of the entire dictionary of approximately 300,000 French words, 10% arenow registered as .fr domain names (compared with 9% in 2008 and 8% in 2007). The ratio rises tonearly 85% in the case of the commonest French words, 9 percentage points higher than two years ago(Figure 17).- 37 -


Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names, July 2009100%90%80%+9 since 2007+9 since 2007% of words registered as .fr domain names70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%84%78%+2 since 200710%List of 1,500 commonest words List of 4,000 commonest words Complete French dictionaryFrench word listFigure 17 – Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain namesProportion of French first names and surnames registeredas .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •These findings are based on four lists:●●the 40 most popular first names in France, according to Wikipedia10 ,●●the list of first names used in France published on the “QuelPrenom.com” website11 ,●● the list of the commonest 100 surnames in France, published on the “Beaucarnot Généalogie”website (figures as of 1 January 2006 drawn from the official statistics of the electronic version ofthe telephone directory) 12 ,●● the list of the commonest 10,000 surnames in France, taken from the “Geopatronyme.com” website(a ranking of surnames by number of births between 1891 and 1990, according to the nationalstatistics institute INSEE) 13 .The results indicate that more than two thirds of first names used in France have been reserved as .fr domainnames. Moreover, 85% of the commonest 10,000 surnames are also currently registered. These ratios haveboth risen by 6 percentage points since 2007.- 38 -


Proportion of the names of French towns and villagesregistered as .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •These findings are based on three lists:●●Wikipedia’s list of “communes” (towns and villages) with over 50,000 inhabitants14(120 “communes”),●● the list of “communes” with over 10,000 inhabitants in 2006, according to the Lexilogos website(approximately 1,000 place names, from INSEE statistics) 15 ,●● a list of all French local towns and villages (metropolitan and overseas), prepared using the officialINSEE geographic code 16 (over 36,000 place names – 34,000 unique names after removingdoubletons).The findings show that practically all the towns and villages with over 50,000 inhabitants and 80% of thosewith over 10,000 inhabitants have registered their name under the .fr domain; the ratio is lower (a quarter)if all French towns and villages are taken into account (but still 3 percentage points higher than two yearsago). Local authority names have been protected by AFNIC since 2005, so that only the relevant authoritycan in fact register the name. It should be noted that this study takes account of the naming convention thatapplies to “commune.fr”, while municipalities may also use the conventional names “mairie commune.fr” and“ville-commune.fr” (Figure 18).Proportion of the names of French towns and villages registered as .fr domain names, July 2009100%90%80%% of names registered as .fr domain names70%60%50%40%30%20%10%95%79%+3 since 200726%0%Towns and villages > 50,000 pop.Towns and villages > 10,000 pop.All towns and villagesAll towns and villagesFigure 18 – Proportion of the names of French towns and villagesregistered as .fr domain names- 39 -


Proportion of company names and trademarks registeredas .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •These findings are based on five lists:●●the 40 companies in the CAC 40 stock market index 4017 ,●●Wikipédia’s list of the hundred biggest French companies by 2006 turnover18 ,●● the list of the thousand biggest French enterprises by turnover, published on the “L’Expansion.com”website 19 ,●●the Fortune magazine list of the world’s 500 biggest firms by turnover20 ,●●Wikipedia’s list of trademarks used in France21 (approximately 2,500 trademarks).The findings show that almost all the companies in the Paris stock exchange index CAC 40 have reservedtheir names under the .fr domain. So have 85 of France’s hundred biggest firms, and nearly 70% of thetop 1,000. Multinationals do not necessarily have offices in France, but half of them nevertheless havereserved their .fr domain names. Lastly, three quarters of the brand names used in France have also beenregistered under the national domain. These figures have changed little since last year, perhaps indicatingthat the same proportion of new companies or brands have been protecting themselves in this way as ofexisting ones (Figure 19).Proportion of company names and brand names registered as .fr domain names, July 2009100%90%CompaniesTrademarks80%% of names registered as .fr domain names70%60%50%40%30%20%93%85%+8 since 200768%44%74%10%0%CAC40 firms100 biggest Frenchcompanies1,000 biggest Frenchcompanies500 biggest companiesworldwide2,500 brand namesin FranceLists of companies/brandsFigure 19 – Proportion of French company and trademark namesregistered as .fr domain names- 40 -


Part Three: Holders of namesChapter 7Location of individual holders of .fr domain names●●Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (geographical distribution of individuals holdingdomain names), INSEE statistics.This chapter gives statistical data on the geographical location of individuals who hold .fr domain names,and the corresponding rates of penetration (domain names per 1,000 inhabitants), as well as changes overthe year.Preliminary remarks• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The AFNIC database includes a number of registrations that contain errors, such as a missing number forthe administrative district, or department [French: “département”]. These erroneous registrations (which arevery much in the minority) have been excluded from the present study. In a few other cases, the country-codeand department number do not match (country-code “.mq” for Martinique, for instance, with the number“971” , which is for Guadeloupe ). In these instances we have gone by the country-code.The overseas territories here correspond on the one hand to registrations where the country-code is “.fr”and the department number is that of the department or territory (overseas) in question (e.g. “.fr 972”for Martinique), and on the other hand to registrations where the country-code is that of the overseas inquestion, regardless of the department number (for example “.mq 972 »).Corsica appears in the database as one single department instead of the two departments 2A and 2B (theirpostcode identification). The location statistics therefore treat all of Corsica uniformly, without distinguishingbetween the two departments.Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The AFNIC policy require individuals to have a physical address in France to register .fr domain names,which means that the database only contains French addresses (99% of these are in Metropolitan France, and1% in the Overseas dependencies).- 41 -


The national average is approximately 5,000 domain names per department (3,800 in 2008); but there aregreat variations from department to department (nearly 95,000 names for Paris, fewer than 350 for Lozère).Name holders are heavily concentrated around the major French conurbations: Paris and the Greater Parisregion, Lille, Rouen, Metz, Strasbourg, Rennes, Nantes, Bordeaux, Toulouse, Annecy, Lyon, Grenoble,Montpellier, Nîmes, Marseille, Toulon, Nice... The eight departments of the Île-de-France (Greater Parisregion) alone account for nearly 40% of the domain names registered in France by individuals. At the otherend of the scale, all the rural departments together account for only 25%.As to the overseas parts of France, it should be pointed out that these departments and other local authoritieshave their own ccTLDs (Guadeloupe: .gp, French Guiana: .gf, Reunion Island: .re, Martinique: .mq,Mayotte: .yt, New Caledonia: .nc, French Polynesia: .pf, Saint Barthélemy: .bl, Saint Martin: .mf,Saint Pierre and Miquelon: .pm, French Southern Territories: .tf, Wallis and Futuna: .wf). Depending onthese various domains’ different registration policies, then, these ccTLDs are available to the inhabitants ofthese departments and other local authorities, as well as the .fr domain.The department of Paris accounts for over 17% of individual holders of .fr domain names, far outnumberingthe runners-up. The top ten departments include five in the Greater Paris region, alongside the departmentswhich include France’s other biggest cities: Haute Garonne, Rhône, Bouches-des-Rhône, Nord and Alpes-Maritimes.Number of .fr domain names registered by individualsper 1,000 inhabitants• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The following maps show the number of domain names registered by individuals in relation to departmentpopulation (names per 1,000 inhabitants). Department population figures are taken from the INSEEestimates on 1 January 2007 22 , and in the case of the overseas territories, from a variety of sources (INSEE,Wikipédia).- 42 -


The national average is 6 names per 1,000 inhabitants (4.4 in 2008); once again there is great variation amongdepartments (from 43 for Paris to 2.6 for Haute-Marne). We find the same concentrations as in the previousmaps, but different departments feature in the top quartile (more than 3.9 names per 1,000 inhabitants).These are departments with smaller populations but proportionally more applications from individuals for.fr domain names: Charente-Maritime, Dordogne, Savoie, Drôme and Vaucluse (Figure 20).Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants(Metropolitan France)On July 1st 2009766280590208927593942922565035 5344854017334979146172168647323724278782284131364695782319918160451815127703638958483410435142072171695552012638703954578825686730 84 04 061374057383Number ofdomain namesper 1,000 inhabitantsLess than 3.93.9 to 5.15.1 to 6.8More than 6.8sourceAFNIC64650911662B2AFigure20– Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals, per 1,000 inhabitants(Metropolitan France)- 43 -


Changes over the last year• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered byindividuals (Figure 23). The rise in the number of names registered by individuals averaged 38%. All ofBrittany falls within the top quartile (departments with 40% growth in a year or more), which bodes well forthe proposed new generic domain .bzh (Breizh – Breton in the local language).Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals(Metropolitan France)On July 1st 2009766280590208927593942922565035 5344854017334979146172168647323724278782284131364695782319918160451815127703638958483410435142072171695552012638703954578825686730 84 04 061374057383Percentage riseper departementLess than 30%30% to 35%35% to 40%More than 40%sourceAFNIC64650911662B2AFigure 23 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals(Metropolitan France)- 46 -


Of the overseas departments and territories, Martinique, Reunion Island, Saint Pierre and Miquelon andWallis and Futuna Islands grew by more than 50% in the last year (Figure 24).Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals(Overseas)On July 1st 2009St Pierre and MiquelonNew CaledoniaPercentage riseper departementGuadeloupeMayotteLess than 30%30% to 35%Wallis and Futuna Islands35% to 40%More than 40%MartiniquesourceAFNICReunion IslandFrench PolynesiaFrench GuianaFigure 24 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals(Overseas)- 47 -


The top 10 departments by annual rate of growth shows a vigorous upward trend in individuals’ registrationsin these departments. It may also reflect the activity of domainers based in these departments(Figure 25).Top 10 departments by 2008-2009 percentage rise in the number of .fr domain namesregistered by individualsYear’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain namesregistered by individuals105%80%71%64%59%56% 56% 55%53% 52%DordogneHaute-GaronneSaint-Pierreet-MiquelonLot-et-GaronneTarn Savoie La Réunion Deux-Sèvres Loir-et-Cher Côtes-d'ArmorDepartmentsFigure 25 – Top 10 departments by annual rate of growth in the number of .fr domain namesregistered by individuals- 48 -


Chapter 8Location of legal entities holders of .fr domain names●●Source of the data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (geographical distribution of corporate domainnames), INSEE statistics.This chapter gives figures for the geographical location of corporate bodies (enterprises, associations, publicbodies, etc.) holding .fr domain names, and for the corresponding rates of penetration (domain names per1,000 legal entities), as well as changes in the past year.Preliminary remarks• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The observations in the last chapter concerning individuals (handling of errors in the AFNIC database,handling of registrations for overseas territories and for Corsica) apply here also. However, corporate bodieslocated in the United Kingdom are recorded in the database, sometimes under the country-code “gb” andsometimes under “uk”. These two codes have been taken into account in the country statistics.- 49 -


Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •As a precondition of registering a .fr domain name, corporate bodies must (according to the AFNIC policy)have their registered office or another office located in France, or own a trademark registered in France ora European or international trademark covering French territory. The great majority of corporate holdersof .fr domain names are in fact located in France (98.5%). Of the legal entities based abroad (holders oftrademarks covering France), most are in the continent of Europe (75%) or in North America (22%), andonly 3% are elsewhere. Those in the United States are slightly less numerous than last year (-2 percentagepoints), but there are a few more in Belgium (+1 point) (Figure 26).Country breakdown of .fr domain names registered by by legal entities outside France, July 2009Other countries 9.4%Sweden 2.9%United States 21.5%Spain 3.1%Italy 3.2%Belgium 3.9%Switzerland 5.9%Germany 18.0%Denmark 8.6%Netherlands 11.0%United Kingdom 12.4%Figure 26 – Country breakdown of .fr domain names registered by legal entities- 50 -


The national average number of .fr registered by corporate bodies is approximately 8,600 names perdepartment (7,200 in 2008); once more there is a great range of variation among departments, from thehighly industrialised (19% of corporate names’ holders are based in Paris and 38% in the Greater Parisregion) to the most rural (fewer than 0.1% in Creuse and in Lozère). The distribution of corporate bodies bydepartment is actually very similar to that for individuals. All the same, some departments feature in the topquartile for corporate bodies (at over 8,500 names) which did not for individuals’ registrations: Haut-Rhin,Maine-et-Loire, Charente-Maritime and Loire.One of the overseas territories, Reunion Island, comes into the top half of French departments for thenumber of .fr domain names registered by corporate bodies, with more than 5,500 names. Martinique andGuadeloupe are next, with approximately 1,500 names each.The departments of Paris, Hauts-de-Seine, Haute-Garonne and Rhône head the list of the top 10 departmentsfor corporate registrations, as for individuals. And indeed the whole top ten are the same, though in adifferent order, except that Isère features in this list, with 2% of corporate domain names.Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities,per 1,000 legal entities• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The maps below represent the number of corporate domain names per 1,000 legal entities, by department.Numbers of legal entities in each department are taken from the INSEE non-farm commercial activityfigures for 1 January 2008 23 . This economic sector covers all active businesses in industry, construction,commerce and services, but not organizations whose functioning is not funded by commercial activity (i.e.local, regional or national government, social/charitable organisations, nonprofit associations, etc. ), noragriculture, forestry or fisheries.- 51 -


The national average is 230 corporate names per 1,000 legal entities (220 in 2008), compared with theaverage of 6 individuals’ names per 1,000 inhabitants). There are great variations among departments, thetop of the list (Hauts-de-Seine, with 773 names per 1,000 firms) having a ratio 20 times as big as the bottomone (Guadeloupe, with 42). Moreover, many departments appear in the top quartile here (over 260 namesper 1,000 legal entities) which did not do so in terms of the absolute number of corporate domain names:Loiret, Indre-et-Loire and Deux-Sèvres (Figure 27).Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies(Metropolitan France)On July 1st 2009766280590208927593942922565035 5344854017334979146172168647323724278782284131364695782319918160451815127703638958483410435142072171695552012638703954578825686730 84 04 061374057383Number ofdomain namesper 1,000 companiesLess than 170170 to 200200 to 260More than 260sourceAFNIC64650911662B2AFigure 27 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies(Metropolitan France)- 52 -


