Louise Zuilen (Suriname)1 March firstname.lastname@example.org
Suriname - Country profile• Suriname located in the north-eastpart of South America•Capital city : Paramaribo•Population: 534.189•Official Language: Dutch•The surface area: 164.000 squarekm•Presently the energy supplysystem of Suriname exists formore than 70% out of fossil fuels(diesel oil) and the rest by hydropower• Major Exports: Alumina, gold,crude oil, lumber, shrimp/fish, rice,bananas•Major Imports: Capital equipment,petroleum, food stuffs, consumergoods
Energy sector• Suralco’s Afobaka Hydropower Plant (Afobaka), with aninstalled capacity of 189-MegaWatts (MW), is the backboneof Suriname’s electricity supply.• The electricity is transported via a 161-kiloVolt (kV)transmission line to Paranam,• Suralco also owns a 78-MW thermal power plant at Paranam.• NV Electriciteitsbedrijf Suriname (EBS), the national powercompany, buys electricity from Afobaka under an agreementwith Suralco.• After 1999, when Suralco closed down the aluminum smelter,EBS’ purchases increased substantially (from 50-MW in 1996to 120-MW in 2007).• The energy demand in Greater Paramaribo is currentlyapproximately 160-180 MW (around 1,000 GWh/year).
Suralco’s Afobaka Hydropower Plant (Afobaka)
Energy sector• The responsibility for the sector is assigned to the Ministry ofNatural Resources (MNH).• MNH determines and approves the electricity tariffs asprepared by its Energy Advisory Committee (EAC).• EBS is owned by the GoS and monitored through MNH.• The Department for Rural Energy (DEV), in charge of ruralelectrification, depends on this Ministry.• The lack of autonomy of both sector agents has limitedmodernizing the sector and to recover the cost of theelectricity service.
Need for a Sustainable Energy Framework• Electrification level in Suriname is estimated at 85%: 79% ofthe population is connected to the EBS system (EBS - theElectricity Company of Suriname )• In the Paramaribo area, electric power is supplied by meansof hydroelectric power (a 180 MW power plant) and dieselgenerators (66 MW of diesel generators).• It is expected that in• 2015 the energy demand will amount about 260 MW and• in 2020 it will amount to approximately 380 MW• Power generation costs of EBS are estimated at0.20US$/kWh, while the average tariff is 0.07US$/kWh,resulting in a direct government subsidy.
Need for a Sustainable Energy FrameworkRural Electrification.• Approximately 130 villages in the interior of the country have a dieselengine installed for electricity generation.• About 100 villages are provided with diesel fuel by DEV on a monthlybasis.• The diesel is provided free of charge; No tariff system• Total operating costs : $0.63 per kWh (in 2007)• The diesel generators with a capacity of 4,500-kW serve 40000 people,with a monthly fuel demand of 150552 litres .• diesel generators generate about 2,5 to 3,5 kWh out of one litre of diesel• Moreover, the supply of power is limited to about 5 to 6 hours per day.• The increasing fuel prices, increasing cost of fuel transportation and thedifficulty of maintenance put pressure on the security of supply and ongovernment resources.• In some villages, fuel is reportedly unavailable for longer periods
Strategy – energy situation• The GOS will opt for a pragmatic approach:• “Development of Renewable Energy, Energy Efficiency andElectrification of Suriname”• Purpose: to promote the use of renewable energy (RE) andenergy efficiency (EE) technologies in the urban and rural areasand increase access to energy in the interior of the country withthe intention of reducing the sector’s emission of greenhousegases.• Some selected key points of this approach are:• The industry should be increasingly less dependent onexpensive fossil fuels• the promotion of alternative energy in the context of increasingenergy security• Support the use of RE for the electrification of the Hinterlands
Strategy• Renewable energy technologies have been considered amajor option for Suriname (rural areas) since the 1980s.• Renewable energy systems for on-grid electricity productioncan be:• solar PV, wind, biomass, small hydro systems• Renewable energy technologies are still largely unknown inSuriname• Concerning renewable power systems: Guguplex Surinameworks in the interior of the country which is only accessibleby boat or plane to provide solar systems to the indigenouscommunities in the area
Solar power for rural communities
Biomass energy - briquettes• Based on the need for an alternative energy source andthe availability of biomass (podosiri waste) a researchwill be implemented for the development of anappropriate briquetting technology and theproduction of bio-briquettes which meets both thetechnical and socio-economic criteria to be a suitabletechnology, as well as bringing environmentalbenefits.
