delaware residents' opinions on climate change and sea level rise

dnrec.delaware.gov

delaware residents' opinions on climate change and sea level rise

DELAWARE RESIDENTS’ OPINIONS ONCLIMATE CHANGE AND SEA LEVEL RISEConducted by Responsive ManagementThis project was funded by the Delaware Department of NaturalResources and Environmental Control, in part, through a grant fromthe Delaware Coastal Programs with funding from theOffice of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,under award numbers NA06NOS4190243 and NA07NOS41901492010


DELAWARE RESIDENTS’ OPINIONS ONCLIMATE CHANGE AND SEA LEVEL RISE2010Responsive Management National OfficeMark Damian Duda, Executive DirectorMartin Jones, Senior Research AssociateTom Beppler, Research AssociateSteven J. Bissell, Ph.D., Qualitative Research AssociateAndrea Criscione, Research AssociateJames B. Herrick, Ph.D., Research AssociateWeldon Miller, Research AssociateJoanne Nobile, Research AssociateAmanda Ritchie, Research AssociateCarol L. Schilli, Research AssociateTim Winegord, Survey Center ManagerAlison Lanier, Business Manager130 Franklin StreetHarrisonburg, VA 22801Phone: 540/432-1888 Fax: 540/432-1892E-mail: mark@responsivemanagement.comwww.responsivemanagement.com


AcknowledgmentsResponsive Management would like to thank the following people for their input, support, and guidanceon this project:David Carter, Program Manager, DNREC Delaware Coastal ProgramsKimberly Cole, Program Manager, DNREC Delaware Coastal ProgramsJennifer Holmes, Education Coordinator, DNREC Delaware Coastal ProgramsSusan Love, Planner, DNREC Delaware Coastal ProgramsAndrew Manus, Director of Conservation Programs, The Nature Conservancy, Delaware ChapterKelly Wolfe, Coastal Training Program Coordinator, DNREC Delaware Coastal ProgramsThe views contained in this report do not necessarily represent the views of the National Oceanic andAtmospheric Administration, the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control,or The Nature Conservancy.Although numerous people assisted with this project, any errors, omissions,or typographical mistakes in the report are the sole responsibility ofResponsive Management.


iiResponsive ManagementResponsive Management and DNREC. Responsive Management conducted a pre-test of thequestionnaire to ensure proper wording, flow, and logic in the survey.Interviews were conducted Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Saturday fromnoon to 5:00 p.m., and Sunday from 5:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., local time. The survey wasconducted in December 2009. Responsive Management obtained a total of 1,505 completedinterviews (from landlines and cell phones).For the entire sample of Delaware residents ages 18 years and older, the sampling error is at mostplus or minus 2.52 percentage points, based on a sample size of 1,505 and a population of685,085 Delaware residents ages 18 years and older.PERCEPTIONS OF IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES‣ Delaware residents were asked to rate their concern about 10 issues that the country faces,listed in Text Box 1 on the following page. The economy (75% are very concerned) and health care (72%) top the list, as ranked bythe percentage saying that they are very concerned about the issues. A middle tier consists of public education (65%), national security (60%), energyresources (59%), social security (57%), the environment (55%), and crime rates (52%). At the bottom of the ranking are climate change (36%) and sea level rise (30%), in theranking by the percentage saying that they are very concerned.o Women, compared to men, are more likely to be very concerned about each of theissues listed below; the lone exception is the economy, where men and women havesimilar ong>opinionsong>.o Older people (65 years or older), compared to the two other age groups (ages 18 to 34and ages 35 to 64), are more likely to be very concerned about health care, crimerates, and national security.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level RiseiiiText Box 1Concern About Issues That the Country Faces(Ranked by the Percentage Who Are Very ConcernedAbout the Following Issues)The economyHealth carePublic educationNational securityEnergy resourcesSocial securityThe environmentCrime ratesClimate changeSea level rise‣ Another series of questions asked residents to rate their concern about nine environmentalissues in Delaware, listed in Text Box 2 below. At the top of the ranking by the percentage being very concerned (as well as the rankingby very or somewhat concerned) are three issues related to pollution: water pollution(76% are very concerned), toxic waste (72%), and air quality (65%). A middle tier consists of habitat and wildlife-related issues: loss of forest habitat (58%),declining fish and wildlife populations (54%), and loss of marsh or wetlands (45%). At the bottom are flooding (42%), climate change (36%), and sea level rise (32%).o Women, compared to men, are more likely to be very concerned about waterpollution, climate change, sea level rise, and flooding.Text Box 2Concern About Environmental Issues That Delaware Faces(Ranked by the Percentage Who Are Very Concerned About the Following Issues)Water pollutionToxic wasteAir qualityLoss of forest habitatDeclining fish and wildlife populationsLoss of marsh or wetlandsFloodingClimate changeSea level rise


ivResponsive Management‣ In a direct question, residents are split regarding worry about climate change: a slightmajority of residents (53%) say they personally worry about climate change a great deal or amoderate amount, but just under a majority (46%) worry only a little or not at all.o Women, compared to men, are more likely to worry about climate change a greatdeal.‣ Less than a majority of residents (39%) say that they personally worry about sea level rise agreat deal or a moderate amount, while a large majority (60%) worry only a little or not atall.o Kent County residents, compared to residents of Sussex County and New CastleCounty, are the least likely to personally worry a great deal or a moderate amountabout sea level rise (p < 0.05).‣ The survey also asked about residents’ level of worry about the impacts of climate change onDelaware’s environment, with slightly more concern than in either of the above questions:60% worry a great deal or a moderate amount, while 39% worry only a little or not at all.KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE‣ The survey examined self-professed knowledge about climate change: 70% say that theyknow a great deal or a moderate amount, while 30% say that they know a little or nothing.The most common answer is a moderate amount (54%).o Men are more likely than are women to claim to know a great deal about climatechange, and more educated people (i.e., those with at least a bachelor’s degree) claimto know more about climate change compared to those with less education.o Those who say they know a great deal or moderate amount about climate change,compared to those who say they know a little or nothing, are more likely to worryabout climate change a great deal or moderate amount.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Risev‣ Self-professed knowledge about sea level rise is lower than about climate change: 40% saythat they know a great deal or a moderate amount, while 59% say that they know a little ornothing. The most common answer is a little (40%).o As before, those who say they know a great deal or moderate amount about sea levelrise, compared to those who say they know a little or nothing, are more likely toworry about sea level rise a great deal or moderate amount (p < 0.001).‣ The newspaper is the leading source of information about environmental issues in Delaware(52% get their information about the environment that way), followed by television (44%),the Internet (excluding the DNREC site) (30%), and magazines (14%). (In total, 32% use theInternet, including the DNREC site.)o Younger residents appear more likely to get information from the Internet and olderresidents appear more likely to get information from newspapers.‣ Residents are split regarding whether there is enough available information about sea levelrise: 39% say that there is enough available information, but 51% say that there is notenough available information.‣ Residents were asked to name information topics related to sea level rise that they mightwant. Six topics were most commonly named, listed below. Sea level rise in general (33% want more information on this). Actions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sea level rise (26%). Current or potential impacts of sea level rise (24%). How sea level rise relates to climate change/global warming (23%). How to protect property from sea level rise (19%). Funding needs to address sea level rise in Delaware (18%).


viResponsive ManagementOPINION ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND WHETHER CLIMATE CHANGE ISHAPPENING‣ A direct question asked residents to indicate how convinced they are that climate change ishappening. The large majority (70%) are completely or mostly convinced that climate changeis happening. At the other end, 27% are not so convinced or are not at all convinced.Similarly, 63% are completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising, and 33% are notso convinced or are not at all convinced that sea levels are rising.ooWomen, compared to men, are more likely to be either completely or mostlyconvinced that climate change is happening.Residents in the higher education group (has at least a bachelor’s degree), relative tothose with less education, are more likely to be completely convinced that climatechange is happening.‣ When told that some scientists predict that sea levels will rise at least 1 to 3 feet in the next100 years, the large majority of residents (62%) agree that this is a reasonable prediction; atthe other end, 21% disagree.‣ The survey also touched on perceptions of what most scientists think regarding climatechange. Residents are split, with 42% thinking that most scientists think climate change ishappening, and 42% thinking that there is a lot of disagreement among scientists aboutwhether climate change is happening. Only 5% think that most scientists think that climatechange is not happening.‣ A series of six questions further explored residents’ perceptions regarding whether climatechange and sea level rise are happening, listed in Text Box 3 on the following page. Large majorities strongly or moderately agree with the following: that scientists are rightthat climate change is occurring (79%), that climate change is contributing to the rise insea levels (75%), that the state of Delaware needs to conduct more research to identifythe impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (73%), and that the state of Delaware needs toconduct more research to identify the impacts of climate change in Delaware (71%).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level RiseviiLess than a majority (40%) strongly or moderately agree that the impacts of climatechange are greatly exaggerated.Interestingly, although the majority of residents agree that scientists are right that climatechange is occurring and that climate change is contributing to the rise in sea levels, asmall percentage of residents (22%) think that they have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.o Sussex County residents are the most likely to strongly agree that they havepersonally experienced the impacts of sea level riseo Non-coastal residents are more likely to strongly agree that climate change iscontributing to the rise in sea levels, compared to coastal residents.o Coastal residents, relative to non-coastal residents, are more likely to strongly agreethat they have experienced the impacts of sea level rise.Text Box 3Perceptions Regarding Whether Climate Change and Sea Level Rise Are Happening(Ranked by the Percentage Who Strongly or Moderately Agree With the FollowingStatements)Scientists are right that climate change is occurring.Climate change is contributing to the rise in sea levels.The state of Delaware needs to conduct more research to identify the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware.The state of Delaware needs to conduct more research to identify the impacts of climate change inDelaware.The impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated.You (the respondent) have personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise.‣ A question explored perceptions of causes of climate change. More residents think thatclimate change, if it is happening, is caused mostly by human activities (43%) than think it iscaused mostly by natural changes in the environment (26%). In the middle, 27% think it iscaused about equally by human activities and by natural changes in the environment.o New Castle County residents are the least likely to attribute climate change to mostlynatural changes in the environment.


viiiResponsive Management‣ A question about the terms “climate changeand “global warming” asked residents whetherthe terms are the same thing, whether they are different but related things, or whether theyare unrelated things (DNREC considers them to be different but related). The most commonanswer (66%) is that they are different but related things.PERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AS A THREAT‣ Most residents (77%) consider climate change to be a threat, saying it is a very serious threat(38%) or a somewhat serious threat (39%). At the other end, 21% consider it to be a not veryserious or not at all serious threat.o Women are more likely than are men to think that climate change is a very orsomewhat serious threat.‣ Six questions explored how much residents worry about various aspects of climate change,shown in Text Box 4 on the following page. The most concern, in the ranking by the percentage worrying a great deal or a moderateamount, is regarding the impact of climate change on Delaware’s environment (61%).Four items follow, grouped together: worry about the impact on the respondent’s ownquality of life in Delaware (54%), worry about climate change personally (53%), worryabout the impacts of climate change on Delaware’s economy (52%), and worry about theproblems sea level rise may cause (52%). At the bottom, 39% said that they worry a great deal or a moderate amount about sealevel rise personally.o Kent County residents, compared to residents of the other two counties, are the leastlikely to personally worry a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise.o Sussex County residents, compared to residents of the other two counties, are themost likely to worry a great deal or moderate amount about the problems that sealevel rise may cause in Delaware.o Coastal residents are more likely than are non-coastal residents to worry a great dealor moderate amount about the problems sea level rise may cause in Delaware.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level RiseixText Box 4Amount of Worry About Specific Aspects of Climate Change(Ranked by the Percentage Who Worry a Great Deal or a Moderate Amount Aboutthe Following Issues)How much do you worry about the impacts of climate change on Delaware’s environment?How much do you worry about the impacts of climate change on your quality of life in Delaware?How much do you personally worry about climate change?How much do you worry about the impacts of climate change on Delaware’s economy?How much do you worry about the problems sea level rise may cause in Delaware?How much do you personally worry about sea level rise?‣ Fifteen questions asked residents to indicate how much sea level rise is a threat to variouslocations (e.g., beaches, ocean-front towns, the state as a whole) or various other things (e.g.,wildlife, the economy, public works systems), shown in Text Box 5 on the following page. In looking at the ranking by the percentage saying that sea level rise is a very seriousthreat, three items stand out at the top: Delaware’s beaches (53% say sea level rise is avery serious threat to this), ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware (48%), and marshesand wetlands in Delaware (42%). A middle tier consists of seven items, each with from 30% to 34% saying sea level rise isa very serious threat: river-front cities and towns in Delaware (34%), the state ofDelaware as a whole (33%), Delaware’s wildlife populations (32%), Delaware’seconomy (32%), the United States as a whole (31%), the Mid-Atlantic states (30%), andDelaware’s public works (30%). There are five items in a bottom tier of items not considered by many to be greatlythreatened by sea level rise: outdoor recreation in Delaware (24%), the respondent’slocal community (19%), the respondent personally (18%), the respondent’s family (14%),and the respondent’s property (13%).o Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the mostlikely to consider sea level rise to be not at all a serious threat to Delaware’seconomy, Delaware’s public works systems, their local community, and theirproperty.


xResponsive ManagementoOn the other hand, coastal residents, compared to non-coastal residents, are morelikely to think that sea level rise is a very serious threat to river-front cities and townsin Delaware, outdoor recreation in Delaware, their local community, their property,their family, and them personally.Text Box 5Items to Which Sea Level Rise May Be a Threat(Ranked by the Percentage Who Think Sea Level Rise is a Very Serious Threat tothe Following)Delaware beachesOcean-front cities and towns in DelawareMarsh and wetlands in DelawareRiver-front cities and towns in DelawareThe State of DelawareDelaware’s wildlife populationsDelaware’s economyThe United StatesThe Mid-Atlantic U.S.Delaware’s public works systems, such as public buildings, roads, and sewer systemsOutdoor recreation in DelawareYour local communityYou personallyYour familyYour property‣ Delaware residents overwhelmingly think that Sussex County is the most threatened by sealevel rise (78% named Sussex County); only 5% named either New Castle County or KentCounty.‣ Residents were asked to indicate when they think sea level rise will start to have impacts onthe area in which they live in Delaware: 5 years, 10 years, 25 years, 50 years, or 100 years,or if they think that sea levels are not rising. Answers are spread fairly evenly among thepossible responses. For instance, 14% think sea level rise is having an impact now, and 11%think it will have an impact in 100 years. The most common response is 25 years (17%).o Coastal residents, relative to non-coastal residents, are more likely to say that sealevel rise is having impacts now. On the other hand, non-coastal residents are more


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Risexiolikely to pick a date in the future when saying when they think that sea level rise willstart to have impacts on the area in which they live.Men, compared to women, are more likely to think that sea level rise will start to haveimpacts in the distant future (rather than the near future or now) or to never haveimpacts.PERCEPTIONS OF EFFICACY OF TAKING ACTION TO MITIGATE CLIMATECHANGE‣ Thirteen questions explored whether residents think that human action can affect climatechange or mitigate the effects of climate change, shown in Text Box 6 on page xii.The top tier in the ranking shows conflicting opinion. The results suggest that residentsbelieve that human actions can affect climate change, as large majorities strongly ormoderately agree that the U.S. can take actions that will help reduce climate change(79%), that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts (76%), thatthere are many actions that can be taken to reduce climate change (72%), and that anindividual can personally take actions that will help reduce climate change (70%).However, despite thinking that human actions can affect climate change, large majoritiesthink that we (our society) should conduct more research before taking any action toaddress sea level rise (71%) and that we (our society) should conduct more researchbefore taking any action to address climate change (68%).Four statements are in the middle tier, showing that a slight majority, despite otherong>opinionsong>, think that action should be taken now and that action would be efficacious inaddressing climate change. From 56% to 61% think that we (our society) should takeimmediate and drastic action to reduce the impacts of climate change (61%), that sealevel rise can be reduced by human efforts (59%), that we (our society) should takeimmediate and drastic action to reduce the impacts of sea level rise (58%), and thatclimate change is something people can control (56%).The bottom tier has three items, which support the above findings by showing that lessthan a majority are pessimistic about the efficacy of taking action to mitigate climatechange. Less than a majority think that there is limited action that can be taken to reduce


xiiResponsive Managementclimate change (46%), that the actions of a single person will not make any difference inreducing climate change (32%), and that the actions of a single country like the U.S. willnot make any difference in reducing climate change (31%).Taken as a whole, the results suggest that people think that human action can mitigate theeffects of climate change, but opinion is split regarding whether society should takeimmediate action or whether society should conduct more research before taking action.o Sussex County residents are the least likely, relative to residents of the other twocounties, to strongly agree that climate change is something people can control.o New Castle County residents are the most likely, compared to residents of the othertwo counties, to strongly agree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts, and to strongly or moderately agree that sea level rise can be reducedby human efforts.o Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the leastlikely to strongly agree that there are many actions that can be taken to reduce climatechange.o Coastal residents, compared to non-coastal residents, are more likely to strongly agreethat there are many actions that can be taken to reduce climate change.o Women, compared to men, are more likely to strongly agree that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts.Text Box 6Statements Regarding Taking Action to Mitigate Climate Change(Ranked by the Percentage Who Strongly or Moderately Agree With the FollowingStatements)The U.S. can take actions that will help reduce climate change.The impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts.There are many actions that can be taken to reduce climate change.We should conduct more research before taking any action to address sea level rise.You can personally take actions that will help reduce climate change.We should conduct more research before taking any action to address climate change.We should take immediate and drastic action to reduce the impacts of climate change.Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.We should take immediate and drastic action to reduce the impacts of sea level rise.Climate change is something people can control.There is limited action that can be taken to reduce climate change.The actions of a single person like you will not make any difference in reducing climate change.The actions of a single country like the U.S. will not make any difference in reducing climate change.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Risexiii‣ Regardless of how many years residents believe it will take for sea level rise to affect theirarea, residents overwhelmingly think action should be taken to address or reduce the impactsof sea level rise before impacts occur (80%) rather than as impacts begin (8%) or afterimpacts cause problems (3%).MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES PERTAINING TO CLIMATE CHANGE‣ The survey had a series of 11 questions regarding actions that could be taken andmanagement strategies to address sea level rise, as shown in Text Box 7 on the followingpage. In looking at the percentage who strongly support the actions/management strategies, twostand out at the top, both relating to building codes: avoiding building new structures inareas at risk from sea level rise (67%), and changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood prone areas (63%). A second tier includes funding research (44%), using dredged material to build up marshareas at risk (40%), and elevating buildings using private funding (40%). A third tier, at about a third each, includes two that require large capital outlays: buildingdikes, seawalls, and bulkheads (33%), and elevating land surfaces in areas at risk of sealevel rise (30%). A third is the natural option: allowing beaches and wetlands tonaturally migrate inland (29%). At the bottom, with little support, are the three potential actions that each include using“government funds” to purchase land at risk of sea level rise (21%), to elevate buildings(18%), and to purchase frequently flooded properties (16%).


xivResponsive ManagementText Box 7Support for Actions/Management Strategies to Mitigate the Effects of Sea Level Rise(Ranked by the Percentage Who Strongly Support the Following Actions/Management Strategies)Avoiding building new structures in areas at risk from sea level riseChanging building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areasIncreasing funding for researchUsing clean dredged material from waterways to build up marsh areas that are at risk from sea level riseElevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using private fundingBuilding dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads to keep water backElevating the land surface in areas at risk from sea level riseAllowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrate inlandPurchasing or acquiring land and open space at risk from sea level rise from willing land sellers usinggovernment fundsElevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using government fundsPurchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties using government funds‣ The survey asked residents whether they support or oppose having their local and stategovernments spend more money on public construction projects if it means that the structurescan withstand or accommodate sea level rise in Delaware. They were informed before thequestion that such construction is more expensive than is construction that cannot withstandor accommodate sea level rise. The results suggest that residents are willing to pay theexpense now so that construction will withstand sea level rise: 64% support, and 25%oppose. In follow-up to the above question, those who opposed were further informed of thefollowing: “What if you knew that it would save money and be less costly long-term forDelaware to construct structures to withstand or accommodate sea level rise?” Of thosewho opposed previously, 58% still oppose (most of them now strongly opposing), butjust under a third (32%) now support.RESPONSIBILITY FOR TAKING ACTION‣ The survey asked nine questions about entities that should be doing more or doing less toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware. For each entity (shown in Text


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level RisexvBox 8 below), the survey asked respondents if they thought the entity should be doing more,about the same, or less than it is currently doing. Among the results of this series of questions as a whole, it is notable that, for each entity,the percentage of residents who say that the entity should be doing more (ranging from45% up to 66%) far exceeds the percentage who say that the entity should be doing thesame or less (ranging from 22% to 29%). At the top of the ranking by the percentage who say the entity should be doing more arecorporations and industry (66%) and Delaware citizens (64%)—both at nearly two-thirds.Five entities are in the middle, all with from 56% to 59% giving the “doing more”response: state government officials, city/town government officials, county governmentofficials, Delaware’s state legislators, and the U.S. Congress.Text Box 8Entities That Should Be Doing More or Less to Address Sea Level Rise(Ranked by Percentage Who Think the Following Should be Doing More to AddressSea Level Rise)Corporations and industryDelaware citizensState government officialsThe respondent’s city or town government officialsThe respondent’s county government officialsDelaware’s state legislatorsThe U.S. CongressDelaware’s governorDelaware’s state agencies‣ Most residents (55%) indicate that they would not be likely to attend a public meeting,informational session, or “webinar” in the next 12 months on sea level rise in Delaware. Onthe other end, 10% indicate being very likely. A similar question asked residents about theirlikelihood to write letters, send emails, or call elected officials in the next 12 months aboutsea level rise: 62% would be not at all likely, while only 9% indicate being very likely.


xviResponsive ManagementDEMOGRAPHIC OVERVIEW‣ Overall, several patterns emerged from the data regarding ong>opinionsong> and attitudinal tendenciesamong certain groups of Delaware residents. A few general observations follow (note thatspecific aspects of disparities in knowledge or concern have also been discussed above undervarious topic headings). In large part, women show more concern than do men about climate change and sea levelrise, and they are generally more likely to consider climate change and sea level rise asthreats. At the same time, men are more likely to say that they know a great deal ormoderate amount about climate change and sea level rise than are women. In general, men (as compared to women) are more likely to think that sea levels are notrising or that sea level rise will not begin to have impacts on Delaware until 50 or 100years from now; on the other hand, women are more likely to think that sea level rise willhave impacts in 25 years or less. Delaware residents in a broad middle age group comprising 35- to 64-year-olds tend toshow more concern about climate change, sea level rise, and the impacts associated withthese than do those in the younger age group (18- to 34-year-olds) and older age group(65 years or older). Coastal residents are more likely than are non-coastal residents to worry about theproblems and impacts associated with sea level rise. One notable difference is thatpeople who live in coastal areas tend to be more likely to consider sea level rise a threatto them personally, whereas those in non-coastal areas are more likely to consider sealevel rise a threat to the state of Delaware but not to them personally. Coastal residents are more likely to think that sea level rise is having an impact onDelaware now, whereas non-coastal residents are more likely to think that any impactfrom sea level rise will be in years to come. Coastal residents are also more likely tothink that various government and non-government entities and agencies should be doingmore to reduce the impacts of sea level rise. More educated residents (i.e., those with at least a Bachelor’s degree) are more likely,compared to those with less education, to claim to know a great deal or moderate amountabout climate change and to be completely convinced that climate change is happening.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level RisexviiTABLE OF CONTENTSIntroduction and Methodology ........................................................................................................1Perceptions of Important Environmental Issues ............................................................................15Knowledge and Awareness of Climate Change.............................................................................63Opinion on Climate Change and Whether Climate Change Is Happening....................................88Perceptions of Climate Change as a Threat .................................................................................142Potential Actions Perceived to Affect Climate Change...............................................................216Perceptions of Efficacy of Taking Action to Mitigate Climate Change .............................216Management Strategies Pertaining to Climate Change .......................................................240Responsibility for Taking Action ........................................................................................260Demographic Data .......................................................................................................................292About Responsive Management ..................................................................................................329


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 1INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGYThis study was conducted for the Delaware Department of Environmental Control (DNREC) todetermine Delaware residents’ ong>opinionsong> on climate change and sea level rise. The study entaileda telephone survey of Delaware residents ages 18 years and older. Specific aspects of theresearch methodology are discussed below.For the survey, telephones were selected as the preferred sampling medium (both landlines andcell phones) because of the almost universal ownership of telephones: 98.8% of Delawareresidents own telephones—93.1% own landlines and 5.7% own cell phones only. Additionally,telephone surveys, relative to mail or Internet surveys, allow for more scientific sampling anddata collection, provide higher quality data, obtain higher response rates, are more timely, andare more cost-effective. Telephone surveys also have fewer negative effects on the environmentthan do mail surveys because of reduced use of paper and reduced energy consumption fordelivering and returning the questionnaires.A central polling site at the Responsive Management office allowed for rigorous quality controlover the interviews and data collection. Responsive Management maintains its own in-housetelephone interviewing facilities. These facilities are staffed by interviewers with experienceconducting computer-assisted telephone interviews on the subjects of natural resources andoutdoor recreation. The telephone survey questionnaire was developed cooperatively byResponsive Management and DNREC. Responsive Management conducted a pre-test of thequestionnaire to ensure proper wording, flow, and logic in the survey.To ensure the integrity of the telephone survey data, Responsive Management has interviewerswho have been trained according to the standards established by the Council of American SurveyResearch Organizations. Methods of instruction included lecture and role-playing. The SurveyCenter Managers and other professional staff conducted project briefings with the interviewersprior to the administration of this survey. Interviewers were instructed on type of study, studygoals and objectives, handling of survey questions, interview length, termination points andqualifiers for participation, interviewer instructions within the survey instrument, reading of thesurvey instrument, skip patterns, and probing and clarifying techniques necessary for specific


2 Responsive Managementquestions on the survey instrument. The Survey Center Managers and statisticians monitored thedata collection, including monitoring of the actual telephone interviews without the interviewers’knowledge, to evaluate the performance of each interviewer and ensure the integrity of the data.After the surveys were obtained by the interviewers, the Survey Center Managers and/orstatisticians checked each completed survey to ensure clarity and completeness.The sampling methodology entailed Random Digit Dialing (RDD), which ensures that allhouseholds with telephones (in Delaware, 98.8% of households) have an equal chance of beingcalled to participate in the survey. RDD is the best methodology for maintaining a representativerandom sample of households, taking into account such issues as those without landlines, thoseunlisted by choice, new numbers, and those numbers that have been disconnected due to a moveor change in residence. In this sense, RDD sampling helps to produce representative,scientifically defensible survey data, unlike samples drawn from telephone directories or other“lists,” which tend to under-represent unlisted households. The sample was purchased fromSurvey Sampling International (www.surveysampling.com), a company specializing in providingscientific telephone samples.Interviews were conducted Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 9:00 p.m., Saturday fromnoon to 5:00 p.m., and Sunday from 5:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m., local time. A five-callback designwas used to maintain the representativeness of the sample, to avoid bias toward people easy toreach by telephone, and to provide an equal opportunity for all to participate. When a respondentcould not be reached on the first call, subsequent calls were placed on different days of the weekand at different times of the day. The survey was conducted in December 2009. ResponsiveManagement obtained a total of 1,505 completed interviews (from landlines and cell phones).The software used for data collection was Questionnaire Programming Language (QPL). Thesurvey data were entered into the computer as each interview was being conducted, eliminatingmanual data entry after the completion of the survey and the concomitant data entry errors thatmay occur with manual data entry. The survey instrument was programmed so that QPLbranched, coded, and substituted phrases in the survey based on previous responses to ensure theintegrity and consistency of the data collection.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 3The analysis of data was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences as well asproprietary software developed by Responsive Management. The results were weighted by age,gender, and county of residence to be proportional to the total population of Delaware residents.Crosstabulations were run of all of the questions by county of residence and by whether therespondent perceived himself/herself to be living in a coastal or non-coastal area. Throughoutthe report, each graph of the results overall is followed by a graph showing the crosstabulationby county and then a graph showing the crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal residence.However, any differences between groups (e.g., Sussex versus Kent County residents, coastalversus non-coastal residents) are discussed only when the differences are notable and arestatistically significant. Note that significance tests were run only on some of the crosstabulationgraphs; others that did not have notable differences were not tested. Finally, selectcrosstabulations were run where appropriate (e.g., the flood insurance question was run amongthose who own their place of residence, some basic belief questions were run by age and gender).In addition to the crosstabulation analyses discussed above, a nonparametric analysis examinedhow the various responses related to behavioral, participatory, and demographic characteristics.Responses for selected questions were tested by means of z-scores for relationships tobehavioral, participatory, and demographic characteristics.The z-score shows the strength of the relationship between the characteristic and the response tothe question. Statistical significance falls into three categories. Those z-scores that have anabsolute value of 3.30 or greater indicate a relationship that is so strong that it would happen bychance only 1 out of 1,000 times (p < 0.001). Those z-scores that have an absolute value of 2.58to 3.29 indicate a relationship that is so strong that it would happen by chance only 1 out of 100times (p < 0.01). Finally, those z-scores that have an absolute value of 1.96 to 2.57 indicate arelationship that is so strong that it would happen by chance only 5 out of 100 times (p < 0.05).