The results for the overseas territories only cover the four departments with usable statistics on companynumbers (Figure 28). These departments are all in the bottom quartile (fewer than 170 names per1,000 firms).Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies(Overseas)On July 1st 2009GuadeloupeReunion IslandNumber ofdomain namesper 1,000 companiesLess than 170170 to 200200 to 260More than 260MartiniqueFrench GuianasourceAFNICFigure 28 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies(Overseas)The list of top 10 departments for the number of corporate domain name registrations per 1,000 firms issimilar to that for the absolute number of such registrations, but there are three new departments (Moselle,Bas-Rhin and Loire-Atlantique). The special position of Moselle might be due to the presence here of registrarswho have registered names under their own company name which they intend to provide to individuals (thisis a name-lending arrangement used before 2006, when individuals could not register a .fr domain name):such names are wrongly classified as registered to a corporate body (the registrar), and this is liable to distortthe statistics. The distortion is tending, though, to diminish over time; and Moselle has 150 fewer names per1,000 firms than last year.- 53 -


Changes over the last year• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered bycorporate bodies (Figure 29). The national average is 21% (32% in 2008); the top quartile shows whichdepartments are growing fastest in terms of corporate registrations (over 24% growth in a year).Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities(Metropolitan France)On July 1st 2009766280590208927593942922565035 5344854017334979146172168647323724278782284131364695782319918160451815127703638958483410435142072171695552012638703954578825686730 84 04 061374057383Percentage riseper departementLess than 18%18% to 21%21% to 24%More than 24%sourceAFNIC64650911662B2AFigure 29 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registeredby legal entities (Metropolitan France)- 54 -


Many overseas departments and territories grew by more than 30%: French Guiana, Mayotte, SaintPierre and Miquelon and Reunion Island (Figure 30).Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities(Overseas)On July 1st 2009St Pierre and MiquelonPercentage riseper departementLess than 18%New Caledonia18% to 21%21% to 24%More than 24%GuadeloupeMayottesourceAFNICWallis and Futuna IslandsMartiniqueReunion IslandFrench PolynesiaFrench GuianaFigure 30 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registeredby legal entities (Overseas)Some of the fastest-growing departments in terms of the number of corporate registrations are ones whichstart from a very low base and are rapidly catching up (French Guiana, Mayotte, Lozère, Saint Pierre andMiquelon, Aveyron, Cher); but there are also some in a stronger position which they are reinforcing stillfurther (Charente-Maritime, Var).- 55 -


Chapter 9Location of individual and legal entities holdersof .fr domain names●●Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (geographical distribution of individual and corporatedomain names).This chapter gives figures on the geographical location of .fr domain name holders (individuals and corporatebodies together), and the corresponding growth figures for the last year.Total number of .fr domain names(individuals and legal entities together)• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The national average number of domain names registered per department is approximately 13,800 names(11,000 in 2008). The disparities we found when looking at the individuals’ and corporate bodies’ marketsseparately are naturally reflected in the entire market as well: Paris comes top with some 265,000 domainnames, while there are only a thousand or so each in Creuse and Lozère. The departments found in the topquartile for the entire market are practically the same as those in the top quartile for corporate registrations(which account for more than half of the .fr ccTLD).In the top 10 departments by total number of .fr domain names, we find most of the departments which wesaw earlier among the top 10 for corporate registrations, and in exactly the same order. 18% of .fr domainnames were concentrated in Paris in 2009, and 38% in the Greater Paris region, though the figures areslightly lower than last year (19% and 39% in 2008).- 56 -


Changes over the last year• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The figure below shows the last year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered byindividuals or corporate bodies (Figure 31). The national average growth in a year was 26% (40% in 2008).The departments in the top quartile (growth exceeding 30%) are mostly in the west and south of France.Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names(Metropolitan France)On July 1st 2009766280590208927593942922565035 534485174979146172168637242787284136957823199160451815770363895810435142217169575554885270253901 7473386867Percentage riseper departementLess than 23%23% to 25%25% to 30%More than 30%sourceAFNIC403347324682318112483407 26 0530 84 04 0613 8364650911662B2AFigure 31 – Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names(Metropolitan France)- 57 -


French Guiana, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Mayotte, Reunion Island and New Caledonia all grew bymore than 30% in the last year (Figure 32).Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names(Overseas)On July 1st 2009St Pierre and MiquelonNew CaledoniaGuadeloupeMayottePercentage riseper departementLess than 23%23% to 25%Wallis and Futuna Islands25% to 30%More than 30%MartiniquesourceAFNICReunion IslandFrench PolynesiaFrench GuianaFigure 32 – Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names(Overseas)- 58 -


Chapter 10Ages of individual holders of .fr domain names●●Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (dates of birth of individual holders), INSEEstatistics.This chapter gives figures on individual holders of .fr domain names (the age pyramid and associated).Age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •This study focuses on the age (completed years) on 1 January. The dates of birth given in the registrationscontained in the AFNIC database include a certain number of aberrant values, from -58 years to 119years. We have accordingly removed from the graph all ages below 18 years (in keeping with the AFNICpolicy which require holders to be adults) and also (more arbitrarily) ages above 90 years.Next, after removing these outliers, we find some ages over-represented in the age pyramid: they are mostlikely the default values of the registrars’ software interface, which the online applicant has not bothered(or been willing) to alter when registering the name. For instance, 38 years (year of birth: 1970), is anover-represented age, doubtless because 1 January 1970 is the year-reckoning origin for many operatingsystems (Unix).The mean age of name holders is 38 years. Their median age is 35.5 years, meaning that there are as manyunder this age as over it.- 59 -


Comparing this age pyramid with that for the French population at large (metropolitan and overseasdepartments, men and women) from the INSEE figures 24 , we see that historical events have had a similarimpact on both: the deficit of births during the Second World War, and the baby boom which followedin the years 1946 to 1973 (35 to 62 years on the graph). Earlier events (the First World War) do not showup on the curve of name holders, as older people make less use of domain names (Figure 33).We also find a change in the statistics at about 48 or 49 years of age: cohorts of holders of .fr domainnames below that age are proportionally bigger than their counterparts in the population at large, whilethe opposite applies to those above that age.Comparison of age pyramids: individual holders of .fr domain names,and the French adult population, 20094.5%4.0%3.5%Individual holders > individualsEnd ofbaby boomIndividual holders < individuals% of sample(name-holders ; French adults)3.0%2.5%2.0%1.5%Baby boomWorld War IIIndividual holdersAdult French population1.0%0.5%0.0%18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 ≥100Individuals' agesFigure 33 – Comparison of age pyramids: individual holders of .fr domain names,and the French population- 60 -


The holders of .fr domain names are some ten years younger on average than the population at large,both for the mean age (38 years against 48) and for the median age (35.5 years against 46). We also notethat the median age of the holders has risen by around 7 months (0.6 year) since 2008, while that ofall French adults has risen by only 5 months (0.4 year). Changes in the age of individual holders of .frdomain names accordingly appear to be due in part to the natural aging of the population but also to awider uptake of domain names among the older members of the population (Table 6).Individual holders 2009 2008 Year's increaseNumber 330,022 243,314 36%Mean age 37.6 37.2 0.4Median age 35.5 34.9 0.6Adult French population 2009 2008 Year's increaseNumber 50,046,383 49,541,587 1%Mean age 48.3 48.0 0.2Median age 46.4 46.1 0.4Table 6 – Comparison of the ages of individual holders of .fr domain namesand all French adultsThe mean is 6.6 domain names per 1,000 inhabitants for the whole population in 2009 (5 in 2008), whilethe mode is around 30 years (at nearly 13.5 names per 1,000 inhabitants). The graph rises quickly betweenthe age of majority and this modal value, and then declines steadily with greater age.Changes in the age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The distribution of individual name holders by age group has remained fairly stable over time. The 18 –34 year-olds form the biggest group (42% in June 2009), very closely followed by the 35 – 50 year-olds(41%); older groups account for fewer name holders (17%).Comparing the age pyramids of holders of .fr domain names in 2008 and in 2009 we see that all agegroups have grown bigger over the past year.- 61 -


Part Four: RegistrarsChapter 11Registrars●●Source of data: Historical AFNIC data (changes in number of registrars since 1996) and data fromthe AFNIC database on 1 July 2009 (distribution of registrars by country and department).This chapter gives some details about the registrars of .fr domain names: number, changes over time andgeographical distribution.Number of registrars of .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •At the end of June 2009 there were 874 registrars of .fr domain names in all. Over the last year this numberhas fallen by approximately 80 (or 8%).The number of registrars grew very fast until the end of 2001; it then dropped for a few years when thedotcom bubble burst. Since June 2006, when individuals began to be able to register.fr names, there has beena restructuring of the market: some smaller registrars have turned themselves into resellers for registrars whohandle bigger portfolios of names, so reducing the total number of registrars (Figure 34).Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names since 19971,400Creation of AFNICInternet bubble bursts.fr naming rightsabolished.fr availableto individuals1,2001,106 1,1541,0571,0761,0471,0009621,026 1,0011,039 1,031 1,031 1,051 1,018992 985960 952890874No. of registrars8006004414986527584003112772001790Dec-96June-97Dec-97June-98Dec-98June-99Dec-99June-00Dec-00June-01Dec-01June-02Dec-02June-03Dec-03June-04Dec-04June-05Dec-05June-06Dec-06June-07Dec-07June-08Dec-08June-09MonthsFigure 34 – Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names- 62 -


A breakdown of registrars by nationality reveals that this increase in concentration is among the Frenchregistrars: numbers of non-French ones have remained fairly static over time. Over the last year thenumber of registrars has fallen by 74 in France (-9%), but only by 4 elsewhere (-3%).Location of registrars of .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The figure below shows the breakdown of registrars by department (Figure 35). The national average isapproximately 7 registrars per department (8 in 2008), but there is very wide variation. The top quartileis made up of departments with more than 6 registrars: these are, once again, the departments whichcontain the biggest French conurbations (Paris and the Greater Paris region, Lyon, Marseille, Grenoble,Nice, Bordeaux, Lille, Toulouse, Nantes, Montpellier, Strasbourg, Rennes, Orléans, Mulhouse, Brest,Lorient, Clermont-Ferrand and Tours). Paris alone has 19% of all registrars of .fr domain names, whilethe eight departments of the Greater Paris region account for 38% of them. At the other end of the scale,15 departments have only one registrar, and 14 have none (Hautes-Alpes, Ardennes, Cher, Dordogne,Loir-et-Cher, Lot, Lozère, Haute-Marne, Nièvre, Haute-Saône; and overseas, Mayotte, New Caledonia,French Polynesia and Wallis and Futuna).Most departments have the same number as in 2008, or have lost a few. The most marked declines overthe past year were in Paris (-16), Hauts-de-Seine (-11) and Rhône (-9).- 63 -


Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names(Metropolitan France)On July 1st 2009766280590208927593942922565035 534485174979146172168637242787284136957823199160451815770363895810435142217169575554885270253901 7473386867Numberof registrar(s)per department0 or 12 or 45 or 6More than 6sourceAFNIC403347324682318112483407 26 0530 84 04 0613 8364650911662B2AFigure 35 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names(Metropolitan France)- 64 -


Turning to the overseas departments and territories, we find 5 registrars each in Martinique and ReunionIsland, and one each in Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Figure 36).Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names(Overseas)On July 1st 2009St Pierre and MiquelonNew CaledoniaNumberof registrar(s)per departmentGuadeloupeMayotte0 or 12 or 45 or 6Wallis and Futuna IslandsMore than 6MartiniquesourceAFNICReunion IslandFrench PolynesiaFrench GuianaFigure 36 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names(Overseas)- 65 -


Among the top ten departments in terms of registrar numbers, Paris heads the list by a long way (twice asmany registrars as the runner-up, Hauts-de-Seine). Alongside four departments of the Greater Paris region,we find (not surprisingly) the departments which have the most heavily populated towns or those which aremost enthusiastically adopting new technology: Lyon, Marseille, Grenoble, Nice, Bordeaux and Lille. These10 departments alone account for more than half of all French registrars.14% of the registrars of .fr domain names are in fact based outside France, though almost all in Europe: only3% are based in another continent.- 66 -


Chapter 12Types of service offered and charges●●Source of data: Websites of the 30 top registrars of .fr domain names in terms of number of namesmanaged (checks carried out in September 2009).This chapter gives figures on the services offered by the leading registrars of .fr domain names, and the pricesthey charge. The details were collected in September 2009 from the websites of the 30 registrars handling thelargest numbers of .fr domain names. These 30 registrars together manage 78% of .fr domain names, so theresults obtained from them would seem reasonably representative of the whole market.Services offered by registrars• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Registrars’ offerings differ in many ways. Firstly, the number of domains available for registration is veryvariable. Some offer only a limited number: the main gTLDs .com/.net/.org/.biz/.info; the ccTLDs .frand .re (Reunion Island) and the European domain .eu; also frequently .mobi (mobile devices), and otherFrench language ccTLDs such as .be (Belgium). Other registrars have a wider range, covering dozens of TLDs.Lastly, there are far fewer which claim to offer registration under any of the available Top Level Domains(around 250).Nearly one third of the registrars studied include web hosting in their basic domain name package; theamount of space varies considerably, from 1 MB to 1 GB). Others offer hosting as an additional service at anextra charge. E-mail hosting is likewise often bundled with the basic package (by half the registrars; the spaceprovided ranges from 10 MB to 25 GB). Most offers also include Web and e-mail redirection services inconnection with the registered domain name. Security services associated with an e-mail address (anti-virusand anti-spam) appear on the other hand to be included only in a third of basic packages.The other services offered in basic and/or supplementary packages are: a webmail service associated withthe e-mail addresses; tools for editing web pages, blogs or photo albums; and referencing services for hostedwebsites. Some registrars also offer a Whois anonymizing service so that the customer’s personal details neednot appear in the domain’s Whois directory. Lastly, some registrars offer professional portfolio managementservices for big customers: Pre-registration checks on priority and other research, post-registration monitoring,legal advice and redress services for cases of cybersquatting , etc.- 67 -