Biomass energy - briquettes• Biomass energy will be produced from podosiri (acai) waste• Due its poor physical characteristics fresh podosiri waste cannot be used directly as an energy source• Podosiri waste shall be treated to become an uniform andmore dense solid fuel via the briquetting process.• Briquetting or densification is the mechanical process ofcompacting biomass residue into a uniform solid fuel calledbriquettes• It has higher density and energy content and less moisture
Biomass source - podosiri (acai)• Acai (Euterpe oleracea) belongs to the family Arecaceae(palm tree).• It is indigenous to South America.• The nutrient pulp of acai berry is consumed as a fruit juice.• The popular juice prepared from the pulp of acai isconsumed mainly by the marroon community• Acai berries grows especially in Eastern part of the country
Waste is dumped in largeheaps, mostly in thebackyard of theseprocessors.Podosiri (Acai)In the town Moengo(eastern part of thecountry) several maroonwomen produce juice fromthe podosiri berries.During this process largevolumes of podosiri wasteare generated: 714 Ton peryear.
Biomass source - podosiri (acai)• The single seed, which accounts for 87% of the fruit, isdumped, while the skin is removed during pulping.• Few people know that the fruit can also be used togenerate bioenergy.• Processed into briquettes, acai seeds can be used forthe production of biomass.
Challenges• The use of podosiri waste as bio fuel is unknown• The country has no tradition in the use and production ofbio-briquettes.• The two well-known briquette technologies are: theram/piston - and screw press technology.• The challenge is to find a technology which is suited tohandle the podosiri waste both in terms of the briquettingpress itself for local manufacture and the briquettes.• The suitability of podosiri waste for briquetting• it is essential to know the physical and chemical properties ofthis waste which also influence its behaviour as a fuel
Podosiri waste problem tree
Project description/ implementation• At the University of Suriname (EnvironmentalDepartment) a research is started to the production ofbio-briquettes based on local available materials:podosiri waste and a binder agent made from cassava.• This laboratory scale project will be the premierdemonstration for bio-briquette production.
Roadmap for converting biomass intoenergyPhysical process(Current research phase)BiomassaPodosiriwaste (acaipulp andseeds)Drying(temp: 300 ̊500C)Grinding(manualbreaking)SievingParticle size:Compaction Briquette CombustionElectricitygeneration-Already started with the laboratory research- Because the UvS does not have all testingequipment and knowhow, support from otherlaboratories in the region and /or Netherland(University of Twente) is requiredThermalprocess
Objectives of the research• The main objective of this research project proposal is to provide an alternativeenergy source via the development and introduction of the briquettingtechnology based on the use of locally available podosiri waste.• The specific objectives are as follows:• To study the possibility of podosiri waste as an alternative fuel source• Briquettes are easy to transport• To develop an appropriate briquetting technology which meets both thetechnical and socio-economic criteria to be a sustainable technology• To get an overview about the properties (quality) of the podosiri briquettes ascommercial renewable energy fuel.• To make the communities in the hinterland and the government less dependenton diesel to generate electricity• To broaden the research and development conducted in the bio-briquette sector• To produce bio-briquettes to replace diesel use in the hinterland• To strengthen the ability of communities to become sustainable communitybased organizations (CBOs) for bio-briquette production.• To generate self-employment to local entrepreneurs / producer group who couldproduce and distribute briquettes.• To reduce CO2 emission by replacement of diesel
Justification• The proposed research project will address the rural energy problem atdifferent levels:• briquettes made out of podosiri waste will substitute diesel fuel thatwould contribute to reduction in CO2 emission and lower the cost fordiesel import.• Podosiri processing achieves greater economic value - through theutilization of podosiri waste for briquetting.• It will also give self-employment opportunities to the podosiri wastecollectors - additional income and contribute to empower themeconomically.• With Small scale energy production from podosiri waste, energy for adirect neighborhood can be produced.• Villages will have electricity the whole day instead of 5 - 6 hours per daywith the diesel units.• The transport of briquettes is far easier and cheaper than the transportof barrel of diesel over wild rivers.• Trigger for other agriculture waste (sawdust, rice husk) to producebriquettes
Bio-Energy dataYear 1 (start) - 60% 2 – 70% 3 – 80%Production processed podosiri waste (T) 428 500 571Briquette production (T) 306 357 408GHG emissions due to burning of briquettes(tCO2e)Baseline Emissions (total energy of briquetteequivalent electricity generation with diesel)(tCO2e)32.2 34 36427 498 570CO2 Emission Reduction (tCO2e) 394.8 464 534Electricity generation with briquettes (kWh) 1407600 1642200 1876800Diesel replacement (L) 138543(10.9%)161634(12.8%)184724(14.6%)
RiskRisk Justification Mitigation measuresEconomic viabilityof briquettesLack of investmentfundsTransport structureThe use of briquettes isunknown and will noteasily achieved, this couldmake trading of theproduct a difficult taskOnly large enterprises cansupport substantialinvestment funds forcarrying on briquetteactivitiesTransportation structure inhinterland of Suriname isnot very well developedwhich could bring somedifficulty to transfer thebriquette productionDevelopment of publicpolicies about renewableenergy. Commercial interestof green market withvolarization biomassresidues. Establishment ofEnergy institute.There are enough businessopportunities in productionand consumption with greenmarket, in the region andinternationalWater transportation will bethe only viable option
Expectations• This study tour will:• give more ideas how to improve our laboratory research• be an opportunity to establish cooperation for researchpossibilities and projects