4 Responsive ManagementThe z-scores were calculated as shown in the formula below.z( p1 p )2 1p(1 p) n11n2where: n 1 represents the number of observations in Group 1.n 2 represents the number of observations in Group 2.p 1 = a/(a + b) = a/n 1 and represents the proportion ofobservations in Group 1 that falls in Cell a. It isemployed to estimate the population proportion Π 1(% of Group 1 who had specific characteristic).p 2 = c/(c + d) = c/n 2 and represents the proportion ofobservations in Group 2 that falls in Cell c. It isemployed to estimate the population proportion Π 2(% of Group 2 who had specific characteristic).p = (a + c)/(n 1 + n 2 ) = (a + c)/n and is a pooled estimate ofthe proportion of respondents who had specificcharacteristic in the underlying population.(Equation from Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures,2 nd Edition by David J. Sheskin. © 2000, Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL.)The characteristics examined in the nonparametric analysis are shown in the tabulation below.Nonparametric Analysis Variables RunSays he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change.Does not indicate knowing a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change.Says he/she knows a little or nothing about climate change.Thinks that "climate change" and "global warming" are the same thing and that the terms can be usedinterchangeably.Thinks that "climate change" and "global warming" refer to two different things but are related.Thinks that "climate change" and "global warming" refer to two unrelated things.Thinks that climate change is a very serious threat.Does not indicate thinking that climate change is a very serious threat.Is completely convinced that climate change is happening.Does not indicate being completely convinced that climate change is happening.Thinks that most scientists think that climate change is happening.Does not indicate thinking that most scientists think that climate change is happening.Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities.Does not indicate thinking that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities.Worries a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change.Does not indicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change.Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise.Does not indicate knowing a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise.Says he/she knows a little or nothing about sea level rise.Is completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising.Does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising.Worries a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea level rise may cause inDelaware.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 5Nonparametric Analysis Variables RunDoes not indicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea level risemay cause in Delaware.Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States.Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the United States.Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States.Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to the Mid-AtlanticUnited States.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the Mid-Atlantic U.S.Thinks that sea level rise is a very serious threat to the State of Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very serious threat to the State of Delaware.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the State of Delaware.Thinks that sea level rise is a very serious threat to Delaware beaches.Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very serious threat to Delaware beaches.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delaware beaches.Thinks that sea level rise is a very serious threat to marshes and wetlands in Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very serious threat to marshes and wetlands inDelaware.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the marsh and wetlands inDelaware.Thinks that sea level rise is a very serious threat to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very serious threat to ocean-front cities and towns inDelaware.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to ocean-front cities and towns inDelaware.Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to river-front cities and towns inDelaware.Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to river-front citiesand towns in Delaware.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to river-front cities and towns inDelaware.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to outdoor recreation in Delaware.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delaware's wildlife populations.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delaware's economy.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delaware's public works systems,such as public buildings, roads, and sewer systems.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her local community.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her property.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her family.Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally.Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or herpersonally.Thinks that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to him/her personally.Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise.Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware in 25years or less.


6 Responsive ManagementNonparametric Analysis Variables RunEither thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise will not start to have impacts on the areawhere he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now.Strongly agrees with this statement: Scientists are right that climate change is occurring.Does not indicate strongly agreeing with this statement: Scientists are right that climate change isoccurring.Agrees with this statement: Climate change is something people can control.Does not indicate agreeing with this statement: Climate change is something people can control.Strongly agrees with this statement: The State of Delaware needs to conduct more research to identifythe impacts of climate change in Delaware.Does not indicate strongly agreeing with this statement: The State of Delaware needs to conduct moreresearch to identify the impacts of climate change in Delaware.Agrees with this statement: The impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated.Does not indicate agreeing with this statement: The impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated.Strongly agrees with this statement: The impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts.Does not indicate strongly agreeing with this statement: The impacts of climate change can be reducedby human efforts.Supports allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrate inland to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate support for allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrate inland to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Supports building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads to keep water back to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate support for building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads to keep water back to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Strongly supports changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate strong support for changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in floodproneareas to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Strongly supports avoiding building new structures in areas at risk from sea level rise to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate strong support for avoiding building new structures in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Supports elevating the land surface in areas at risk from sea level rise to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate support for elevating the land surface in areas at risk from sea level rise to addresssea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Strongly supports using clean dredged material from waterways to build up marsh areas that are at riskfrom sea level rise to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate strong support for using clean dredged material from waterways to build up marshareas that are at risk from sea level rise to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Strongly supports elevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using private funding toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate strong support for elevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using privatefunding to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Supports elevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using government funds to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate support for elevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using governmentfunds to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 7Nonparametric Analysis Variables RunSupports purchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties using government funds to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate support for purchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties using governmentfunds to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Supports purchasing or acquiring land and open space at risk from sea level rise from willing landsellers using government funds to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.Does not indicate support for purchasing or acquiring land and open space at risk from sea level risefrom willing land sellers using government funds to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts.Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts.Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts.Thinks that his or her city or town government officials should be doing more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that his or her city or town government officials should be doing more toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Thinks that his or her county government officials should be doing more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that his or her county government officials should be doing more to addressor reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Thinks that his or her state government officials should be doing more to address or reduce the impactsof sea level rise in Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that his or her state government officials should be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Thinks that Delaware’s state legislators should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sealevel rise in Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that Delaware’s state legislators should be doing more to address or reducethe impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Thinks that Delaware’s governor should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea levelrise in Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that Delaware’s governor should be doing more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Thinks that Delaware’s state agencies should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sealevel rise in Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that Delaware’s state agencies should be doing more to address or reducethe impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Thinks that the U.S. Congress should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level risein Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that the U.S. Congress should be doing more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Thinks that corporations and industry should be doing much more to address or reduce the impacts ofsea level rise in Delaware.Does not indicate thinking that corporations and industry should be doing much more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Thinks that Delaware citizens should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware.


8 Responsive ManagementNonparametric Analysis Variables RunDoes not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens should be doing more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware is the Internet, notincluding Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control website.A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware is television.A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware is magazines.A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware is newspapers.Would most like to have more information on sea level rise in general.Would most like to have more information on how sea level rise relates to climate change / globalwarming.Would most like to have more information on current or potential impacts of sea level rise.Would most like to have more information on actions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sea levelrise.Would most like to have more information on how to protect property from sea level rise.Would most like to have more information on funding needs / estimated budget to address sea levelrise in Delaware.Is very likely or somewhat likely to attend a public meeting, informational session, or "webinar" on sealevel rise in Delaware in the next 12 months.Is very likely or somewhat likely to write letters, send e-mails, or call your elected officials about sealevel rise in the next 12 months.Has been a Delaware resident for the mean of 30 years or more.Has been a Delaware resident for less than the mean of 30 years.Lives in New Castle County.Lives in Kent County.Lives in Sussex County.Considers his or her place of residence to be a large city, urban area, or suburban area.Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town.Considers his or her place of residence to be a rural area.Considers his or her place of residence to be in a coastal area.Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area.Rents his or her current place of residence.Owns his or her current place of residence.Has flood insurance for his or her current place of residence.Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence.Does not have any children, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household.Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household.Does not have a bachelor’s degree.Has a bachelor’s degree or graduate degree.Considers himself or herself to be white or Caucasian.Considers himself or herself to be black or African-American.Is between ages 18-34.Is between ages 35-64.Is age 65 or older.Is male.Is female.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 9The following explains how to interpret the nonparametric analyses results. Below is the graphfrom the report regarding thinking that climate change is a threat. It shows that 37.5% (roundedto 38% on the graph) of the entire sample of Delaware residents think that climate change is avery serious threat. The z-score analysis provides information regarding the differences inthinking climate change is a very serious threat among various mutually exclusive groups thatmake up the sample, such as the difference between respondents who have children in theirhousehold and respondents without children in their household and the difference betweenDelaware residents who live in a small city/town versus Delaware residents who live elsewhere.Q41. How serious a threat do you think climatechange is?Very serious38Somewhat serious39Not very serious11Not at all serious10Don't know20 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


10 Responsive ManagementThe table below shows the characteristics (i.e., responses to other questions) that are positivelycorrelated with those 37.5% who think that climate change is a very serious threat. For example,residents of small cities/towns are more likely to think that climate change is a very serious threatthan are those who do not live in a small city/town. (This row is in bold in the table below; it isin the table because the difference between the groups is statistically significant.) Note,however, that this does not mean that all small city/town residents think that climate change is avery serious threat (in fact, many do not); it simply means that small city/town residents are morelikely to think that climate change is a very serious threat than are those not living in a smallcity/town. On the other hand, those who have children in their household are not more likely tothink that climate change is a very serious threat than are those who do not have children in theirhousehold—the likelihood of thinking climate change is a serious threat is about the same inthose two groups. (There is no row for this because the table shows only statistically significantcorrelations, and this variable has no statistically significant correlation associated with it.)Thinks that climate change is a very serious threat.Is completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising. (p < 0.001) 13.13Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduceits impacts. (p < 0.001)12.04Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she lives in Delawarein 25 years or less. (p < 0.001)10.96Thinks that Delaware's governor should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sealevel rise in Delaware. (p < 0.001)8.33Strongly supports changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts. (p < 0.001)7.73Is very likely or somewhat likely to write letters, send e-mails, etc. (p < 0.001) 6.73Considers himself or herself to be black or African-American. (p < 0.001) 4.49Lives in New Castle County. (p < 0.01) 3.1Would most like to have more information on how to protect property from sea level rise.(p < 0.01)3.02Has been a Delaware resident for less than the mean of 30 years. (p < 0.01) 2.72Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town. (p < 0.05) 2.35Rents his or her current place of residence. (p < 0.05) 2.32Is female. (p < 0.05) 2.19INSIGNIFICANT AND NEGATIVE Z-SCORES OMITTEDZ-SCORETwo graphs follow that show specifically what the z-score calculations consider. These graphsshow the percentages of various subgroups who think that climate change is a very serious threat.The first graph illustrates a non-significant z-score finding (has children in household versus


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 11does not have children in household); the second graph illustrates a significant z-score finding(lives in small city/town versus does not live in a small city/town). Note that “Has children inhousehold” is not on the z-score table previously shown because it does not have a significantcorrelation to thinking that climate change is a very serious threat; however, “Lives in a smallcity/town” is on the z-score table because that characteristic has a significant correlation tothinking that climate change is a very serious threat.On the graphs, the first bar simply shows the percentage among all respondents who think thatclimate change is a very serious threat. Below the top bar are two bars for the percentage ofvarious subgroups (on the first graph, “Has children in household” versus “Does not havechildren in household”; on the second graph, “Lives in small city/town” versus “Does not live insmall city/town”) who think that climate change is a very serious threat. A text box shows thedifferences in these two latter bars. Note that there is not much difference in the two groups inthe first graph, but there is a large difference between the two groups in the second graph.Q41. How serious a threat do you think climatechange is? (Respondents who answered "Veryserious" as their response.)All respondents37.5Respondents withno children inhousehold39.2Difference is 3.2.Respondents withat least one childin household36.0Difference produces az-score of 1.22, whichis not significant.0 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


12 Responsive ManagementQ41. How serious a threat do you think climatechange is? (Respondents who answered "Veryserious" as their response.)All respondents37.5Respondentsliving in a smallcity or town42.1Difference is 6.5.RespondentsNOT living in asmall city or town35.6Difference produces az-score of 2.35, which issignificant at p < 0.05.0 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)On the following page is a table that shows all of the significant positive z-scores associated withthinking that climate change is a very serious threat, with the percentages of each subgroup whohold that opinion and the differences between them. (The bolded row corresponds with one ofthe two graphs on the previous pages.) This shows, for example, that 42% of those who live in asmall city/town think that climate change is a very serious threat, but 36% of those who do notlive in a small city/town think that climate change is a very serious threat.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 13Thinks that climate change is a very seriousthreat.Percent whoresponded thatclimate change wasa very seriousthreat (amongthose in the grouplisted in the row)Percent whoresponded thatclimate change wasa very seriousthreat (amongthose NOT in thegroup listed in therow)Is completely or mostly convinced that sea levels arerising. (p < 0.001)83 17 66 13.13Strongly supports increasing funding for research toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its54 24 30 12.04impacts. (p < 0.001)Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impactson the area where he or she lives in Delaware in 25 51 23 28 10.96years or less. (p < 0.001)Thinks that Delaware's governor should be doingmore to address or reduce the impacts of sea level54 25 29 8.33rise in Delaware. (p < 0.001)Strongly supports changing building codes andregulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its41 18 23 7.73impacts. (p < 0.001)Is very likely or somewhat likely to write letters,send e-mails, etc. (p < 0.001)56 31 25 6.73Considers himself or herself to be black or African-American. (p < 0.001)54 36 18 4.49Lives in New Castle County. (p < 0.01) 41 33 8 3.1Would most like to have more information on how toprotect property from sea level rise. (p < 0.01)45 36 9 3.02Has been a Delaware resident for less than the meanof 30 years. (p < 0.01)40 33 7 2.72Considers his or her place of residence to be asmall city or town. (p < 0.05)42 36 6 2.35Rents his or her current place of residence. (p < 0.05) 41 36 5 2.32Is female. (p < 0.05) 40 35 5 2.19INSIGNIFICANT AND NEGATIVE Z-SCORES OMITTEDPercent differencez-scoreThe z-score results are presented in the text; instead of showing the raw z-score, the write-upshows the statistical significance expressed as a p value, as discussed previously: either p < 0.05,p < 0.01, or p < 0.001. In the first instance (p < 0.05), the correlation would happen by chanceonly 5 out of 100 times. A statistical significance of p < 0.01 means the correlation wouldhappen by chance only 1 out of 100 times. Finally, a statistical significance of p < 0.001 meansthe correlation would happen by chance only 1 out of 1,000 times.


14 Responsive ManagementThroughout this report, findings of the telephone survey are reported at a 95% confidenceinterval (or higher). For the entire sample of Delaware residents ages 18 years and older, thesampling error is at most plus or minus 2.52 percentage points. This means that if the surveywere conducted 100 times on different samples that were selected in the same way, the findingsof 95 out of the 100 surveys would fall within plus or minus 2.52 percentage points of eachother. Sampling error was calculated using the formula described below, with a sample size of1,505 and a population size of 685,085 residents ages 18 years and older.Sampling Error EquationB Np.25 .25Ns1.96Np1Where:B = maximum sampling error (as decimal)N P = population size (i.e., total number who could be surveyed)N S = sample size (i.e., total number of respondents surveyed)Derived from formula: p. 206 in Dillman, D. A. 2000. Mail and Internet Surveys. John Wiley & Sons, NY.Note: This is a simplified version of the formula that calculates the maximum sampling error using a 50:50split (the most conservative calculation because a 50:50 split would give maximum variation).Note that some results may not sum to exactly 100% because of rounding. Additionally,rounding on the graphs may cause apparent discrepancies of 1 percentage point between thegraphs and the reported results of combined responses (e.g., when “strongly support” and“moderately support” are summed to determine the total percentage in support).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 15PERCEPTIONS OF IMPORTANT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES‣ Delaware residents were asked to rate their concern about 10 issues that the country faces,listed in Text Box 1 below. The economy (75% are very concerned) and health care (72%) top the list, as ranked bythe percentage saying that they are very concerned about the issues. (The timing of thesurvey—December 2009—may have some effect on these results, coming during one ofthe deepest recessions in decades and during the time Congress was debating and takingaction on health care.) A middle tier consists of public education (65%), national security (60%), energyresources (59%), social security (57%), the environment (55%), and crime rates (52%). At the bottom of the ranking are climate change (36%) and sea level rise (30%), in theranking by the percentage saying that they are very concerned.Text Box 1Concern About Issues That the Country Faces (Rankedby the Percentage Who Are Very Concerned About theFollowing Issues)The economyHealth carePublic educationNational securityEnergy resourcesSocial securityThe environmentCrime ratesClimate changeSea level rise‣ The above series was crosstabulated by gender. Women, compared to men, are more likelyto be very concerned about each of the issues listed below that the country faces; the loneexception is the economy, where men and women have similar ong>opinionsong>. Public education (p < 0.001). Health care (p < 0.001). Crime rates (p < 0.01).


16 Responsive Management Social Security (p < 0.001). Energy resources (p < 0.05). The environment (p < 0.001). Climate change (p < 0.001). Sea level rise (p < 0.001). National security (p < 0.01).‣ The above series was crosstabulated by age. Older people, compared to the two other agegroups, are more likely to be very concerned about three of the items: Health care (p < 0.05). Crime rates (p < 0.01). National security (p < 0.01).‣ Another series of questions asked residents to rate their concern about nine environmentalissues in Delaware, listed in Text Box 2 below. At the top of the ranking by the percentage being very concerned (as well as the rankingby very or somewhat concerned) are three issues related to pollution: water pollution(76% are very concerned), toxic waste (72%), and air quality (65%). A middle tier consists of habitat and wildlife-related issues: loss of forest habitat (58%),declining fish and wildlife populations (54%), and loss of marsh or wetlands (45%). At the bottom are flooding (42%), climate change (36%), and sea level rise (32%).Text Box 2Concern About Environmental Issues That Delaware Faces (Ranked by thePercentage Who Are Very Concerned About the Following Issues)Water pollutionToxic wasteAir qualityLoss of forest habitatDeclining fish and wildlife populationsLoss of marsh or wetlandsFloodingClimate changeSea level rise


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 17‣ The crosstabulation by county found several statistically significant differences in three ofthe questions in the above series. Kent County residents, compared to residents of the other two counties, are the leastlikely to be concerned about air quality (p < 0.05). Kent County residents are the least likely to be concerned about climate change inDelaware (p < 0.05). Finally, Kent County residents are the least likely to be concerned about declining fishand wildlife populations in Delaware (p < 0.01).‣ In the above series, the crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found a marked difference onthe question about concern regarding flooding: coastal residents, compared to non-coastalresidents, are more likely to be very concerned about flooding in Delaware (p < 0.01).‣ The above series was crosstabulated by gender. Women, compared to men, are more likelyto be very concerned about each of the environmental issues listed below: Water pollution (p < 0.05). Climate change (p < 0.001). Sea level rise (p < 0.001). Flooding (p < 0.001).‣ The above series was crosstabulated by age. Younger people, compared to the other two age groups, are more likely to be veryconcerned about water pollution in Delaware (p < 0.05). The middle age group, compared to the other two age groups, are more likely to be veryconcerned about toxic waste (p < 0.05). The middle age group, compared to the other two age groups, are more likely to be veryconcerned about air quality in Delaware (p < 0.05). The older age group, compared to the other two age groups, are less likely to be veryconcerned about flooding in Delaware (p < 0.01). The middle age group, compared to the other two age groups, are more likely to be veryconcerned about declining fish and wildlife populations (p < 0.001).


18 Responsive Management‣ After the above series of questions, residents were asked if any other environmental issuesconcerned them: they most commonly gave a pollution-related answer. The crosstabulation by county of residence found that Kent County residents are the mostlikely, compared to residents of the other two counties, to indicate that overdevelopment/lossof open space is an environmental issue of concern in Delaware(p < 0.05).‣ In a direct question, residents are split regarding their worrying about climate change: aslight majority of residents (53%) say that they personally worry about climate change agreat deal or a moderate amount, but just under a majority (46%) worry only a little or not atall. (Note that this question is included in the series of questions analyzed together in thesection of this report titled “Perceptions of Climate Change as a Threat.”) Women, compared to men, are more likely to worry about climate change a great deal(p < 0.001). The middle age group, compared to the other two age groups, are more likely to worryabout climate change a great deal, and they are also more likely to worry a moderateamount (p < 0.001). Those who say they know a great deal or moderate amount about climate change,compared to those who say they know a little or nothing, are more likely to worry aboutclimate change a great deal or moderate amount (p < 0.001). (Note that thiscrosstabulation was based on a response to a later question regarding self-professedknowledge about climate change.)‣ Less than a majority of residents (39%) say that they personally worry about sea level rise agreat deal or a moderate amount, while a large majority (60%) worry only a little or not atall. (Note that this question is included in the series of questions analyzed together in thesection of this report titled “Perceptions of Climate Change as a Threat.”) Kent County residents, compared to residents of the other two counties, are the leastlikely to personally worry a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise(p < 0.05). The younger age group, compared to the other two age groups, show the least amount ofworry about sea level rise (p < 0.05).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 19Those who say they know a great deal or moderate amount about sea level rise, comparedto those who say they know a little or nothing, are more likely to worry about sea levelrise a great deal or moderate amount (p < 0.001). (Note that this crosstabulation wasbased on a response to a later question regarding self-professed knowledge about sealevel rise.)‣ The survey also asked about residents’ level of worry about the impacts of climate change onDelaware’s environment, with slightly more concern than in either of the above questions:60% worry a great deal or a moderate amount, while 39% worry only a little or not at all.(Note that this question is included in the series of questions analyzed together in the sectionof this report titled “Perceptions of Climate Change as a Threat.”)


20 Responsive ManagementQ14-23. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing issues that the country faces.Q18. The economy75Q15. Health care72Q14. Publiceducation65Q23. Nationalsecurity60Q19. Energyresources59Q17. Socialsecurity57Q20. Theenvironment55Q16. Crime rates52Q21. Climatechange36Q22. Sea level rise300 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 21Q14-23. Percent who are very or somewhatconcerned about the following issues that thecountry faces.Q18. The economy97Q14. Publiceducation94Q16. Crime rates94Q15. Health care93Q19. Energyresources92Q20. Theenvironment92Q23. Nationalsecurity91Q17. Socialsecurity89Q21. Climatechange73Q22. Sea level rise680 20 40 60 80 100Percent


22 Responsive ManagementQ14-23. Percent who are not at all concernedabout the following issues that the country faces.Q22. Sea level rise29Q21. Climatechange25Q17. Socialsecurity11Q23. Nationalsecurity9Q19. Energyresources7Q20. Theenvironment7Q14. Publiceducation6Q15. Health care6Q16. Crime rates6Q18. The economy20 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 23Q14-23. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing issues that the country faces.Q18. Theeconomy667878Q15. Health careQ14. Publiceducation626566627474Q23. Nationalsecurity525969Q19. EnergyresourcesQ17. Socialsecurity575555516667New CastleKentSussexQ20. Theenvironment515561Q16. Crime rates514658Q21. Climatechange383135Q22. Sea levelrise2829350 20 40 60 80 100Percent


24 Responsive ManagementQ14-23. Percent who are very or somewhatconcerned about the following issues that thecountry faces.Q18. Theeconomy979799Q15. Health care949095Q16. Crime ratesQ14. PubliceducationQ23. NationalsecurityQ19. EnergyresourcesQ20. TheenvironmentQ17. Socialsecurity788094939693969593959293919293919094Q21. ClimatechangeQ22. Sea levelrise557766677268New CastleKentSussex0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 25Q14-23. Percent who are not at all concernedabout the following issues that the country faces.Q22. Sea levelrise262843Q21. Climatechange213230Q17. Socialsecurity61020Q14. Publiceducation337Q19. EnergyresourcesQ20. Theenvironment779778New CastleKentSussexQ23. Nationalsecurity4722Q16. Crime rates673Q15. Health careQ18. Theeconomy5853310 20 40 60 80 100Percent


26 Responsive ManagementQ14-23. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing issues that the country faces.Q15. Health care6980Q18. Theeconomy7576Q14. Publiceducation6564Q17. Socialsecurity5564Q23. Nationalsecurity6459Q16. Crime rates5059Q19. Energyresources5859Q20. TheenvironmentQ21. Climatechange35415555Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ22. Sea levelrise28370 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 27Q14-23. Percent who are very or somewhatconcerned about the following issues that thecountry faces.Q18. Theeconomy9897Q16. Crimerates9694Q14. Publiceducation9494Q15. Health care9493Q20. Theenvironment9491Q19. Energyresources9292Q23. Nationalsecurity9290Q17. Socialsecurity9188Q21. ClimatechangeQ22. Sea levelrise77726868Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastal0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


28 Responsive ManagementQ14-23. Percent who are not at all concernedabout the following issues that the country faces.Q22. Sea levelrise2930Q21. Climatechange2226Q17. Socialsecurity912Q19. Energyresources87Q23. NationalsecurityQ14. Publiceducation71056Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ15. Health care56Q20. Theenvironment57Q16. Crime rates46Q18. Theeconomy220 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 29Q14-23. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing issues that the country faces.Q18. Theeconomy7675Q15. Healthcare6280Q14. Publiceducation5771Q23. Nationalsecurity5665Q19. Energyresources5165Q16. Crimerates4955Q17. Socialsecurity4963Q20. Theenvironment4862Q21. ClimatechangeQ22. Sea levelrise31412534MaleFemale0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


30 Responsive ManagementQ14-23. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing issues that the country faces.Q18. Theeconomy707779Q14. PubliceducationQ15. HealthcareQ19. EnergyresourcesQ20. Theenvironment596559546160485953737580Q17. Socialsecurity445867Q16. Crimerates415461Q23. Nationalsecurity416570Q21. ClimatechangeQ22. Sea levelrise193439343434Between ages 18 - 34Between ages 35 - 6465 or older0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 31Q26-34. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing environmental issues in Delaware.Q26. Waterpollution76Q27. Toxic waste72Q28. Air quality65Q34. Loss of foresthabitatQ32. Declining fishand wildlifepopulations5458Q33. Loss ofmarsh or wetlands45Q31. Flooding42Q29. Climatechange36Q30. Sea level rise320 20 40 60 80 100Percent


32 Responsive ManagementQ26-34. Percent who are very or somewhatconcerned about the following environmentalissues in Delaware.Q26. Waterpollution93Q27. Toxic waste92Q28. Air quality87Q34. Loss of foresthabitatQ32. Declining fishand wildlifepopulations8684Q33. Loss ofmarsh or wetlands79Q31. Flooding77Q29. Climatechange71Q30. Sea level rise670 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 33Q26-34. Percent who are not at all concernedabout the following environmental issues inDelaware.Q30. Sea level rise30Q29. Climatechange27Q31. Flooding23Q33. Loss ofmarsh or wetlands18Q32. Declining fishand wildlifepopulations13Q28. Air quality12Q34. Loss of foresthabitat12Q27. Toxic waste7Q26. Waterpollution60 20 40 60 80 100Percent


34 Responsive ManagementQ26-34. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing environmental issues in Delaware.Q26. Waterpollution796974Q27. Toxic waste666676Q28. Air quality576368Q34. Loss offorest habitat575462Q32. Decliningfish and wildlifepopulations495558New CastleKentSussexQ33. Loss ofmarsh orwetlands404650Q31. Flooding334344Q29. Climatechange383533Q30. Sea levelrise3129390 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 35Q26-34. Percent who are very or somewhatconcerned about the following environmentalissues in Delaware.Q26. Waterpollution949193Q27. Toxic waste929490Q28. Air quality788590Q34. Loss offorest habitat798788Q32. Decliningfish and wildlifepopulations728688Q33. Loss ofmarsh orwetlands728082Q31. FloodingQ29. Climatechange627773797469New CastleKentSussexQ30. Sea levelrise5866700 20 40 60 80 100Percent


36 Responsive ManagementQ26-34. Percent who are not at all concernedabout the following environmental issues inDelaware.Q30. Sea levelrise273833Q29. Climatechange233530Q31. Flooding232620Q33. Loss ofmarsh orwetlandsQ32. Decliningfish and wildlifepopulations162517122112New CastleKentSussexQ34. Loss offorest habitat101121Q28. Air quality91422Q27. Toxic waste749Q26. Waterpollution6960 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 37Q28. Thinking specifically about environmentalissues, how concerned are you about air quality inDelaware?68Very concerned5763Somewhatconcerned222222Not at allconcerned91422New Castle (n=434)Kent (n=132)Sussex (n=205)1Don't know010 20 40 60 80 100Percent


38 Responsive ManagementQ29. Thinking specifically about environmentalissues, how concerned are you about climatechange in Delaware?38Very concerned3533SomewhatconcernedNot at allconcerned362736233530New Castle (n=434)Kent (n=132)Sussex (n=205)2Don't know310 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 39Q32. Thinking specifically about environmentalissues, how concerned are you about declining fishand wildlife populations in Delaware?55Very concerned4958Somewhatconcerned233230Not at allconcerned121221New Castle (n=434)Kent (n=132)Sussex (n=205)2Don't know600 20 40 60 80 100Percent