Registrars’ charges• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Charges displayed on registrars’ websites vary in kind: Charges for setting up or renewing a domain name,annual or monthly charge, charging with or without VAT, etc. For the purpose of comparison in this studywe have looked at the basic charge (without add-on services) for renewing a domain name for one year,expressed in euros before VAT, without any discounts for quantity or temporary promotions (first-yearreductions). It should also be pointed out that big customers will tend, through commercial negotiations forbulk purchase, to get better terms than those publicly displayed on the registrars’ websites.Among the registrars studied, some registrars -which concentrates on the business market- give no informationon the fees charged; these were therefore not taken into account in this study.The figure below shows the range of annual fees (before VAT) charged by the registrars studied in September2009 for .fr domain names (Figure 37). As with services provided, there is a very wide range of fees charged:from about €5 to about €90+VAT. The mean for our sample of 30 top registrars was €23+VAT, and themedian approximately €12+VAT (that is, as many fees were above as below €12). Moreover, the mean forthese registrars weighted by their market shares was €14 this year (€15 in 2008). After a significant fall ofsome €3 to €5 (+VAT) in 2008, the fees charged remained fairly static in 2009.Charges for .fr domain names in September 2009(by the 30 largest registrars in terms of names registered)5.00 €5.90 €Registrar5.99 €6.90 €6.99 €7.80 €8.99 €9.00 €12.00 €12.00 €12.00 €14.40 €18.00 €19.00 €23.90 €28.00 €29.00 €49.00 €49.50 €Median charge:€12 + VAT in 2009(no change from 2008, €17 + VAT in 2007)Weighted mean by registrars’ market shares:€14 in 2009 (€15 in 2008)69.00 €91.44 €0 € 10 € 20 € 30 € 40 € 50 € 60 € 70 € 80 € 90 € 100 €Annual charge, €, before VAT (basic package)Figure 37 – Charges for .fr domain names- 68 -


The median charge has been calculated on the basis of the fees charged by the registrars in the study,disregarding their market shares: it accordingly shows the choice offered to an Internet user who wants toregister a domain name but has no particular knowledge of this market. The mean charges weighted bymarket share have been calculated on the basis of the same charges, but this time giving more weight to thoseregistrars which manage most names: this gives a measure of the mean charge for a domain name over all theregistration industry’s sales.The wide range of fees charged is due both to the variety of market segments catered for (general public,SMEs/micro-enterprises, big firms, domain name resellers), and to the value-added services which maybe associated with the domain name in a bundle: these may be technical services (web hosting, e-mailaccounts, etc.), legal services (priority searches, surveillance, name recovery, legal assistance, etc.) or marketingservices (SEO, etc.).Moreover, around half the registrars studied offered discounts for longer registration and/or bulk registration(especially for domain name resellers).The median charges were the same (€12+VAT) for the domains .fr, .com, .net, .org, .biz and .info, and a littlehigher for .eu (€14.4+VAT). Most of the registrars are now bringing the price for the principal domains,including the .fr domain, more or less into line: charges for .fr are now level with or even below thosefor .com, in three quarters of the tariffs studied, which account for 95% of all domain names managed.- 69 -


Chapter 13Analysis of the registrar market●●Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (domain name numbers, by holder type and byregistrar), Dot and Co figures (ICANN-accredited registrars).This chapter analyses the market for registrars for .fr ccTLD and for gTLDS, using Lorentz curves andvarious econometric parameters (the HHI and CR indices).Number of .fr domain names per registrar• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •In 2009 almost all registrars of .fr domain names (824 of the 828) manage domain names registered bycorporate bodies, while only 479 of them manage names registered by individuals. However, the numberof registrars offering names to individuals was static (+1% in the last year), while in the business sector itcontinued to fall (-9%).Entire market (individuals and legal entities)The distribution of the registrars by number of domain names managed (individuals and corporatebodies together) is similar to that of the corporate market alone.The concentration indices for the entire market show values in between those of the two market consideredseparately, but closer to the corporate name market. Changes in the HHI show that the entire market cannow be regarded as moderately concentrated, whereas it was not concentrated until 2008 (Table 7).The top registrar has gained approximately 5 percentage points over the year, as have the top four together;on the other hand the top ten have only gained some 4 percentage points. The top registrar’s increasedmarket share seems therefore to be at the expense of the next biggest, as we saw was the case in eachmarket taken separately.- 70 -


Market for .fr domain names - Individuals and Legal entitiesParameter 2009 2008 Change on yrNumber of registrars 828 909 -9%Number of domain names 1,463,349 1,170,084 25%Number of domain names per registrars 1,767 1,287 37%Index of concentration 2009 2008 Change on yrCR1 24.3% 19.3% 5.1CR4 54.8% 49.8% 5.0CR10 71.0% 66.7% 4.3HHI 0.1002 0.0776 0.1 à 0.18: Moderately concentrated marketTable 7 – Concentration indices: entire market for .fr domain namesregistered by individuals and legal entitiesThe figure below shows the 30 biggest registrars of .fr domain names ranked by number of names managed,together with the breakdown between the individual and corporate markets (Figure 38). It can be seenthat most of the top registrars by volume are active in the individuals’ market. Moreover, the top registrarcontinues to consolidate its position, with an increase of some 60% for the second year running.30 biggest registrars of .fr domain names, ranked by number of names managed, July 2009OVH1&1GandiAmenOnline SASEuroDNSNordNetNamebayFrance TélécomINDOMPagesJaunesLWSUnited-DomainsMelbourne IT LtdNetissimeNameshieldMailclubWeb IntelligenceCronon AGAB Connect / HosteurViaducArsysTucowsNFranceLinkeoDrimDomaine.frNeuf CegetelE-ZONE.frClaranet48,86943,95943,44135,42134,52330,77822,47816,59515,25714,94113,73713,51911,97511,43210,9537,9427,9037,7897,6386,8796,6896,2386,2115,6985,5305,23376,129159,911209,040356,3180 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000No. of names managedFigure 38 – Main registrars ranked by total numbers of .fr domain names- 71 -


Lorentz curvesA Lorentz curve shows the cumulative market shares of those involved in a market as a function of thecumulative percentage of persons involved. A diagonal line (or “line of perfect equality”) would correspondto a fully competitive market. The further the Lorentz curve bends away from this line, the more concentratedis the market.If we now look at the Lorentz curves for these various markets, we can clearly see that the individuals marketis considerably more concentrated than the corporate one, the combined market being of course somewherebetween the two.The market for individualsThe mean number of .fr registered by individuals per registrar is 1,130 (450 in 2008, but with considerablevariation among the various registrars. While some 30 registrars manage big portfolios (over 1,000 names),more than half of registrars manage fewer than 10 names. The individuals’ market, then, features a long tailof very small registrars, alongside a few really big players.The following table gives value of the concentration indices for the market in individuals’ names (Table 8).Indices of the “CRi” type (Concentration Ratio) represent the cumulative market share of the “i” top playersin the market. Here the top registrar accounts for nearly 30% of the total market (CR1), the top four havemore than 70% of the market (CR4) and the top ten nearly 90% of the market (CR10). Changes in theseratios over the last year show that the market share of the top four has remained static while that of thetop registrar has risen by 2.5 percentage points: the increasing concentration in the individuals’ market hastherefore been essentially benefiting the market leader at the expense of its direct competitors.The HHI (Herfindahl-Hirschman Index) is calculated as the sum of the squares of the market shares ofall the players involved. It can range from 0 (very competitive market) to 1 (a monopoly), and is used bythe competition authorities to study the potential consequences of mergers and takeovers. In the case ofthe individuals market the HHI works out at 0.17, which indicates a market where there is so far littleconcentration (0.1 to 0.18). The trend, however, is clearly going in the direction of greater concentration:this index rose from 0.13 in 2007 to 0.16 in 2008, and now to 0.17 this year.- 72 -


Market for .fr domain names -IndividualsParameter 2009 2008 Change on yrNumber of registrars 479 474 1%Number of domain names 541,761 397,818 36%Number of domain names per registrars 1,131 839 35%Index of concentration 2009 2008 Change on yrCR1 29.0% 26.6% 2.5CR4 71.5% 71.4% 0.1CR10 87.3% 87.5% -0.1HHI 0.1700 0.1555 0.1 à 0.18: Moderately concentrated marketTable 8 – Concentration indices: market for .fr domain names registered by individualsCorporate marketAs for the corporate market, here the distribution of registrars by number of domain names managedshows some very different features from the individuals’ market: the very small players (fewer than 10names) account for only a minority (106) of registrars, while the biggest size group is the middling one(10 to 100 names), with 359 registrars. In 2009, the number of registrars handling fewer than 100 namesis 464 (550 a year ago).The concentration indices show that the corporate market is considerably less concentrated than theindividuals one (Table 9). The “Concentration Ratio” indices are all lower: CR1 is 22% as against 29%,CR4 is 45% (72%) and CR10 is 64% (87%). Likewise the HHI in the corporate market is 0.07, against0.17 in the individuals market. Though the corporate market seems not to be concentrated at present(HHI below 0.1), then, the change in all parameters over the past year has nevertheless been in thedirection of greater concentration.It can also be seen that the top registrar gained 4.5 percentage points over the year, taking the lion’s shareof the gains realised by the top four and those of the top ten (5 to 6 percentage points). The concentrationprocess is mainly benefiting the top registrar, though to a less obvious extent than in the case of registrarsin the market for individuals’ names.- 73 -


Market for .fr domain names - Legal entitiesParameter 2009 2008 Change on yrNumber of registrars 824 905 -9%Number of domain names 921,588 772,266 19%Number of domain names per registrars 1,118 853 31%Index of concentration 2009 2008 Change on yrCR1 21.6% 17.1% 4.5CR4 44.9% 38.7% 6.3CR10 64.4% 59.0% 5.4HHI 0.0743 0.0548 < 0.1: Market not concentratedTable 9 – Concentration indices: market for .fr domain names registeredby legal entitiesChanges in the market for registrars of .fr domain names(numbers of domain names managed)• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Those registrars which had the majority of the market at the start of the decade have been caught up bynewcomers which have become active in this market much more recently, especially in the individualssegment after the .fr domain became available to individuals in 2006.The concentration indices all showed a peak at the end of 2000, which seems to have been related to apromotion for the second-level names “.nom.fr” in December that year (domain names offered free ofcharge for one year). The biggest market players would appear to have reaped most of the rewards of thispromotion, for their market shares rose and with them – as a direct consequence – the concentration ofthe overall market. Mechanisms such as mergers and takeovers among market operators may also havebeen involved. A considerable proportion of the “free” names will not have been renewed afterwards,which would have tended to return the various concentration indices towards their normal levels.So the market became steadily more concentrated until the end of 2003. The greater flexibility of the newpolicy in May 2004 (removal of rights in a name) immediately caused a decrease in market concentration.Then, in a move in the opposite direction, concentration can be seen to have risen once more up to thetime when .fr was first made available to individuals, in June 2006: this will have been due to the arrivalof new registrars in the market, selling to the general public and handling large numbers of names. Theindices have not stopped rising since then: we are now seeing levels of concentration similar to thoseobserved during the late 2000 peak, but with other registrars in play.- 74 -


Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names(in terms of new domain names registered)• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The top registrar is far ahead, with 35% of new names; the next two have around 15% each, while noneof the rest has more than 5%. The direct consequence of this situation has been a concentration almostentirely to the benefit of the market leader alone.The graph below shows a comparison of changes in the HHI concentration indices of the whole stock ofdomain names and of new names registered each month (Figure 39). The snapshot concentration figureis distinctly higher for new name creations that for total name numbers, meaning that the entire marketis steadily becoming more concentrated month by month.0.300Changes in the HHI concentration indices for all .fr domain namesand for new .fr names registered each monthHHI - Herfindahl-Hirschman Indices0.2500.2000.1500.1000.0500.2660.1320.125 0.1250.085HHI , new .fr names0.183 0.1830.1750.174 0.1730.162 0.160 0.1620.1520.074 0.076 0.077 0.077 0.079 0.082 0.084 0.086 0.087 0.090 0.093 0.095 0.097 0.099HHI, all .fr namesHighlyconcentrated marketModeratelyconcentrated marketUnconcentratedmarket0.000May 2008June 2008July 2008August 2008Sept 2008Oct 2008Nov 2008Dec 2008Jan 2009Febr 2009March 2009Apr 2009May 2009June 2009MonthsFigure 39 – Historical levels of concentration indices for the registration marketof .fr domain names: total stock of managed names, and new names registeredIt is worth noting that the September 2008 peak corresponds to the start of a promotion offering .frdomain names at a price only just above €1. The offer continued for many months, which explains whythe rate did not return to its Spring level until the end of 2008. Nevertheless, once the “bonanza” effecthad passed and the offer had had its immediate effect on its target group, the rate of concentration in newnames came back down at the end of 2008 – though it rose again in 2009. This could be a sign of fiercecompetition among the big players for new registrations, most of which are captured by a small group ofregistrars among whom business tends to remain fairly balanced.- 75 -


The market for ICANN-accredited registrars• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The rest of this chapter is devoted to ICANN-accredited registrars. It is based on the statistics published byDot and Co 25 .The graph below shows the distribution of ICANN-accredited registrars by country (Figure 40). NorthAmerica takes the lion’s share with nearly three quarters of registrars, nearly 60% of them in the UnitedStates. France comes seventh, with 14 accredited registrars, 1.5% of the total. These figures have changedlittle over the last year, though the United States has lost 22 registrars in the period.Distribution of ICANN-accredited registrars by country, Aug 2009(Source: Dot and Co)Russia; 9Japan; 10United Kingdom; 12Spain; 13South Korea; 13France; 14Australia; 14India; 16China; 16Germany; 24Other countries;97France:1.5%of ICANN-accreditedregistrarsUnited States; 553Canada; 141Figure 40 – Country breakdown of ICANN-accredited registrars- 76 -


