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Facts and Figures2007Key Figures in Education 2007The Danish Ministry of Education – Statistical Publication no. 3 – 2008


Facts and Figures2007Key Figures in Education 2007The Danish Ministry of Ecucation – Statistical Publication no. 3 – 2008


Facts and Figures 2007Key Figures in Education 2007Author: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis for the Danish Ministry of EducationEditor: Susanne Irvang Nielsen, UNI•C Statistics & AnalysisSerial editor and production: Werner Hedegaard, Danish Ministry of EducationTranslation: AbilityGraphics: Malchow A/S, Ringsted, DenmarkCover: Malchow A/S, Ringsted, Denmark1 st edition, 1 st printing, April 2008: 500 pcs.ISBN 978-87-603-2691-2ISBN (WWW) 978-87-603-2692-9Internet: pub.uvm.dk/2008/factsandfiguresPublished by the Danish Ministry of EducationPlacement of orders (ISBN 978-87-603-2691-2) at:NBC EkspeditionTel: +45 56 36 40 40, Fax: +45 56 36 40 39 or e-mail: ekspedition@nbcas.dkor at booksellersPrinting: Schultz Grafisk A/SPrinted with vegetable ink on 100 % recycled paperPrinted in Denmark 2008Please address enquiries to UNI•C Statistics & AnalysisSusanne Irvang Nielsen, Consultant,phone no.: +45 35 87 83 00or e-mail: uddannelsesstatistik@uni-c.dk


Table of contents5 1 Introduction6 2 The education system9 2.1 The mainline Danish education system22 2.2 The adult and continuing education system25 3 Finances25 3.1 Total public expenditure on education27 3.2 Public expenditure on education as a percentage of totalpublic expenditure in Denmark and selected countries30 3.3 Total public and private expenditures on educationalinstitutions in Denmark and selected countries33 3.4 Total public and private expenditures per pupil/student inDenmark and selected countries36 3.5 Public expenditure on adult and continuing education40 3.6 Expenditure on the State Education Grant and Loan Scheme42 3.7 Expenditure on financial support of students in highereducation in Denmark and selected countries44 4 Basic schools44 4.1 Number of schools and pupils48 4.2 Bilingual pupils50 4.3 Pupils receiving special needs education54 4.4 Number of teachers57 4.5 Pupil/teacher ratio and normal class size59 4.6 Key figures for use of computers in Denmark and selectedcountries62 4.7 What do pupils do after basic school3


65 5 Youth education65 5.1 Number of schools and students70 5.2 Completion, dropout, and behaviour after dropout74 5.3 Immigrants and descendants78 5.4 Choice of subjects in upper secondary schools81 5.5 Vocational education and training – practice placements85 5.6 International mobility86 5.7 Key figures for use of computers in Denmark and selectedcountries89 5.8 What do young people do after having completed a youtheducation programme94 6 Higher education94 6.1 Number of institutions and students97 6.2 Age at start99 6.3 Completion, dropout, and behaviour after dropout102 6.4 Length of study and age at graduation104 6.5 International mobility108 6.6 The students’ income112 7 Time spent from completing the 9 th form until achievingvocational qualifications115 8 Adult and continuing education118 9 Results119 9.1 Proportion with at least a youth education in Denmark andselected countries122 9.2 The highest completed education in the labour force125 9.3 Future youth year groups4


1 IntroductionFacts and Figures 2007 gives anoverview of the Danish educationsystem and a quantitative descriptionof the development within most of thevarious fields of education.The education system is changingcontinuously keeping up with newgenerations and new requirementsfrom the labour market. Thispublication presents a series of keyfigures in tables and graphs showingthe directions of the development.Primarily, the publication illustratesthe development by Danish figurescomplemented by equivalent figuresfrom selected countries.Most of the figures presented inthe publication are also shown onthe web site of the Danish Ministryof Education: www.uvm.dk. Moreinformation may also be found thereabout the various subjects.Key figures for education in Denmarkare updated continuously, and in somecases previously published data isadjusted. For this reason, care shouldbe taken when comparing the figuresin this publication with the figures inprevious publications.5


2 The education systemThe Danish education system maybe divided into groups according toqualification level and field.Some education programmes givequalifications to further studies. Thisis frequently called study qualification.Other programmes give labour marketqualifications – called vocationalqualifications. There are educationprogrammes that provide both formsof qualification. Moreover, there areeducations that do not provide anyformal qualifications.so that its education levels are nowdirectly comparable with the mainlineeducation system.In the following section, the educationsystem is reviewed together with theframework, the contents, and the aimsthat apply to its various areas.The education system is divided intothe mainline education system and anadult and continuing education system.Figure 2.1 and 2.2 show the structuresof and the connections between themainline education system and theadult and continuing education system.During recent years, the furthereducation system for adults hasundergone a structural adaptation6