40 Responsive ManagementQ26-34. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing environmental issues in Delaware.Q26. Waterpollution7776Q27. Toxicwaste7173Q28. Air quality6366Q34. Loss offorest habitat5760Q32. Decliningfish and wildlifepopulations5454Q31. Flooding3952Q33. Loss ofmarsh orwetlandsQ30. Sea levelrise29444745Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ29. Climatechange38360 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 41Q26-34. Percent who are very or somewhatconcerned about the following environmentalissues in Delaware.Q26. Waterpollution9593Q27. Toxicwaste9192Q28. Air quality8488Q32. Decliningfish and wildlifepopulations8484Q34. Loss offorest habitat8487Q31. Flooding7582Q33. Loss ofmarsh orwetlandsQ29. ClimatechangeQ30. Sea levelrise758068726867Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastal0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


42 Responsive ManagementQ26-34. Percent who are not at all concernedabout the following environmental issues inDelaware.Q29. Climatechange2630Q30. Sea levelrise2930Q33. Loss ofmarsh orwetlands1721Q31. Flooding1724Q32. Decliningfish and wildlifepopulationsQ34. Loss offorest habitat14131412Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ28. Air quality1312Q27. Toxic waste67Q26. Waterpollution470 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 43Q31. Thinking specifically about environmentalissues, how concerned are you about flooding inDelaware?Very concerned3952Somewhatconcerned3136Not at allconcerned1724Residence is consideredcoastal (n=195)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=580)Don't know100 20 40 60 80 100Percent


44 Responsive ManagementQ26-34. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing environmental issues in Delaware.Q26. Waterpollution7478Q27. Toxicwaste7273Q28. Air quality6466Q34. Loss offorest habitatQ32. Decliningfish and wildlifepopulationsQ33. Loss ofmarsh orwetlandsQ29. Climatechange5758515744473339Q31. Flooding3350Q30. Sea levelrise2737MaleFemale0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 45Q26-34. Percent who are very concerned about thefollowing environmental issues in Delaware.Q26. Water pollutionQ27. Toxic wasteQ28. Air qualityQ34. Loss of forest habitatQ32. Declining fish and wildlifepopulationsQ31. FloodingQ33. Loss of marsh orwetlandsQ30. Sea level riseQ29. Climate change827767697868616958595850525846424634385046343431324133Between ages 18 - 34Between ages 35 - 6465 or older0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


46 Responsive ManagementQ36. What other environmental issues are youconcerned about in Delaware? (Asked of those thathave other environmental issues they areconcerned about in Delaware.)Pollution (e.g., air, water, land)49Multiple Responses AllowedWater quality for drinking, fish consumption, etc. (subsetof pollution-related answer)Recycling (e.g., a better program, more of it, make itmandatory)Air quality (e.g., burning fuel, emissions) (subset ofpollution-related answer)Cancer (e.g., high cancer rates, cancer from polllution)(subset of pollution-related answer)Chemical runoff on the land / Litter / Landfills (subset ofpollution-related answer)Over-development / Loss of open spaceBeach / Shoreline erosionConcerns about major bodies of water (Delaware Riverand Bay, Chesapeake Bay)More use of alternative energies (e.g., green energy,wind)Loss of farmland due to developmentWeather-related answer (e.g., weather patterns arechanging, too much snow)1411111010954444Loss of habitat / ConservationBetter management of fishing and hunting (e.g.,overpopulation of deer, depletion of fish stocks)Problems with the closing of industrial areas (e.g.,environmental impacts, unemployment increases)Political issues (e.g., politicians don't do enough, toomuch politics)3321Note: Only 25% of those whoreceived thelead-in question were askedthis question.Other130 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=190)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 47Q36. What other environmental issues are youconcerned about in Delaware? (Asked of those thathave other environmental issues they areconcerned about in Delaware.)Pollution (e.g., air, water, land)394552Cancer (e.g., high cancer rates, cancer from polllution)(subset of pollution-related answer)Air quality (e.g., burning fuel, emissions) (subset ofpollution-related answer)Water quality for drinking, fish consumption, etc. (subsetof pollution-related answer)Recycling (e.g., a better program, more of it, make itmandatory)41631413131617121011Multiple Responses AllowedChemical runoff on the land / Litter / Landfills (subset ofpollution-related answer)Over-development / Loss of open spaceConcerns about major bodies of water (Delaware Riverand Bay, Chesapeake Bay)Loss of farmland due to developmentBeach / Shoreline erosionMore use of alternative energies (e.g., green energy,wind)Better management of fishing and hunting (e.g.,overpopulation of deer, depletion of fish stocks)Loss of habitat / ConservationProblems with the closing of industrial areas (e.g.,environmental impacts, unemployment increases)Political issues (e.g., politicians don't do enough, toomuch politics)811146851144046631833329120120121New Castle (n=112)Kent (n=34)Sussex (n=44)Note: Only 27% of New Castleresidents, 26% of Kentresidents, and 19% of Sussexresidents who received thelead-in question were askedthis question.Weather-related answer (e.g., weather patterns arechanging, too much snow)0615Other614150 20 40 60 80 100Percent


48 Responsive ManagementQ36. What other environmental issues are youconcerned about in Delaware? (Asked of those thathave other environmental issues they areconcerned about in Delaware.)Pollution (e.g., air, water, land)5148Air quality (e.g., burning fuel, emissions) (subset ofpollution-related answer)819Water quality for drinking, fish consumption, etc.(subset of pollution-related answer)1614Weather-related answer (e.g., weather patterns arechanging, too much snow)113Chemical runoff on the land / Litter / Landfills (subset ofpollution-related answer)119Multiple Responses AllowedRecycling (e.g., a better program, more of it, make itmandatory)Over-development / Loss of open spaceMore use of alternative energies (e.g., green energy,wind)Concerns about major bodies of water (Delaware Riverand Bay, Chesapeake Bay)Cancer (e.g., high cancer rates, cancer from polllution)(subset of pollution-related answer)Beach / Shoreline erosionBetter management of fishing and hunting (e.g.,overpopulation of deer, depletion of fish stocks)1012797364512453Residence isconsideredcoastal (n=51)Residence isconsidered noncoastal(n=139)Loss of habitat / ConservationProblems with the closing of industrial areas (e.g.,environmental impacts, unemployment increases)Loss of farmland due to development141205Note: Only 27% of coastal and25% of non-coastalrespondents who received thelead-in question were askedthis question.Political issues (e.g., politicians don't do enough, toomuch politics)02Other7140 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 49Q47. How much do you personally worry aboutclimate change?A great deal14A moderateamount39Only a little25Not at all21Don't know10 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1323)


50 Responsive ManagementQ47. How much do you personally worry aboutclimate change?A great deal101116A moderateamount343741Only a little232929New Castle (n=721)Kent (n=250)Sussex (n=348)Not at all202325Don't know1100 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 51Q47. How much do you personally worry aboutclimate change?A great deal1217A moderateamount3740Only a little2326Residence is consideredcoastal (n=323)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1000)Not at all2321Don't know110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


52 Responsive ManagementQ47. How much do you personally worry aboutclimate change?A great deal1017A moderateamount3940Only a little2526MaleFemaleNot at all1826Don't know100 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 53Q47. How much do you personally worry aboutclimate change?13A great deal1115A moderateamount353342Only a little232530Between ages 18 - 34Between ages 35 - 6465 or older22Not at all19291Don't know010 20 40 60 80 100Percent


54 Responsive ManagementQ47. How much do you personally worry aboutclimate change?A great deal816A moderateamount3043Only a little2234Knows a great deal ormoderate amount aboutclimate change (n=918)Knows a little or nothingabout climate change(n=397)Not at all1927Don't know110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 55Q55. How much do you personally worry about sealevel rise?A great deal11A moderateamount28Only a little29Not at all31Don't know10 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=749)


56 Responsive ManagementQ55. How much do you personally worry about sealevel rise?A great deal91114A moderateamount202531Only a little262935New Castle (n=423)Kent (n=134)Sussex (n=190)Not at all293533Don't know0020 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 57Q55. How much do you personally worry about sealevel rise?A great deal1113A moderateamount2429Only a little2730Residence is consideredcoastal (n=189)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=560)Not at all3034Don't know020 20 40 60 80 100Percent


58 Responsive ManagementQ55. How much do you personally worry about sealevel rise?10A great deal1212A moderateamount163230Only a little223037Between ages 18 - 34Between ages 35 - 6465 or older37Not at all26350Don't know110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 59Q55. How much do you personally worry about sealevel rise?A great deal420A moderateamount2236Only a little1838Knows a great deal ormoderate amount aboutsea level rise (n=345)Knows a little or nothingabout sea level rise (n=399)Not at all2535Don't know010 20 40 60 80 100Percent


60 Responsive ManagementQ48. How much do you worry about the impacts ofclimate change on Delaware's environment?A great deal22A moderateamount38Only a little21Not at all18Don't know10 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=948)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 61Q48. How much do you worry about the impacts ofclimate change on Delaware's environment?A great deal212030A moderateamount343740Only a little182123New Castle (n=505)Kent (n=178)Sussex (n=262)Not at all171819Don't know0110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


62 Responsive ManagementQ48. How much do you worry about the impacts ofclimate change on Delaware's environment?A great deal2129A moderateamount3040Only a little2023Residence is consideredcoastal (n=239)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=709)Not at all1618Don't know020 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 63KNOWLEDGE AND AWARENESS OF CLIMATE CHANGE‣ The survey examined self-professed knowledge about climate change: 70% say that theyknow a great deal or a moderate amount, while 30% say that they know a little or nothing.The most common answer is a moderate amount (54%).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated with sayinghe/she knows a great deal or moderate amount about climate change:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise (p < 0.001).o Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., is completely or mostlyconvinced that sea levels are rising; worries a great deal or a moderate amount aboutclimate change; thinks that climate change is a very serious threat) (all at p < 0.01 orgreater significance).o Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally(p < 0.001), a very serious threat to Delaware beaches (p < 0.05), and a very orsomewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States (p < 0.05).o Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that climate changeis something people can control; agrees that the impacts of climate change can bereduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o On most questions, does not support any alterations in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., does not indicatesupport for elevating buildings using government funds; does not indicate support forelevating the land surface; strongly supports avoiding building new structures) (all atp < 0.01 or greater significance), but does support elevating buildings using privatefunding (p < 0.05).o Supports allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrate inland to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.01).o Thinks that the U.S. Congress (p < 0.01) and corporations and industry (p < 0.05)should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.o Primary sources of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware aremagazines (p < 0.001), the Internet, not including Department of Natural Resourcesand Environmental Control website (p < 0.01), and newspapers (p < 0.05).oWould most like to have more information on actions that can be taken to reduceimpacts of sea level rise (p < 0.05).o Has a bachelor’s degree or graduate degree (p < 0.001).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Does not have any children, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household(p < 0.01).o Is between ages 35-64 (p < 0.05).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated with sayinghe/she knows a little or nothing about climate change:


64 Responsive Managemento Says he/she knows a little or nothing about sea level rise (p < 0.001).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate being completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising, does notindicate thinking that climate change is a very serious threat, is not worried about sealevel rise) (all at p < 0.01 or greater significance).o Does not indicate thinking that most scientists think that climate change is happening(p < 0.01), and does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientistsare right that climate change is occurring (p < 0.01).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her familyo(p < 0.05) or to him/her personally (p < 0.05).Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.05).o Does not agree that climate change is something people can control (p < 0.001).o Supports elevating the land surface (p < 0.001) and elevating buildings usinggovernment funds (p < 0.01) in areas at risk from sea level rise, but does not indicatestrong support for avoiding building new structures (p < 0.01) or elevating buildingsusing private funding (p < 0.05) in areas at risk from sea level rise to address sea levelrise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.ooDoes not indicate support for allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrateinland to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.05).Does not indicate thinking that the U.S. Congress (p < 0.01) or corporations andindustry (p < 0.05) should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea levelrise in Delaware.o Does not have a bachelor's degree (p < 0.001).o Is female (p < 0.001).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).The knowledge question was crosstabulated by gender. Men are more likely than arewomen to claim to know a great deal about climate change (p < 0.001).The knowledge question was crosstabulated by amount of education. More educatedpeople claim to know more about climate change, compared to the other educationalgroups (p < 0.001).‣ Self-professed knowledge about sea level rise is lower than about climate change: 40% saythat they know a great deal or a moderate amount, while 59% say that they know a little ornothing. The most common answer is a little (40%).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withknowing a little or nothing about sea level rise:o Says he/she knows a little or nothing about climate change (p < 0.001).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate being completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising, does not


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 65ooooooindicate thinking that climate change is a very serious threat, does not indicateworrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea level risemay cause in Delaware) (all at p < 0.01 or greater significance).Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.05).Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.001).Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to him/her personally(p < 0.001).Supports elevating buildings using government funds (p < 0.001), elevating the landsurface (p < 0.001), building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads to keep water back(p < 0.001), using clean dredged material from waterways to build up marsh areas(p < 0.001), and purchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties usinggovernment funds (p < 0.01) in areas at risk from sea level rise to address sea levelrise in Delaware or reduce its impacts, but does not indicate strong support forchanging building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood-prone areas(p < 0.05).Does not indicate support for allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrateinland to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.05).Does not indicate thinking that corporations and industry (p < 0.01) and Delaware'sstate agencies (p < 0.01) should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sealevel rise in Delaware.o Is between ages 18-34 (p < 0.001).o Does not have a bachelor's degree (p < 0.001).o Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household (p < 0.001).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Is female (p < 0.01).‣ The newspaper is the leading source of information about environmental issues in Delaware(52% get their information about the environment that way), followed by television (44%),the Internet (excluding the DNREC site) (30%), and magazines (14%). (In total, 32% use theInternet.) When the above question on information sources was crosstabulated by age, younger agegroups appear more likely to get information from the Internet and older age groupsappear more likely to get information from newspapers.‣ Residents are split regarding whether there is enough available information about sea levelrise: 39% say that there is enough available information, but 51% say that there is notenough available information (the rest are neutral).


66 Responsive Management‣ Residents were asked to name information topics related to sea level rise that they mightwant. Six topics were most commonly named, listed below. Sea level rise in general (33% want more information on this). Actions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sea level rise (26%). Current or potential impacts of sea level rise (24%). How sea level rise relates to climate change/global warming (23%). How to protect property from sea level rise (19%). Funding needs to address sea level rise in Delaware (18%).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 67Q37. How much would you say you know aboutclimate change?A great deal16A moderateamount54A little25Nothing50 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


68 Responsive ManagementQ37. How much would you say you know aboutclimate change?20A great deal912A moderateamountA little242528515957New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)5Nothing450 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 69Q37. How much would you say you know aboutclimate change?A great deal1616A moderateamount5254A little2425Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Nothing47Don't know100 20 40 60 80 100Percent


70 Responsive ManagementQ37. How much would you say you know aboutclimate change?A great deal1221A moderateamount5453A little2030MaleFemaleNothing55Don't know100 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 71Q37. How much would you say you know aboutclimate change?9A great deal1322A moderateamount45556037A little2715Does not have any college education9Has some college education, but not aBachelor's degreeNothing24Has a Bachelor's degree or higher0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


72 Responsive ManagementQ51. How much would you say you know about sealevel rise?A great deal9A moderateamount31A little40Nothing19Don't know10 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 73Q51. How much would you say you know about sealevel rise?A great deal8911A moderateamount283231A little394142New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Nothing161922Don't know0110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


74 Responsive ManagementQ51. How much would you say you know about sealevel rise?A great deal912A moderateamount3131A little4042Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Nothing1320Don't know100 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 75Q136. Where do you get most of your informationabout environmental issues in Delaware?Newspaper52Televison44Internet (not including DNREC website)30Magazines14Multiple Responses AllowedWord of mouthSchoolFamily or friendsOther state agency / government officeConservation / environmental organizationDirect mailRadioE-mailDNREC websitePamphlets from DNRECBooksNewsletter from DNRECPublic DNREC presentationDon't get any information / Not interested / Know fromexperienceOtherDon't know74322222211112130 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


76 Responsive ManagementQ136. Where do you get most of your informationabout environmental issues in Delaware?Newspaper445356Televison404754Internet (not including DNREC website)303030Magazines81516Word of mouth795School43Family or friends42Multiple Responses AllowedConservation / environmental organizationE-mailDirect mailRadioOther state agency / government officeDNREC websitePamphlets from DNRECPublic DNREC presentation312202213232211211217New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Newsletter from DNREC1Books12Don't get any information / Not interested / Know fromexperience312Other201Don't know410 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 77Q136. Where do you get most of your informationabout environmental issues in Delaware?Televison4253Newspaper5052Internet (not including DNREC website)3429Magazines1315Word of mouth76School53Direct mail32Multiple Responses AllowedE-mailFamily or friendsDNREC websiteBooksPamphlets from DNRECRadioNewsletter from DNREC3234312121221Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Conservation / environmental organization13Other state agency / government office13Public DNREC presentationDon't get any information / Not interested /Know from experienceOther13211Don't know30 20 40 60 80 100Percent


78 Responsive ManagementQ136. Where do you get most of your informationabout environmental issues in Delaware?(Part 1)Newspaper274155545167Multiple Responses AllowedTelevisonInternet (notincluding Departmentof Natural Resourcesand EnvironmentalControl website)Magazines762810252821201511345452464841435265 years old or older55-64 years old45-54 years old35-44 years old25-34 years old18-24 years oldWord of mouth6696470 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 79Q136. Where do you get most of your informationabout environmental issues in Delaware?(Part 2)School1212614Multiple Responses AllowedFamily or friendsOther state agency /government officeConservation /environmentalorganization363421221004322201165 years old or older55-64 years old45-54 years old35-44 years old25-34 years old18-24 years oldDirect mail2322240 20 40 60 80 100Percent


80 Responsive ManagementQ136. Where do you get most of your informationabout environmental issues in Delaware?(Part 3)Radio332300Multiple Responses AllowedE-mailDepartment ofNatural Resourcesand EnvironmentalControl websitePamphlets fromDepartment ofNatural Resourcesand EnvironmentalControl23201322121332110065 years old or older55-64 years old45-54 years old35-44 years old25-34 years old18-24 years oldBooks1121200 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 81Q136. Where do you get most of your informationabout environmental issues in Delaware?(Part 4)Newsletter fromDepartment ofNatural Resourcesand EnvironmentalControl111200Multiple Responses AllowedPublic Department ofNatural Resourcesand EnvironmentalControl presentationDon't get anyinformation / Notinterested / Knowfrom experienceOther23100043322012121065 years old or older55-64 years old45-54 years old35-44 years old25-34 years old18-24 years oldDon't know1113290 20 40 60 80 100Percent


82 Responsive ManagementQ138. Do you agree or disagree that there isenough available information about sea level rise?Strongly agree22Moderately agree17Neither agree nordisagree2Moderatelydisagree21Strongly disagree30Don't know80 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 83Q138. Do you agree or disagree that there isenough available information about sea level rise?Strongly agree212223Moderately agree111920Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree222202024New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Strongly disagree303330Don't know8490 20 40 60 80 100Percent


84 Responsive ManagementQ138. Do you agree or disagree that there isenough available information about sea level rise?Strongly agree2125Moderately agree1618Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree222024Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Strongly disagree2632Don't know780 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 85Q141/142/143. What topics related to sea level risewould you most like to have more information on?Sea level rise in general33Actions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sealevel riseCurrent or potential impacts of sea level riseHow sea level rise relates to climate change / globalwarmingHow to protect property from sea level riseFunding needs / estimated budget to address sealevel rise in Delaware2624231918Multiple Responses AllowedOther various areas, resources, groups, or speciesthat sea level rise impactsImpacts on the Bay / River / coastal areasMore research about existence of sea level rise /Accurate, truthful informationImpacts on Sussex CountyImpacts on humans / communitiesImpacts on New Castle CountyCauses of sea level riseImpacts on wetlands (e.g., marshes, swamps)Impacts on building / developmentNone / Would not like any informationOther33221111153Don't know290 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


86 Responsive ManagementQ141/142/143. What topics related to sea level risewould you most like to have more information on?Sea level rise in generalActions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sea levelrise272927272236Current or potential impacts of sea level rise262122How sea level rise relates to climate change / globalwarming262219How to protect property from sea level rise201717Funding needs / estimated budget to address sea levelrise in Delaware191815Multiple Responses AllowedImpacts on the Bay / River / coastal areasOther various areas, resources, groups, or species thatsea level rise impactsMore research about existence of sea level rise /Accurate, truthful informationImpacts on New Castle CountyImpacts on Sussex CountyImpacts on humans / communities351352204200114122New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Causes of sea level rise121Impacts on wetlands (e.g., marshes, swamps)111Impacts on building / development001None / Would not like any information57Other422Don't know2631330 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 87Q141. What topics related to sea level rise wouldyou most like to have more information on?Sea level rise in general3133Actions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sea levelriseHow sea level rise relates to climate change / globalwarmingCurrent or potential impacts of sea level riseHow to protect property from sea level riseFunding needs / estimated budget to address sea levelrise in Delaware23262224212521181718Multiple Responses AllowedMore research about existence of sea level rise /Accurate, truthful informationCauses of sea level riseOther various areas, resources, groups, or species thatsea level rise impactsImpacts on the Bay / River / coastal areasImpacts on Sussex CountyImpacts on humans / communitiesImpacts on building / development32212323221110Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Impacts on wetlands (e.g., marshes, swamps)01Impacts on New Castle County01None / Would not like any information56Other33Don't know31280 20 40 60 80 100Percent


88 Responsive ManagementOPINION ON CLIMATE CHANGE AND WHETHER CLIMATECHANGE IS HAPPENING‣ A direct question asked residents to indicate how convinced they are that climate change ishappening. The large majority (70%) are completely or mostly convinced that climate changeis happening. At the other end, 27% are not so convinced or are not at all convinced.Similarly, 63% are completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising, and 33% are notso convinced or are not at all convinced that sea levels are rising.The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated with beingcompletely convinced that climate change is happening:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise (p < 0.05).o Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., strongly agrees thatscientists are right that climate change is occurring; thinks that climate change is avery serious threat; worries a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change)(all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or herpersonally, a very or somewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States, avery serious threat to Delaware beaches, a very serious threat to marshes andwetlands in Delaware, a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States, a veryserious threat to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, a very serious threat to theState of Delaware, and a very or somewhat serious threat to river-front cities andtowns in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).o Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts. (p < 0.001)o Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts; agrees that climate change issomething people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o On most questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supportsany efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., stronglysupports changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas;strongly supports avoiding building new structures; supports purchasing or acquiringland and open space at risk from sea level rise from willing land sellers usinggovernment funds) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o Thinks that the U.S. Congress (p < 0.001), corporations and industry (p < 0.001),Delaware’s state legislators (p < 0.001), Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), Delaware’sgovernor (p < 0.001), Delaware’s state agencies (p < 0.01), his or her countygovernment officials (p < 0.05), his or her state government officials (p < 0.05), andhis or her city or town government officials (p < 0.05) should all be doing more toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 89o Would most like to have more information on actions that can be taken to reduceimpacts of sea level rise (p < 0.01).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a coastal area (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town (p < 0.05).A crosstabulation by gender found that women, compared to men, are more likely to beeither completely or mostly convinced that climate change is happening (p < 0.01 on thecombination of completely and mostly convinced).A crosstabulation by amount of education found that residents in the higher educationgroup (has at least a bachelor’s degree), relative to the other educational groups, are morelikely to be completely convinced that climate change is happening (p < 0.05).When told that some scientists predict that sea levels will rise at least 1 to 3 feet in thenext 100 years, the large majority of residents (62%) agree that this is a reasonableprediction; at the other end, 21% disagree. (The remainder are neutral.)Recall in related questions previously discussed that residents are split regarding theirworrying about climate change: a slight majority of residents (53%) say that theypersonally worry about climate change a great deal or a moderate amount, but just undera majority (46%) worry only a little or not at all. However, less than a majority ofresidents (39%) say that they personally worry about sea level rise a great deal or amoderate amount, while a large majority (60%) worry only a little or not at all. (Thesegraphs were previously discussed and are included in the section of this report titled“Perceptions of Important Environmental Issues.”)‣ The survey also touched on perceptions of what most scientists think regarding climatechange. Residents are split, with 42% thinking that most scientists think climate change ishappening, and 42% thinking that there is a lot of disagreement among scientists aboutwhether climate change is happening. Only 5% think that most scientists think that climatechange is not happening. (The remainder do not know.) The crosstabulation by county of residence found that New Castle County residents arethe most likely, relative to residents of the other two counties, to have the view that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.05).


90 Responsive ManagementA crosstabulation by amount of education found that residents in the higher educationgroup (has at least a bachelor’s degree), compared to the other two educational groups,are more likely to say that most scientists think that climate change is happening(p < 0.001).‣ A series of six questions further explored residents’ perceptions regarding whether climatechange and sea level rise are happening, listed in Text Box 3 below. Large majorities strongly or moderately agree with the following: that scientists are rightthat climate change is occurring (79%), that climate change is contributing to the rise insea levels (75%), that the state of Delaware needs to conduct more research to identifythe impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (73%), and that the state of Delaware needs toconduct more research to identify the impacts of climate change in Delaware (71%). Less than a majority (40%) strongly or moderately agree that the impacts of climatechange are greatly exaggerated. Interestingly, although the majority of residents agree that scientists are right that climatechange is occurring and that climate change is contributing to the rise in sea levels, asmall percentage of residents (22%) think that they have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.Text Box 3Perceptions Regarding Whether Climate Change and Sea Level Rise Are Happening(Ranked by the Percentage Who Strongly or Moderately Agree With the FollowingStatements)Scientists are right that climate change is occurring.Climate change is contributing to the rise in sea levels.The state of Delaware needs to conduct more research to identify the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware.The state of Delaware needs to conduct more research to identify the impacts of climate change inDelaware.The impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated.You (the respondent) have personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 91The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withdisagreeing that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise:o Knows little or nothing about sea level rise (p < 0.001) or climate change (p < 0.05).o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two different things butare related (p < 0.05).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea levelrise may cause in Delaware, does not indicate being completely or mostly convincedthat sea levels are rising, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a veryserious threat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her family(p < 0.001), to him/her personally (p < 0.001), to his/her local community (p < 0.001),to his/her property (p < 0.001), to the State of Delaware (p < 0.001), to Delaware'spublic works systems, such as public buildings, roads, and sewer systems (p < 0.001),to the United States (p < 0.01), to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware(p < 0.01), to Delaware beaches (p < 0.01), to Delaware's wildlife populations(p < 0.01), to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware (p < 0.05), to river-front cities andtowns in Delaware (p < 0.05), to the Mid-Atlantic U.S. (p < 0.05), or to Delaware'seconomy (p < 0.05).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.01).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment (p < 0.01).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.01).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not strongly agree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by humanefforts (p < 0.01).o Does not indicate support for purchasing or acquiring land and open space at riskfrom sea level rise from willing land sellers using government funds (p < 0.01),changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood-prone areas(p < 0.01), elevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using governmentfunds (p < 0.05), or purchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties usinggovernment funds (p < 0.05) to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts.o Supports allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrate inland to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.05).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), Delaware's statelegislators (p < 0.001), his or her state government officials (p < 0.001), corporationsand industry (p < 0.001), his or her city or town government officials (p < 0.001), hisor her county government officials (p < 0.001), the U.S. Congress (p < 0.01),Delaware's state agencies (p < 0.01), or Delaware's governor (p < 0.01) should bedoing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.