The distribution of generic domain names by country of registrar once more shows the United Stateswell in the lead, with nearly two thirds of names. This figure is falling, however (-2 percentage pointsover the last year). The proportion of generic names managed in France is roughly 1.6% of the total ofsuch names, slightly up over the last year (1.4% in 2008). The Cayman Islands appear in this figure forthe first time this year, with more than 1% of generic domain names: many registrars are now registeredthere, perhaps for essentially tax-related reasons (Figure 41).Distribution of generic domain names by country of registrar, March 2009(Source: Dot and Co, Study of: .com /.net /.org /.biz /.info /.name /.coop /.pro /.mobi /.travel /.cat /.jobs /.asia /.museum /.aero /.tel )South Korea; 0.7%United Kingdom; 0.7%Cayman Islands; 1.3%France; 1.6%India; 2.6%China; 2.8%Spain; 0.7%Japan; 0.6%Denmark; 0.5%Other countries; 2.7%French registrars:1.6% of generic domains(1.4% in 2008)Australia; 6.2%Germany; 8.2%Canada; 8.5%United States; 62.8%(-2.2 in one year)Figure 41 – Distribution of generic domain names by country of registrarThe company Go Daddy is well in the lead, with over a quarter of the world market and an unbroken historyof growth (+3 percentage points over the last year; +9 over the last two years). Next in the ranking comeeNom, Tucows, Network Solution and Melbourne IT. These five registrars together have more than half theworld market in generic names.There is a small minority (2%) of registrars with portfolios of a million names or more, the biggest having30 million. At the other end of the scale, more than 40% of the ICANN-accredited registrars have fewerthan 1,000 names each.Four of the 14 French ICANN-accredited registrars handle between 100,000 and one million generic names,three handle between 10,000 and 100,000, five are in the 1,000 – 10,000 band, and two have fewer than1,000 names.A comparison of the Lorentz curves for the .fr ccTLD and the generic domains shows that the two marketshave comparable levels of concentration on the biggest registrars: the .fr market, though, is less concentratedso far as the smaller providers are concerned.- 77 -


The concentration indices indicate that the world market leader in generic domains (Go Daddy) is a littlemore powerful than the market leader in the .fr domain (the CR1 is 27%, compared with 24%). The otherworld market indices are lower, however: that market seems a little less concentrated than the market in .frnames, apart from the top registrar (the CR4 is 48% as against 55%, the CR10 is 67% as against 71%, andthe HHI is 0.097 compared with 0.1). Though still qualifying as “not concentrated” this year, the worldmarket in generic domains is nevertheless becoming more concentrated, and may be expected to reach the“moderately concentrated” level in a few months’ time (Table 10).As in the case of the market in the .fr domain, the CR1 for the market in generic domains has risen faster inthe last year than the CR4 or CR10, meaning that the market leader is gaining at the expense of its directcompetitors. The top registrar’s growth is more marked, though, in the case of the .fr domain than in that ofthe generic domains (+5.1 percentage points, against +3.3).World market in generic domain namesParameter 2009 2008 Change on yrNumber of registrars 899 872 3%Number of domain names 111,223,439 101,477,691 10%Number of domain names per registrars 123,719 116,373 6%Index of concentration 2009 2008 Change on yrCR1 27.3% 24.0% 3.3CR4 48.2% 45.4% 2.7CR10 67.1% 64.8% 2.3HHI 0.097 0.082 < 0.1: Market not concentratedTable 10 – Concentration indices: world market in generic domain namesIt can be seen that the worldwide generic names market (2009 index: 0.097), is still less concentrated thanthe market in the .fr domain (0.1 in 2009). This situation may be due to the formation of “local” marketsdifferentiated by culture, language or national legal system; this would make it harder for the big players tocover the whole market than in the case of the .fr domain where the market is very homogeneous in culture,law and language.Figures on registrars operating in the .fr domainand ICANN-accredited for generic domains at the same time• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Some registrars are active both in the market for the .fr country domain and as ICANN-accredited registrarsin the generic domain market. Only a small number of registrars do both (40 in total, or 4% to 5% of allregistrars), but they include some of the biggest in terms of numbers of names. The percentage of domainnames managed by such registrars engaged in both markets at once is accordingly higher: 77% of .fr domainsand 28% of generic domains.- 78 -


Chapter 14Analysis of the secondary market●●Source of data: DN Journal, Sedo (annual report for 2008; quarterly report for Q2-2009;website).This chapter reviews the secondary market in domain names, concentrating especially on the .fr domain(numbers traded and prices charged).Players involved in the secondary market for domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The secondary domain names market consists of all trading which takes place in already-registered domainnames. These names are bought mainly, though not exclusively, through market-makers which play the oftenindispensable role of broker, vouching for each of the two parties and helping to keep the market liquid.Individuals acting as domainers in this way can acquire domain names in the hope of reselling them with acapital gain: the price a domain name can fetch is related to its intrinsic value (a generic name, a short name,an acronym, etc.) and so can be much higher than the registrar’s standard charge.Domainers are a very varied group, including individuals alongside businesses, some of them (mainlyAmerican) backed by investment funds. The business has significant risks, for hopes of capital gain are notalways realized and the fixed costs (registering and maintaining a portfolio of names) can quickly eat intoprofits.The saturation of domains such as .com has also had an impact on the prices charged in the secondarymarket. The top prices ever recorded were for “sex.com” ($14 million in 2006), “fund.com” ($10 millionin March 2008), “porn.com” ($9.5 million in May 2007) and “business.com” ($7.5 million in November1999).The market-makers offer various services to the domainers or people wanting to buy or sell a domain name:valuation of names for sale, parking on sponsored link pages for names waiting to be sold, putting the sellerand buyer in touch, escrow services during the transaction, post-purchase transfer of the domain name,auction arrangements, etc. There can also be transactions in ready-made websites, in addition to the domainname involved.- 79 -


DN Journal figures on the worldwide secondarydomain names market• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The DN Journal website publishes a list of the main deals done in 2009 through all the existing marketmakersin the secondary market 26 . The name “toys.com” comes top of the table, with a price of $5.1m.Four other names changed hands for over one million dollars during the first half of 2009 (“candy.com”,“fly.com”, “auction.com” and “webcam.com”). Of the domains in the top 100 published by DN Journal, .comis well in the lead, with 79 names. National domains (ccTLDs) are making ground, however (four in 2007,ten in 2008, and 19 in 2009). The French domain’s representatives in the top 100 are “loterie.fr” [lottery]and “camping.fr”.Prices appear to have come off the boil a little since last year: the record is 50% lower, and the average for thetop 100 is down 25% over the last year.The league table of the most expensive names from country domains traded between January and August 2009is headed by a Swedish domain name, “spel.se” (“game” in Swedish), which changed hands for $266,000.German and British domains feature most prominently in the top 100, where some twenty ccTLDs are tobe found in all. Eleven are names traded under the .fr domain (Figure 42).By comparison with the 2008 ranking, the .de domain (Germany) has made great strides, while .ca (Canada)is much less well represented. Prices of ccTLDs are also down this year: the record price is only a quarter ofwhat it was, and the top 100 average is down by a third over the last year.Top 30 publicly-traded national domain names by price, Jan- July 2009(Source: DN Journal)Domain name tradedFlatRate.de; 200,000 $OnlineCasino.co.uk; 165,000 $HorseRacing.co.uk; 165,000 $Hardware.de; 148,274 $Motor.es; 113,050 $Seeriese.de; 82,110 $Entsorgung.de; 69,972 $Gartenmoebel.de; 67,500 $Gartenmöbel.de ; 67,500 $RT.TV; 62,500 $Gemaelde.de; 57,389 $Texel.de; 56,090 $Domains in the top 100Loterie.fr; 50,400 $LOL.de; 45,500 $Campings.fr; 45,500 $Kino.pl; 43,500 $SexCamera.nl; 42,250 $Northwest.co.uk; 41,124 $Parierenligne.fr; 39,000 $TelefonBuch.eu; 37,800 $Blackjack.it; 37,410 $Job.us; 35,532 $Camera.co.uk; 35,000 $Schutzfolien.de; 33,320 $Action.de; 32,512 $Online-Casino.nl; 31,654 $Slots.eu; 31,200 $Roulette.it; 30,000 $Statoil.ru; 29,718 $.de (32 names).uk (17 names).fr (11 names).nl (9 names).es , .eu , .pl (4 names).at , .be , .it , .me , .tv , .us , .za (2 names).ar , .au , .br , .ca , .ch , .ru , .se , .tv (1 name)Spel.se; 266,000 $0 $ 50,000 $ 100,000 $ 150,000 $ 200,000 $ 250,000 $ 300,000 $Strike price (USD)Figure 42 – Dearest country-code domain names sold in the secondary market- 80 -


Eleven .fr domain names featured in the top 100 at the start of 2009, changing hands for between €10,000and €35,000 each. The online gambling industry is heavily represented, and also the leisure industry. Dealsin domain names related to online gambling especially show signs of domainer activity in the expectationof investment funding aimed at capturing the market in a small number of key terms. Domain namesincorporating these terms are automatically rising in value and will continue to do so as competition heatsup among the new companies that offer online gambling. It may also be that some of these deals are beingdone by gambling operators themselves who have already planned their online strategy and realize that suchdomain names can be valuable assets.Sedo statistics on the worldwide secondarydomain names market• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •We show here some figures published by Sedo in its annual study of the secondary domain names marketin 2008 27 and in its report for Q2 2009 28 . These figures only cover domain names traded in the secondarymarket through the Sedo platform: there are no overall statistics for the entire market. Sedo is however oneof the main players in the worldwide secondary market for domain names.The secondary domain names market on the Sedo platform again grew vigorously in 2008: the number ofnames changing hands rose 35%, after a rise of 53% in 2007. The average price across all domains fell 21%to €1,440, however, with the result that in money terms the market grew by only 8% in the last year. The risein the number of names slowed in the last two quarters of 2008 because of the economic crisis, but pickedup again in the first half of 2009.The .com domain accounts for nearly half of the domain names sold on Sedo, followed by .de (Germany,17%). The other domains, generic and national, are less well represented. The French domain is far behind,with nearly 300 transactions in 2008 (0.8% of names traded), but its share is rising fast (the number of tradesdoubled in a year).- 81 -


The .com domain features very heavily in the 2008 distribution of sales on Sedo by value, with nearly €30mof deals. Again, the runners-up were .de and .uk. The French domain came eighth, with a total of over€800,000: its annual turnover more than tripled in 2008, whereas that of all domains together grew by nomore than 8% (Figure 43).2008 Sedo turnover by domain(Source: Sedo).uk ; 2,872,234 €.de ; 7,207,138 €.com ; 29,985,253 €Domain.net ; 2,374,503 €.eu ; 1,138,649 €.org ; 1,095,881 €.info ; 911,714 €.fr ; 825,370 €.es ; 736,164 €.at ; 374,523 €.ch ; 201,331 €.biz ; 197,271 €2008:€53m turnover on Sedo(+8% on year).fr turnover: €825,370(+219% on year)0 € 5,000,000 € 10,000,000 € 15,000,000 € 20,000,000 € 25,000,000 € 30,000,000 € 35,000,000 €Turnover (€)Figure 43 – Turnover on Sedo, by domainIn terms of average price, the French domain now appears to be the dearest, with a mean value of €2,850(+64% in the last year). On the other hand, average selling prices for last year’s most costly domains (.comand .uk) have halved. The mean price across all domains is down by approximately 20% over the last year.- 82 -


Mean price figures, however, can be distorted by a few transactions at record prices; median prices are a morereliable indicator of behaviour in ordinary sales. During Q2 2009, the median price at which .fr domainnames changed hands was around €650, higher than the medians of other domains (Figure 44).Median prices for country-code domain names traded on Sedo in Q2 2009(Source: Sedo).fr ; 651 €.uk ; 547 €.es ; 415 €.net ; 409 €.at ; 331 €Domain.com ; 318 €.org ; 295 €.eu ; 292 €.de ; 260 €.biz ; 210 €in Q2 2009:Mean of all domains' median prices €350Mean of all domain nams prices €1200.info ; 171 €0 € 100 € 200 € 300 € 400 € 500 € 600 € 700 €Median prices (€)Figure 44 –Median prices of domain names sold on SedoThese figures show the vitality of the secondary market which took off strongly in 2008/2009, especiallyfor .fr domain. There is perhaps some element of “catching up” with other markets, as a higher proportionof the more interesting names changed hands in 2008/2009, a phenomenon detected earlier in domainslike .com or .de. Another explanation, not incompatible with the former one, might be that domainers haveidentified the French market as rich in opportunities and are prepared to put considerable resources intoit, paying a little more for names in hopes that their potential is greater than in other more slowly growingdomains.- 83 -


The figure below shows the distribution by broad industrial classification of .fr domain names offered forsale in the Sedo marketplace in August 2009. The IT industry is the best represented, ahead of Commerce/Business, Shopping and Leisure. “Adult” names make up only 4% of the total number of names for sale(Figure 45).Number of .fr domain names for sale on Sedo, by broad industrial classification, Augt 2009Health4%Sports4%Social4%Sciences4%XXX-Adult4%Home Education2% 1%IT18%Gambling5%Commerce15%Arts7%Others10%Leisure11%Shopping11%Figure 45 – Number of .fr domain names for sale on Sedo, by broad industrial classification- 84 -


Sedo statistics on the secondary market for .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •These statistics only cover public trades in .fr domain names done on the Sedo platform, not the moreconfidential deals.The annual number of transactions in .fr domain names carried out on Sedo has been growing rapidly since2007. It almost tripled between 2007 and 2008, and probably continued to grow in 2009 (Figure 46).Monthly figures for deals in .fr domain names done on Sedo,(Source:Sedo, not including confidential deals)40352008258 transactions2009 (to 30/06)159 transactionsNo. of domain names traded3025201510200411 transactions50June 2004August 2004200526 transactionsOct 2004Dec 2004Febr 2005Apr 2005June 2005August 2005Oct 2005Dec 2005200631 transactionsFebr 2006Apr 2006June 2006August 2006Oct 2006Dec 2006200789 transactionsFigure 46 – Monthly figures for deals in .fr domain names done on SedoThe rise in the secondary market in .fr domain names can also be seen in terms of turnover: This rose from€10,000 in 2004 to over €700,000 last year. However, the exceptionally high turnover in .fr domain nameson Sedo in 2008 is due to a few very big deals done during the year (€100,000 and €50,000). Now thatrecord prices are becoming more modest, turnover growth can be expected to slow in 2009.MonthsFebr 2007Apr 2007June 2007August 2007Oct 2007Dec 2007Febr 2008Apr 2008June 2008August 2008Oct 2008Dec 2008Febr 2009Apr 2009June 2009- 85 -