Figure 2.1. The mainlineDanish education systemAge272625Level201918PhDISCED97 1624231716Master’s programmes (candidatus)5222120151413Bachelor programmesProfessional bachelorprogrammesShort-cyclehigher education42019181713121110Stx Hhx Htx Hf Adult uppersecondarylevel courseVocational Agricultural and Social andeducation maritime health care Eguand training education etc. programmes3Upper secondary educationVocationally oriented educationand training etc.161514131211109876109876543210Compulsory educationBasic schoolPre-school classSpecial needs education210543Kindergarten0Note 1: International Standard Classification of education.Remark: Stx: upper secondary school leaving examination, hf: higher preparatory examination,hhx: higher commercial examination, htx: higher technical examination, egu: basic vocational education and training.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.7


Figure 2.2. The paralleleducation systemThe mainlineeducation systemMaster’sprogrammes(candidatus)Master’sprogrammes(part-time)The adult andcontinuing educationsystemDiplomaeducationprogrammesShort-cyclehighereducationProfessionalbacheloreducationetc.UniversitybacheloreducationHigher adulteducationVocationally orientededucation and trainingUpper secondaryeducationBasic adulteducationGVUAdultvocationaltrainingAMUHigherpreparatoryexaminationhfGeneral adulteducationAVUPreparatoryadulteducationFVUSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.8


2.1 The mainline Danisheducation systemThe basic school (primary andlower secondary school)There is a nine-year compulsoryeducation in Denmark, but it is notmandatory to attend school. However,only very few children are hometaught. The compulsory educationbegins in August of the calendar yearin which the child reaches seven yearsof age.Almost all children begin theirschooling in a one-year pre-schoolclass that in most schools is an integralpart of the school start progression.The pre-school class is optional forthe pupils, but must be offered by themunicipalities.There are nine years of basic school.The basic school gives admission toyouth education; however, the pupilsmay choose to continue in a 10 th form.A little less than half of the pupils inthe 9 th form of the basic school electto continue in the 10 th form; however,this proportion has been diminishingin the recent years.The basic school comprises varioustypes of schools. The municipal basicschool including special schools by farcovers the teaching of the majority ofthe pupils. The municipal basic schoolis a free offer to parents. The privatebasic schools and the continuationschools are alternatives to themunicipal basic schools. Continuationschools are private boarding schoolsthat typically offer teaching at the 8 ththrough 10 th form level. The privatebasic schools and the continuationschools are self-governing institutionsfinanced by state subsidies and pupilcontributions.In the year 2005, there were 712,100pupils in basic school. Of these,596,300 pupils attended a municipalbasic school. The private basic schoolshad 90,800 pupils, while 24,900 pupilsattended a continuation school.According to the Basic School Act, thepurpose of the municipal basic schoolsis to bring to the pupils, in cooperationwith the parents, knowledge and skillsthat: “Prepare them for further educationand give them the desire to learn more,familiarize themselves with Danishculture and history, provide them withan understanding of other countries andcultures, contribute to their appreciation9


of the interaction between man andnature, and promote an all-rounddevelopment of the individual pupil”.Pupils in the municipal basic schoolsare normally taught in classes thatremain together throughout the entirecourse of the basic school. The teachingis differentiated within the frameworkof the class so that the teaching is basedon the requirements and qualificationsof the individual pupil.The private basic schools offer teachingto children in the age bracket ofcompulsory education, and it mustmeasure up to what normally isrequired in the municipal basic schools;however, the framework for planningthe teaching is more open.There are a few other forms ofschool that offer teaching at the basicschool level. There are for examplespecial schools for children, schoolsin connection with daytime therapy,therapeutic institutions, and parts ofthe municipal youth school offers.Some pupils have so great physicaland psychical difficulties that theireducation cannot be dealt with inthe regular teaching. Therefore, theyreceive special needs education.Until the 1 st of January 2007, therewere two forms of special needseducation: the general special needseducation, which was the responsibilityof the municipalities, and the extensivespecial needs education, which was theresponsibility of the counties.In the year 2005, approximately 13,800pupils attended general special needseducation, and 11,500 pupils attendedextensive special needs education.Today, all special needs education is theresponsibility of the municipalities, andit is no longer split up in general andextensive special needs education.In the international ISCED97classification, the pre-school classcorresponds to level 0, and the basicschool corresponds to level 1 (1 stthrough 6 th form) and level 2 (7 ththrough 10 th form).Youth educationThe youth education builds on thequalifications the students haveacquired in basic school. All youngpeople must be offered a youtheducation.10