92 Responsive Managemento Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a large city, urban area, or suburban area(p < 0.05).o Is male (p < 0.05).o Lives in Kent County (p < 0.05).‣ In the above series, only one question had statistically significant differences in thecrosstabulation by county of residence: Sussex County residents are the most likely tostrongly agree that they have personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise (p < 0.01).‣ The crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found statistically significant differences on threequestions from the above series regarding perceptions about whether climate change ishappening. Interestingly, and somewhat counter-intuitively, the crosstabulation by coastal/noncoastalfound that non-coastal residents are more likely to strongly agree that climatechange is contributing to the rise in sea levels, compared to coastal residents (p < 0.05). The crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found that coastal residents, relative to noncoastalresidents, are more likely to strongly agree that they have experienced the impactsof sea level rise (p < 0.001). Finally, coastal residents are more likely to strongly agree that the state of Delawareneeds to conduct more research to identify the impacts of sea level rise (p < 0.05).‣ The crosstabulation by those convinced that climate change is happening/those not convincedfound statistically significant differences on all six of the questions from the above seriesregarding perceptions about whether climate change is happening. Those convinced that climate change is happening are more likely to agree that scientistsare right that climate change is occurring (p < 0.001). Those convinced that climate change is happening are more likely to strongly agree thatthe state of Delaware needs to conduct more research to identify the impacts of climatechange in Delaware, and those not convinced that climate change is happening are morelikely to strongly disagree that the state of Delaware needs to conduct more research toidentify the impacts of climate change in Delaware (p < 0.001).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 93Those convinced that climate change is happening are more likely to strongly disagreethat the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated, and those not convinced thatclimate change is happening are more likely to strongly agree that the impacts of climatechange are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).Those convinced that climate change is happening are more likely to strongly agree thatclimate change is contributing to the rise in sea levels (p < 0.001).Those not convinced that climate change is happening are more likely to stronglydisagree that they have personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise (p < 0.01).Those convinced that climate change is happening are more likely to agree that the stateof Delaware needs to conduct more research to identify the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware, and those not convinced that climate change is happening are more likely tostrongly disagree that the state of Delaware needs to conduct more research to identifythe impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (p < 0.001).‣ A question explored perceptions of causes of climate change. More residents think thatclimate change, if it is happening, is caused mostly by human activities (43%) than think it iscaused mostly by natural changes in the environment (26%). In the middle, 27% think it iscaused about equally by human activities and by natural changes in the environment.The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities:ooooShows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., thinks that climatechange is a very serious threat; worries a great deal or a moderate amount aboutclimate change; strongly agrees that scientists are right that climate change isoccurring) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to the Mid-AtlanticUnited States, a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States, a very orsomewhat serious threat to him or her personally, a very or somewhat serious threatto river-front cities and towns in Delaware, a very serious threat to ocean-front citiesand towns in Delaware, a very serious threat to the State of Delaware, a very seriousthreat to Delaware beaches, and a very serious threat to marshes and wetlands inDelaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts; agrees that climate change issomething people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).


94 Responsive Managemento Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supports anyefforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., stronglysupports avoiding building new structures; supports purchasing or acquiring land andopen space from willing land sellers using government funds; strongly supportschanging building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas) (all atp < 0.05 or greater significance).o Thinks that his or her county government officials, Delaware’s state legislators,Delaware’s state agencies, his or her city or town government officials, his or herstate government officials, the U.S. Congress, Delaware’s governor, Delawarecitizens, and corporations and industry should all be doing more to address or reducethe impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Would most like to have more information on how sea level rise relates to climatechange / global warming, how to protect property from sea level rise, funding needs /estimated budget to address sea level rise in Delaware, current or potential impacts ofsea level rise, and actions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sea level rise (all atp < 0.001 or greater significance).o Is female (p < 0.01).o Lives in New Castle County (p < 0.01).o Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household (p < 0.01).o Is between ages 18-34 (p < 0.05).The crosstabulation by county of residence found that New Castle County residents arethe least likely to attribute climate change to mostly natural changes in the environment(p < 0.05).‣ A question about the terms “climate changeand “global warming” asked residents whetherthe terms are the same thing, whether they are different but related things, or whether theyare unrelated things (DNREC considers them different but related). The most commonanswer (66%) is that they are different but related things.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 95Q43. How convinced are you that climate change ishappening?Completelyconvinced40Mostly convinced30Not so convinced17Not at allconvinced10Don't know30 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=385)


96 Responsive ManagementQ43. How convinced are you that climate change ishappening?Completelyconvinced304342Mostly convinced263142Not so convinced141719New Castle (n=207)Kent (n=72)Sussex (n=104)Not at allconvinced61110Don't know3340 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 97Q43. How convinced are you that climate change ishappening?Completelyconvinced3753Mostly convinced2032Not so convinced1617Residence is consideredcoastal (n=93)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=292)Not at allconvinced710Don't know430 20 40 60 80 100Percent


98 Responsive ManagementQ43. How convinced are you that climate change ishappening?Completelyconvinced3941Mostlyconvinced2534Not soconvinced1420MaleFemaleNot at allconvinced714Don't know240 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 99Q43. How convinced are you that climate change ishappening?Completelyconvinced363545Mostlyconvinced302833Not soconvinced131525Not at allconvinced81013Does not have any college educationHas some college education, but not aBachelor's degree3Has a Bachelor's degree or higherDon't know240 20 40 60 80 100Percent


100 Responsive ManagementQ53. How convinced are you that sea levels arerising?Completelyconvinced29Mostly convinced34Not so convinced22Not at allconvinced11Don't know50 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 101Q53. How convinced are you that sea levels arerising?Completelyconvinced233029Mostly convinced283441Not so convinced162226New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Not at allconvinced111014Don't know4570 20 40 60 80 100Percent


102 Responsive ManagementQ53. How convinced are you that sea levels arerising?Completelyconvinced2735Mostly convinced2835Not so convinced2122Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Not at allconvinced1112Don't know550 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 103Q105. Scientists predict that sea levels will rise atleast 1 to 3 feet in the next 100 years. Do you agreeor disagree that this is a reasonable prediction?Strongly agree35Moderately agree27Neither agree nordisagree5Moderatelydisagree8Strongly disagree13Don't know120 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


104 Responsive ManagementQ105. Scientists predict that sea levels will rise atleast 1 to 3 feet in the next 100 years. Do you agreeor disagree that this is a reasonable prediction?Strongly agree283138Moderately agree262534Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree466869New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Strongly disagree121317Don't know1213130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 105Q105. Scientists predict that sea levels will rise atleast 1 to 3 feet in the next 100 years. Do you agreeor disagree that this is a reasonable prediction?Strongly agree3635Moderately agree2627Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree5578Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Strongly disagree1218Don't know9130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


106 Responsive ManagementQ44. Which of the following statements bestdescribes your own view of climate change?Most scientiststhink climatechange ishappening.42There is a lot ofdisagreementamong scientistsabout whether ornot climatechange ishappening.42Most scientiststhink climatechange is nothappening.5I don't feel I knowenough to say.120 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=742)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 107Q44. Which of the following statements bestdescribes your own view of climate change?Most scientiststhink climatechange ishappening.293848Most scientiststhink climatechange is nothappening.439There is a lot ofdisagreementamong scientistsabout whether ornot climatechange ishappening.354247New Castle (n=407)Kent (n=149)Sussex (n=184)I don't feel I knowenough to say.715240 20 40 60 80 100Percent


108 Responsive ManagementQ44. Which of the following statements bestdescribes your own view of climate change?Most scientiststhink climatechange ishappening.3644Most scientiststhink climatechange is nothappening.45Residence is consideredcoastal (n=170)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=572)There is a lot ofdisagreementamong scientistsabout whether ornot climatechange ishappening.4047I don't feel I knowenough to say.13110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 109Q44. Which of the following statements bestdescribes your own view of climate change?Most scientiststhink climatechange ishappening.313752Most scientiststhink climatechange is nothappening.1411There is a lot ofdisagreementamong scientistsabout whether ornot climate changeis happening.364054Does not have any college educationI don't feel I knowenough to say.121111Has some college education, but not aBachelor's degreeHas a Bachelor's degree or higher0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


110 Responsive ManagementQ79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly agreewith the following statements about climate changeand sea level rise.Q98. Climate change is contributing to the risein sea levels.52Q79. Scientists are right that climate change isoccurring.51Q100. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts of sealevel rise in DE.45Q81. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts ofclimate change in DE.42Q82. The impacts of climate change aregreatly exaggerated.21Q99. You have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 111Q79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly ormoderately agree with the following statementsabout climate change and sea level rise.Q79. Scientists are right that climate change isoccurring.79Q98. Climate change is contributing to the risein sea levels.75Q100. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts of sealevel rise in DE.73Q81. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts of climatechange in DE.71Q82. The impacts of climate change are greatlyexaggerated.40Q99. You have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.220 20 40 60 80 100Percent


112 Responsive ManagementQ79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who moderately orstrongly disagree with the following statementsabout climate change and sea level rise.Q99. You have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.73Q82. The impacts of climate change are greatlyexaggerated.54Q81. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts of climatechange in DE.23Q100. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts of sealevel rise in DE.23Q98. Climate change is contributing to the risein sea levels.15Q79. Scientists are right that climate change isoccurring.140 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 113Q79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly disagreewith the following statements about climate changeand sea level rise.Q99. You have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.56Q82. The impacts of climate change are greatlyexaggerated.34Q100. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts of sealevel rise in DE.16Q81. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts of climatechange in DE.13Q98. Climate change is contributing to the risein sea levels.10Q79. Scientists are right that climate change isoccurring.80 20 40 60 80 100Percent


114 Responsive ManagementQ79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly agreewith the following statements about climate changeand sea level rise.Q79. Scientists are rightthat climate change isoccurring.394657Q98. Climate change iscontributing to the rise insea levels.414956Q81. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts ofclimate change in DE.Q100. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts ofsea level rise in DE.444139434453New CastleKentSussexQ82. The impacts ofclimate change aregreatly exaggerated.192524Q99. You have personallyexperienced the impactsof sea level rise.813190 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 115Q79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly ormoderately agree with the following statementsabout climate change and sea level rise.Q79. Scientists are rightthat climate change isoccurring.678282Q98. Climate change iscontributing to the rise insea levels.697078Q81. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts ofclimate change in DE.687271Q100. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts of sealevel rise in DE.687282Q82. The impacts ofclimate change aregreatly exaggerated.403941New CastleKentSussexQ99. You have personallyexperienced the impactsof sea level rise.1721290 20 40 60 80 100Percent


116 Responsive ManagementQ79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who moderately orstrongly disagree with the following statementsabout climate change and sea level rise.Q99. You have personallyexperienced the impactsof sea level rise.657481Q82. The impacts ofclimate change aregreatly exaggerated.545355Q100. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts of sealevel rise in DE.Q81. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts ofclimate change in DE.241625212725New CastleKentSussexQ98. Climate change iscontributing to the rise insea levels.121922Q79. Scientists are rightthat climate change isoccurring.1014210 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 117Q79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly disagreewith the following statements about climate changeand sea level rise.Q99. You havepersonally experiencedthe impacts of sea levelrise.505569Q82. The impacts ofclimate change aregreatly exaggerated.263236Q100. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts ofsea level rise in DE.Q81. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts ofclimate change in DE.16920121515New CastleKentSussexQ98. Climate change iscontributing to the rise insea levels.81016Q79. Scientists are rightthat climate change isoccurring.511140 20 40 60 80 100Percent


118 Responsive ManagementQ99. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:You have personally experienced the impacts ofsea level rise.Strongly agree81319Moderately agree8810Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree202191315New Castle (n=438)Kent (n=146)Sussex (n=200)Strongly disagree505569Don't know3240 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 119Q79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly agreewith the following statements about climate changeand sea level rise.Q100. The state ofDelaware needs to conductmore research to identifythe impacts of sea levelrise in DE.4257Q79. Scientists are rightthat climate change isoccurring.5051Q81. The state ofDelaware needs to conductmore research to identifythe impacts of climatechange in DE.4244Q98. Climate change iscontributing to the rise insea levels.3955Q99. You have personallyexperienced the impacts ofsea level rise.1124Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ82. The impacts ofclimate change are greatlyexaggerated.20210 20 40 60 80 100Percent


120 Responsive ManagementQ79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly ormoderately agree with the following statementsabout climate change and sea level rise.Q100. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts of sealevel rise in DE.7181Q79. Scientists are rightthat climate change isoccurring.7879Q81. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts ofclimate change in DE.7173Q98. Climate change iscontributing to the rise insea levels.6477Q82. The impacts ofclimate change are greatlyexaggerated.3942Q99. You have personallyexperienced the impacts ofsea level rise.1935Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastal0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 121Q79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who moderately orstrongly disagree with the following statementsabout climate change and sea level rise.Q99. You have personallyexperienced the impacts ofsea level rise.6177Q82. The impacts ofclimate change are greatlyexaggerated.5056Q98. Climate change iscontributing to the rise insea levels.1327Q81. The state of Delawareneeds to conduct moreresearch to identify theimpacts of climate changein DE.Q79. Scientists are rightthat climate change isoccurring.19231613Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ100. The state ofDelaware needs to conductmore research to identifythe impacts of sea levelrise in DE.15250 20 40 60 80 100Percent


122 Responsive ManagementQ79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly disagreewith the following statements about climate changeand sea level rise.Q99. You have personallyexperienced the impactsof sea level rise.4360Q82. The impacts ofclimate change are greatlyexaggerated.3433Q98. Climate change iscontributing to the rise insea levels.Q81. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts ofclimate change in DE.8131318Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ100. The state ofDelaware needs toconduct more research toidentify the impacts of sealevel rise in DE.1217Q79. Scientists are rightthat climate change isoccurring.8100 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 123Q98. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:Climate change is contributing to the rise in sealevels.Strongly agree3955Moderately agree2225Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree3385Residence is consideredcoastal (n=175)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=572)Strongly disagree818Don't know770 20 40 60 80 100Percent


124 Responsive ManagementQ99. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:You have personally experienced the impacts ofsea level rise.Strongly agree1124Moderately agree811Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree121717Residence is consideredcoastal (n=192)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=594)Strongly disagree4360Don't know430 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 125Q100. Do you agree or disagree with thisstatement: The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts of sea levelrise in Delaware.Strongly agree4257Moderately agree2429Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree1139Residence is consideredcoastal (n=193)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=565)Strongly disagree1217Don't know430 20 40 60 80 100Percent


126 Responsive ManagementQ79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly agreewith the following statements about climate changeand sea level rise.Q79. Scientists are right that climate changeis occurring.465Q98. Climate change is contributing to therise in sea levels.1364Q81. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts ofclimate change in Delaware.2356Q100. The state of Delaware needs toconduct more research to identify the impactsof sea level rise in Delaware.3050Q99. You have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.518Is completely convinced ormostly convinced that climatechange is happeningIs not so convinced or not atall convinced that climatechange is happeningQ82. The impacts of climate change aregreatly exaggerated.12540 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 127Q79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly ormoderately agree with the following statementsabout climate change and sea level rise.Q79. Scientists are right that climate changeis occurring.2093Q100. The state of Delaware needs toconduct more research to identify the impactsof sea level rise in Delaware.4785Q98. Climate change is contributing to therise in sea levels.4082Q81. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts ofclimate change in Delaware.5181Q99. You have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.928Is completely convinced ormostly convinced that climatechange is happeningIs not so convinced or not at allconvinced that climate changeis happeningQ82. The impacts of climate change aregreatly exaggerated.24810 20 40 60 80 100Percent


128 Responsive ManagementQ79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who moderately orstrongly disagree with the following statementsabout climate change and sea level rise.Q99. You have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.7081Q82. The impacts of climate change aregreatly exaggerated.1565Q81. The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts ofclimate change in Delaware.1247Q100. The state of Delaware needs toconduct more research to identify theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.1153Q98. Climate change is contributing to therise in sea levels.933Is completely convinced ormostly convinced that climatechange is happeningIs not so convinced or not atall convinced that climatechange is happeningQ79. Scientists are right that climate changeis occurring.3560 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 129Q79, 81-82, 98-100. Percent who strongly disagreewith the following statements about climate changeand sea level rise.Q99. You have personally experienced theimpacts of sea level rise.5474Q82. The impacts of climate change aregreatly exaggerated.742Q98. Climate change is contributing to therise in sea levels.524Is completely convinced ormostly convinced that climatechange is happeningIs not so convinced or not atall convinced that climatechange is happeningQ100. The state of Delaware needs toconduct more research to identify theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.446Q81. The state of Delaware needs toconduct more research to identify theimpacts of climate change in Delaware.333Q79. Scientists are right that climate changeis occurring.3360 20 40 60 80 100Percent


130 Responsive ManagementQ79. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:Scientists are right that climate change isoccurring.Strongly agree465Moderately agree1629Neither agree nordisagree413Is completely convinced ormostly convinced that climatechange is happeningModeratelydisagree020Is not so convinced or not at allconvinced that climate changeis happeningStrongly disagree336Don't know1110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 131Q81. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:The state of Delaware needs to conduct moreresearch to identify the impacts of climate changein Delaware.Strongly agree2356Moderately agree2528Neither agree nordisagree23Is completely convinced or mostlyconvinced that climate change ishappeningModeratelydisagree914Is not so convinced or not at allconvinced that climate change ishappeningStrongly disagree333Don't know040 20 40 60 80 100Percent


132 Responsive ManagementQ82. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:The impacts of climate change are greatlyexaggerated.Strongly agree1254Moderately agree1227Neither agree nordisagree34Is completely convinced or mostlyconvinced that climate change ishappeningModeratelydisagree823Is not so convinced or not at allconvinced that climate change ishappeningStrongly disagree742Don't know080 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 133Q98. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:Climate change is contributing to the rise in sealevels.Strongly agree1364Moderately agree1827Neither agree nordisagree112Is completely convinced or mostlyconvinced that climate change ishappeningModeratelydisagree49Is not so convinced or not at allconvinced that climate change ishappeningStrongly disagree524Don't know8150 20 40 60 80 100Percent


134 Responsive ManagementQ99. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:You have personally experienced the impacts ofsea level rise.Strongly agree518Moderately agree49Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree02716Is completely convinced or mostlyconvinced that climate change ishappeningIs not so convinced or not at allconvinced that climate change ishappeningStrongly disagree5474Don't know1100 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 135Q100. Do you agree or disagree with thisstatement: The state of Delaware needs to conductmore research to identify the impacts of sea levelrise in Delaware.Strongly agree3050Moderately agree1735Neither agree nordisagree01Is completely convinced or mostlyconvinced that climate change ishappeningModeratelydisagree66Is not so convinced or not at allconvinced that climate change ishappeningStrongly disagree446Don't know040 20 40 60 80 100Percent


136 Responsive ManagementQ45. If climate change is happening, which of thesefactors is causing it? Please tell me which comescloser to your own view.It is caused mostly by humanactivities.43(Respondent indicated that it iscaused about equally by humanactivities and natural changes in theenvironment together.)27It is caused mostly by naturalchanges in the environment.26(Respondent refused or did notknow.)40 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1123)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 137Q45. If climate change is happening, which of thesefactors is causing it? Please tell me which comescloser to your own view.It is caused mostly by humanactivities.393647It is caused mostly by naturalchanges in the environment.(Respondent indicated that it iscaused about equally by humanactivities and natural changes in theenvironment together.)223034272823New Castle (n=607)Kent (n=217)Sussex (n=294)(Respondent refused or did notknow.)4370 20 40 60 80 100Percent


138 Responsive ManagementQ45. If climate change is happening, which of thesefactors is causing it? Please tell me which comescloser to your own view.It is caused mostly by humanactivities.4248It is caused mostly by naturalchanges in the environment.2326(Respondent indicated that it iscaused about equally by humanactivities and natural changes in theenvironment together.)2128Residence is consideredcoastal (n=267)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=856)(Respondent refused or did notknow.)370 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 139Q39. Which of the following best describes youropinion of the terms "climate change" and "globalwarming"?"Climate change"and "globalwarming" are thesame thing, andthe terms can beusedinterchangeably.17"Climate change"and "globalwarming" refer totwo differentthings, but theyare related.66"Climate change"and "globalwarming" refer totwo unrelatedthings.9Don't know80 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=742)


140 Responsive ManagementQ39. Which of the following best describes youropinion of the terms "climate change" and "globalwarming"?"Climate change"and "globalwarming" are thesame thing, andthe terms can beusedinterchangeably.171817"Climate change"and "globalwarming" refer totwo differentthings but arerelated.576968"Climate change"and "globalwarming" refer totwo unrelatedthings.988New Castle (n=402)Kent (n=136)Sussex (n=200)4Don't know6180 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 141Q39. Which of the following best describes youropinion of the terms "climate change" and "globalwarming"?"Climate change"and "globalwarming" are thesame thing, andthe terms can beusedinterchangeably.1624"Climate change"and "globalwarming" refer totwo differentthings but arerelated.5569"Climate change"and "globalwarming" refer totwo unrelatedthings.910Residence is consideredcoastal (n=181)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=561)Don't know7120 20 40 60 80 100Percent


142 Responsive ManagementPERCEPTIONS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AS A THREAT‣ Most residents (77%) consider climate change to be a threat, saying it is a very serious threat(38%) or a somewhat serious threat (39%). At the other end, 21% consider it to be a not veryserious or not at all serious threat.The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that climate change is a very serious threat:ooooooooooSays he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change(p < 0.001) and sea level rise (p < 0.001).Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about climate change; is completely or mostly convinced that sealevels are rising) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or herpersonally, a very serious threat to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, a very orsomewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States, a very or somewhatserious threat to the United States, a very serious threat to the State of Delaware, avery serious threat to Delaware beaches, a very or somewhat serious threat to riverfrontcities and towns in Delaware, and a very serious threat to marshes and wetlandsin Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts; agrees that climate change issomething people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supports anyefforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., stronglysupports changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas;strongly supports avoiding building new structures; supports purchasing or acquiringland and open space from willing land sellers using government funds) (all atp < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that the U.S. Congress, Delaware’s state legislator, Delaware’s state agencies,Delaware’s governor, corporations and industry, his or her state government officials,his or her county government officials, Delaware citizens, and his or her city or towngovernment officials should all be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sealevel rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Would most like to have more information on how sea level rise relates to climatechange / global warming (p < 0.001), actions that can be taken to reduce impacts ofsea level rise (p < 0.001), sea level rise in general (p < 0.001), current or potentialimpacts of sea level rise (p < 0.001), how to protect property from sea level rise


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 143(p < 0.01), and funding needs / estimated budget to address sea level rise in Delaware(p < 0.01).o Lives in New Castle County (p < 0.01).o Has been a Delaware resident for less than the mean of 30 years (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town (p < 0.05).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).o Is female (p < 0.05).In the crosstabulation by gender, the results show that women are more likely than aremen to think that climate change is a very or somewhat serious threat (p < 0.001 on thecombination of very and somewhat serious threat).‣ Six questions explored how much residents worry about various aspects of climate change,shown in Text Box 4 below. The most concern, in the ranking by the percentage worrying a great deal or a moderateamount, is regarding the impact of climate change on Delaware’s environment (61%).Four items follow, grouped together: worry about the impact on the respondent’s ownquality of life in Delaware (54%), worry about climate change personally (53%), worryabout the impacts of climate change on Delaware’s economy (52%), and worry about theproblems sea level rise may cause (52%). At the bottom, only 39% said that they worry a great deal or a moderate amount aboutsea level rise personally.Text Box 4Amount of Worry About Specific Aspects of Climate Change(Ranked by the Percentage Who Worry a Great Deal or a Moderate Amount Aboutthe Following Issues)How much do you worry about the impacts of climate change on Delaware’s environment?How much do you worry about the impacts of climate change on your quality of life in Delaware?How much do you personally worry about climate change?How much do you worry about the impacts of climate change on Delaware’s economy?How much do you worry about the problems sea level rise may cause in Delaware?How much do you personally worry about sea level rise?


144 Responsive Management‣ The nonparametric analysis examined in detail one of the questions in the above series aboutthe amount of worry Delaware residents have about the problems that sea level rise maycause in Delaware.The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withworrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea level rise maycause in Delaware:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise (p < 0.001)and climate change (p < 0.01).o Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or herpersonally, a very serious threat to Delaware beaches, a very or somewhat seriousthreat to the United States, a very or somewhat serious threat to river-front cities andtowns in Delaware, a very or somewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic UnitedStates, a very serious threat to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, a veryserious threat to the State of Delaware, and a very serious threat to marshes andwetlands in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about climate change; is completely or mostly convinced that sealevels are rising; thinks that climate change is a very serious threat) (all at p < 0.001or greater significance).o Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).o Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.05).o Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts; agrees that climate change issomething people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o On most questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supportsany efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., supportspurchasing or acquiring land and open space from willing land sellers usinggovernment funds; supports elevating buildings using government funds; supportselevating the land surface) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that his or her state government officials, Delaware’s state legislators,Delaware’s governor, Delaware’s state agencies, his or her city or town governmentofficials, his or her county government officials, Delaware citizens, the U.S.Congress, and corporations and industry should all be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Would most like to have more information on funding needs / estimated budget toaddress sea level rise in Delaware, how to protect property from sea level rise, actionsthat can be taken to reduce impacts of sea level rise, how sea level rise relates to


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 145climate change / global warming, sea level rise in general, and current or potentialimpacts of sea level rise (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Primary sources of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware aretelevision (p < 0.01), and the Internet, not including Department of Natural Resourcesand Environmental Control website (p < 0.01).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).o Lives in Sussex County (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town (p < 0.01).o Is female (p < 0.05).o Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household (p < 0.05).o Does not have a bachelor’s degree (p < 0.05).‣ The crosstabulation by county of residence found statistically significant differences on twoof the questions in the above series regarding the amount of worry about various aspects ofclimate change and sea level rise. Kent County residents, compared to residents of the other two counties, are the leastlikely to personally worry a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise(p < 0.05). Sussex County residents, compared to residents of the other two counties, are the mostlikely to worry a great deal or moderate amount about the problems that sea level risemay cause in Delaware (p < 0.05).‣ The crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found statistically significant differences on onequestion in the above series regarding the amount of worry about various aspects of climatechange and sea level rise. Coastal residents are more likely than are non-coastal residents toworry a great deal or moderate amount about the problems sea level rise may cause inDelaware (p < 0.01).‣ Fifteen questions asked residents to indicate how much sea level rise is a threat to variouslocations (e.g., beaches, ocean-front towns, the state as a whole) or various other things (e.g.,wildlife, the economy, public works systems), shown in Text Box 5 on the following page. In looking at the ranking by the percentage saying that sea level rise is a very seriousthreat, three items stand out at the top: Delaware’s beaches (53% say sea level rise is a


146 Responsive Managementvery serious threat to this), ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware (48%), and marshesand wetlands in Delaware (42%).A middle tier consists of seven items, each with 30% to 34% saying sea level rise is avery serious threat to it: river-front cities and towns in Delaware (34%), the state ofDelaware as a whole (33%), Delaware’s wildlife populations (32%), Delaware’seconomy (32%), the United States as a whole (31%), the Mid-Atlantic states (30%), andDelaware’s public works (30%).There are five items in a bottom tier of items not considered by many to be greatlythreatened by sea level rise: outdoor recreation in Delaware (24%), the respondent’slocal community (19%), the respondent personally (18%), the respondent’s family (14%),and the respondent’s property (13%).Text Box 5Items to Which Sea Level Rise May Be a Threat(Ranked by the Percentage Who Think Sea Level Rise is a Very Serious Threat tothe Following)Delaware beachesOcean-front cities and towns in DelawareMarsh and wetlands in DelawareRiver-front cities and towns in DelawareThe State of DelawareDelaware’s wildlife populationsDelaware’s economyThe United StatesThe Mid-Atlantic U.S.Delaware’s public works systems, such as public buildings, roads, and sewer systemsOutdoor recreation in DelawareYour local communityYou personallyYour familyYour property


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 147‣ The nonparametric analysis examined in detail two questions from the above series about theitems to which sea level rise may be a threat.The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that sea level rise is a very serious threat to the State of Delaware:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise (p < 0.001).o Thinks that sea level rise is a very serious threat to Delaware beaches, a very orsomewhat serious threat to him or her personally, a very serious threat to ocean-frontcities and towns in Delaware, a very serious threat to marshes and wetlands inDelaware, a very or somewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States, a veryor somewhat serious threat to the United States, and a very or somewhat seriousthreat to river-front cities and towns in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., thinks that climatechange is a very serious threat; is completely or mostly convinced that sea levels arerising; worries a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change) (all atp < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).o Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts; agrees that climate change issomething people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o On most questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supportsany efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., stronglysupports changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas;supports purchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties using governmentfunds; strongly supports elevating buildings using private funding) (all at p < 0.05 orgreater significance).o Thinks that Delaware’s state legislators, the U.S. Congress, corporations and industry,his or her city or town government officials, Delaware citizens, Delaware’s stateagencies, his or her county government officials, his or her state government officials,and Delaware’s governor should all be doing more to address or reduce the impacts ofsea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Would most like to have more information on current or potential impacts of sea levelorise (p < 0.01).A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware istelevision (p < 0.05).o Is female (p < 0.05).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town (p < 0.05).