After remaining fairly steady in earlier years, average prices in the French secondary market rose rapidly in2008 and approached €3,000 per .fr domain name. This figure, though, is connected with the small numberof exceptional deals done last year, and should be lower this year. Over the first half of 2009 the mean priceat which .fr domain names changed hands rose slightly to €2,000 (Figure 47).Monthly mean prices (€) of trades in .fr domain names on Sedo(Source:Sedo, not including confidential deals)9,0008,00020082,780 €2009 (to 30/06)2,136 €Mean prices (€) of domain names traded7,0006,0005,0004,0003,0002,0001,0000June 2004August 20042004844 €20051,745 €Oct 2004Dec 2004Febr 2005Apr 2005June 2005August 2005Oct 2005Dec 2005Febr 200620061,169 €Apr 2006June 2006August 2006Oct 2006Dec 2006Febr 200720071,351 €Apr 2007June 2007August 2007Oct 2007Dec 2007Febr 2008Apr 2008June 2008August 2008Oct 2008Dec 2008Febr 2009Figure 47 – Monthly mean prices of trades in .fr domain names on SedoApr 2009June 2009The median price of sales on Sedo between January and June 2009 was €800 for the .fr domain, slightlydown on the 2008 figure. 10% of names fetched over €5,000, but the great majority changed hands at muchmore reasonable levels: a quarter at under €500, and more than half at under €1,000 .Months- 86 -


Part Five: TechnologiesChapter 15Data on DNS servers●●Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 (number of domains per server and number of serversper domain), operating statistics of official DNS servers managed by AFNIC (monitoring dataand traffic analysis through DNSmezzo, the passive measurement component of the DNSwitnesssoftware platform).This chapter gives figures for the DNS servers that appear in registrations of .fr domain names (number ofservers per domain name, number of domain names per server, and characteristics of servers.), as well as data(number and type) on requests received by the authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC.In July 2009, the AFNIC database contained 37,544 separate DNS servers, 21% more than a year earlier.This increase is virtually the same as the year’s growth in the number of .fr domain names (+20%).Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The distribution of DNS servers domain names associated with .fr domain names shows that a very greatmajority of the names (more than 83%) only specify two DNS servers – the minimum required – in theirconfiguration. Some names specify three servers (14%), but more complex configurations are much rarer.The greatest number of servers is 8, and the mean is 2.2 servers per name (Figure 48).- 87 -


These figures have changed little since 2008. We do note, however, a very slight fall in the percentage ofdomain names with two DNS servers, and a corresponding rise in those indicating three.Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name, July 20094 DNS servers(1.8%)4 DNS servers and more0.6%3 DNS servers14.3%(+0.8% in past year)Mean:2.2 DNS serversper .fr domain name(vs. 2.19 in 2008)2 DNS servers83.3%(-0.5% in past year)Figure 48 – Number of DNS servers per .fr domain nameNumber of .fr domain names per DNS server• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Nearly 18,000 – almost half – of all DNS servers in the AFNIC database handle only one .fr domain nameand approximately 13% handle two. At the other end of the scale, 16% of DNS servers handle more thanten names each: in particular these include registrars’ servers which their customers’ domain names point toby default. There are even five servers handling portfolios of more than 100,000 domain names.- 88 -


Statistics on requests received by authoritative DNS serversmanaged by AFNIC• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Details of the .fr domain are made available through a set of authoritative DNS servers for the domain, someof them run by AFNIC itself, and others by separate bodies.AFNIC uses monitoring tools to ensure that the authoritative servers for which it is responsible are functioningproperly. The figure below shows changes in the mean number of requests DNS received per second by theauthoritative servers managed by AFNIC (Figure 49). The graph shows strong seasonal characteristics (a fallat the start of the summer and end-year holidays). Moreover, the trend line shows steady growth in the trafficreceived by this set of servers: the annual mean rose from 2,000 requests a second in 2007 to over 3,000 inthe first half of 2009, a 50% increase in the flow of requests received by AFNIC servers in just 18 months.It should be noted that requests received by the authoritative DNS servers for the .fr domain only account forsome of the occasions on which Internet users access .fr domain names. This is because of the use of “cache”functions in recursive DNS servers, meaning that sometimes when a .fr domain is accessed this does not giverise to a specific request to an authoritative server. Moreover, the figures given here do not take into accountrequests received by authoritative .fr domain servers not run directly by AFNIC itself.Number of requests received per second by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS servers for the .fr domain,Sept 20095,000No. of requests received per second by these servers4,5004,0003,5003,0002,5002,0001,5001,000500Mean at endof 2007 :2,000 requestsper second2008 mean:2,700 requests per secondTrend lineMean at startof 2009 :3,100 requestsper second0Sept.-07Oct.-07Nov.-07Dec.-07Jan.-08Febr.-08March-08Apr.-08May-08June-08July-08August-08Sept.-08Oct.-08Nov.-08Dec.-08Jan.-09Febr.-09March-09Apr.-09May-09June-09July-09MonthsFigure 49 – Number of requests received by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS serversfor the .fr domain- 89 -


AFNIC has also developed software to detect and analyse DNS traffic; this forms an integral part of theDNSwitness software platform 29 , which is available under GPL licence.This software component, known as DNSmezzo, was used for a month between June and July 2009 toobserve the traffic received by one of the authoritative DNS servers run by AFNIC. A breakdown of thistraffic shows that most of the requests were for mail servers (type “MX”) or IPv4 addresses (type “A”), insimilar proportions. Other types of request were less frequent: those for IPv6 addresses (AAAA), authoritativeDNS servers (NS), etc.Further analysis of this traffic showed that 99.3% of the requests received by the AFNIC server used the IPv4protocol, and only 0.7% used IPv6. The percentage of traffic received using IPv6 is however expected to riseover time.- 90 -


Chapter 16Data on the use of IPv6●●Source of the data: AFNIC database, July 2009 and search for IPv6 addresses in the DNS usingDNSdelve, the active measurement component of the DNSwitness software platform.This chapter gives figures on the use of IPv6 in the .fr domain, by identifying the number of domain namesfor which at least one server has an IPv6 address, in relation to various services (DNS, e-mail, Web).Procedure used in searching for IPv6 addresses• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The DNSwitness software platform supports the automatic gathering of various kinds of information fromDNS domains. Domain names in a given zone which support IPv6 for various services can be identified, forexample.For each domain name “internet.fr” present in the AFNIC database, DNSwitness can test for the presence ofan IPv6 address for the following three types of server:●● DNS servers corresponding to the domain names associated with the domain name“internet.fr”,●● mail servers corresponding to the domain names as specified by the “MX” registrations associatedwith the domain name “internet.fr”,●●Web servers which might be associated with the domain name “ internet.fr”, under the namingconventions “internet.fr”, www.internet.fr and “www.ipv6.internet.fr”.- 91 -


.fr domain names supporting IPv6• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The figure below shows the percentage of .fr domain names whose DNS, e-mail and Web servers announceat least one IPv6 address in the DNS (Figure 50). These figures show that in 2009 some 5% of .fr domainnames support IPv6 for DNS and 2% for the Web, while the proportion for mail servers is much lower(0.2%). Though these figures are still quite low, they have risen fast since a year ago in the case of DNS andWeb servers.If an IPv6 address is published in the DNS for a given domain name, DNS witness can test whether thecorresponding server is actually operational. The survey in July 2009 showed that 99% of Web serverssupporting IPv6 were indeed operational, but only two thirds of the mail servers which offered IPv6support.Percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv6, July 20097%6%July 2008 July 20096.7%5.2%5%% of domain names4%3%2%2.3%1%0%0.7%0.3%0.4%0.2%0.1%0.03% 0.04%DNS Service E-mail Web At least one service All servicesService supporting IPv6Figure 50 – Percentage of the .fr domain names supporting IPv6- 92 -


The figure below shows how the percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv6 has changed over recentmonths. While IPv6 support remains largely unchanged in the case of the Web and e-mail, it is growing farmore clearly in that of DNS servers, particularly since May 2009 (Figure 51).Change in percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv67%At least one service6%% of domain names5%4%3%DNSWeb2%1%0%All servicesE-Mail13 Dec. 0827 Dec. 0810 Jan. 0924 Jan. 0907 Feb. 0921 Feb. 0907 March 0921 March 0904 April 09Dates18 April 0902 May 0916 May 0930 May 0913 June 0927 June 0911 July 09Figure 51 – Changes in the percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv6- 93 -


Part Six: UsesChapter 17Use of .fr domain names on the Web●●Source of data: AFNIC database, 1 July 2009 and analysis of the HTTP headers returned by Webservers to automated scripts; random sample from the AFNIC database, with manual investigationof the websites associated with the domain names in the sample.This chapter gives figures on the uses to which the .fr domain names are put on the Web: response from theserver (no response, success or redirected site), type of site (business site, personal site, parking site, etc.) andsector (in the case of the business websites).Responses from Web servers associated with .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •An automatic analysis of the HTTP headers returned by Web servers was carried out for the entire set of.fr domain names in the AFNIC database in July 2009. For each domain name “internet.fr”, a script sent a“HEAD” HTTP request to a server at the address “www.internet.fr” and then waited for the response. TheHTTP response received was then analysed for various parameters:●●●●●●the HTTP return code,any redirection (“Location:” header),the server software used (“Server:” header).- 94 -


The figure below shows the kinds of HTTP return code received (Figure 52). For the entire .fr zone, therequests got a successful return in 6 cases out of 10; 16% were redirected, and 15% timed out.By comparison with last year’s study, slightly fewer domain names led to a successful result (-4 percentagepoints), and there were more with no response from the server (+2 points). Because of the rapid growth in .frdomain registrations over a number of years, the number of recently-registered names is rising. These names’holders have not necessarily had time to develop a website associated with their domain name, and this year’sdecline in the percentage of successful calls will be the result.Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name, July 2009Categories of code returned by webservers associated with active .fr domain names,July 20094 DNS servers(1.8%)3 DNS servers4 (Client error); 4%14.3%(+0.8% in past year)No response from server;15%4 DNS servers and more0.6%5 (Server error); 3%Mean:2.2 DNS serversper .fr domain 77% of names lead(vs. 2.19 to an in active 2008) website3 (Redirection); 16% 2 (Success); 61%2 DNS servers83.3%(-0.5% in past year)Figure 52 – Categories of code returned by Web servers associated with .fr domain namesIn 77% of cases, .fr domain did lead to a website, though in 16% of cases a redirection was involved. Thisproportion shows that the domain has a high rate of utilization, and appears much less prone than others topurely defensive registrations strategies.- 95 -


The figure below indicates which domains were used by redirecting websites (Figure 53). The domains mostcommonly redirected to were .com (in 41% of cases), .fr (32%) and .net (7%). Moreover, the redirectionwas to a URL located on the same server in 12% of cases (a relative URL, or URL with the same hostname).There were far fewer redirections to other domains. In total, therefore, 44% of redirections remained withinthe .fr zone. Over the last year redirections to the .fr domain have risen by 3 percentage points, while thoseto .net domains have fallen considerably (-6 percentage points).3 DNS servers14.3%(+0.8% in past year)Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name, July 2009Domains used in HTTP redirections from active .fr domain names, July 20094 DNS servers and more4 DNS servers0.6%(1.8%).de; 1% .eu; 1%URL withsame hostname;5%.org ; 3%Other redirections; 3% Mean:2.2 DNS serversper .fr domain name(vs. 2.19 in 2008).net ; 7% (-6 pointson last year).com ; 41%Relative URL ; 7%.fr ; 32% (+3 pointson last year)2 DNS servers83.3%(-0.5% in past year)Figure 53 – Domains redirected to by .fr domain namesTypes of website associated with .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •A random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names was extracted from the AFNIC database on 1 July 2009. These1,000 domain names were then analysed by staff who visited their associated websites during August 2009(all addresses of the type “www.internet.fr”). The figures given below were obtained from this sample of 1,000names, and do not purport to represent the entire .fr zone.The website types distinguished in this study were as follows:●● no response from server: the web server associated with the domain name did not respond, or sentan HTTP error message,●●site suspended: a message on the site indicates that it is temporarily unavailable,●● site empty: the web page returned is either empty or matches the default page of a contentmanagement platform,- 96 -


●●●●●●●●●●holding page: the site has been parked with a registrar or hosting company,sponsored links: the site uses commercial links of the “Pay Per Click” kind, such as those of Sedo,NameDrive (NDParking), Google (AdSense) or Yahoo! Search Marketing,business site: the site appears to be business-related (firms, associations, public bodies, or indeedself-employed individuals),personal site: the site is personal in character (personal blog, family website, community website,photo-sharing website, etc.),type unknown: it was not possible to determine the website’s place in this classification (passwordprotectedaccess to the website’s content, for example).On ranking the random sample of 1,000 .fr domain names by type of website, we find that business websitesaccount for almost half (46%). Personal websites are much rarer (3%), since the domain only became availableto individuals as recently as June 2006. Holding pages represent 17% of the domain names considered, and5% point to pages of sponsored links. Lastly, 20% of the names generated no response from the associatedweb server, and 5% of the websites were empty (Figure 54).It can be seen that since last year’s study business sites have increased a little (+1 point) at the expense ofpersonal ones (-1 point). This might seem a surprising trend, in that the current growth in the .fr domain isbeing for the most part driven by individuals’ registrations; but there are various factors that could provide anexplanation. First of all, some of the sites sampled were being used for business purposes although registeredto individuals (sites belonging to professional artists, freelance consultants, etc.). This shows that the practicalreason why some individuals have an .fr domain name may be to have a site connected with their workrather than one just for personal or family purposes. Secondly, the recent popularity of social networks likeFacebook may have made some individual holders of .fr domain names less keen to set up their own websitebut rather to have a profile on a social network instead – in which case they may be using their domain nameto give themselves a personalised e-mail address.- 97 -


Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name, July 2009Types of website associated with .fr domain names (random sample of 1000 names)4 DNS servers Site suspended; 0.7%(1.8%)Type unknown; 2.0%3 DNS servers Personal site; 3.3%14.3%(+0.8% in past year) Site empty; 5.3%Page of sponsored links ; 5.4%4 DNS servers and more0.6%Mean: August 2009:49% 2.2 of sites DNS had servers specific contentper (no.fr change domain from name last year)(vs. 23% 2.19 were in parked 2008) sites(-1 on last year)Holding page ; 17.3%Business site; 45.9%No response from server;20.1%2 DNS servers83.3%(-0.5% in past year)Figure 54 – Types of website associated with .fr domain namesFeatures of the websites associated with the domain names in the sample showed that a quarter of thebusiness sites incorporated some kind of e-commerce function (providing an order form, or actually offeringthe opportunity of buying online). This figure is in keeping with INSEE statistics according to which 24%of French firms’ websites in 2008 were offering online ordering or booking of goods or services. Though it isrelatively low, the figure has risen considerably over the last year (16% in 2008). Other business sites have a“showcase” function: they display the firm’s catalogue of goods or services but offer no facilities for orderingor purchasing directly online.Moreover, 2% of the names in the sample were on sale in the secondary market at the time of the study, andjust 4% of the sites which did have specific content took the form of a blog (Table 11).Features of websites associated with .fr domain names(random sample of 1,000 names, August 2009)Feature %Domain name for sale11% parked names, 2% of all namesSites with e-commerce functions24% of business sites, 11% of all namesBlog4% of business and personal sitesSites under construction5% of business and personal sitesTable 11 – Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain names- 98 -


Sector of activity of websites associatedwith .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Business sites were classified by apparent sector of activity. The figure below shows the classification for the1,000 names in the random sample (Figure 55). Some sectors appear to have a very considerable presence onthe French web: services (ITC-related services in particular), leisure-related activities (tourism, art, culture),commerce, etc. Pornography websites accounted for only 1% of the sample. Subjects currently much in thenews appeared frequently in the sample, such as sustainable development or personal services.Sector of activity of business websites associated with .fr domain names, Aug 2009(random sample of 1,000 names)Security; 1.1%Porn; 1.1%Jobs; 1.3%Farming; 1.5%Finance; 1.7%Beauty; 1.7%Media; 2.4%Education/Training; 2.4%Sport; 2.8%Other ; 2.4%ITC-related services ; 12.2%Services/Consultancy; 8.9%Government; 2.8%Food; 2.8%Health; 3.1%Tourism; 8.5%Property; 3.1%Manufacturing; 3.3%Motoring/Biking; 3.3%Social; 3.5%Construction; 4.1%Home; 5.0%Retail; 6.8%Leisure; 7.4%Art/Culture; 6.8%Figure 55 – Sector of activity of websites associated with .fr domain names- 99 -


Chapter 18Perception of .fr domain names●●Source of data: Opinion surveys organized by AFNIC/20 Minutes (2007) and AFNIC/MetroPanel (2008, 2009).This chapter aims to provide a summary of the main results from a number of opinion surveys commissionedby AFNIC concerning perceptions and uses of domain names in France:●●AFNIC/20 Minutes survey (2007)30 , 800 Internet users surveyed online from 21 – 25 March2007,●●AFNIC/Metro Panel opinion survey (2008)31 , 1,265 Internet users surveyed online, 7 – 14 March2008,●● 2009 AFNIC/Metro Panel online survey of 1,042 Internet users, 30 March to 16 April 2009.Due to the surveys’ circumstances, the panels used in these studies consisted of online readers of the newspapers“Metro” and “20 Minutes”: they are not necessarily representative of the whole French population. They dohowever provide a reliable picture of the online population – the one likely to be in contact with domainnames, either as web users or as holders of names.Familiarity with the domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •More and more of the survey respondents know that .fr domain names can now be registered by individuals(71% in 2008, compared with 63% in 2007); they get word of this mainly through the media (advertisingand media buzz) or by word of mouth (friends, acquaintances or work colleagues). Nearly half of them nowthink they can name some registrars – but there is still confusion between registrars and ISPs.Some respondents had already registered personal domain names (14%), most often bundled with a provider’sother services (74%). Two thirds of those respondents who had registered an .fr domain name only ownedone. One in ten had already deleted a domain name, or was redirecting it to another .fr domain name.The panellists had considerable experience of Internet technology: half of them had already set up a website,blog or personal webspace; and on average each had three e-mail addresses.- 100 -


Values associated with the .fr domain• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The .fr domain is primarily associated in these respondents’ minds with being a French speaker (63%),and with values connected with the idea of national community (belonging 31%, closeness 20%). Thedomain also, but to a lesser extent, puts them in mind of the values of the French Republic (liberty, equality,fraternity), as well as other values with a positive connotation (friendliness, originality, humour, fellowfeeling)or practical advantages (availability, diversity). These results have indeed changed little from year toyear.Values associated with the .fr domain names, 2009(Source: AFNIC/Metro online survey)Closeness; 20%Belonging; 31%French language; 63%Key values mentioned by respondantsLiberty; 16%None of these; 13%Originality; 12%Availability; 9%Friendliness; 7%Humour; 6%Fraternity; 6%Equality; 6%Diversity; 5%Fellow-feeling; 2%Other; 2%Image of .fr:A geographical perception(French speaker - Belonging - Closeness)more than values0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%% of repliesFigure 56 – Values associated with the .fr domain namesAcquisition of .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The registrar or Internet Service Provider remains a decisive factor in the decision to register a domainname for half the respondents, suggesting that Internet users feel a need for advice here. Cost is still themain consideration when choosing a domain (two thirds of the panel); next come the clarity of the variousofferings and the simplicity of the registration interface.- 101 -


As for those who cannot see themselves registering a name, this is essentially because they have no use forone (almost unchanged, at 60%): most of the respondents do not find it very clear how domain names areused and what the user benefits are; this finding is in line with the way the French market for domain namesis lagging behind those of other countries such as Germany or the United Kingdom. The perceived expenseassociated with having a domain name is now a decisive factor against it in far fewer cases (only one personin 10), indicating that there is now widespread awareness that registration charges for the .fr domain havefallen.Acquisition of .fr domain names, 2009(Source: AFNIC/Metro Panel online survey)46%My registrar or ISP might have influenced my choice (Yes / Perhaps)The factors that influenced my choice were:66%The charges42%Clear offer38%Simple registration interface36%Bundled servicesCharacteristics22%Confidence in the registrarWhat I go by in selecting a registrar:42% Clear offer66%The charges36%Simple registration interface25%24%Bundled servicesConfidence in the registrarI've never registered a personal domain name, because…60%I see no point11%It costs rather a lot0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%% of repliesFigure 57 – Acquisition of .fr domain namesUse of the .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Though many registrations had been made with no clear intention as to how it would then be used(4 respondents out of 10), those wanting to use a .fr domain name for an personalised e-mail address havedoubled since last year (one third of the panel) and now outnumber those wanting to enhance their onlinepresence (website or blog). Of the various extra services sought in addition to a domain name, privacyprotection (anonymized Whois) comes top, ahead of e-mail hosting and security services such as anti-virus,or anti-spam.- 102 -


Chapter 19Disputes over domain names in France●●Source of data: AFNIC, WIPO.This chapter gives figures on the disputes concerning domain names in France: disputes over the .fr domain,and disputes over other domains where one of the two parties is in France.Disputes over .fr domain names• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •Disputes concerning .fr domain names may be handled by means of various procedures, allowing for agraduated response:●● the opportunity for a third party to contact the administrative contact of a domain name withrestricted publication (i.e. personal information are not published in Whois directory), withoutdisclosing their identity or guaranteeing that this person will respond,●● post-registration checking that the name conforms to the domain’s rules, either at AFNIC’s initiativeor at the request of a third party with a legitimate reason for enquiring, without disclosing who isinvolved (Article 17 of the Charter),●● third-party claim to resolve breaches of the Decree of 6 February 2007 (Decree / Order coveringFrench TLDs management), without disclosing who is involved (the PREDEC procedure),●● disclosing, at the request of a third party, the name and other details of an individual holderregistered under restricted publicity, if a protected mark has been reproduced exactly or nearly so(typosquatting, dotsquatting, &c.),●● disclosing a name holder’s contact details following a court judgement,●●blocking of domain names by AFNIC for obvious violations of the Charter (Article 17),●● ADR (Alternative Dispute Resolution) procedure by expert’s decision, administered by theArbitration and Mediation Centre of the World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO),●● Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) by online recommendation, administered by the ParisCentre for Mediation and Arbitration (CMAP),●● alternative dispute resolution (ADR) by mediation, administered by the FDI or Forum des droitssur l’internet [Internet Rights Forum], in the case of .fr domain names registered by individuals(www.mediateurdunet.fr),●●legal proceedings in the appropriate courts.The details of these various procedures are available online at the AFNIC website 32 .- 103 -


The figures below show the number of ADR proceedings instituted and cases dealt with directly by AFNICin each month since 2006. These are numbers of proceedings, not numbers of domain names: a case maycover more than one name. It should also be noted that these figures are for those proceedings known toAFNIC; they do not necessarily include all cases brought in connection with the .fr domain.Numbers of ADR proceedings have changed little over time; most are handled by WIPO and concernindividuals’ registrations.The total number of proceedings dealt with by AFNIC is rising – understandably, given the overall growthof the .fr domain, especially after it was made available to individuals in June 2006. Proceedings to disclosecontact details of a name holder (at the request of a third party or following a court judgement) are thecommonest, on average; their numbers are changing little over time. The PREDEC procedure has also beenin regular use since it was set up in July 2008 (Figure 58), which shows it meets a genuine expectation on thepart of a certain number of those involved.120Changes in the number of proceedings dealt with by AFNICconcerning disputes over .fr domain namesNo. of proceedings /month100806040200Jan-06Febr-06March-06PREDEC proceedingsUpdating Whois databaseDisclosure of name-holderEligibility checkAd hoc checks.fr domain availableto individualsApr-06May-06June-06July-06August-06Sept-06Oct-06Nov-06Dec-06Jan-07Febr-07March-07Apr-07May-07June-07July-07August-07Sept-07MonthsPREDECset upFigure 58 – Changes in the number of proceedings dealt with by AFNIC concerning disputesover .fr domain namesOct-07Nov-07Dec-07Jan-08Febr-08March-08Apr-08May-08June-08July-08August-08Sept-08Oct-08Nov-08Dec-08Jan-09Febr-09March-09Apr-09May-09June-09- 104 -


At the end of June 2009 only 30 of all the 1,460,000 .fr domain names in the AFNIC database were involvedin an ADR process (13 of them concerning individuals and 17 corporate bodies), compared with 53 a yearearlier.As to names blocked by AFNIC, those registered by corporate bodies remain stable at around 1,400 names,while the number of those held by individuals remained below 100, after peaking in mid-2008.The so-called PREDEC procedure for resolving obvious breaches of the Decree of 6 February 2007 has donewell on the whole; nearly 100 cases have been brought in its first year 33 . This procedure has now found itsplace in law practices and among intellectual property consultants, and is steadily becoming a feature of theFrench legal landscape alongside ADR procedures (Table 12).Statistics on dispute resolution proceedings for obvious breaches of the Decreedated 6 February 2007 (PREDEC procedure), to 23 July 2009Cases brought before AFNICPREDEC procedure set up 22 July 2009No. of cases brought 92Number of cases admissible 75Decisions given by AFNIC, to 23 July 2009 64Decisions given by AFNICName transferred 40Complaint rejected 24Decree Article invokedArticle R20-44-43 (R20-44-43 (names of French institutions) 20Article R20-44-45 (intellectual property rights) 59Table 12 – Figures on the PREDEC procedureThe .fr domain names that have been the subject of PREDEC proceedings include cases of attemptedcybersquatting, typosquatting, dotsquatting (names obtained by prefixing “www” to a legitimately-helddomain name), names of municipalities registered by someone else, etc.- 105 -


UDRP disputes handled by WIPO• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •The figures given below come from statistics provided by the Arbitration and Mediation Centre of WIPO (theWorld Intellectual Property Organisation) on UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy) proceedings 34 .They only relate to proceedings of this kind brought before the body in question, given that disputes overthe various domains can also be handled by means of other procedures and by other bodies, such as the ParisMediation and Arbitration Centre and the Forum des droits sur l’Internet for the .fr domain, or ADNDRC(the Asian Domain Name Dispute Resolution Centre), CAC (the Czech Arbitration Court), CPR (theInternational Institute for Conflict Prevention and Resolution) or the NAF (National Arbitration Forum) inthe case of generic domains.The figure below shows, for various TLDs, the changes in the number of domain names involved in UDRPproceeding handled by WIPO (Figure 59). Most of the names are understandably .com domains, which isthe biggest TLD in terms of number of names registered. Next come .net, .org and .info domains. We canalso see that there was a sharp rise in disputes in 2000, followed by a few calmer years once the dotcombubble had burst. They regained their previous peak in 2005.3,000Changes in the number of domain names involved in a WIPO UDRP proceedings, by domain(Source: WIPO)No. of domain names involved in proceedings2,5002,0001,5001,000500.com.net.org.info.fr.mobi.biz01999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008YearsFigure 59 – Changes in the number of domain names involved in WIPO proceedings- 106 -


The changes over time in the number of domains involved in UDRP proceedings show that the relativesituation of the various TLDs can change greatly from one year to another. The .fr domain, however, hassince 2005 been one of the TLDs most often subject to dispute resolution proceedings, per domain name.This situation reflects the importance attached by French holders to the policing of their country-codenames, which they regard as a strategic priority, being more liable therefore to think it worthwhile to takeaction to vindicate their rights than in the case of less valued domains.The figure below shows the breakdown, for .fr domain names, of the UDRP proceedings handled by WIPOin 2008, in terms of the final decisions given by the experts at the conclusion of those proceedings (Figure60). It can be seen that in a great majority of cases the complainant’s case was upheld: more than the halfof the proceedings in fact ended with a transfer of the domain name in question. In a third of cases theproceedings ended without a decision, for example after the parties came to an amicable arrangement. Onlyin 7% of cases was the complaint rejected and the defending party allowed to keep the disputed domainname. Lastly, there were a very few situations in which the name was deleted, i.e. taken away from thedefending party without being transferred to the complainant.WIPO UDRP decisions - Cases for .fr domain names - 2008(Source: WIPO)Complaint rejected47%Name deleted35%2008:56 decisions given by WIPOin proceedings on .fr domain namesSettled withouta decision1832%Name transferred3156%Figure 60 – Outcome of WIPO proceedings on .fr domain names- 107 -