148 Responsive ManagementThe nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise (p < 0.001),and climate change (p < 0.001).o Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about climate change; is completely or mostly convinced that sealevels are rising; worries a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems thatsea level rise may cause in Delaware) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to the Mid-AtlanticUnited States, a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States, a very seriousthreat to Delaware beaches, a very or somewhat serious threat to river-front cities andtowns in Delaware, a very serious threat to the State of Delaware, a very seriousthreat to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, and a very serious threat tomarshes and wetlands in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).o Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o On most questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supportsany efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., supportselevating buildings using government funds; supports building dikes, seawalls, andbulkheads to keep water back; supports elevating the land surface) (all at p < 0.05 orgreater significance).o Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that climate changeis something people can control; agrees that the impacts of climate change can bereduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Has flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Would most like to have more information on actions that can be taken to reduceimpacts of sea level rise (p < 0.001), current or potential impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.001), funding needs / estimated budget to address sea level rise in Delaware(p < 0.001), sea level rise in general (p < 0.001), how sea level rise relates to climatechange / global warming (p < 0.01), and how to protect property from sea level rise(p < 0.05).o Is female (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a coastal area (p < 0.001).o Lives in Sussex County (p < 0.01).o Is between ages 18-34 (p < 0.05).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 149‣ The nonparametric analysis also examined in detail questions from the above series forwhich respondents viewed sea level rise as not a very serious or not at all a threat.The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the UnitedStates:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.001).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the Mid-AtlanticU.S., to the State of Delaware, to Delaware beaches, to him/her personally, to his/herfamily, to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware, to ocean-front cities and towns inDelaware, to Delaware's public works systems, such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systems, to river-front cities and towns in Delaware, to his/her property, toDelaware's economy, to his/her local community, or to Delaware's wildlifepopulations (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does not worryabout climate change, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced thatsea levels are rising, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a very seriousthreat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.01).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not stronglyagree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts, does notagree that climate change is something people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o On most questions, does not support any alterations in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., does not indicatestrong support for changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in floodproneareas, does not indicate support for purchasing or acquiring land and openspace from willing land sellers using government funds, Does not indicate support forelevating buildings in areas using government funds) (all at p < 0.01 or greatersignificance).o Supports allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrate inland to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.05).


150 Responsive Managemento Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens, Delaware's state legislators, his orher county government officials, his or her state government officials, his or her cityor town government officials, the U.S. Congress, Delaware's governor, Delaware'sstate agencies, or corporations and industry should be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Gets most of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware frommagazines (p < 0.05).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a rural area (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the Mid-AtlanticU.S.:o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the United States(p < 0.001), to the State of Delaware (p < 0.001), to him/her personally (p < 0.001), toDelaware beaches (p < 0.001), to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware (p < 0.001), tohis/her family (p < 0.001), to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware (p < 0.001), tohis/her property (p < 0.001), to river-front cities and towns in Delaware (p < 0.001),to Delaware's public works systems, such as public buildings, roads, and sewersystems (p < 0.001), to his/her local community (p < 0.001), to Delaware's economy(p < 0.001), or to outdoor recreation in Delaware (p < 0.05).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does not worryabout climate change, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced thatsea levels are rising, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a very seriousthreat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.05).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, does notsupport any efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g.,does not indicate strong support for changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood-prone areas, does not indicate strong support for avoidingbuilding new structures, does not indicate support for elevating buildings usinggovernment funds) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 151o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not agree thatclimate change is something people can control, does not strongly agree that theimpacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 orgreater significance).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens, the U.S. Congress, Delaware'sgovernor, Delaware's state legislators, his or her state government officials, his or hercity or town government officials, his or her county government officials, Delaware'sstate agencies, or corporations and industry should be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Is male (p < 0.01).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the State ofDelaware:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.05).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the Mid-AtlanticU.S., to Delaware beaches, to the United States, to the marsh and wetlands inDelaware, to him/her personally, to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, toriver-front cities and towns in Delaware, to his/her family, to outdoor recreation inDelaware, to his/her property, Delaware's wildlife populations, to Delaware's publicworks systems, such as public buildings, roads, and sewer systems, or to his/her localcommunity (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate being completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising, does notworry about climate change, does not indicate worrying a great deal or a moderateamount about the problems that sea level rise may cause in Delaware) (all atp < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.001).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o On most questions, does not support any alterations in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., does not indicate


152 Responsive Managementsupport for purchasing or acquiring land and open space from willing land sellersusing government funds, does not indicate support for purchasing or buying outfrequently flooded properties using government funds, does not indicate strongsupport for changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood-proneareas) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not agree thatclimate change is something people can control, does not strongly agree that theimpacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 orgreater significance).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), his or her city or towngovernment officials (p < 0.001), his or her county government officials (p < 0.001),his or her state government officials (p < 0.001), the U.S. Congress (p < 0.001),Delaware's state legislators (p < 0.001), Delaware's governor (p < 0.001),corporations and industry (p < 0.001), or Delaware's state agencies (p < 0.01) shouldbe doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.o Is male (p < 0.01).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delawarebeaches:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.01).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the marsh andwetlands in Delaware, to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, the State ofDelaware, to the United States, to the Mid-Atlantic U.S., to river-front cities andtowns in Delaware, to outdoor recreation in Delaware, to Delaware's wildlifepopulations, to Delaware's economy, to his/her family, to his/her property, or tohis/her local community (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does not worryabout climate change, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced thatsea levels are rising, is not worried about sea level rise) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.01).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 153o On most questions, does not support any alterations in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., does not indicatesupport for elevating the land surface, does not indicate support for purchasing oracquiring land and open space from willing land sellers using government funds, doesnot indicate strong support for changing building codes and regulations to reduce riskin flood-prone areas) (all at p < 0.01 or greater significance).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not stronglyagree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts, does notagree that climate change is something people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), his or her stategovernment officials (p < 0.001), his or her county government officials (p < 0.001),his or her city or town government officials (p < 0.001), Delaware's state legislators(p < 0.001), Delaware's governor (p < 0.001), the U.S. Congress (p < 0.001),Delaware's state agencies (p < 0.001), or corporations and industry (p < 0.01) shouldbe doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.o Is male (p < 0.001)o Lives in Sussex County (p < 0.01).o Has been a Delaware resident for the mean of 30 years or more (p < 0.01).o Does not have any children, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household(p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to the marsh andwetlands in Delaware:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.01).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delaware beaches(p < 0.001), to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware (p < 0.001), to the State ofDelaware (p < 0.001), to river-front cities and towns in Delaware (p < 0.001), to theMid-Atlantic U.S. (p < 0.001), to him/her personally (p < 0.001), to the United States(p < 0.001), to outdoor recreation in Delaware (p < 0.001), to Delaware's wildlifepopulations (p < 0.001), to Delaware's economy (p < 0.001), to his/her family(p < 0.001), to Delaware's public works systems, such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systems (p < 0.001), or to his/her property (p < 0.01).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does not worryabout climate change, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced thatsea levels are rising, is not worried about sea level rise) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).


154 Responsive Managemento Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.05).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not stronglyagree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts, does notagree that climate change is something people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o On most questions, does not support any alterations in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., does not indicatesupport for purchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties using governmentfunds, does not indicate support for elevating the land surface, does not indicatesupport for purchasing or acquiring land and open space from willing land sellersusing government funds) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), his or her stategovernment officials (p < 0.001), Delaware's state legislators (p < 0.001), his or hercounty government officials (p < 0.001), Delaware's governor (p < 0.001), his or hercity or town government officials (p < 0.001), the U.S. Congress (p < 0.001),Delaware's state agencies (p < 0.001), or corporations and industry (p < 0.01) shouldbe doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.o Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Lives in Sussex County (p < 0.01).o Is between ages 35-64 (p < 0.01).o Has been a Delaware resident for the mean of 30 years or more (p < 0.01).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to ocean-frontcities and towns in Delaware:o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to river-front citiesand towns in Delaware, to Delaware beaches, to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware,to the State of Delaware, to Delaware's wildlife populations, to outdoor recreation inDelaware, to him/her personally, to Delaware's economy, to the United States, to theMid-Atlantic U.S., to Delaware's public works systems, such as public buildings,roads, and sewer systems, to his/her family, or to his/her local community (all atp < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does not worryabout climate change, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced thatsea levels are rising, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a very seriousthreat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 155o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.01).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not stronglyagree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts, does notagree that climate change is something people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, does notsupport any efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g.,does not indicate strong support for changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood-prone areas, does not indicate support for purchasing or acquiringland and open space from willing land sellers using government funds, does notindicate support for elevating the land surface) (all at p < 0.05 or greatersignificance).o Does not indicate thinking that his or her state government officials, Delaware's statelegislators, Delaware citizens, his or her county government officials, his or her cityor town government officials, the U.S. Congress, Delaware's governor, Delaware'sstate agencies, or corporations and industry should be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Has been a Delaware resident for the mean of 30 years or more (p < 0.01).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to river-front citiesand towns in Delaware:o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to ocean-front citiesand towns in Delaware, to outdoor recreation in Delaware, to the marsh and wetlandsin Delaware, to Delaware's wildlife populations, to Delaware beaches, to him/herpersonally, to Delaware's economy, to the State of Delaware, to Delaware's publicworks systems, such as public buildings, roads, and sewer systems, to the UnitedStates, to the Mid-Atlantic U.S., to his/her local community, or to his/her property (allat p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does not worryabout climate change, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced that


156 Responsive Managementsea levels are rising, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a very seriousthreat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.05).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not stronglyagree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts, does notagree that climate change is something people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, does notsupport any efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g.,does not indicate strong support for changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood-prone areas, does not indicate strong support for avoidingbuilding new structures, does not indicate support for purchasing or acquiring landand open space from willing land sellers using government funds) (all at p < 0.01 orgreater significance).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware's governor, Delaware citizens, Delaware'sstate legislators, his or her state government officials, the U.S. Congress, his or hercounty government officials, Delaware's state agencies, or his or her city or towngovernment officials should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sealevel rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Gets most of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware from theInternet, not including Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Controlwebsite (p < 0.05).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).o Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to outdoorrecreation in Delaware:o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to river-front citiesand towns in Delaware (p < 0.001), to Delaware's wildlife populations (p < 0.001), toDelaware's economy (p < 0.001), to him/her personally (p < 0.001), to ocean-frontcities and towns in Delaware (p < 0.001), to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 157(p < 0.001), to Delaware's public works systems, such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systems (p < 0.001), to Delaware beaches (p < 0.001), to his/her localcommunity (p < 0.001), to the State of Delaware (p < 0.001), to his/her property(p < 0.001), to his/her family (p < 0.001), or to the Mid-Atlantic U.S. (p < 0.05).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does not worryabout climate change, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced thatsea levels are rising, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a very seriousthreat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate thinking that most scientists think that climate change is happening(p < 0.001), and does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientistsare right that climate change is occurring (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o On most questions, does not support any alterations in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., does not indicatesupport for elevating the land surface, does not indicate support for purchasing oracquiring land and open space from willing land sellers using government funds, doesnot indicate support for building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads to keep water back)(all at p < 0.01 or greater significance).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not strongly agree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by humanefforts (p < 0.001), and does not agree that climate change is something people cancontrol (p < 0.05).o Does not indicate thinking that the U.S. Congress, Delaware citizens, Delaware'sgovernor, Delaware's state agencies, his or her county government officials, his or herstate government officials, Delaware's state legislators, corporations and industry, orhis or her city or town government officials should be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).o Gets most of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware from theInternet, not including Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Controlwebsite (p < 0.01).o Is male (p < 0.001).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delaware'swildlife populations:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.05).


158 Responsive Managemento Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to outdoor recreationin Delaware, to Delaware's economy, to Delaware's public works systems, such aspublic buildings, roads, and sewer systems, to river-front cities and towns inDelaware, to him/her personally, to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, tohis/her local community, to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware, to Delawarebeaches, to the State of Delaware, to his/her property, to his/her family, or to theUnited States (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does not worryabout climate change, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced thatsea levels are rising, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a very seriousthreat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.01).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not stronglyagree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts, does notagree that climate change is something people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, does notsupport any efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g.,does not indicate strong support for changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood-prone areas, does not indicate support for purchasing or buyingout frequently flooded properties using government funds, does not indicate supportfor elevating buildings using government funds) (all at p < 0.05 or greatersignificance).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens, the U.S. Congress, Delaware's stateagencies, his or her state government officials, Delaware's state legislators,Delaware's governor, his or her county government officials, corporations andindustry, or his or her city or town government officials should be doing more toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Has been a Delaware resident for the mean of 30 years or more (p < 0.01).o Has a bachelor's degree or graduate degree (p < 0.05).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a rural area (p < 0.05).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 159The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delaware'seconomy:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change(p < 0.05).o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.05).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delaware's wildlifepopulations, to outdoor recreation in Delaware, to Delaware's public works systems,such as public buildings, roads, and sewer systems, to him/her personally, to riverfrontcities and towns in Delaware, to his/her local community, to ocean-front citiesand towns in Delaware, to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware, to the United States,to Delaware beaches, to his/her property, to his/her family, or to the Mid-AtlanticU.S. (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does not worryabout climate change, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced thatsea levels are rising, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a very seriousthreat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not indicate thinking that most scientists think that climate change is happening(p < 0.001), and does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientistsare right that climate change is occurring (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.05).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, does notsupport any efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g.,does not indicate strong support for changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood-prone areas, does not indicate support for purchasing or buyingout frequently flooded properties using government funds, does not indicate supportfor purchasing or acquiring land and open space from willing land sellers usinggovernment funds) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not stronglyagree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts, does notagree that climate change is something people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens, his or her state governmentofficials, his or her city or town government officials, his or her county governmentofficials, Delaware's state legislators, Delaware's governor, the U.S. Congress,


160 Responsive ManagementDelaware's state agencies, or corporations and industry should be doing more toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Gets most of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware from theInternet, not including Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Controlwebsite (p < 0.05).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Has a bachelor's degree or graduate degree (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to Delaware’spublic works systems, such as public buildings, roads, and sewer systems:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” are the same thing and that theterms can be used interchangeably (p < 0.01).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her localcommunity, to Delaware's wildlife populations, to him/her personally, to Delaware'seconomy, to his/her family, to his/her property, to outdoor recreation in Delaware, toriver-front cities and towns in Delaware, to the United States, to the Mid-AtlanticU.S., to the State of Delaware, to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, or to themarsh and wetlands in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea levelrise may cause in Delaware, does not indicate being completely or mostly convincedthat sea levels are rising, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a veryserious threat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.001).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, does notsupport any efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g.,does not indicate strong support for changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood-prone areas, does not indicate support for elevating buildingsusing government funds, does not indicate support for building dikes, seawalls, andbulkheads to keep water back) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 161o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not stronglyagree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts, does notagree that climate change is something people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Does not indicate thinking that the U.S. Congress, Delaware citizens, Delaware'sgovernor, Delaware's state legislators, Delaware's state agencies, his or her stategovernment officials, his or her county government officials, corporations andindustry, or his or her city or town government officials should be doing more toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Lives in Kent County (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a rural area (p < 0.01).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her localcommunity:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.001).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her property, tohim/her personally, to his/her family, to Delaware's public works systems, such aspublic buildings, roads, and sewer systems, to Delaware's economy, to Delaware'swildlife populations, to outdoor recreation in Delaware, to river-front cities and townsin Delaware, to the United States, to the Mid-Atlantic U.S., to the State of Delaware,to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, or to Delaware beaches (all at p < 0.001or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate thinking that climate change is a very serious threat, does not indicateworrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea level risemay cause in Delaware, does not indicate being completely or mostly convinced thatsea levels are rising) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not agree thatclimate change is something people can control, does not strongly agree that the


162 Responsive Managementimpacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 orgreater significance).o On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, does notsupport any efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g.,does not indicate support for elevating buildings using government funds, does notindicate strong support for changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk inflood-prone areas, Does not indicate support for purchasing or acquiring land andopen space from willing land sellers using government funds) (all at p < 0.01 orgreater significance).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate thinking that the U.S. Congress, Delaware's governor, Delaware'sstate agencies, Delaware citizens, his or her city or town government officials,corporations and industry, Delaware's state legislators, his or her state governmentofficials, or his or her county government officials should be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Gets most of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware fromnewspapers (p < 0.05).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.001).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Lives in Kent County (p < 0.001).o Has a bachelor's degree or graduate degree (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her property:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.01).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her family(p < 0.001), to him/her personally (p < 0.001), to his/her local community (p < 0.001),to Delaware's public works systems, such as public buildings, roads, and sewersystems (p < 0.001), to the Mid-Atlantic U.S. (p < 0.001), to the United States(p < 0.001), to the State of Delaware (p < 0.001), to Delaware's economy (p < 0.001),to Delaware's wildlife populations (p < 0.001), to outdoor recreation in Delaware(p < 0.001), to river-front cities and towns in Delaware (p < 0.001), to Delawarebeaches (p < 0.001), or to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware (p < 0.01).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate being completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising, does notindicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea levelrise may cause in Delaware, is not worried about sea level rise) (all at p < 0.001 orgreater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.001).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 163o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.01), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.05).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment (p < 0.05).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o On most questions, does not support any alterations in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., does not indicatesupport for building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads to keep water back, does notindicate support for purchasing or acquiring land and open space from willing landsellers using government funds, does not indicate support for elevating buildingsusing government funds) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not agree thatclimate change is something people can control, does not strongly agree that theimpacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 orgreater significance).o Does not indicate thinking that the U.S. Congress (p < 0.001), Delaware's governor(p < 0.001), Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), Delaware's state legislators (p < 0.001),Delaware's state agencies (p < 0.001), his or her city or town government officials(p < 0.001), his or her state government officials (p < 0.001), his or her countygovernment officials (p < 0.001), or corporations and industry (p < 0.01) should bedoing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.o Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.001).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household (p < 0.01).o Lives in New Castle County (p < 0.01).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her family:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.001).o Says he/she knows a little or nothing about climate change (p < 0.05).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her property, tohim/her personally, to his/her local community, to the United States, to the Mid-Atlantic U.S., to Delaware's public works systems, such as public buildings, roads,and sewer systems, to the State of Delaware, to Delaware beaches, to Delaware'seconomy, to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware, to Delaware's wildlife populations,to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, or to outdoor recreation in Delaware (allat p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate being completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising, does notindicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea levelrise may cause in Delaware, does not indicate thinking that climate change is a veryserious threat) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).


164 Responsive Managemento Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment (p < 0.01).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, does notsupport any efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g.,does not indicate support for elevating buildings using government funds, does notindicate support for purchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties usinggovernment funds, does not indicate support for building dikes, seawalls, andbulkheads to keep water back) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not agree thatclimate change is something people can control, does not strongly agree that theimpacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 orgreater significance).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware's governor (p < 0.001), the U.S. Congress(p < 0.001), Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), his or her state government officials(p < 0.001), Delaware's state legislators (p < 0.001), his or her city or towngovernment officials (p < 0.001), his or her county government officials (p < 0.001),Delaware's state agencies (p < 0.001), or corporations and industry (p < 0.05) shouldbe doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.o Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.01).o Has been a Delaware resident for the mean of 30 years or more (p < 0.05).o Is between ages 35-64 (p < 0.05).o Is male (p < 0.05).o Is age 65 or older (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withindicating that sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to him/herpersonally:o Thinks that “climate changeand “global warming” refer to two unrelated things(p < 0.001).o Knows little or nothing about sea level rise (p < 0.001) or climate change (p < 0.05).o Indicates sea level rise is not a very serious or not at all a threat to his/her family, tohis/her property, to his/her local community, to the Mid-Atlantic U.S., to the State ofDelaware, to Delaware's public works systems, such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systems, to the United States, to outdoor recreation in Delaware, to Delaware'swildlife populations, to Delaware's economy, to river-front cities and towns in


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 165Delaware, to Delaware beaches, to the marsh and wetlands in Delaware, or to oceanfrontcities and towns in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea levelrise may cause in Delaware, does not indicate being completely or mostly convincedthat sea levels are rising, does not worry about climate change) (all at p < 0.001 orgreater significance).o Agrees that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring (p < 0.001), and does not indicate thinking that mostscientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001).o Disagrees that he/she has personally experienced the impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.001).o Indicates that climate change is caused by natural changes in environment(p < 0.001).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise won't start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o On most questions, does not support any alterations in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., does not indicatesupport for elevating buildings using government funds, does not indicate support forbuilding dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads to keep water back, does not indicate supportfor elevating the land surface) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not believe human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., does not agree thatclimate change is something people can control, does not strongly agree that theimpacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 orgreater significance).o Does not indicate thinking that the U.S. Congress, Delaware citizens, Delaware'sgovernor, his or her city or town government officials, Delaware's state legislators,his or her state government officials, Delaware's state agencies, his or her countygovernment officials, or corporations and industry should be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greatersignificance).o Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Is male (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.01).o Is age 65 or older (p < 0.05).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).


166 Responsive Management‣ Several questions in the above series had notable differences in responses whencrosstabulated by county of residence. Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the most likelyto consider sea level rise to be a very serious threat to Delaware’s beaches (p < 0.05). Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the most likelyto consider sea level rise to be not at all a serious threat to Delaware’s economy(p < 0.05). Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the most likelyto consider sea level rise to be not at all a serious threat to Delaware’s public workssystems (p < 0.01). Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the most likelyto consider sea level rise to be not at all a serious threat to their local community(p < 0.001). Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the most likelyto consider sea level rise to be not at all a serious threat to their property (p < 0.01).‣ Several questions in the above series had notable differences in responses among coastalversus non-coastal residents. In the above series, the crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found that coastal residentsare more likely to think that sea level rise is a very serious threat to river-front cities andtowns in Delaware, compared to non-coastal residents (p < 0.001). Coastal residents are more likely, relative to non-coastal residents, to think that sea levelrise is a very serious threat to outdoor recreation in Delaware (p < 0.01). Coastal residents are more likely than are non-coastal residents to think that sea level riseis a very serious threat to their local community (p < 0.001). Coastal residents, relative to non-coastal residents, are more likely to think that sea levelrise is a very serious threat to their property (p < 0.001). Coastal residents, compared to non-coastal residents, are more likely to think that sealevel rise is a very serious threat to their family (p < 0.001).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 167Finally, in the above series, the crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found that coastalresidents are more likely, relative to non-coastal residents, to think that sea level rise is avery serious threat to them personally (p < 0.001).‣ Delaware residents overwhelmingly think that Sussex County is the most threatened by sealevel rise (78% named Sussex County); only 5% named either New Castle County or KentCounty. The crosstabulation by county of residence found that New Castle County residents,relative to residents of the other two counties, are the most likely to think that New CastleCounty is the most threatened by sea level rise (p < 0.001). (Nonetheless, a largemajority of residents of each county think that Sussex County is the most threatened.)‣ Residents were asked to indicate when they think that sea level rise will start to have impactson the area in which they live in Delaware: 5 years, 10 years, 25 years, 50 years, or 100years, or if they think that sea levels are not rising. Answers are spread fairly evenly amongthe possible responses. For instance, 14% think sea level rise is having an impact now, and11% think it will have an impact in 100 years. The most common response is 25 years(17%). The crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found that coastal residents, relative to noncoastalresidents, are more likely to say that sea level rise is having impacts now(p < 0.001). On the other hand, non-coastal residents are more likely to pick a date in thefuture when saying when they think that sea level rise will start to have impacts on thearea in which they live. Men, compared to women, are more likely to think that sea level rise will start to haveimpacts in the distant future (rather than the near future or now) or to never have impacts(p < 0.001).


168 Responsive ManagementQ41. How serious a threat do you think climatechange is?Very serious38Somewhat serious39Not very serious11Not at all serious10Don't know20 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 169Q41. How serious a threat do you think climatechange is?Very serious333341Somewhat serious383942Not very serious101213New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Not at all serious91112Don't know2130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


170 Responsive ManagementQ41. How serious a threat do you think climatechange is?Very serious3740Somewhatserious3740Not very serious1011Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Not at all serious1010Don't know230 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 171Q41. How serious a threat do you think climatechange is?Very serious3540Somewhatserious3543Not very serious715MaleFemaleNot at all serious813Don't know220 20 40 60 80 100Percent


172 Responsive ManagementQ47-50, 55-56. Percent who worry a great dealabout the following issues concerning climatechange and sea level rise.Q48. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'senvironment22Q49. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'seconomy22Q50. The impactsof climate changeon his/her qualityof life in Delaware21Q56. Theproblems sea levelrise may cause inDelaware19Q47. About climatechange personally14Q55. About sealevel risepersonally110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 173Q47-50, 55-56. Percent who worry a great deal or amoderate amount about the following issuesconcerning climate change and sea level rise.Q48. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'senvironment61Q50. The impactsof climate changeon his/her qualityof life in Delaware54Q47. About climatechange personally53Q49. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'seconomy52Q56. Theproblems sea levelrise may cause inDelaware52Q55. About sealevel risepersonally390 20 40 60 80 100Percent


174 Responsive ManagementQ47-50, 55-56. Percent who worry only a little ornot at all about the following issues concerningclimate change and sea level rise.Q55. About sealevel risepersonally60Q47. About climatechange personally47Q49. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'seconomy46Q56. Theproblems sea levelrise may cause inDelaware46Q50. The impactsof climate changeon his/her qualityof life in Delaware44Q48. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'senvironment390 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 175Q47-50, 55-56. Percent who do not worry at allabout the following issues concerning climatechange and sea level rise.Q55. About sealevel risepersonally31Q49. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'seconomy26Q50. The impactsof climate changeon his/her qualityof life in Delaware26Q56. Theproblems sea levelrise may cause inDelaware23Q47. About climatechange personally21Q48. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'senvironment180 20 40 60 80 100Percent


176 Responsive ManagementQ47-50, 55-56. Percent who worry a great dealabout the following issues concerning climatechange and sea level rise.Q50. The impactsof climate changeon his/her qualityof life in Delaware62326Q48. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'senvironment212030Q49. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'seconomyQ47. Aboutclimate changepersonally212621161011New CastleKentSussexQ56. Theproblems sealevel rise maycause inDelaware162028Q55. About sealevel risepersonally911140 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 177Q47-50, 55-56. Percent who worry a great deal or amoderate amount about the following issuesconcerning climate change and sea level rise.Q48. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'senvironment566164Q50. The impactsof climate changeon his/her qualityof life in Delaware415059Q47. Aboutclimate changepersonallyQ49. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'seconomy574745525848New CastleKentSussexQ56. Theproblems sealevel rise maycause inDelaware475361Q55. About sealevel risepersonally2939420 20 40 60 80 100Percent


178 Responsive ManagementQ47-50, 55-56. Percent who worry only a little ornot at all about the following issues concerningclimate change and sea level rise.Q55. About sealevel risepersonally585971Q56. Theproblems sealevel rise maycause inDelaware374550Q49. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'seconomyQ47. Aboutclimate changepersonally454249435254New CastleKentSussexQ50. The impactsof climate changeon his/her qualityof life in Delaware394959Q48. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'senvironment3638420 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 179Q47-50, 55-56. Percent who do not worry at allabout the following issues concerning climatechange and sea level rise.Q55. About sealevel risepersonally293335Q56. Theproblems sealevel rise maycause inDelaware182526Q49. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'seconomyQ50. The impactsof climate changeon his/her qualityof life in Delaware242729223238New CastleKentSussexQ47. Aboutclimate changepersonally202325Q48. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'senvironment1718190 20 40 60 80 100Percent


180 Responsive ManagementQ55. How much do you personally worry about sealevel rise?A great deal91114A moderateamount202531Only a little262935New Castle (n=423)Kent (n=134)Sussex (n=190)Not at all293533Don't know0020 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 181Q56. How much do you worry about the problemssea level rise may cause in Delaware?16A great deal2028A moderateamount313333Only a little191925New Castle (n=394)Kent (n=148)Sussex (n=211)25Not at all2618Don't know3220 20 40 60 80 100Percent


182 Responsive ManagementQ47-50, 55-56. Percent who worry a great dealabout the following issues concerning climatechange and sea level rise.Q48. The impacts of climatechange on Delaware's environment2129Q56. The problems sea level risemay cause in Delaware1728Q49. The impacts of climatechange on Delaware's economyQ47. About climate changepersonally27201712Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ50. The impacts of climatechange on his/her quality of life inDelaware1623Q55. About sea level risepersonally13110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 183Q47-50, 55-56. Percent who worry a great deal or amoderate amount about the following issuesconcerning climate change and sea level rise.Q56. The problems sea level risemay cause in Delaware4865Q48. The impacts of climatechange on Delaware's environment5961Q47. About climate changepersonallyQ50. The impacts of climatechange on his/her quality of life inDelaware54524657Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ49. The impacts of climatechange on Delaware's economy4554Q55. About sea level risepersonally38390 20 40 60 80 100Percent