The figures below give a breakdown by country of origin of complainants (Figure 62) and defendants (Figure63) involved in UDRP proceedings handled by WIPO between 1999 and 2009. The USA has by far thegreatest share in both figures, due to its predominance on the Internet. France accounts for some 11% of thecomplainants and 3% of the defendants: it would appear therefore that French firms are more often victimsthan perpetrators of cybersquatting activities.Breakdown of WIPO UDRP proceedings by country of complainantbetween 1999 and Aug 2009 (Source: WIPO)India; 1.0%Denmark; 1.1%Japan; 1.1%Sweden; 1.4%Australia; 1.8%Netherlands; 2.0%Canada; 2.0%Italy; 3.3%Other countries; 9.6%United States;42.9%Spain; 4.6%Switzerland; 5.1%Germany; 5.7%United Kingdom; 7.5%France; 10.9%Figure 62 – Countries of origin of most complainants in WIPO proceedingsThis figure – 11% of complaints from French organizations in the case of disputes over generic domain names– should be compared with that of 2.5% for names registered in France under such domains. The contrasthighlights the tendency of French firms to take legal action rather than conduct defensive registrationsbeforehand. They can accordingly be seen to register fewer names than their counterparts in other countries,but to be more vigilant over infringements of their trademarks in the sphere of domain names.- 109 -


Breakdown of WIPO UDRP proceedings, by country of defendantbetween 1999 and Aug 2009 (Source: WIPO)Other countries; 17.4%Bahamas; 1.1%Panama; 1.1%Switzerland; 1.4%Russia; 1.4%Italy; 1.5%Germany; 1.5%India; 1.6%Netherlands; 1.7%Australia; 2.3%France; 3.2%United States;39.2%South Korea; 3.9%Spain; 4.5%Canada; 4.7%China; 5.1%United Kingdom; 8.4%Figure 63 – Countries of origin of most defendants involved in WIPO proceedingsThe figure above shows, on the other hand, that while French firms are admittedly less frequently founddefending than complaining, the proportion of disputes in which they appear as defendants (3.2%) is stillgreater than the proportion (2.5%) of names registered in France, so far as the generic domains are concerned.This difference might lead one to suspect that there are professional cybersquatters to be found in France.So far as the language used in UDRP proceedings at WIPO is concerned, English is very predominant(nearly 9 cases in 10). Approximately 4% of UDRP cases were conducted in French in 2008. It is also worthnoting that the number of proceedings conducted in Dutch grew considerably.- 110 -


Part Seven: ConclusionsChapter 20Market trends and prospectsThis chapter gives a review of the past year and offers an analysis of the trends and prospects for the Frenchdomain name industry with particular focus on .fr.Review of the year• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •In 2008/2009 the .fr domain remained one of the fastest-growing: with an annual growth rate of 25%, it hasweathered the economic storm better than the majority of generic or country-code domains. This vigorousgrowth, particularly noticeable after the domain was opened to individuals in June 2006, brought the .frdomain above the 1.5 million mark on September 10, 2009. The breakdown of domain names registeredin France shows rapid and sustained growth for the .fr domain, which currently represents 33% of allregistrations, alongside an eroding of the .com market share and relatively little change in the other domainsused. Domain names’ rate of renewal in .fr has now stabilised at a high level (83%).The .fr domain also stands to benefit from some solid sources of future growth. This is especially the casein the individuals’ market, where the number of names registered per head of population is still fairly lowby comparison with other industrialised countries. It is also the case in the corporate market (as Frenchfirms tend to lag somewhat in setting up websites). An additional source of growth is the secondary market,where .fr now ranks among the most vigorously growing in terms of turnover and selling prices, as a result ofstronger perceptions of the intrinsic value of having a French domain name on the part of everyone involvedin the market.France’s relative under-development of e-commerce to date may also prove to be yet another source ofgrowth for .fr. The forecasted take-off of this sector in the coming years supports this hypothesis, for it wouldencourage a catching-up by French business in terms of online presence, as well as a demand for domainnames among e-commerce firms, for whom it would be an intangible but valuable component of theirworking capital.On March 30, 2009 AFNIC has launched its EPP service, which is a standardized protocol for automaticexhanges related to registration between registrars and the AFNIC information system. This major transitionproceeded without a hitch, as the e-mail and web-based registration interfaces remained available in parallel.Two months later, the EPP interface was already being used for 62% of queries and 40% of new .fr domainname registrations. The new protocol improves the speed and security of exchanges between registries andtheir registrars; it also has the undeniable advantage of being used by many generic and national domains.This means that the introduction of EPP could well bring new international players (who are already usingthe technology for other domains) into the market for the .fr domain, for it would considerably reduce theirsoftware development costs.- 111 -


Outlook• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •186 million domain names have so far been registered around the world, and the demand for them is stillgrowing. Against this background ICANN set about creating some new Top Level Internet Domains in June2008. As a result, many new domains could be introduced in the next few years. There is a proliferation ofgTLDs projects now being proposed: geographic ones (.paris, .berlin, .africa, etc.), cultural and linguisticones (.bzh for the Breton community, .cym for the Welsh, and .gal for Galicia, etc.), and subject-specific ones(.eco, .food, .sport, and others). Businesses may well also apply for a new flavour of TLDs: “corporate” gTLDs.Lastly, thanks to IDN technology it will become possible for new domains to be available not only in theLatin alphabet but in other forms (Chinese characters, Cyrillic alphabet, etc.).The first round of new gTLD application should be opened in 2010, once the rules have been finalised.ICANN has already published three successive editions of the Draft Applicant Guidebook. Each edition hasinvited comments, which have elicited a certain number of obstacles, mainly concerning issues of funding,protection of geographic names and protection of brands.As part of this process of creating new domains, AFNIC will be offering its experience and its registryinfrastructures to prospective applicants, provided their project’s vision and values suit AFNIC’s philosophyand responsibility to the .fr domain. The City of Paris has recently announced (early October 2009) that ithas selected a consortium led by AFNIC and fromed with CORE (which manages the Catalan .cat domain)to assist with its ICANN application and subsequently operate the .paris gTLD. This new gTLD, which willmost likely prove popular given the great reputation of Paris and the general fondness inspired by its name,will no doubt feature prominently in future editions of this Report.The greater clarity about the fees charged by all market players as well as on the quality of service offered toend users, could likewise prove a significant theme for development of this Report in coming years.- 112 -


- 113 -


About AFNICAFNIC is a non-profit association (under the 1901 Act) set up by the French authorities in December1997 to manage the .fr and .re domains, two Internet Top Level Domains for French territories (France andReunion Island).AFNIC’s members include individuals and legal entities, five of whom are appointed by public authorities(two by INRIA for historical reasons, two by the French Industry Ministry and one by the French ResearchMinistry). The other five members are elected from among registrars (two), users’ representatives (two) andthe International College (one).AFNIC works to encourage growth of the .fr domain by establishing flexible rules and facilitating automationof the registration process, while still making sure that all parties are in a position to insist on their rights.This objective is allied to a cost-conscious charging system which has enabled AFNIC to cut its fees to €4.80,under a third of the €15 charged in 2002.Thanks to its expertise in DNS and Internet technologies, AFNIC is also committed to an active programmeof Research and Development with a view to maintaining that expertise and extending it as the Internetcontinues to make massive technological strides. That R&D effort directly benefits AFNIC’s customers andmembers through the services which depend on the outcome of such endeavours.Lastly, AFNIC has decided to make the most of its core capabilities – the technical management of Internetdomain registries – by getting involved in the programme for creating new gTLDs which ICANN startedin 2008. It is accordingly helping to guide many projects through the ICANN application stage as well as inthe subsequent management of the new domains once allocated. The City of Paris, among others, has chosenAFNIC as its technical manager for the coming .paris domain.As a disinterested and independent body, AFNIC is in a proper position to act as lead monitor for anongoing exercise in observation and reporting which brings people and organizations the benefit of researchwork they could not consider undertaking individually.- 114 -


About Télécom & Management SudParisTélécom & Management SudParis (formerly INT) is a public body coming under the Economics, Financeand Industry Ministry. It is a member of the Institut Télécom, of the Management Schools Section of theConférence des Grandes Écoles and of the EFMD (European Foundation of Management Development).The campus of Télécom & Management SudParis hosts a management school (the Télécom École deManagement) and an engineering college (Télécom SudParis), which share teaching facilities for their studentmanagers and engineers, as well as a business incubator (Télécom & Management SudParis Entrepreneuriat),a lifelong learning centre and a research centre. Télécom & Management SudParis has 2,000 students, 200teaching and research staff, 150 doctoral postgrads, 20 research groups and more than 15 research platforms.It has partnerships with five colleges offering doctoral courses, and itself offers five national Masters diplomas,six Science Masters, seven specialist Masters, one Executive MBA and four Summer Schools.Télécom École de Management offers all-round management training together with advanced teaching intelecommunications, IT and information systems. Télécom SudParis provides generalist training in ICT.The lifelong learning centre benefits from the expertise of the research centre and both schools. This twofoldcapability, combined with the research work and continuous close relations with businesses, enables thelifelong learning centre to offer a range of training solutions to meet firms’ particular situations.The research centre is organized into eleven teaching/research departments: Information systems, Electronicsand Physics, IT, Languages and Personal Development, Networking Software, Telecommunications Networksand Services, Communications, Images and Information Processing, Advanced Research and Techniques forMultidimensional Imaging Systems, Law, Economics, Finance and Sociology and Management, Marketingand Strategy. Télécom & Management SudParis also hosts the SAMOVAR laboratory (a joint CNRS/GET-INT Research Unit) and the CEMANTIC laboratory.Télécom & Management SudParis has for many years maintained strong links with manufacturing industryand with telcos and service providers, so as to strengthen its research and development activities. Its annualR&D budget is enhanced by external subsidies from a wide range of enterprises, including France Télécom,Bouygues Télécom, SFR, Motorola, Alcatel and EDF, in addition to national research programmes such asRNRT, RNTL, RIAM and RNTS. Télécom & Management SudParis is also involved in European researchprogrammes, including projects for IST, ITEA and Actions Marie Curie.- 115 -


ContentsOverview......................................................................................................................2Introduction.................................................................................................................6Why have a French Domain Name Industry Report?.......................................................... 6Executive summary....................................................................................................7France’s favourite domain - .fr.............................................................................................. 7A regular and steady increase in the use of the domain name pool............................... 8Registrants still young and urban ......................................................................................... 9The growing concentration among registrars...................................................................... 9Technology and security........................................................................................................ 10.fr domain names are mainly used on the Web for business purposes........................... 11Major changes ahead........................................................................................................... 12Part One: Background................................................................................................13Chapter 1: Background facts & figures: the Internet in France.......................................... 13Household equipment..........................................................................................................................13Internet users........................................................................................................................................13Internet access.......................................................................................................................................14Firms’ Internet Use ..............................................................................................................................15Chapter 2: Background facts & figures: domain names around the world...................... 18Use of the various domains around the world.......................................................................................18Geographical breakdown of domain names ..........................................................................................22Chapter 3: Background facts & figures: domain names in France.................................... 23Chapter 4: Trend in numbers of .fr domain names.............................................................. 25Individuals and legal entities.................................................................................................................26Renewal of .fr domain names................................................................................................................27Part Two: .fr domain names......................................................................................29Chapter 5: Number of domain names per holder............................................................... 29Individuals............................................................................................................................................29Legal entities ........................................................................................................................................30Trend....................................................................................................................................................31Chapter 6: Lexicographical structure of .fr domain names............................................... 32Length of .fr domain names..................................................................................................................32Use of hyphens and numerals in .fr domain names...............................................................................33Terms used in .fr domain names...........................................................................................................34Proportion of letter/numeral combinations actually registered as .fr domain names..............................36Investigations using various lists of names.............................................................................................37Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names..................................................................37Proportion of French first names and surnames registered as .fr domain names.....................................38Proportion of the names of French towns and villages registered as .fr domain names ..........................39Proportion of company names and trademarks registered as .fr domain names.....................................40- 116 -


Part Three: Holders of names.....................................................................................41Chapter 7: Location of individual holders of .fr domain names........................................ 41Preliminary remarks..............................................................................................................................41Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals.........................................................................41Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants.......................................42Changes over the last year.....................................................................................................................46Chapter 8: Location of legal entities holders of .fr domain names................................... 49Preliminary remarks..............................................................................................................................49Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities.......................................................................50Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities, per 1,000 legal entities..................................51Changes over the last year.....................................................................................................................54Chapter 9: Location of individual and legal entities holders of .fr domain names.......... 56Total number of .fr domain names (individuals and legal entities together)...........................................56Changes over the last year.....................................................................................................................57Chapter 10: Ages of individual holders of .fr domain names............................................ 59Age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names........................................................................59Changes in the age pyramid of individual holders of .fr domain names.................................................61Part Four: Registrars.....................................................................................................62Chapter 11: Registrars............................................................................................................ 62Number of registrars of .fr domain names.............................................................................................62Location of registrars of .fr domain names............................................................................................63Chapter 12: Types of service offered and charges............................................................. 67Services offered by registrars..................................................................................................................67Registrars’ charges.................................................................................................................................68Chapter 13: Analysis of the registrar market........................................................................ 70Number of .fr domain names per registrar............................................................................................70Entire market (individuals and legal entities)...............................................................................70Lorentz curves.............................................................................................................................72The market for individuals...........................................................................................................72Corporate market........................................................................................................................73Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names (numbers of domain names managed)..........74Changes in the market for registrars of .fr domain names (in terms of new domain names registered).. 75The market for ICANN-accredited registrars.........................................................................................76Figures on registrars operating in the .fr domain and ICANN-accredited for generic domainsat the same time....................................................................................................................................78Chapter 14: Analysis of the secondary market................................................................... 79Players involved in the secondary market for domain names.................................................................79DN Journal figures on the worldwide secondary domain names market ...............................................80Sedo statistics on the worldwide secondary domain names market........................................................81Sedo statistics on the secondary market for .fr domain names...............................................................85- 117 -