184 Responsive ManagementQ47-50, 55-56. Percent who worry only a little ornot at all about the following issues concerningclimate change and sea level rise.Q55. About sea level rise personally6160Q50. The impacts of climate changeon his/her quality of life in Delaware4154Q49. The impacts of climate changeon Delaware's economyQ47. About climate changepersonally50444547Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ48. The impacts of climate changeon Delaware's environment3939Q56. The problems sea level risemay cause in Delaware33490 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 185Q47-50, 55-56. Percent who do not worry at allabout the following issues concerning climatechange and sea level rise.Q50. The impactsof climate changeon his/her qualityof life in Delaware2339Q55. About sealevel risepersonally3034Q49. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'seconomyQ47. Aboutclimate changepersonally28252321Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ48. The impactsof climate changeon Delaware'senvironment1618Q56. Theproblems sealevel rise maycause in Delaware15250 20 40 60 80 100Percent


186 Responsive ManagementQ59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is a veryserious threat to the following.Q62. Delaware beachesQ64. Ocean-front cities and towns in DelawareQ63. Marshes and wetlands in Delaware424853Q65. River-front cities and towns in DelawareQ61. The State of DelawareQ67. Delaware's wildlife populationsQ68. Delaware's economyQ59. The United StatesQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.Q69. Delaware's public works systems, suchas public buildings, roads, and sewer systemsQ66. Outdoor recreation in DelawareQ70. His/Her local communityQ73. Him/Her personallyQ72. His/Her familyQ71. His/Her property3433323231303024191814130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 187Q59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is a veryor somewhat serious threat to the following.Q62. Delaware beachesQ64. Ocean-front cities and towns in DelawareQ59. The United StatesQ63. Marshes and wetlands in DelawareQ61. The State of DelawareQ65. River-front cities and towns in DelawareQ67. Delaware's wildlife populationsQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.Q68. Delaware's economyQ69. Delaware's public works systems, suchas public buildings, roads, and sewer systemsQ66. Outdoor recreation in Delaware7876737372717168676661Q73. Him/Her personallyQ70. His/Her local communityQ72. His/Her familyQ71. His/Her property494741370 20 40 60 80 100Percent


188 Responsive ManagementQ59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is not avery serious or not at all a serious threat to thefollowing.Q71. His/Her propertyQ72. His/Her familyQ70. His/Her local communityQ73. Him/Her personally61565049Q66. Outdoor recreation in DelawareQ68. Delaware's economyQ69. Delaware's public works systems, suchas public buildings, roads, and sewer systemsQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.Q65. River-front cities and towns in DelawareQ67. Delaware's wildlife populationsQ59. The United StatesQ61. The State of DelawareQ63. Marshes and wetlands in DelawareQ64. Ocean-front cities and towns in DelawareQ62. Delaware beaches35292827262624242121180 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 189Q59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is not atall a serious threat to the following.Q71. His/Her propertyQ72. His/Her familyQ73. Him/Her personallyQ70. His/Her local community38343026Q66. Outdoor recreation in DelawareQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.Q68. Delaware's economyQ65. River-front cities and towns in DelawareQ69. Delaware's public works systems, suchas public buildings, roads, and sewer systemsQ59. The United StatesQ61. The State of DelawareQ67. Delaware's wildlife populationsQ64. Ocean-front cities and towns in DelawareQ62. Delaware beachesQ63. Marshes and wetlands in Delaware18151514141313131211110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


190 Responsive ManagementQ59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is a veryserious threat to the following.Q62. Delaware beachesQ64. Ocean-front cities and towns inDelawareQ63. Marsh and wetlands in DelawareQ67. Delaware's wildlife populationsQ68. Delaware's economyQ59. The United States514848534541513734342734292933262863Q61. The State of DelawareQ65. River-front cities and towns inDelawareQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.Q69. Delaware's public works systems,such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systemsQ66. Outdoor recreation in Delaware323436314238293232292635242723New CastleKentSussexQ70. His/Her local communityQ73. Him/Her personally161016182432Q72. His/Her family81418Q71. His/Her property129210 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 191Q59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is a veryor somewhat serious threat to the following.Q62. Delaware beachesQ64. Ocean-front cities and towns inDelawareQ63. Marsh and wetlands in DelawareQ59. The United StatesQ67. Delaware's wildlife populationsQ61. The State of DelawareQ65. River-front cities and towns inDelawareQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.Q68. Delaware's economyQ69. Delaware's public works systems,such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systemsQ66. Outdoor recreation in Delaware788573777775747967737469736568727469727169697064686269675273625860New CastleKentSussexQ73. Him/Her personally474755Q70. His/Her local community334659Q72. His/Her family394246Q71. His/Her property3339460 20 40 60 80 100Percent


192 Responsive ManagementQ59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is not avery serious or not at all a serious threat to thefollowing.Q71. His/Her propertyQ72. His/Her family645953585653Q70. His/Her local community405165Q73. Him/Her personally515144Q66. Outdoor recreation in Delaware343736Q68. Delaware's economyQ69. Delaware's public works systems,such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systemsQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.Q65. River-front cities and towns inDelaware293428282125263225262842New CastleKentSussexQ61. The State of Delaware242228Q59. The United States232326Q67. Delaware's wildlife populations233328Q64. Ocean-front cities and towns inDelaware212023Q63. Marsh and wetlands in DelawareQ62. Delaware beaches1917171026300 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 193Q59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is not atall a serious threat to the following.Q71. His/Her propertyQ72. His/Her familyQ73. Him/Her personally374435343833303228Q70. His/Her local communityQ66. Outdoor recreation in DelawareQ59. The United States252217211813131539Q60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.Q61. The State of DelawareQ68. Delaware's economyQ69. Delaware's public works systems,such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systemsQ64. Ocean-front cities and towns inDelawareQ65. River-front cities and towns inDelawareQ62. Delaware beachesQ67. Delaware's wildlife populations1316181371712251612261011111611161810518102217New CastleKentSussexQ63. Marsh and wetlands in Delaware910180 20 40 60 80 100Percent


194 Responsive ManagementQ62. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to Delaware beaches?Very serious485163Somewhat serious212427Not very serious768New Castle (n=411)Kent (n=142)Sussex (n=196)Not at all serious51018Don't know1550 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 195Q68. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to Delaware's economy?Very serious292934Somewhat serious343340Not very serious101216New Castle (n=390)Kent (n=136)Sussex (n=207)Not at all serious121625Don't know4430 20 40 60 80 100Percent


196 Responsive ManagementQ69. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to Delaware's public works systems, such aspublic buildings, roads, and sewer systems?Very serious262935Somewhat serious273839Not very serious101616New Castle (n=406)Kent (n=140)Sussex (n=205)Not at all serious121026Don't know5660 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 197Q70. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to your local community?16Very serious103230Somewhat serious2326Not very serious172625New Castle (n=429)Kent (n=144)Sussex (n=209)Not at all serious222539Don't know3220 20 40 60 80 100Percent


198 Responsive ManagementQ71. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to your property?Very serious91221Somewhat serious202630Not very serious151727New Castle (n=446)Kent (n=147)Sussex (n=214)Not at all serious373544Don't know3210 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 199Q59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is a veryserious threat to the following.Q62. Delaware beachesQ64. Ocean-front cities and towns inDelawareQ65. River-front cities and towns inDelaware325353464843Q70. His/Her local communityQ61. The State of DelawareQ63. Marsh and wetlands in Delaware143938323843Q67. Delaware's wildlife populationsQ69. Delaware's public works systems,such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systemsQ59. The United StatesQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.3831372936303528Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ66. Outdoor recreation in DelawareQ68. Delaware's economy21353232Q73. Him/Her personallyQ71. His/Her propertyQ72. His/Her family1012152624290 20 40 60 80 100Percent


200 Responsive ManagementQ59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is a veryor somewhat serious threat to the following.Q64. Ocean-front cities and townsin Delaware7975Q62. Delaware beaches7878Q67. Delaware's wildlife populations7669Q59. The United StatesQ69. Delaware's public workssystems, such as public buildings,roads, and sewer systemsQ63. Marsh and wetlands inDelaware757275647473Q61. The State of Delaware7271Q60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.7167Q65. River-front cities and towns inDelaware6972Q66. Outdoor recreation inDelaware6660Q68. Delaware's economy6568Q70. His/Her local communityQ73. Him/Her personallyQ71. His/Her property326543584754Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ72. His/Her family38530 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 201Q59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is not avery serious or not at all a serious threat to thefollowing.Q72. His/Her familyQ71. His/Her property46455965Q73. Him/Her personally4251Q70. His/Her local communityQ68. Delaware's economyQ65. River-front cities and towns inDelaware343129282554Q66. Outdoor recreation in DelawareQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.28262737Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ61. The State of Delaware2524Q63. Marsh and wetlands in Delaware2421Q59. The United States2324Q67. Delaware's wildlife populations2227Q62. Delaware beaches2117Q64. Ocean-front cities and towns inDelawareQ69. Delaware's public works systems,such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systems202219310 20 40 60 80 100Percent


202 Responsive ManagementQ59-73. Percent who think sea level rise is not atall a serious threat to the following.Q71. His/Her property2940Q72. His/Her familyQ73. Him/Her personally28362730Q66. Outdoor recreation in DelawareQ70. His/Her local communityQ60. The Mid-Atlantic U.S.171817161529Q63. Marsh and wetlands in DelawareQ65. River-front cities and towns inDelawareQ59. The United StatesQ61. The State of DelawareQ68. Delaware's economyQ62. Delaware beachesQ64. Ocean-front cities and towns inDelaware1610161315131512151514101312Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ67. Delaware's wildlife populationsQ69. Delaware's public works systems,such as public buildings, roads, andsewer systems121410140 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 203Q65. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to river-front cities and towns in Delaware?Very serious3243Somewhatserious2640Not very serious1212Residence is consideredcoastal (n=179)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=518)Not at all serious1613Don't know330 20 40 60 80 100Percent


204 Responsive ManagementQ66. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to outdoor recreation in Delaware?Very serious2135Somewhatserious3238Not very serious1219Residence is consideredcoastal (n=184)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=524)Not at all serious1718Don't know450 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 205Q70. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to your local community?Very serious1439Somewhatserious2629Not very serious1726Residence is consideredcoastal (n=192)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=593)Not at all serious1729Don't know130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


206 Responsive ManagementQ71. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to your property?Very serious1026Somewhatserious2228Not very serious1625Residence is consideredcoastal (n=198)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=613)Not at all serious2940Don't know130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 207Q72. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to your family?Very serious1224Somewhatserious2729Not very serious1823Residence is consideredcoastal (n=189)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=619)Not at all serious2836Don't know130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


208 Responsive ManagementQ73. How serious a threat do you think sea levelrise is to you personally?Very serious1529Somewhatserious2931Not very serious1521Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Not at all serious2730Don't know020 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 209Q74. In your opinion, which Delaware county ismost threatened by sea level rise?New Castle5Kent5Sussex78Don't know120 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


210 Responsive ManagementQ74. In your opinion, which Delaware county ismost threatened by sea level rise?8New Castle116Kent37New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)74Sussex848412Don't know8130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 211Q74. In your opinion, which Delaware county ismost threatened by sea level rise?New Castle49Kent55Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Sussex7180Don't know11150 20 40 60 80 100Percent


212 Responsive ManagementQ75. When do you think sea level rise will start tohave impacts on the area where you live inDelaware?It is havingimpacts now14In 5 years9In 10 years13In 25 years17In 50 years12In 100 years11Never / sea levelsare not rising12Don't know120 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 213Q75. When do you think sea level rise will start tohave impacts on the area where you live inDelaware?It is havingimpacts now101422In 5 yearsIn 10 years7610121712In 25 yearsIn 50 yearsIn 100 yearsNever / sea levelsare not risingDon't know20141312141011111311141213912New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


214 Responsive ManagementQ75. When do you think sea level rise will start tohave impacts on the area where you live inDelaware?It is havingimpacts now1026In 5 years69In 10 years1612In 25 yearsIn 50 years1319913Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)In 100 years812Never / sealevels are notrisingDon't know91313120 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 215Q75. When do you think sea level rise will start tohave impacts on the area where you live inDelaware?It is havingimpacts now917In 5 years710In 10 years1115In 25 yearsIn 50 years19161311MaleFemaleIn 100 years715Never / sealevels are notrising816Don't know9150 20 40 60 80 100Percent


216 Responsive ManagementPOTENTIAL ACTIONS PERCEIVED TO AFFECT CLIMATECHANGEPERCEPTIONS OF EFFICACY OF TAKING ACTION TO MITIGATE CLIMATECHANGE‣ Thirteen questions explored whether residents think that human action can affect climatechange or mitigate the effects of climate change, shown in Text Box 6 on the following page. The top tier in the ranking shows conflicting opinion. The results suggest that residentsbelieve that human actions can affect climate change, as large majorities strongly ormoderately agree that the U.S. can take actions that will help reduce climate change(79%), that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts (76%), thatthere are many actions that can be taken to reduce climate change (72%), and that anindividual can personally take actions that will help reduce climate change (70%).However, despite thinking that human actions can affect climate change, large majoritiesthink that we (our society) should conduct more research before taking any action toaddress sea level rise (71%) and that we (our society) should conduct more researchbefore taking any action to address climate change (68%). Four statements are in the middle tier, showing that a slight majority, despite otherong>opinionsong>, think that action should be taken now and that action would be efficacious inaddressing climate change. From 56% to 61% think that we (our society) should takeimmediate and drastic action to reduce the impacts of climate change (61%), that sealevel rise can be reduced by human efforts (59%), that we (our society) should takeimmediate and drastic action to reduce the impacts of sea level rise (58%), and thatclimate change is something people can control (56%). The bottom tier has three items, which support the above findings by showing that lessthan a majority are pessimistic about the efficacy of taking action to mitigate climatechange. Less than a majority think that there is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change (46%), that the actions of a single person will not make any difference inreducing climate change (32%), and that the actions of a single country like the U.S. willnot make any difference in reducing climate change (31%). Taken as a whole, the results suggest that people think that human action can mitigate theeffects of climate change, but opinion is split regarding whether society should takeimmediate action or whether society should conduct more research before taking action.


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 217Text Box 6Statements Regarding Taking Action to Mitigate Climate Change(Ranked by the Percentage Who Strongly or Moderately Agree With the FollowingStatements)The U.S. can take actions that will help reduce climate change.The impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts.There are many actions that can be taken to reduce climate change.We should conduct more research before taking any action to address sea level rise.You can personally take actions that will help reduce climate change.We should conduct more research before taking any action to address climate change.We should take immediate and drastic action to reduce the impacts of climate change.Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.We should take immediate and drastic action to reduce the impacts of sea level rise.Climate change is something people can control.There is limited action that can be taken to reduce climate change.The actions of a single person like you will not make any difference in reducing climate change.The actions of a single country like the U.S. will not make any difference in reducing climate change.‣ One statement from the above series was examined in detail in the nonparametric analysis:The impacts of climate change can be reduced by human efforts.The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withstrongly agreeing with the statement that the impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts:oooooSays he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change(p < 0.05).Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., strongly agrees thatscientists are right that climate change is occurring; thinks that climate change is avery serious threat; is completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising) (all atp < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States, avery or somewhat serious threat to river-front cities and towns in Delaware, a very orsomewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States, a very serious threat toocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, a very serious threat to Delaware beaches, avery or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally, a very serious threat tomarshes and wetlands in Delaware, and a very serious threat to the State of Delaware(all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).


218 Responsive ManagementoooooOn all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supports anyefforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., stronglysupports changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas;strongly supports avoiding building new structures; supports purchasing or acquiringland and open space from willing land sellers using government funds) (all atp < 0.01 or greater significance).Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).Thinks that his or her county government officials, his or her state governmentofficials, Delaware’s state legislators, corporations and industry, his or her city ortown government officials, Delaware’s state agencies, Delaware citizens, Delaware’sgovernor, and the U.S. Congress should all be doing more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Would most like to have more information on funding needs / estimated budget toaddress sea level rise in Delaware (p < 0.001), actions that can be taken to reduceimpacts of sea level rise (p < 0.001), how to protect property from sea level rise(p < 0.001), how sea level rise relates to climate change / global warming (p < 0.001),current or potential impacts of sea level rise (p < 0.001), and sea level rise in general(p < 0.01).A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware isthe Internet, not including Department of Natural Resources and EnvironmentalControl website (p < 0.05).o Is female (p < 0.001).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Lives in New Castle County (p < 0.001).o Is between ages 35-64 (p < 0.05).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town (p < 0.05).‣ Four questions in the above series regarding whether residents think that human action canaffect climate change showed statistically significant differences in the crosstabulation bycounty of residence. Sussex County residents are the least likely, relative to residents of the other twocounties, to strongly agree that climate change is something people can control(p < 0.01). New Castle County residents are the most likely, compared to residents of the other twocounties, to strongly agree that the impacts of climate change can be reduced by humanefforts (p < 0.05). Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the least likelyto strongly agree that there are many actions that can be taken to reduce climate change(p < 0.05).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 219Finally in this series, New Castle County residents are the most likely, relative toresidents of the other two counties, to strongly or moderately agree that sea level rise canbe reduced by human efforts (p < 0.05) (see graph on page 180).‣ The crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found that coastal residents, compared to noncoastalresidents, are more likely to strongly agree that there are many actions that can betaken to reduce climate change (p < 0.05). This was the only question from the above serieswith a marked difference in the coastal/non-coastal crosstabulation.‣ One question in the above series was crosstabulated by gender to determine if differencesexisted. Women, compared to men, are more likely to strongly agree that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts (p < 0.001).‣ Regardless of how many years residents believe it will take for sea level rise to affect theirarea, residents overwhelmingly think action should be taken to address or reduce the impactsof sea level rise before impacts occur (80%) rather than as impacts begin (8%) or afterimpacts cause problems (3%). (The remainder either said that sea levels are not rising or thatthey do not know when action should be taken.)


220 Responsive ManagementQ80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who strongly agree with the followingstatements about climate change and sea level rise.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Q86. There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Q94. You can personally take actions that will help reduceclimate change.Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.Q89. We should conduct more research before taking anyaction to address climate change.514847444341Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.3535Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.32Q80. Climate change is something people can control.23Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won't makeany difference in reducing climate change.2019230 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 221Q80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who strongly or moderately agree with thefollowing statements about climate change and sealevel rise.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Q86. There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.Q94. You can personally take actions that will help reduceclimate change.Q89. We should conduct more research before taking anyaction to address climate change.797672717068Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.6159Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.Q80. Climate change is something people can control.5856Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.46Q95. The actions of a single person like you won't makeany difference in reducing climate change.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.32310 20 40 60 80 100Percent


222 Responsive ManagementQ80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who moderately or strongly disagree withthe following statements about climate change andsea level rise.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won't makeany difference in reducing climate change.6464Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.47Q80. Climate change is something people can control.36Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.293533Q89. We should conduct more research before taking anyaction to address climate change.Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.Q94. You can personally take actions that will help reduceclimate change.Q86. There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.2824232119170 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 223Q80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who strongly disagree with the followingstatements about climate change and sea level rise.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won't makeany difference in reducing climate change.4549Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.30Q80. Climate change is something people can control.23Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.2120Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.20Q89. We should conduct more research before taking anyaction to address climate change.Q94. You can personally take actions that will help reduceclimate change.Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.Q86. There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.1716151211110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


224 Responsive ManagementQ80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who strongly agree with the followingstatements about climate change and sea level rise.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.364259Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.424054Q86. There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.264653Q94. You can personally take actions that will helpreduce climate change.454341Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.453943Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.Q89. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address climate change.263933394050New CastleKentSussexQ103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.373530Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.242836Q80. Climate change is something people can control.Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.122724232425Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won't makeany difference in reducing climate change.1819181822280 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 225Q80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who strongly or moderately agree with thefollowing statements about climate change and sealevel rise.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.757372678281Q86. There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.567573Q94. You can personally take actions that will help reduceclimate change.Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.627272726772Q89. We should conduct more research before taking anyaction to address climate change.647872Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.546360Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.485563Q80. Climate change is something people can control.504561Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.514450506061New CastleKentSussexQ95. The actions of a single person like you won't makeany difference in reducing climate change.313433Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.2929390 20 40 60 80 100Percent


226 Responsive ManagementQ80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who moderately or strongly disagree withthe following statements about climate change andsea level rise.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won't makeany difference in reducing climate change.556767656361Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Q80. Climate change is something people can control.324947434444Q89. We should conduct more research before taking anyaction to address climate change.212432Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.323331343745New CastleKentSussexQ101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.253732Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.242823Q94. You can personally take actions that will help reduceclimate change.222328Q86. There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.162138Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.1514202026240 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 227Q80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who strongly disagree with the followingstatements about climate change and sea level rise.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won't makeany difference in reducing climate change.413640515450Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Q80. Climate change is something people can control.303129192531Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.191930Q89. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address climate change.Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.Q94. You can personally take actions that will helpreduce climate change.Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.Q86. There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.18151617232517252116171815181411151310111491411New CastleKentSussex0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


228 Responsive ManagementQ80. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:Climate change is something people can control.Strongly agree122724Moderately agree273434Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree436131913New Castle (n=510)Kent (n=155)Sussex (n=245)Strongly disagree192531Don't know3250 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 229Q83. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Strongly agree424054Moderately agree273027Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree21451510New Castle (n=458)Kent (n=171)Sussex (n=243)Strongly disagree101114Don't know2160 20 40 60 80 100Percent


230 Responsive ManagementQ86. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Strongly agree264653Moderately agree233027Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree3226823New Castle (n=423)Kent (n=132)Sussex (n=198)Strongly disagree111513Don't know6440 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 231Q80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who strongly agree with the followingstatements about climate change and sea level rise.Q86. There are many actions that can be taken toreduce climate change.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.44565350Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Q94. You can personally take actions that will helpreduce climate change.Q89. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address climate change.Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.3351484643434141Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.38343844Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.2423Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.242220211834Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ80. Climate change is something people can control.19240 20 40 60 80 100Percent


232 Responsive ManagementQ80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who strongly or moderately agree with thefollowing statements about climate change and sealevel rise.Q86. There are many actions that can be taken toreduce climate change.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reducedby human efforts.707978797776Q104. We should conduct more research beforetaking any action to address sea level rise.Q89. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address climate change.Q94. You can personally take actions that will helpreduce climate change.727168686870Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.Q80. Climate change is something people can control.606160585257Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.5261Q85. There is limited action that can be taken toreduce climate change.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.313131324945Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastal0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 233Q80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who moderately or strongly disagree withthe following statements about climate change andsea level rise.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S. won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.66646365Q85. There is limited action that can be taken to reduceclimate change.4747Q80. Climate change is something people can control.Q103. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of sea level rise.Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by human efforts.Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.Q89. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address climate change.Q104. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address sea level rise.Q94. You can personally take actions that will helpreduce climate change.Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Q86. There are many actions that can be taken toreduce climate change.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.4035353433273134302823252124171916221417Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastal0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


234 Responsive ManagementQ80, 83, 85-86, 88-89, 91-92, 94-95, 98-101, 103-104.Percent who strongly disagree with the followingstatements about climate change and sea level rise.Q95. The actions of a single person like you won'tmake any difference in reducing climate change.Q92. The actions of a single country like the U.S.won't make any difference in reducing climate change.48454750Q85. There is limited action that can be taken toreduce climate change.Q80. Climate change is something people can control.Q88. We should take immediate and drastic action toreduce the impacts of climate change.Q89. We should conduct more research before takingany action to address climate change.Q101. Sea level rise can be reduced by humanefforts.Q103. We should take immediate and drastic actionto reduce the impacts of sea level rise.Q104. We should conduct more research beforetaking any action to address sea level rise.Q94. You can personally take actions that will helpreduce climate change.Q83. The impacts of climate change can be reducedby human efforts.Q86. There are many actions that can be taken toreduce climate change.Q91. The U.S. can take actions that will help reduceclimate change.3329282125182515251825201714151714101412911Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastal0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 235Q86. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:There are many actions that can be taken to reduceclimate change.Strongly agree4456Moderately agree2325Neither agree nordisagreeModeratelydisagree22211Residence is consideredcoastal (n=180)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=577)Strongly disagree1412Don't know350 20 40 60 80 100Percent


236 Responsive ManagementQ83. Do you agree or disagree with this statement:The impacts of climate change can be reduced byhuman efforts.Strongly agree3956Moderatelyagree2531Neither agreenor disagreeModeratelydisagree3279MaleFemaleStronglydisagree616Don't know240 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 237Q76. When do you think action should be taken toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inthe area where you live in Delaware? (Asked ofthose who think sea level rise will start to haveimpacts on the area where they live in Delaware.)Before impactsoccur80As impacts begin8After impactscause problems3Never / sea levelsare not rising4Don't know50 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1315)


238 Responsive ManagementQ76. When do you think action should be taken toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inthe area where you live in Delaware? (Asked ofthose who think sea level rise will start to haveimpacts on the area where they live in Delaware.)Before impactsoccur768081As impacts begin6710After impactscause problems423New Castle (n=705)Kent (n=245)Sussex (n=361)Never / sea levelsare not rising356Don't know3770 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 239Q76. When do you think action should be taken toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inthe area where you live in Delaware? (Asked ofthose who think sea level rise will start to haveimpacts on the area where they live in Delaware.)Before impactsoccur7983As impacts begin69After impactscause problems24Residence is consideredcoastal (n=330)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=985)Never / sealevels are notrising44Don't know550 20 40 60 80 100Percent


240 Responsive ManagementMANAGEMENT STRATEGIES PERTAINING TO CLIMATE CHANGE‣ The survey had a series of 11 questions regarding actions that could be taken andmanagement strategies to address sea level rise, as shown in Text Box 7 below. In looking at the percentage who strongly support the actions/management strategies, twostand out at the top, both relating to building codes: avoiding building new structures inareas at risk from sea level rise (67%), and changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood prone areas (63%). A second tier includes funding research (44%), using dredged material to build up marshareas at risk (40%), and elevating buildings using private funding (40%). A third tier, at about a third each, includes two that require large capital outlays: buildingdikes, seawalls, and bulkheads (33%), and elevating land surfaces in areas at risk of sealevel rise (30%). A third is the natural option: allowing beaches and wetlands tonaturally migrate inland (29%). At the bottom, with little support, are the three potential actions that each include using“government funds” to purchase land at risk of sea level rise (21%), to elevate buildings(18%), and to purchase frequently flooded properties (16%). (The obverse of this is theset of graphs showing the percentages in opposition to these potential actions, whichagain highlights the antipathy toward using government funding: these three are at thetop of the rankings both by strongly oppose and by strongly or moderately oppose.)Text Box 7Support for Actions/Management Strategies to Mitigate the Effects of Sea Level Rise(Ranked by the Percentage Who Strongly Support the Following Actions/Management Strategies)Avoiding building new structures in areas at risk from sea level riseChanging building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areasIncreasing funding for researchUsing clean dredged material from waterways to build up marsh areas that are at risk from sea level riseElevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using private fundingBuilding dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads to keep water backElevating the land surface in areas at risk from sea level riseAllowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrate inlandPurchasing or acquiring land and open space at risk from sea level rise from willing land sellers usinggovernment fundsElevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using government fundsPurchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties using government funds


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 241‣ Crosstabulations by county of residence found statistically significant differences on four ofthe questions in the above series. Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the most likelyto strongly or moderately support elevating the land surface in areas at risk (p < 0.05). Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the most likelyto strongly or moderately support buying out frequently flooded properties usinggovernment funds (p < 0.05). Kent County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the most likelyto strongly or moderately support purchasing land and open space at risk from sea levelrise using government funds (p < 0.05). Finally in this series, Sussex County residents, relative to residents of the other twocounties, are the most likely to strongly or moderately support increasing funding forresearch (p < 0.01).‣ The survey asked residents whether they support or oppose having their local and stategovernments spend more money on public construction projects if it means that the structurescan withstand or accommodate sea level rise in Delaware. They were informed before thequestion that such construction is more expensive than is construction that cannot withstandor accommodate sea level rise. The results suggest that residents are willing to pay theexpense now so that construction will withstand sea level rise: 64% support, and 25%oppose. In follow-up to the above question, those who opposed were further informed of thefollowing: “What if you knew that it would save money and be less costly long-term forDelaware to construct structures to withstand or accommodate sea level rise?” Of thosewho opposed previously, 58% still oppose (most of them now strongly opposing), butjust under a third (32%) now support.


242 Responsive ManagementQ108-118. Percent who strongly support thefollowing potential actions that could be taken toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts.Q111. Avoiding building new structures in areas atrisk from sea level rise67Q110. Changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood prone areas63Q118. Increasing funding for research44Q113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that are at riskfrom sea level riseQ114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using private funding4040Q109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads tokeep water back33Q112. Elevating the land surface in areas at riskfrom sea level rise30Q108. Allowing beaches and wetlands to naturallymigrate inland29Q117. Purchasing or acquiring land and open spaceat risk from sea level rise from willing land sellersusing government fundsQ115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using government funds2118Q116. Purchasing or buying out frequently floodedproperties using government funds160 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 243Q108-118. Percent who strongly or moderatelysupport the following potential actions that couldbe taken to address sea level rise in Delaware orreduce its impacts.Q110. Changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood prone areas84Q111. Avoiding building new structures in areas atrisk from sea level rise84Q118. Increasing funding for research74Q114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using private fundingQ113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that are at riskfrom sea level riseQ109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads tokeep water back647068Q108. Allowing beaches and wetlands to naturallymigrate inland59Q112. Elevating the land surface in areas at riskfrom sea level rise54Q117. Purchasing or acquiring land and open spaceat risk from sea level rise from willing land sellersusing government funds46Q115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using government funds39Q116. Purchasing or buying out frequently floodedproperties using government funds380 20 40 60 80 100Percent


244 Responsive ManagementQ108-118. Percent who moderately or stronglyoppose the following potential actions that couldbe taken to address sea level rise in Delaware orreduce its impacts.Q115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using government funds52Q116. Purchasing or buying out frequently floodedproperties using government funds52Q117. Purchasing or acquiring land and open spaceat risk from sea level rise from willing land sellersusing government funds43Q112. Elevating the land surface in areas at riskfrom sea level rise35Q108. Allowing beaches and wetlands to naturallymigrate inland27Q109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads tokeep water back26Q118. Increasing funding for research21Q113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that are at riskfrom sea level riseQ114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using private funding1919Q111. Avoiding building new structures in areas atrisk from sea level rise11Q110. Changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood prone areas90 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 245Q108-118. Percent who strongly oppose thefollowing potential actions that could be taken toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts.Q115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using government funds40Q116. Purchasing or buying out frequently floodedproperties using government funds38Q117. Purchasing or acquiring land and open spaceat risk from sea level rise from willing land sellersusing government funds31Q112. Elevating the land surface in areas at riskfrom sea level rise23Q109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads tokeep water back17Q108. Allowing beaches and wetlands to naturallymigrate inland15Q118. Increasing funding for research15Q114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using private fundingQ113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that are at riskfrom sea level rise1413Q110. Changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood prone areas7Q111. Avoiding building new structures in areas atrisk from sea level rise70 20 40 60 80 100Percent


246 Responsive ManagementQ108-118. Percent who strongly support thefollowing potential actions that could be taken toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts.Q111. Avoiding building new structures inareas at risk from sea level riseQ110. Changing building codes andregulations to reduce risk in flood proneareas696561646161Q118. Increasing funding for researchQ113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that areat risk from sea level rise393639344950Q114. Elevating buildings in areas at riskfrom sea level rise using private fundingQ109. Building dikes, seawalls, andbulkheads to keep water backQ108. Allowing beaches and wetlands tonaturally migrate inlandQ112. Elevating the land surface in areas atrisk from sea level riseQ117. Purchasing or acquiring land andopen space at risk from sea level rise fromwilling land sellers using government fundsQ115. Elevating buildings in areas at riskfrom sea level rise using government fundsQ116. Purchasing or buying out frequentlyflooded properties using government funds394043333434302529303425241916201516161414New CastleKentSussex0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 247Q108-118. Percent who strongly or moderatelysupport the following potential actions that couldbe taken to address sea level rise in Delaware orreduce its impacts.Q111. Avoiding building new structures inareas at risk from sea level rise778785Q110. Changing building codes andregulations to reduce risk in flood prone areasQ118. Increasing funding for researchQ114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk fromsea level rise using private fundingQ113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that are atrisk from sea level riseQ109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheadsto keep water backQ108. Allowing beaches and wetlands tonaturally migrate inland868580787166707169687665636965606254Q112. Elevating the land surface in areas atrisk from sea level riseQ117. Purchasing or acquiring land and openspace at risk from sea level rise from willingland sellers using government funds365348485266New CastleKentSussexQ115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk fromsea level rise using government funds404733Q116. Purchasing or buying out frequentlyflooded properties using government funds3137450 20 40 60 80 100Percent


248 Responsive ManagementQ108-118. Percent who moderately or stronglyoppose the following potential actions that couldbe taken to address sea level rise in Delaware orreduce its impacts.Q115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk fromsea level rise using government fundsQ116. Purchasing or buying out frequentlyflooded properties using government fundsQ117. Purchasing or acquiring land and openspace at risk from sea level rise from willingland sellers using government fundsQ112. Elevating the land surface in areas atrisk from sea level rise275246585247554239503638Q109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheadsto keep water backQ108. Allowing beaches and wetlands tonaturally migrate inlandQ113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that are atrisk from sea level riseQ114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk fromsea level rise using private fundingQ118. Increasing funding for researchQ111. Avoiding building new structures inareas at risk from sea level riseQ110. Changing building codes andregulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas2823242526331916211819211822279111781013New CastleKentSussex0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 249Q108-118. Percent who strongly oppose thefollowing potential actions that could be taken toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts.Q115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk fromsea level rise using government funds393647Q116. Purchasing or buying out frequentlyflooded properties using government fundsQ117. Purchasing or acquiring land and openspace at risk from sea level rise from willingland sellers using government fundsQ112. Elevating the land surface in areas atrisk from sea level rise292924192637364337Q109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheadsto keep water backQ108. Allowing beaches and wetlands tonaturally migrate inlandQ114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk fromsea level rise using private fundingQ113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that are atrisk from sea level riseQ118. Increasing funding for researchQ110. Changing building codes andregulations to reduce risk in flood prone areasQ111. Avoiding building new structures inareas at risk from sea level rise18141813162013131712111412152167106710New CastleKentSussex0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


250 Responsive ManagementQ108-118. Percent who strongly support thefollowing potential actions that could be taken toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts.Q110. Changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood prone areas6862Q111. Avoiding building new structures in areas atrisk from sea level rise6767Q114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using private funding4339Q118. Increasing funding for research4345Q113. Using clean dredged material from waterwaysto build up marsh areas that are at risk from sealevel rise4139Q109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads tokeep water back3139Q108. Allowing beaches and wetlands to naturallymigrate inland3228Q112. Elevating the land surface in areas at riskfrom sea level riseQ117. Purchasing or acquiring land and open spaceat risk from sea level rise from willing land sellersusing government fundsQ115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using government funds312924212117Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ116. Purchasing or buying out frequently floodedproperties using government funds21140 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 251Q108-118. Percent who strongly or moderatelysupport the following potential actions that couldbe taken to address sea level rise in Delaware orreduce its impacts.Q110. Changing building codes and regulationsto reduce risk in flood prone areas8484Q111. Avoiding building new structures in areasat risk from sea level rise8385Q118. Increasing funding for research7175Q114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk fromsea level rise using private funding6970Q109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads tokeep water backQ113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that are atrisk from sea level riseQ108. Allowing beaches and wetlands tonaturally migrate inland676464695361Q112. Elevating the land surface in areas at riskfrom sea level riseQ117. Purchasing or acquiring land and openspace at risk from sea level rise from willing landsellers using government fundsQ115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk fromsea level rise using government fundsQ116. Purchasing or buying out frequentlyflooded properties using government funds4646433940375355Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastal0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


252 Responsive ManagementQ108-118. Percent who moderately or stronglyoppose the following potential actions that couldbe taken to address sea level rise in Delaware orreduce its impacts.Q116. Purchasing or buying out frequently floodedproperties using government funds4753Q115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using government funds4654Q117. Purchasing or acquiring land and open spaceat risk from sea level rise from willing land sellersusing government funds4044Q108. Allowing beaches and wetlands to naturallymigrate inland2534Q112. Elevating the land surface in areas at risk fromsea level rise3435Q109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads tokeep water backQ118. Increasing funding for researchQ113. Using clean dredged material from waterwaysto build up marsh areas that are at risk from sea levelriseQ114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using private funding2426222021181819Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ111. Avoiding building new structures in areas atrisk from sea level rise1211Q110. Changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood prone areas1090 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 253Q108-118. Percent who strongly oppose thefollowing potential actions that could be taken toaddress sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts.Q115. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using government funds3741Q116. Purchasing or buying out frequently floodedproperties using government funds3539Q117. Purchasing or acquiring land and openspace at risk from sea level rise from willing landsellers using government funds2832Q112. Elevating the land surface in areas at riskfrom sea level rise2423Q108. Allowing beaches and wetlands to naturallymigrate inlandQ118. Increasing funding for researchQ109. Building dikes, seawalls, and bulkheads tokeep water back201418141718Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ113. Using clean dredged material fromwaterways to build up marsh areas that are at riskfrom sea level rise1512Q114. Elevating buildings in areas at risk from sealevel rise using private funding1413Q110. Changing building codes and regulations toreduce risk in flood prone areas87Q111. Avoiding building new structures in areas atrisk from sea level rise870 20 40 60 80 100Percent


254 Responsive ManagementQ119. Please consider that your local and state governmentsin Delaware could construct public buildings and otherstructures, such as roads and sewer systems, to withstand oraccommodate sea level rise but that doing so would be moreexpensive than constructing structures that could not. Wouldyou support or oppose your local and state governmentsspending more money on public construction projects if itmeant the structures could withstand or accommodate sealevel rise in Delaware?Strongly support34Moderatelysupport30Neither supportnor oppose7Moderatelyoppose7Strongly oppose18Don't know40 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 255Q119. Please consider that your local and state governmentsin Delaware could construct public buildings and otherstructures, such as roads and sewer systems, to withstand oraccommodate sea level rise but that doing so would be moreexpensive than constructing structures that could not. Wouldyou support or oppose your local and state governmentsspending more money on public construction projects if itmeant the structures could withstand or accommodate sealevel rise in Delaware?Strongly support283440Moderatelysupport243131Neither supportnor opposeModeratelyoppose687875New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Strongly oppose161822Don't know3460 20 40 60 80 100Percent


256 Responsive ManagementQ119. Please consider that your local and state governmentsin Delaware could construct public buildings and otherstructures, such as roads and sewer systems, to withstand oraccommodate sea level rise but that doing so would be moreexpensive than constructing structures that could not. Wouldyou support or oppose your local and state governmentsspending more money on public construction projects if itmeant the structures could withstand or accommodate sealevel rise in Delaware?Strongly support3733Moderatelysupport2631Neither supportnor opposeModeratelyoppose8668Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Strongly oppose1718Don't know640 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 257Q120. What if you knew it would save money or be less costlylong-term for Delaware to construct structures to withstand oraccommodate sea level rise? Would you support or opposeyour local and state governments spending more money onpublic construction projects? (Asked of those who opposetheir local and state governments spending more money onpublic construction projects if it meant the structures couldwithstand or accommodate sea level rise in Delaware.)Strongly support11Moderatelysupport21Neither supportnor oppose6Moderatelyoppose12Strongly oppose46Don't know40 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=428)


258 Responsive ManagementQ120. What if you knew it would save money or be less costlylong-term for Delaware to construct structures to withstand oraccommodate sea level rise? Would you support or opposeyour local and state governments spending more money onpublic construction projects? (Asked of those who opposetheir local and state governments spending more money onpublic construction projects if it meant the structures couldwithstand or accommodate sea level rise in Delaware.)Strongly support81212Moderatelysupport232118Neither supportnor opposeModeratelyoppose1697815New Castle (n=227)Kent (n=89)Sussex (n=111)Strongly oppose425254Don't know3730 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 259Q120. What if you knew it would save money or be lesscostly long-term for Delaware to construct structures towithstand or accommodate sea level rise? Would yousupport or oppose your local and state governmentsspending more money on public construction projects?(Asked of those who oppose their local and stategovernments spending more money on public constructionprojects if it meant the structures could withstand oraccommodate sea level rise in Delaware.)Strongly support921Moderatelysupport1124Neither supportnor opposeModeratelyoppose75513Residence is consideredcoastal (n=95)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=333)Strongly oppose4846Don't know380 20 40 60 80 100Percent


260 Responsive ManagementRESPONSIBILITY FOR TAKING ACTION‣ The survey asked nine questions about entities that should be doing more or less to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware. For each entity (shown in Text Box 8below), the survey asked respondents if they thought the entity should be doing more, aboutthe same, or less than it is currently doing. Among the results of this series of questions as a whole, it is notable that, for each entity,the percentage of residents who say that the entity should be doing more (ranging from45% up to 66%) far exceeds the percentage who say that the entity should be doing thesame or less (ranging from 22% to 29%). At the top of the ranking by the percentage who say the entity should be doing more arecorporations and industry (66%) and Delaware citizens (64%)—both at nearly two-thirds.Five entities are in the middle, all with from 56% to 59% giving the “doing more”response: state government officials, city/town government officials, county governmentofficials, Delaware’s state legislators, and the U.S. Congress.Text Box 8Entities That Should Be Doing More or Less to Address Sea Level Rise(Ranked by Percentage Who Think the Following Should be Doing More to AddressSea Level Rise)Corporations and industryDelaware citizensState government officialsThe respondent’s city or town government officialsThe respondent’s county government officialsDelaware’s state legislatorsThe U.S. CongressDelaware’s governorDelaware’s state agencies


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 261‣ The nonparametric analysis examined in detail many of the questions in the above seriesabout the entities that should (or should not) be doing more to address sea level rise.The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that his or her city or town government officials should be doing more toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware:oooooooooThinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or herpersonally, a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States, a very orsomewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States, a very serious threat toDelaware beaches, a very serious threat to marshes and wetlands in Delaware, a veryserious threat to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, a very serious threat to theState of Delaware, and a very or somewhat serious threat to river-front cities andtowns in Delaware) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about climate change; worries a great deal or a moderate amountabout the problems that sea level rise may cause in Delaware; strongly agrees thatscientists are right that climate change is occurring) (all at p < 0.05 or greatersignificance).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supports anyefforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., supportspurchasing or acquiring land and open space from willing land sellers usinggovernment funds; supports purchasing or buying out frequently flooded propertiesusing government funds; supports elevating buildings using government funds) (all atp < 0.05 or greater significance).Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts; agrees that climate change issomething people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that his or her county government officials, his or her state governmentofficials, Delaware citizens, Delaware’s state legislators, the U.S. Congress,Delaware’s state agencies, Delaware’s governor, and corporations and industryshould all be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Would most like to have more information on how sea level rise relates to climatechange / global warming, actions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sea level rise,funding needs / estimated budget to address sea level rise in Delaware, sea level risein general, how to protect property from sea level rise, and current or potentialimpacts of sea level rise (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).


262 Responsive Managemento A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware isthe Internet, not including Department of Natural Resources and EnvironmentalControl website (p < 0.001).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household (p < 0.001).o Is between ages 18-34 (p < 0.001).o Is female (p < 0.01).o Has been a Delaware resident for less than the mean of 30 years (p < 0.05).o Does not have a bachelor’s degree (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that his or her county government officials should be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware:oooooooThinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States, avery or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally, a very or somewhat seriousthreat to the Mid-Atlantic United States, a very serious threat to marshes and wetlandsin Delaware, a very serious threat to Delaware beaches, a very serious threat to oceanfrontcities and towns in Delaware, a very or somewhat serious threat to river-frontcities and towns in Delaware, and a very serious threat to the State of Delaware (all atp < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., thinks that climatechange is a very serious threat; worries a great deal or a moderate amount aboutclimate change; worries a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems thatsea level rise may cause in Delaware) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supports anyefforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., supportspurchasing or acquiring land and open space from willing land sellers usinggovernment funds; supports elevating buildings using government funds; stronglysupports changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas)(all at p < 0.01 or greater significance).Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts; agrees that climate change issomething people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that his or her state government officials, his or her city or town governmentofficials, Delaware’s state legislators, Delaware’s governor, Delaware citizens,Delaware’s state agencies, the U.S. Congress, and corporations and industry shouldall be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all atp < 0.001 or greater significance).o Has flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).o Would most like to have more information on how sea level rise relates to climatechange / global warming (p < 0.001), funding needs / estimated budget to address sea


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 263level rise in Delaware (p < 0.001), how to protect property from sea level rise(p < 0.001), actions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sea level rise (p < 0.001),sea level rise in general (p < 0.001), and current or potential impacts of sea level rise(p < 0.01).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Is female (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a coastal area (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that his or her state government officials should be doing more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware:ooooooooShows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about the problems that sea level rise may cause in Delaware;thinks that climate change is a very serious threat; worries a great deal or a moderateamount about climate change) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or herpersonally, a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States, a very orsomewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States, a very serious threat toocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, a very serious threat to Delaware beaches, avery or somewhat serious threat to river-front cities and towns in Delaware, a veryserious threat to marshes and wetlands in Delaware, and a very serious threat to theState of Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supports anyefforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., supportspurchasing or acquiring land and open space from willing land sellers usinggovernment funds; supports purchasing or buying out frequently flooded propertiesusing government funds; supports elevating buildings using government funds) (all atp < 0.01 or greater significance).Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts; agrees that climate change issomething people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that Delaware’s state legislators (p < 0.001), his or her county governmentofficials (p < 0.001), Delaware’s governor (p < 0.001), his or her city or towngovernment officials (p < 0.001), Delaware’s state agencies (p < 0.001), Delawarecitizens (p < 0.001), the U.S. Congress (p < 0.001), and corporations and industry(p < 0.01) should all be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level risein Delaware.


264 Responsive ManagementooWould most like to have more information on actions that can be taken to reduceimpacts of sea level rise, how sea level rise relates to climate change / globalwarming, how to protect property from sea level rise, sea level rise in general,funding needs / estimated budget to address sea level rise in Delaware, and current orpotential impacts of sea level rise (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware isthe Internet, not including Department of Natural Resources and EnvironmentalControl website (p < 0.01).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Is female (p < 0.001).o Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household (p < 0.001).o Is between ages 18-34 (p < 0.01).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that the U.S. Congress should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts ofsea level rise in Delaware:oooooooooSays he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change(p < 0.01).Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about climate change; thinks that climate change is a very seriousthreat; is completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising) (all at p < 0.001 orgreater significance).Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or herpersonally, a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States, a very orsomewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States, a very serious threat tomarshes and wetlands in Delaware, a very serious threat to ocean-front cities andtowns in Delaware, a very serious threat to Delaware beaches, a very or somewhatserious threat to river-front cities and towns in Delaware, and a very serious threat tothe State of Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).On all questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supports anyefforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., supportselevating buildings using government funds; supports purchasing or acquiring landand open space from willing land sellers using government funds; supports elevatingthe land surface) (all at p < 0.01 or greater significance).Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that climate changeis something people can control; agrees that the impacts of climate change can bereduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that Delaware’s state agencies, Delaware’s governor, Delaware citizens,corporations and industry, Delaware’s state legislators, his or her city or town


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 265government officials, his or her county government officials, and his or her countygovernment officials should all be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sealevel rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Has flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).o Would most like to have more information on actions that can be taken to reduceimpacts of sea level rise (p < 0.001), how sea level rise relates to climate change /global warming (p < 0.001), funding needs / estimated budget to address sea level risein Delaware (p < 0.01), sea level rise in general (p < 0.05), and how to protectproperty from sea level rise (p < 0.05).o A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware ismagazines (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a large city, urban area, or suburban area(p < 0.01).o Is female (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that corporations and industry should be doing much more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise (p < 0.01)and climate change (p < 0.05).o Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about climate change; thinks that climate change is a very seriousthreat; strongly agrees that scientists are right that climate change is occurring) (all atp < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally(p < 0.001), a very serious threat to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware(p < 0.001), a very or somewhat serious threat to river-front cities and towns inDelaware (p < 0.001), a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States(p < 0.001), a very serious threat to the State of Delaware (p < 0.001), a very orsomewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States (p < 0.001), a very seriousthreat to Delaware beaches (p < 0.001), and a very serious threat to marshes andwetlands in Delaware (p < 0.05).o Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).o Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o On most questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supportsany efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., stronglysupports changing building codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas;strongly supports avoiding building new structures; supports purchasing or acquiringland and open space from willing land sellers using government funds) (all atp < 0.05 or greater significance).


266 Responsive ManagementoBelieves human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that the impacts ofclimate change can be reduced by human efforts; agrees that climate change issomething people can control) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that the U.S. Congress (p < 0.001), Delaware’s state agencies (p < 0.001),Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), his or her city or town government officials(p < 0.001), Delaware’s governor (p < 0.001), his or her county government officials(p < 0.001), Delaware’s state legislators (p < 0.001), and his or her state governmentofficials (p < 0.01) should all be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sealevel rise in Delaware.o Has flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).o A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware istelevision (p < 0.01).oWould most like to have more information on how sea level rise relates to climatechange / global warming (p < 0.01), funding needs / estimated budget to address sealevel rise in Delaware (p < 0.01), and how to protect property from sea level rise(p < 0.05).o Is between ages 35-64 (p < 0.001).o Is female (p < 0.05).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated withthinking that Delaware citizens should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts ofsea level rise in Delaware:oooooThinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or herpersonally, a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States, a very orsomewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States, a very serious threat tomarshes and wetlands in Delaware, a very or somewhat serious threat to river-frontcities and towns in Delaware, a very serious threat to Delaware beaches, a veryserious threat to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware, and a very serious threat tothe State of Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about climate change; is completely or mostly convinced that sealevels are rising; thinks that climate change is a very serious threat) (all at p < 0.001or greater significance).Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).On most questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supportsany efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., supportspurchasing or acquiring land and open space from willing land sellers usinggovernment funds; supports elevating buildings using government funds; supportspurchasing or buying out frequently flooded properties using government funds) (allat p < 0.001 or greater significance).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 267o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that climate changeis something people can control; agrees that the impacts of climate change can bereduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that his or her city or town government officials, his or her county governmentofficials, the U.S. Congress, his or her state government officials, corporations andindustry, Delaware’s state agencies, Delaware’s state legislators, and Delaware’sgovernor should all be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Would most like to have more information on actions that can be taken to reduceimpacts of sea level rise, how sea level rise relates to climate change / globalwarming, funding needs / estimated budget to address sea level rise in Delaware, howto protect property from sea level rise, sea level rise in general, and current orpotential impacts of sea level rise (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware isthe Internet, not including Department of Natural Resources and EnvironmentalControl website (p < 0.01).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Is female (p < 0.001).o Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household (p < 0.01).o Is between ages 18-34 (p < 0.01).‣ The crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found statistically significant differences on twoof the questions in the above series. In that series, the crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastalfound that coastal residents, relative to non-coastal residents, are more likely to think that thefollowing should do much more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware: Their county government (p < 0.05). Delaware’s state agencies (p < 0.01).‣ Most residents (55%) indicate that they would not be likely to attend a public meeting,informational session, or “webinar” in the next 12 months on sea level rise in Delaware. Onthe other end, 10% indicate being very likely. A similar question asked residents about theirlikelihood to write letters, send emails, or call elected officials in the next 12 months aboutsea level rise: 62% would be not at all likely, while only 9% indicate being very likely.


268 Responsive ManagementThe nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated with beingvery likely or somewhat likely to attend a public meeting, information session, or“webinar” on sea level rise:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change(p < 0.001) and sea level rise (p < 0.001).o Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about climate change, worries a great deal or a moderate amountabout the problems that sea level rise may cause in Delaware, is completely or mostlyconvinced that sea levels are rising) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Does not indicate agreeing that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated(p < 0.001).o Strongly agrees with the statement that scientists are right that climate change isoccurring (p < 0.01), and thinks that most scientists think that climate change ishappening (p < 0.05).o Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.05).o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).o On most questions, supports alterations in areas at risk from sea level rise to addresssea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., strongly supports changingbuilding codes and regulations to reduce risk in flood prone areas, strongly supportsavoiding building new structures, supports purchasing or buying out frequentlyflooded properties using government funds) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that climate changeis something people can control; agrees that the impacts of climate change can bereduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Thinks that Delaware's governor, Delaware's state legislators, Delaware's stateagencies, his or her state government officials, his or her county government officials,the U.S. Congress, his or her city or town government officials, corporations andindustry, and Delaware citizens should all be doing more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Has flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).o Would most like to have more information on actions that can be taken to reduceimpacts of sea level rise, funding needs / estimated budget to address sea level rise inDelaware, how to protect property from sea level rise, current or potential impacts ofsea level rise, sea level rise in general, and how sea level rise relates to climateochange / global warming (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).Gets most of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware from theInternet, not including Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Controlwebsite (p < 0.05), and newspapers (p < 0.05).o Is between ages 35-64 (p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 269The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlated with beingvery likely or somewhat likely to write letters, send e-mails, or call elected officials aboutsea level rise:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about sea level rise (p < 0.001)and climate change (p < 0.001).o Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., worries a great deal or amoderate amount about climate change, thinks that climate change is a very seriousthreat, is completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising) (all at p < 0.01 orgreater significance).o Thinks that most scientists think that climate change is happening (p < 0.001), andstrongly agrees with the statement that scientists are right that climate change isoccurring (p < 0.001).o Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate agreeing that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated(p < 0.05).o Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).o Believes human efforts can improve climate change (e.g., agrees that climate changeis something people can control; agrees that the impacts of climate change can bereduced by human efforts) (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Supports purchasing or acquiring land and open space at risk from sea level rise fromwilling land sellers using government funds (p < 0.001), Supports purchasing orbuying out frequently flooded properties using government funds (p < 0.05), andStrongly supports elevating buildings in areas at risk from sea level rise using privatefunding (p < 0.05) to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts.o Thinks that his or her county government officials, Delaware's state legislators, his orher city or town government officials, his or her state government officials, the U.S.Congress, Delaware's state agencies, Delaware's governor, corporations and industry,and Delaware citizens should all be doing more to address or reduce the impacts ofsea level rise in Delaware (all at p < 0.001 or greater significance).o Has flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).o Would most like to have more information on how sea level rise relates to climatechange / global warming (p < 0.001), sea level rise in general (p < 0.01), how toprotect property from sea level rise (p < 0.05), and current or potential impacts of sealevel rise (p < 0.05).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town (p < 0.01).o Lives in New Castle County (p < 0.01).o Is between ages 35-64 (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a coastal area (p < 0.01).o Has a bachelor's degree or graduate degree (p < 0.05).