Part Five: Technologies...............................................................................................87Chapter 15: Data on DNS servers.......................................................................................... 87Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name.......................................................................................87Number of .fr domain names per DNS server.......................................................................................88Statistics on requests received by authoritative DNS servers managed by AFNIC..................................89Chapter 16: Data on the use of IPv6..................................................................................... 91Procedure used in searching for IPv6 addresses.....................................................................................91.fr domain names supporting IPv6........................................................................................................92Part Six: Uses................................................................................................................94Chapter 17: Use of .fr domain names on the Web.............................................................. 94Reponses from Web servers associated with .fr domain names..............................................................94Types of website associated with .fr domain names...............................................................................96Sector of activity of websites associated with .fr domain names ............................................................99Chapter 18: Perception of .fr domain names...................................................................... 100Familiarity with the domain names.......................................................................................................100Values associated with the .fr domain....................................................................................................101Acquisition of .fr domain names...........................................................................................................101Use of the .fr domain names.................................................................................................................102Chapter 19: Disputes over domain names in France ......................................................... 103Disputes over .fr domain names............................................................................................................103UDRP disputes handled by WIPO.......................................................................................................106Part Seven: Conclusions.............................................................................................111Chapter 20: Market trends and prospects........................................................................... 111Review of the year.................................................................................................................................111Outlook................................................................................................................................................112About AFNIC................................................................................................................114About Télécom & Management SudParis................................................................115Contents ......................................................................................................................116List of tables.................................................................................................................119List of figures................................................................................................................120List of notes..................................................................................................................122Glossary.......................................................................................................................124- 118 -


List of tablesTable 1 – French Internet statistics, 2009........................................................................................ 14Table 2 – French firms’ Internet use................................................................................................. 16Table 3 – French firms’ website functions........................................................................................ 17Table 4 – Impact of one promotion on .fr domain names................................................................ 28Table 5 – Use .fr domain names....................................................................................................... 34Table 6 – Comparison of the ages of individual holders of .fr domain namesand all French adults....................................................................................................................... 61Table 7 – Concentration indices: entire market for .fr domain namesregistered by individuals and legal entities...................................................................................... 71Table 8 – Concentration indices: market for .fr domain names registered by individuals................ 73Table 9 – Concentration indices: market for .fr domain names registered by legal entities.............. 74Table 10 – Concentration indices: world market in generic domain names..................................... 78Table 11 – Characteristics of websites associated with .fr domain names......................................... 98Table 12 – Figures on the PREDEC procedure................................................................................ 105- 119 -


List of figuresFigure 1 – European firms’ broadband Internet use......................................................................... 15Figure 2 – European firms: websites ............................................................................................... 16Figure 3 – French firms: websites..................................................................................................... 17Figure 4 – Number of domain names per Top Level Domain.......................................................... 19Figure 5– Annual growth in the number of domain names per Top Level Domain.......................... 20Figure 6 – Changes in “adjusted” number of domain names, by type of domain............................. 21Figure 7 – Breakdown of generic domain names by country........................................................... 22Figure 8 – Breakdown of domain names registered in France ......................................................... 23Figure 9 – Changes in the total number of .fr domain names.......................................................... 25Figure 10 – Percentage of .fr domain names registered by individuals............................................. 26Figure 11 – Renewal of .fr domain names........................................................................................ 27Figure 12 – Number of .fr domain names per holder (individuals).................................................. 30Figure 13 – Number of .fr domain names per holder, corporate bodies........................................... 31Figure 14 – Length of .fr domain names.......................................................................................... 33Figure 15 – Words most commonly used in .fr domain names......................................................... 35Figure 16 – Proportion of letter/numeral combinations actually registered as .fr domain names.... 36Figure 17 – Proportion of French words registered as .fr domain names......................................... 38Figure 18 – Proportion of the names of French towns and villages registeredas .fr domain names......................................................................................................................... 39Figure 19 – Proportion of French company and trademark names registeredas .fr domain names ........................................................................................................................ 40Figure20– Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals, per 1,000 inhabitants(Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 43Figure 21 – Number of .fr domain names registered by individuals per 1,000 inhabitants(Overseas)........................................................................................................................................ 44Figure 22 – Top 10 departments by number of .fr domain names registered by individualsper 1,000 inhabitants...................................................................................................................... 45Figure 23 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals(Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 46Figure 24 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by individuals(Overseas)........................................................................................................................................ 47Figure 25 – Top 10 departments by annual rate of growth in the number of .fr domain namesregistered by individuals.................................................................................................................. 48Figure 26 – Country breakdown of .fr domain names registered by corporate bodies..................... 50Figure 27 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies(Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 52Figure 28 – Number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities per 1,000 companies(Overseas)........................................................................................................................................ 53Figure 29 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities(Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 54Figure 30 – Year’s percentage rise in the number of .fr domain names registered by legal entities(Overseas)........................................................................................................................................ 55Figure 31 – Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names(Metropolitan France)..................................................................................................................... 57Figure 32 – Year’s percentage rise in the total number of .fr domain names (Overseas)................... 58Figure 33 – Comparison of age pyramids: individual holders of .fr domain names,and the French population.............................................................................................................. 60- 120 -


Figure 34 – Changes in the number of registrars of .fr domain names............................................. 62Figure 35 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Metropolitan France)............................ 64Figure 36 – Breakdown of registrars of .fr domain names (Overseas).............................................. 65Figure 37 – Charges for .fr domain names....................................................................................... 68Figure 38 – Main registrars ranked by total numbers of .fr domain names...................................... 71Figure 39 – Historical levels of concentration indices for the registration marketof .fr domain names: total stock of managed names, and new names registered.............................. 75Figure 40 – Country breakdown of ICANN-accredited registrars.................................................... 76Figure 41 – Distribution of generic domain names by country of registrar..................................... 77Figure 42 – Dearest country-code domain names sold in the secondary market.............................. 80Figure 43 – Turnover on Sedo, by domain....................................................................................... 82Figure 44 –Median prices of domain names sold on Sedo .............................................................. 83Figure 45 – Number of .fr domain names for sale on Sedo, by broad industrial classification......... 84Figure 46 – Monthly figures for deals in .fr domain names done on Sedo....................................... 85Figure 47 – Monthly mean prices of trades in .fr domain names on Sedo........................................ 86Figure 48 – Number of DNS servers per .fr domain name .............................................................. 88Figure 49 – Number of requests received by AFNIC-run authoritative DNS serversfor the .fr domain ........................................................................................................................... 89Figure 50 – Percentage of the .fr domain names supporting IPv6................................................... 92Figure 51 – Changes in the percentage of .fr domain names supporting IPv6................................. 93Figure 52 – Categories of code returned by Web servers associated with .fr domain names............. 95Figure 53 – Domains redirected to by .fr domain names................................................................. 96Figure 54 – Types of website associated with .fr domain names....................................................... 98Figure 55 – Sector of activity of business of websites associated with .fr domain names.................. 99Figure 56 – Values associated with the .fr domain names................................................................. 101Figure 57 – Acquisition of .fr domain names................................................................................... 102Figure 58 – Changes in the number of proceedings dealt with by AFNIC concerningdisputes over .fr domain names....................................................................................................... 104Figure 59 – Changes in the number of domain names involved in WIPO proceedings................... 106Figure 60 – Outcome of WIPO proceedings on .fr domain names.................................................. 107Figure 61 – Changes in outcomes of WIPO proceedings on .fr domain names............................... 108Figure 62 – Countries of origin of most complainants in WIPO proceedings ................................ 109Figure 63 – Countries of origin of most defendants involved in WIPO proceedings ...................... 110- 121 -


List of notes1Ministry of the Economy, Industry and Employment, ITC and e-commerce statistics, December 2008,http://www.industrie.gouv.fr/sessi/tableau_bord/tic/tic.html2ARCEP, Le marché des services de communications électroniques en France au 1er trimestre 2009[The French market in electronic communication services in Q1 2009],http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=101353ARCEP, Le Suivi des Indicateurs Mobiles [Monitoring Indicators of Mobile Use] - figuresfor 30 June 2009, http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=354INSEE, Enquête sur les technologies de l’information et de la communication et le commerceélectronique 2008, [2008 ICT and e-commerce survey],http://www.insee.fr/fr/publications-et-services/irweb.asp?id=tic085WebHosting.info, http://www.webhosting.info/6AFNIC, Statistics, http://www.afnic.fr/actu/stats7Ministry of State Education, Liste de fréquence des mots de la langue française écrite,http://eduscol.education.fr/D0102/liste-mots-frequents.htm8Olivier Bacquet, Dubois-Buyse graduated spelling list, http://o.bacquet.free.fr/db2.htm9Christophe Pallier, Liste de mots du français, April 2004,http://www.pallier.org/ressources/dicofr/dicofr.html10Wikipedia [French version] under “prénom” [first name], http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pr%C3%A9nom11QuelPrenom.com, http://www.quelprenom.com/12Beaucarnot Généalogie, Palmarès des noms de famille français, 1 January 2006,http://www.beaucarnot-genealogie.com/contenu/noms-de-famille/accueil-noms-de-famille/6-palmares-desnoms-de-famille-francais/13Geopatronyme.com, Les noms les plus portés en France,http://www.geopatronyme.com/cdip/national2.htm14Wikipedia, Liste des communes françaises de plus de 50 000 habitants,http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communes_de_plus_de_50_000_habitants15Lexilogos, Population des villes de plus de 10 000 habitants en 2006,http://www.lexilogos.com/population_communes.htm16INSEE, Code Officiel Géographique, http://www.insee.fr/fr/methodes/nomenclatures/cog/17Wikipedia, CAC 40, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAC_4018Wikipedia, Classement des plus grandes entreprises françaises en 2006,http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classement_des_plus_grandes_entreprises_fran%C3%A7aises_en_200619L’Expansion.com, Les 1 000 premiers groupes français et leurs filiales en termes de CA(industrie, services et commerce)[The 1000 leading French groups and their subsidiaries by turnover(manufacturing, services and commerce), http://www.lexpansion.com/economie/classement/20Fortune, Fortune Global 500, Annual ranking of the world’s largest corporations,http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/global500/2009/21Wikipédia, Cartographie des marques, http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartographie_des_marques22INSEE, Annual population estimates for 1 January, by region, department, sex and age, 1990 – 2007,http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=estim-pop®_id=9923INSEE, Démographie des entreprises et des établissements 2008 - champ marchand non agricole,http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=fd-sidemo0824INSEE, Demographic summary 2008,http://www.insee.fr/fr/themes/detail.asp?ref_id=bilan-demo®_id=9925Dot and Co, ICANN Registrars, http://www.dotandco.net/ressources/icann_registrars/index.fr26DN Journal, Year-To-Date Sale Charts, http://www.dnjournal.com/ytd-sales-charts.htm27Sedo, Rapport Sedo du marché des noms de domaine en 2008 [Secondary domain name market in2008], 10/02/2009, http://www.sedo.fr/links/showhtml.php3?Id=2302- 122 -


28Sedo, Sedo’s Q2 Domain Market Study Shows Market Continues to Grow, 10/08/2009,http://www.sedo.com/links/showhtml.php3?Id=245329AFNIC, DNSwitness, http://www.dnswitness.net/30AFNIC, Bilan d’image du .fr un an après son ouverture aux particuliers[Survey of perceptions of the .fr domain one year on from its first availability to individuals], 22 May 2007http://www.afnic.fr/actu/nouvelles/general/CP2007052231AFNIC, 2008 Survey of perceptions of the .fr domain: review of perceptions of the .fr domain: a goodimage, in a domain names market about which the general public still knows too little, 26 May 2008,http://www.afnic.fr/actu/nouvelles/general/CP2008052632AFNIC, Legal References, http://www.afnic.fr/doc/ref/juridique33AFNIC: Un an après son lancement, la procédure PREDEC de l’AFNIC a trouvé ses marques [One yearafter launch, AFNIC’s PREDEC procedure has found its bearings] http://www.afnic.fr/actu/nouvelles/226/un-an-apres-son-lancement-la-procedure-predec-de-l-afnic-a-trouve-ses-marques34WIPO, Domain Name Dispute Resolution Statistics, http://www.wipo.int/amc/en/domains/statistics/- 123 -


GlossaryADRAlternative Dispute ResolutionADSLAsymmetric Digital Subscriber LineAFNICAssociation Française pour le Nommage Internet en CoopérationARCEPAutorité de Régulation des Communications Électroniques et des Postes - French Electronic and PostalCommunications RegulatorccTLDcountry-code Top Level DomainCMAPCentre de Médiation et d’Arbitrage de Paris - Paris Mediation and Arbitration CentreCRConcentration Ratio, a commonly accepted measure of market concentrationDNSDomain Name SystemEPPExtensible Provisioning Protocol, a protocol for exchanges among registries and registrarsFDIForum des droits sur l’Internet - Internet Rights ForumgTLDgeneric Top Level DomainHHIHerfindahl-Hirschman Index, a commonly accepted measure of market concentrationICANNInternet Corporation for Assigned Names and NumbersIDNInternationalized Domain NameINSEEInstitut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques - French National Institute for Statistics andEconomic StudiesIPInternet ProtocolIPv6Internet Protocol - version 6PREDECProcédure de résolution des cas de violations manifestes des dispositions du décret du 6 février 2007 -Dispute resolution procedure for obvious breaches of the provisions of the Decree dated 02/06/2007RegistryBody (association, company, etc. ) in charge of managing the database of a TLD, or of IP addresses for aspecified regionSEOSearch Engine OptimizationSMEsSmall and Medium-sized Enterprises- 124 -


SQLStructured Query Language, a standardized language for interrogating or manipulating a relational databaseTLDTop Level DomainUDRPUniform Dispute Resolution PolicyURLUniform Resource LocatorWIPOWorld Intellectual Property OrganisationWhoisService for searching registry databases for information on a domain name or IP address- 125 -


- 126 -


www.afnic.fr - afnic@afnic.frImmeuble International - 78181 Saint Quentin en Yvelines Cedex - FrancePhone: +33 1 39 30 83 00 - Fax: +33 1 39 30 83 01Siret: 414 757 567 00022 - APE: 6311Z - TVA n° FR 72 414 757 567Copyright 2009 AFNICEvery quotation or reproduction must mention the source:“French Domain Name Industry Report - 2009 Edition - www.afnic.fr”This document is printed on 100% recycled paper.- 127 -


- 128 -

More magazines by this user
Similar magazines