270 Responsive ManagementQ123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing much more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q130. Corporations and industry39Q123. His/Her city or town governmentofficials33Q125. His/Her state governmentofficials33Q124. His/Her county governmentofficials32Q126. Delaware's state legislators32Q131. Delaware citizens32Q129. U.S. Congress31Q127. Delaware's governor24Q128. Delaware's state agencies200 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 271Q123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing much or somewhat more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q130. Corporations and industry66Q131. Delaware citizens64Q125. His/Her state governmentofficials59Q123. His/Her city or town governmentofficials58Q124. His/Her county governmentofficials57Q126. Delaware's state legislators56Q129. U.S. Congress56Q127. Delaware's governor47Q128. Delaware's state agencies450 20 40 60 80 100Percent


272 Responsive ManagementQ123-131. Percent who think the following aredoing the right amount or should be doing less toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware.Q128. Delaware's state agencies29Q124. His/Her county governmentofficials28Q127. Delaware's governor27Q123. His/Her city or town governmentofficials26Q125. His/Her state governmentofficials26Q126. Delaware's state legislators26Q129. U.S. Congress26Q130. Corporations and industry22Q131. Delaware citizens220 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 273Q123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing more/about the same or less to addressor reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q130. Corporations and industry2266Q131. Delaware citizens2264Q125. His/Her state governmentofficials2659Q123. His/Her city or town governmentofficials2658Q124. His/Her county governmentofficials2857Q126. Delaware's state legislators2656Q129. U.S. Congress2656Q127. Delaware's governorQ128. Delaware's state agencies27294745Much more orsomewhat moreAbout the same,somewhat lessor much less0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


274 Responsive ManagementQ123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing much more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q130. Corporations and industry423635Q126. Delaware's state legislators343030Q131. Delaware citizens203436Q123. His/Her city or town governmentofficials253339Q125. His/Her state governmentofficialsQ124. His/Her county governmentofficials333629323728New CastleKentSussexQ129. U.S. Congress322731Q127. Delaware's governor261824Q128. Delaware's state agencies2121170 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 275Q123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing much or somewhat more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q130. Corporationsand industry686164Q131. DelawarecitizensQ123. His/Her cityor town governmentofficials525560606668Q125. His/Her stategovernment officials605757Q126. Delaware'sstate legislators455956New CastleKentSussexQ124. His/Hercounty governmentofficials585356Q129. U.S.Congress575553Q127. Delaware'sgovernor484645Q128. Delaware'sstate agencies4741430 20 40 60 80 100Percent


276 Responsive ManagementQ123-131. Percent who think the following arecurrently doing about the right amount to addressor reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q124. His/Hercounty governmentofficialsQ127. Delaware'sgovernor192323182216Q128. Delaware'sstate agenciesQ123. His/Her cityor town governmentofficialsQ125. His/Her stategovernment officials182218172327162021New CastleKentSussexQ126. Delaware'sstate legislators151826Q131. Delawarecitizens151922Q129. U.S.Congress131616Q130. Corporationsand industry1312140 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 277Q123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing somewhat or much less to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q129. U.S.Congress13109Q127. Delaware'sgovernor1078Q126. Delaware'sstate legislatorsQ124. His/Hercounty governmentofficialsQ125. His/Her stategovernmentofficials986898896New CastleKentSussexQ128. Delaware'sstate agenciesQ123. His/Her cityor town governmentofficials8775618Q130. Corporationsand industry7714Q131. Delawarecitizens4470 20 40 60 80 100Percent


278 Responsive ManagementQ123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing much less to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q129. U.S.Congress957Q126. Delaware'sstate legislators644Q127. Delaware'sgovernorQ124. His/Hercounty governmentofficialsQ125. His/Her stategovernmentofficialsQ128. Delaware'sstate agenciesQ123. His/Her cityor town governmentofficialsQ130. Corporationsand industry656544534535423425New CastleKentSussexQ131. Delawarecitizens2320 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 279Q123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing much more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q130. Corporations and industry3843Q123. His/Her city or towngovernment officials3139Q124. His/Her county governmentofficials2939Q129. U.S. Congress2839Q125. His/Her state governmentofficials3238Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ126. Delaware's state legislators3138Q127. Delaware's governor2135Q131. Delaware citizens3134Q128. Delaware's state agencies18300 20 40 60 80 100Percent


280 Responsive ManagementQ123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing much or somewhat more to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q131. Delaware citizens6370Q130. Corporations and industry6666Q124. His/Her countygovernment officials5564Q126. Delaware's statelegislators5464Q123. His/Her city or towngovernment officialsQ125. His/Her state governmentofficials63576358Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ129. U.S. Congress5559Q128. Delaware's state agencies4257Q127. Delaware's governor45560 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 281Q123-131. Percent who think the following arecurrently doing about the right amount to addressor reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q124. His/Her county governmentofficials2120Q123. His/Her city or towngovernment officials1921Q125. His/Her state governmentofficials1718Q128. Delaware's state agenciesQ131. Delaware citizens16201518Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ126. Delaware's state legislators1419Q127. Delaware's governor1420Q129. U.S. Congress1415Q130. Corporations and industry14130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


282 Responsive ManagementQ123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing somewhat or much less to address orreduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q129. U.S. Congress812Q130. Corporations and industry89Q123. His/Her city or towngovernment officials67Q124. His/Her county governmentofficialsQ125. His/Her state governmentofficials6959Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ126. Delaware's state legislators59Q127. Delaware's governor510Q128. Delaware's state agencies411Q131. Delaware citizens450 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 283Q123-131. Percent who think the following shouldbe doing much less to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.Q129. U.S. Congress59Q124. His/Her county governmentofficials45Q127. Delaware's governor46Q123. His/Her city or towngovernment officialsQ125. His/Her state governmentofficials3435Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastalQ126. Delaware's state legislators36Q128. Delaware's state agencies35Q130. Corporations and industry34Q131. Delaware citizens230 20 40 60 80 100Percent


284 Responsive ManagementQ124. Do you think your county governmentofficials should be doing more or less to addressor reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delawareor are they currently doing about the right amount?Much more2939Somewhat more2525About the rightamountSomewhat less242120Residence is consideredcoastal (n=217)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=622)Much less45Don't know9160 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 285Q128. Do you think Delaware's state agenciesshould be doing more or less to address or reducethe impacts of sea level rise in Delaware or are theycurrently doing about the right amount?Much more1830Somewhat more2427About the rightamountSomewhat less171620Residence is consideredcoastal (n=199)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=631)Much less35Don't know24260 20 40 60 80 100Percent


286 Responsive ManagementQ145. How likely are you to attend a publicmeeting, informational session, or "webinar" onsea level rise in Delaware in the next 12 months?Very likely10Somewhat likely32Not at all likely55Don't know30 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=746)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 287Q145. How likely are you to attend a publicmeeting, informational session, or "webinar" onsea level rise in Delaware in the next 12 months?9Very likely101031Somewhat likely293756New Castle (n=393)Kent (n=149)Sussex (n=200)Not at all likely60504Don't know120 20 40 60 80 100Percent


288 Responsive ManagementQ145. How likely are you to attend a publicmeeting, informational session, or "webinar" onsea level rise in Delaware in the next 12 months?Very likely814Somewhat likely3332Not at all likely4957Residence is consideredcoastal (n=173)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=573)Don't know350 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 289Q146. How likely are you to write letters, sendemails, or call your elected officials about sea levelrise in the next 12 months?Very likely9Somewhat likely27Not at all likely62Don't know20 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=759)


290 Responsive ManagementQ146. How likely are you to write letters, sendemails, or call your elected officials about sea levelrise in the next 12 months?10Very likely9830Somewhat likely202358New Castle (n=424)Kent (n=133)Sussex (n=201)Not at all likely70682Don't know110 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 291Q146. How likely are you to write letters, sendemails, or call your elected officials about sea levelrise in the next 12 months?Very likely814Somewhat likely2531Not at all likely5464Residence is consideredcoastal (n=195)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=564)Don't know130 20 40 60 80 100Percent


292 Responsive ManagementDEMOGRAPHIC DATA‣ Ethnicity of Delaware residents is shown: 76% indicate being white or Caucasian. Sussex County is the most white of the three counties, in the crosstabulation by county ofresidence (p < 0.001).‣ The majority of Delaware residents (60%) do not have children living at home. The graphalso shows the number of children in households among those with children at home.‣ Education levels of Delaware residents are shown: 69% have taken some college or tradeschool coursework; 44% have a Bachelor’s degree, with or without a higher degree.‣ Residents’ years of residency in Delaware are shown, with about a quarter having moved intothe state within the last 10 years. The mean is 28.1 years. The crosstabulation by county of residence found Sussex County residents, relative toresidents of the other two counties, have generally lived in Delaware for a shorter amountof time (p < 0.001)—in other words, Sussex County residents are more likely, comparedto other residents, to have moved into Delaware within the past 20 years. The crosstabulation by coastal/non-coastal found that coastal residents, relative to noncoastalresidents, have generally lived in Delaware for a shorter amount of time(p < 0.001)—in other words, the coastal residents are more likely, compared to otherresidents, to have moved into Delaware within the past 20 years.‣ Delaware residents are about equally divided into large city or urban area/suburban area(48%) and small city or town/rural area (48%) (the remainder did not or could not say). New Castle County residents, relative to residents of the other two counties, are the mosturban or suburban; Kent and Sussex County residents are the most rural (p < 0.001).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 293‣ The survey asked residents, regardless of where they live, if they consider their place ofresidence to be coastal or non-coastal: 21% say they live in a coastal area, and 79% say theylive in a non-coastal area. Sussex County residents are the most likely, of residents of the three counties, to considertheir place of residence as coastal (p < 0.001).‣ A graph shows percentages renting versus owning their residences. Residents in the 18-24 years of age category are the most likely, of residents of the sixage categories, to rent and not own their place of residence (p < 0.001).‣ Among homeowners, 21% have flood insurance. This graph was run only amonghomeowners because flood insurance is more applicable to those with mortgages than tothose who simply pay rent. Note that National Flood Insurance requirements apply to manymortgages.‣ Age and gender of respondents are shown (note that these survey data were weighted tomatch Census figures for the state of Delaware).‣ The nonparametric analysis included several demographic variables: gender, consideringresidence to be coastal or non-coastal, county of residence, and having flood insurance.These variables are discussed below.Gender: The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlatedwith being male:oooSays he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change(p < 0.001) and sea level rise (p < 0.01).Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise will not start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat tohim or her personally (p < 0.001), a very or somewhat serious threat to river-frontcities and towns in Delaware (p < 0.001), a very or somewhat serious threat to theUnited States (p < 0.001), a very serious threat to ocean-front cities and towns inDelaware (p < 0.001), a very serious threat to Delaware beaches (p < 0.001), a veryserious threat to marshes and wetlands in Delaware (p < 0.001), or a very orsomewhat serious threat to the Mid-Atlantic United States (p < 0.05).


294 Responsive ManagementooooooDoes not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., agrees with thestatement that the impacts of climate change are greatly exaggerated; does notindicate being completely or mostly convinced that sea levels are rising; does notindicate strongly agreeing that scientists are right that climate change is occurring)(all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).Does not indicate thinking that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly byhuman activities (p < 0.01).On most questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, does notindicate supporting efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts(e.g., does not indicate support for elevating the land surface; does not indicatesupport for elevating buildings using government funds; does not indicate strongsupport for using clean dredged material from waterways to build up marsh areas) (allat p < 0.05 or greater significance).Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that the impacts of climatechange can be reduced by human efforts (p < 0.001).Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), his or her stategovernment officials (p < 0.001), his or her city or town government officials(p < 0.01), his or her county government officials (p < 0.01), Delaware’s statelegislators (p < 0.01), corporations and industry (p < 0.05), or Delaware’s governor(p < 0.05) should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware.A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware isthe Internet, not including Department of Natural Resources and EnvironmentalControl website (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a rural area (p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).Gender: The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses are correlatedwith being female:ooooDoes not indicate knowing a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change(p < 0.001) or sea level rise (p < 0.01).Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally(p < 0.001), a very or somewhat serious threat to river-front cities and towns inDelaware (p < 0.001), a very or somewhat serious threat to the United States(p < 0.001), a very serious threat to Delaware beaches (p < 0.001), a very seriousthreat to ocean-front cities and towns in Delaware (p < 0.001), a very serious threat tomarshes and wetlands in Delaware (p < 0.001), a very serious threat to the State ofDelaware (p < 0.05), and a very or somewhat serious threat to the Mid-AtlanticUnited States (p < 0.05).Shows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., is completely or mostlyconvinced that sea levels are rising; strongly agrees that scientists are right thatclimate change is occurring; worries a great deal or a moderate amount about climatechange) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.001).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 295ooooooThinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.01).On most questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supportsany efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., supportselevating the land surface; supports elevating buildings using government funds;strongly supports using clean dredged material from waterways to build up marshareas) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).Strongly agrees with the statement that the impacts of climate change can be reducedby human efforts (p < 0.001).Thinks that Delaware citizens (p < 0.001), his or her state government officials(p < 0.001), Delaware’s state legislators (p < 0.01), his or her city or towngovernment officials (p < 0.01), his or her county government officials (p < 0.01),Delaware’s governor (p < 0.05), corporations and industry (p < 0.05), and the U.S.Congress (p < 0.05) should all be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sealevel rise in Delaware.Would most like to have more information on actions that can be taken to reduceimpacts of sea level rise (p < 0.001), funding needs / estimated budget to address sealevel rise in Delaware (p < 0.001), how to protect property from sea level rise(p < 0.001), sea level rise in general (p < 0.01), current or potential impacts of sealevel rise (p < 0.05), and how sea level rise relates to climate change / global warming(p < 0.05).Primary sources of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware aretelevision (p < 0.01) and newspapers (p < 0.05).Coastal or Non-Coastal. The nonparametric analysis found that the following responsesare correlated with considering his or her place of residence to be in a coastal area:ooooWorries a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea level rise maycause in Delaware (p < 0.001), and is completely convinced that climate change ishappening (p < 0.01).Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally(p < 0.001).Thinks that sea level rise will start to have impacts on the area where he or she livesin Delaware in 25 years or less (p < 0.01).Does not indicate support for allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrateinland to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.05).o Thinks that Delaware’s state agencies (p < 0.001), Delaware’s governor (p < 0.01),his or her county government officials (p < 0.01), and Delaware’s state legislators(p < 0.01) should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise inDelaware.o Has flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware istelevision (p < 0.001).o Lives in Sussex County (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town (p < 0.001).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).o Has been a Delaware resident for less than the mean of 30 years (p < 0.05).


296 Responsive ManagementoDoes not have any children, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household(p < 0.05).Coastal or Non-Coastal. The nonparametric analysis found that the following responsesare correlated with considering his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area:o Says he/she knows a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change(p < 0.05).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise will not start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.001).o Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat tohim or her personally (p < 0.01).o Does not indicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems thatsea level rise may cause in Delaware (p < 0.05).o Does not indicate being completely convinced that climate change is happening(p < 0.05).o Supports allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrate inland to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.01).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware’s state agencies (p < 0.01) or Delaware’sstate legislators (p < 0.05) should be doing more to address or reduce the impacts ofsea level rise in Delaware.o Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Would most like to have more information on current or potential impacts of sea levelrise (p < 0.01), and actions that can be taken to reduce impacts of sea level riseo(p < 0.05).Considers his or her place of residence to be a large city, urban area, or suburban area(p < 0.001).o Lives in New Castle County (p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Has a bachelor’s degree or graduate degree (p < 0.001).o Lives in Kent County (p < 0.001).o Has been a Delaware resident for the mean of 30 years or more (p < 0.05).County of Residence. The nonparametric analysis found that the following responsesare correlated with living in New Castle County:oooShows concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., strongly agrees thatscientists are right that climate change is occurring; thinks that most scientists thinkthat climate change is happening; worries a great deal or a moderate amount aboutclimate change) (all at p < 0.01 or greater significance), but does not indicateworrying a great deal or a moderate amount about the problems that sea level risemay cause in Delaware (p < 0.01).Strongly agrees with the statement that the impacts of climate change can be reducedby human efforts (p < 0.001).Thinks that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly by human activities(p < 0.01).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 297o Agrees with the statement that climate change is something people can control(p < 0.001).o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Strongly supports avoiding building new structures in areas at risk from sea level riseto address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.05).o Thinks that Delaware’s state legislators should be doing more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware (p < 0.05).o Would most like to have more information on sea level rise in general (p < 0.001),how sea level rise relates to climate change / global warming (p < 0.05), and currentoor potential impacts of sea level rise (p < 0.05).Considers his or her place of residence to be a large city, urban area, or suburban area(p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.001).o Has a bachelor’s degree or graduate degree (p < 0.001).o Has been a Delaware resident for the mean of 30 years or more (p < 0.001).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.05).o Is between ages 35-64 (p < 0.05).County of Residence. The nonparametric analysis found that the following responsesare correlated with living in Kent County:o Thinks that sea level rise is a very serious threat to Delaware beaches (p < 0.01), anda very serious threat to marshes and wetlands in Delaware (p < 0.05).o On half of the questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise,supports efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g.,supports elevating the land surface; strongly supports using clean dredged materialfrom waterways to build up marsh areas; supports purchasing or buying outfrequently flooded properties using government funds) (all at p < 0.05 or greatersignificance).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware’s state legislators should be doing more toaddress or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (p < 0.01).o Does not have flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a rural area (p < 0.001).o Does not have a bachelor’s degree (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.001).County of Residence. The nonparametric analysis found that the following responsesare correlated with living in Sussex County:oDoes not show concern about climate change and sea level rise in general (e.g., doesnot indicate strongly agreeing that scientists are right that climate change is occurring;does not indicate thinking that most scientists think that climate change is happening;does not indicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change)(all at p < 0.05 or greater significance), but worries a great deal or a moderate amountabout the problems that sea level rise may cause in Delaware (p < 0.01).


298 Responsive Managemento Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that the impacts of climatechange can be reduced by human efforts (p < 0.01).o Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally(p < 0.01).o Does not indicate thinking that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly byhuman activities (p < 0.05).o On half of the questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, doesnot indicate supporting efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts (e.g., does not indicate support for purchasing or acquiring land and openspace from willing land sellers using government funds; does not indicate support forelevating buildings using government funds; does not indicate support for purchasingor buying out frequently flooded properties using government funds) (all at p < 0.05or greater significance).o Does not indicate agreeing with the statement that climate change is somethingpeople can control (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strong support for increasing funding for research to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate thinking that Delaware citizens (p < 0.01) or his or her city or towngovernment officials (p < 0.05) should be doing more to address or reduce theimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.o Has flood insurance for his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware istelevision (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a coastal area (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a rural area (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a small city or town (p < 0.001).o Is age 65 or older (p < 0.001).o Has been a Delaware resident for less than the mean of 30 years (p < 0.001).o Does not have a bachelor’s degree (p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).Flood Insurance. The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses arecorrelated with having flood insurance for his or her current place of residence:o Thinks that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat to him or her personally(p < 0.001).o Worries a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change (p < 0.05).o On most questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, supportsany efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (e.g., supportselevating buildings using government funds; supports building dikes, seawalls, andbulkheads to keep water back; supports purchasing or buying out frequently floodedproperties using government funds) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o Strongly supports increasing funding for research to address sea level rise inDelaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.05).o Thinks that his or her county government officials, Delaware’s state agencies,corporations and industry, Delaware’s governor, and the U.S. Congress should be


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 299doing more to address or reduce the impacts of sea level rise in Delaware (all atp < 0.05 or greater significance).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a coastal area (p < 0.001).o Lives in Sussex County (p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a rural area (p < 0.001).o Has at least one child, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household (p < 0.05).Flood Insurance. The nonparametric analysis found that the following responses arecorrelated with not having flood insurance for his or her current place of residence:o Does not indicate thinking that sea level rise is a very or somewhat serious threat tohim or her personally (p < 0.001).o Does not show concern about climate change and sea level rise (e.g., does notindicate worrying a great deal or a moderate amount about climate change; does notindicate thinking that climate change is a very serious threat; does not indicatestrongly agreeing that scientists are right that climate change is occurring) (all atp < 0.05 or greater significance).o Does not indicate thinking that, if climate change is happening, it is caused mostly byhuman activities (p < 0.05).o Either thinks that sea levels are not rising or that sea level rise will not start to haveimpacts on the area where he or she lives in Delaware until 50 to 100 years from now(p < 0.05).o On some of the questions about how to improve areas at risk from sea level rise, doesnot indicate supporting efforts to address sea level rise in Delaware or reduce itsimpacts (e.g., does not indicate support for elevating buildings using governmentfunds; does not indicate support for purchasing or buying out frequently floodedproperties using government funds; does not indicate support for building dikes,seawalls, and bulkheads to keep water back) (all at p < 0.05 or greater significance).o Supports allowing beaches and wetlands to naturally migrate inland to address sealevel rise in Delaware or reduce its impacts (p < 0.001).o Does not indicate strongly agreeing with the statement that the impacts of climatechange can be reduced by human efforts (p < 0.05).o Does not indicate thinking that his or her city or town government officials (p < 0.05)or Delaware’s state agencies (p < 0.05) should be doing more to address or reduce theoimpacts of sea level rise in Delaware.A primary source of his or her information about environmental issues in Delaware istelevision (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be in a non-coastal area (p < 0.001).o Considers his or her place of residence to be a large city, urban area, or suburban area(p < 0.001).o Is between ages 35-64 (p < 0.001).o Does not have any children, age 17 or younger, living in his or her household(p < 0.001).o Owns his or her current place of residence (p < 0.001).o Has been a Delaware resident for the mean of 30 years or more (p < 0.001).o Has a bachelor’s degree or graduate degree (p < 0.01).


300 Responsive Managemento Lives in Kent County (p < 0.01).o Rents his or her current place of residence (p < 0.01).


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 301Q161. What races or ethnic backgrounds do youconsider yourself, and please mention all thatapply?White or Caucasian76Black or African-American11Hispanic or Latino3Multiple Responses AllowedNative American or Alaskan nativeor AleutianSouth AsianEast AsianOther1111Don't know2Refused60 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


302 Responsive ManagementQ161. What races or ethnic backgrounds do youconsider yourself, and please mention all thatapply?White orCaucasian747484Black or African-AmericanHispanic or Latino52521214Multiple Responses AllowedSouth AsianNative American orAlaskan native orAleutianEast Asian201131120New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Other102Don't know201Refused6660 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 303Q161. What races or ethnic backgrounds do youconsider yourself, and please mention all thatapply?White orCaucasian6978Black or African-American1310Hispanic or Latino42Multiple Responses AllowedNative Americanor Alaskan nativeor AleutianMiddle EasternSouth Asian121201Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Other31Don't know22Refused950 20 40 60 80 100Percent


304 Responsive ManagementQ156. How many children, age 17 or younger, doyou have living in your household?More than 3children23 children62 children141 child14Have no children60Don't know /refused40 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 305Q156. How many children, age 17 or younger, doyou have living in your household?More than 3children2203 children41282 children1 child171310141415New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Have no children595865Don't know /refused4120 20 40 60 80 100Percent


306 Responsive ManagementQ156. How many children, age 17 or younger, doyou have living in your household?More than 3children133 children572 children11151 child1314Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Have no children5965Don't know /refused340 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 307Q156. How many children, age 17 or younger, doyou have living in your household?Homes withchildren3337U.S. Census data for DEDE survey respondentsHomes withoutchildren6067Refused030 20 40 60 80 100Percent


308 Responsive ManagementQ158. What is the highest level of education youhave completed?Not a high schoolgraduate4High schoolgraduate orequivalentSome college ortrade school, nodegree1623Associate or tradeschool degree9Bachelor's degree2569%Master's degree1344%Professional ordoctorate degree6Don't know2Refused20 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 309Q158. What is the highest level of education youhave completed?Not a high schoolgraduate349High schoolgraduate orequivalentSome college ortrade school, nodegree191717132632Associate or tradeschool degree71312Bachelor's degreeMaster's degree41614202727New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Professional ordoctorate degreeDon't knowRefused4330120280 20 40 60 80 100Percent


310 Responsive ManagementQ158. What is the highest level of education youhave completed?Not a high schoolgraduate73High schoolgraduate orequivalent2422Some college ortrade school, nodegree1317Associate ortrade schooldegreeBachelor'sdegreeMaster's degree81212132026Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Professional ordoctorate degree66Don't know32Refused320 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 311Q148. How many years have you lived in Delaware?More than 70years361 - 70 years351 - 60 years841 - 50 years1231 - 40 years13Mean = 28.121 - 30 years1711 - 20 years1710 years or less24Don't know /refused30 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


312 Responsive ManagementQ148. How many years have you lived in Delaware?More than 70years61 - 70 years51 - 60 years41 - 50 years31 - 40 years21 - 30 years333333975131011141410172314MeanNew Castle = 29.32Kent = 27.97Sussex = 24.82New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)11 - 20 years10 years or less161523222429Don't know /refused3020 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 313Q148. How many years have you lived in Delaware?More than 70years4361 - 70 years3351 - 60 years41 - 50 years781112MeanCoastal = 25.61Non-coastal = 28.7431 - 40 years21 - 30 years11 - 20 years81510192017Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)10 years or less2134Don't know /refused330 20 40 60 80 100Percent


314 Responsive ManagementQ152. Do you consider your place of residence tobe a large city or urban area, a suburban area, asmall city or town, a rural area on a farm or ranch,or a rural area not on a farm or ranch?Large city orurban area9Suburban area39Small city or town30Rural area on afarm or ranch3Rural area not ona farm or ranch15Don't know3Refused10 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 315Q152. Do you consider your place of residence tobe a large city or urban area, a suburban area, asmall city or town, a rural area on a farm or ranch,or a rural area not on a farm or ranch?Large city orurban area31111Suburban area142352Small city or town243445Rural area on afarm or ranch147New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Rural area not ona farm or ranch72628Don't know321Refused1020 20 40 60 80 100Percent


316 Responsive ManagementQ152. Do you consider your place of residence tobe a large city or urban area, a suburban area, asmall city or town, a rural area on a farm or ranch,or a rural area not on a farm or ranch?Large city orurban area710Suburban area2442Small city or town2547Rural area on afarm or ranch33Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Rural area not ona farm or ranch1615Don't know23Refused210 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 317Q153. Do you consider your place of residence tobe in a coastal or non-coastal area?Considersresidence to becoastal21Considersresidence to benon-coastal790 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


318 Responsive ManagementQ153. Do you consider your place of residence tobe in a coastal or non-coastal area?13Residence isconsideredcoastal1648New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)87Residence isconsidered noncoastal84520 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 319Q154. Do you rent or own your current place ofresidence?Rent13Own82Occupy withoutcash rent1Refused40 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


320 Responsive ManagementQ154. Do you rent or own your current place ofresidence?14Rent13981Own8288Occupy withoutcash rent104New Castle (n=817)Kent (n=282)Sussex (n=401)Refused1340 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 321Q154. Do you rent or own your current place ofresidence?Rent1118Own7783Occupy withoutcash rent11Residence is consideredcoastal (n=368)Residence is considerednon-coastal (n=1137)Refused440 20 40 60 80 100Percent


322 Responsive ManagementQ154. Do you rent or own your current place ofresidence?Rent9710131927Own647788929087Occupy withoutcash rentRefused10003410001565 years old or older55-64 years old45-54 years old35-44 years old25-34 years old18-24 years old0 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1429)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 323Q154. Do you rent or own your current place ofresidence?Rent1327U.S. Census data for DEDE survey respondentsOwn7482Refused04Other010 20 40 60 80 100Percent


324 Responsive ManagementQ155. Do you have flood insurance for your currentplace of residence?(Of those who own their current place ofresidence.)Yes21No73Don't know60 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 325Q155. Do you have flood insurance for your currentplace of residence?(Of those who own their current place ofresidence.)18Yes193375No78638New Castle CountyKent CountySussex CountyDon't know340 20 40 60 80 100Percent


326 Responsive ManagementQ155. Do you have flood insurance for your currentplace of residence?(Of those who own their current place ofresidence.)Yes1835No6275Don't know47Residence is consideredcoastalResidence is considerednon-coastal0 20 40 60 80 100Percent


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 327Q163. Respondent's age.65 years old orolder1755-64 years old1545-54 years old1835-44 years old1725-34 years old15Mean = 47.6918-24 years old10Don't know3Refused50 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


328 Responsive ManagementQ168. Respondent's gender (observed, not asked,by interviewer).Male48Female520 20 40 60 80 100Percent (n=1505)


Delaware Residents’ Opinions on Climate Change and Sea Level Rise 329ABOUT RESPONSIVE MANAGEMENTResponsive Management is a nationally recognized public opinion and attitude survey researchfirm specializing in natural resource and outdoor recreation issues. Its mission is to help naturalresource and outdoor recreation agencies and organizations better understand and work with theirconstituents, customers, and the public.Utilizing its in-house, full-service, computer-assisted telephone and mail survey center with 45professional interviewers, Responsive Management has conducted more than 1,000 telephonesurveys, mail surveys, personal interviews, and focus groups, as well as numerous marketing andcommunications plans, need assessments, and program evaluations on natural resource andoutdoor recreation issues.Clients include most of the federal and state natural resource, outdoor recreation, andenvironmental agencies, and most of the top conservation organizations. ResponsiveManagement also collects attitude and opinion data for many of the nation’s top universities,including the University of Southern California, Virginia Tech, Colorado State University,Auburn, Texas Tech, the University of California—Davis, Michigan State University, theUniversity of Florida, North Carolina State University, Penn State, West Virginia University, andothers.Among the wide range of work Responsive Management has completed during the past 20 yearsare studies on how the general population values natural resources and outdoor recreation, andtheir ong>opinionsong> on and attitudes toward an array of natural resource-related issues. ResponsiveManagement has conducted dozens of studies of selected groups of outdoor recreationists,including anglers, boaters, hunters, wildlife watchers, birdwatchers, park visitors, historic sitevisitors, hikers, and campers, as well as selected groups within the general population, such aslandowners, farmers, urban and rural residents, women, senior citizens, children, Hispanics,Asians, and African-Americans. Responsive Management has conducted studies onenvironmental education, endangered species, waterfowl, wetlands, water quality, and thereintroduction of numerous species such as wolves, grizzly bears, the California condor, and theFlorida panther.


330 Responsive ManagementResponsive Management has conducted research on numerous natural resource ballot initiativesand referenda and helped agencies and organizations find alternative funding and increase theirmemberships and donations. Responsive Management has conducted major agency andorganizational program needs assessments and helped develop more effective programs basedupon a solid foundation of fact. Responsive Management has developed websites for naturalresource organizations, conducted training workshops on the human dimensions of naturalresources, and presented numerous studies each year in presentations and as keynote speakers atmajor natural resource, outdoor recreation, conservation, and environmental conferences andmeetings.Responsive Management has conducted research on public attitudes toward natural resourcesand outdoor recreation in almost every state in the United States, as well as in Canada, Australia,the United Kingdom, France, Germany, and Japan. Responsive Management routinely conductssurveys in Spanish and has also conducted surveys and focus groups in Chinese, Korean,Japanese, and Vietnamese.Responsive Management’s research has been featured in most of the nation’s major media,including CNN, ESPN, The Washington Times, The New York Times, Newsweek, The Wall StreetJournal, and on the front pages of The Washington Post and USA Today.Visit the Responsive Management website at:www.responsivemanagement.com

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