Youth education includes theupper secondary education and thevocationally oriented education andtraining programmes.The youth education may preparethe students for further studies or fora profession or both. In either case,the emphasis is on developing thepersonal, professional, and theoreticalqualifications of the students.Most youth education takesapproximately three years; however, theduration may be anywhere from oneyear and a half and up to more thanfive years.Through a differentiated offer andplanning of the education, theindividual skills and wishes of thestudents may largely be taken intoconsideration. The purpose is to securea high level of motivation so as manyyoung people as possible complete theeducation.The latest calculations based on theeducational behaviour in 2005 showthat 81 % of a youth cohort are expectedto complete a youth education.It is the goal of the government that atleast 85 % of a youth cohort completea youth education in the year 2010 andat least 95 % in 2015.On the 1 st August 2007, newlegislation took effect to give youngpeople with special needs who cannotcomplete an ordinary youth educationa legal right to a three-year course ofeducation.Upper secondary educationThe upper secondary educationprogrammes are preparatory to highereducation and comprise general aswell as vocational upper secondaryeducation. The general upper secondaryeducation comprises the uppersecondary school leaving examination(stx) including the adult uppersecondary level course and the higherpreparatory examination (hf). Thevocational upper secondary educationcomprises the higher commercialexamination (hhx) and the highertechnical examination (htx). Theseare academic educations, and they areintended to prepare the young peoplefor further education by giving themthe required general, theoretical andprofessional qualifications.All pupils who have received therelevant instruction and have passed11


the prescribed tests in the basic schoolmay continue to an upper secondaryyouth education, unless the dismissingschool appraises that the pupil hasmade the choice on an inadequate orunrealistic basis. In this case, the pupilis entered for an entrance examination.Stx, hhx, and htx are three-yeareducation programmes with a commonhalf-year foundation course followedby two and half years in a programmechosen by the student. Within certainlimits, the schools themselves planwhich programme should be offered tothe students.Hf is offered as a two-year youtheducation programme as well as aprogramme for adults composedof single subjects. Hf comprisesmandatory subjects and optionalsubjects; this gives the opportunity toput together an individual educationprogramme. Hf is intended as a youtheducation offer to somewhat olderstudents. It is not possible to go fromthe basic school 9 th form directly to hf.Hf is frequently offered togetherwith stx in upper secondary schools,while hhx and htx are offered invocational schools. For many years,vocational schools have been selfgoverninginstitutions financed by thegovernment. Following the municipalreform, which took effect the 1 stJanuary 2007, the upper secondaryschools have been transferred from thecounties into self-governing institutionsfinanced by the government. Thereare a small number of private uppersecondary schools and adult uppersecondary level courses where thestudents pay a part of the tuition.The final examination completing anupper secondary education qualifiesto enter higher education. However,the higher education programmes maypose requirements concerning subjects,level and the grade obtained.Vocationally oriented educationand trainingThe vocationally oriented educationand training programmes comprise thecommercial and technical vocationaleducation and training programmes(EUD), the basic social and healthcare training programmes (SOSU),the educational childworker and careassistant training (PGU), educationwithin the field of agriculture,navigation, etc. as well as a basicvocational education and training12


(egu). These education programmesare intended to give young people andadults strong professional, personal,and general qualifications that formallyand factually are in demand in thelabour market. They qualify directly fora job in certain trades.All vocationally oriented educationand training programmes giveformal vocational qualifications. Theeducation is also intended to preparethe students for a higher education.Normally, the only requirement foradmission to a vocationally orientededucation and training programme isthat the applicant has completed thecompulsory education in the basicschool. Some of the vocational schoolshave a proportion of adult students,especially in case of social and healthcare training programmes.The vocational education and trainingprogrammes (EUD) account for thegreater part of vocational youtheducation. The total duration of avocational education and trainingprogramme is between one and ahalf years and five and a half years.However, the norm is three to fouryears. Vocational education andtraining is a multitude of diverseprogrammes. As of 1 st January 2007, itconsists of about 120 programmes inthe commercial and technical fields.There are seven entry points intovocational education and training, eachconsisting of a base course of studyand a main course of study as well asa practice period. For the individualstudent, the base course of study maybe substituted fully or partially bybasic, practical training in an enterprisebased on a training contract. Inorder to plan the course of educationindividually, each student together withthe school and the business enterprisewhere the practice takes place shalldevelop a personal education plan.A vocational education and trainingprogramme starts either in a school– that is normally the case – orin practice. In EUD, there is freeadmission to the base course of study,and entry is continuous. In total,approximately 30-50 % of the time isspent in school and 50-70 % in thepractice enterprise or in school practiceorganized by the vocational collegeif it is not possible to get a sufficientnumber of practice placements inenterprises.13


Vocational education and training isundergoing change. With a reformas of 1 st August 2007, a commonlegislative framework for vocationaleducation and training, basic social andhealth care training programmes, andagricultural education has been created.The purpose of this education has beenadjusted; increased emphasis is placedon internationalization and educationguarantee, and the effort againstdropouts is intensified. The sevencommon entry points are replacedby 12 common entry points, and thebase course of study is remodelled sothat both students with weak studyqualifications and students with strongstudy qualifications are benefited.There will be better opportunities fordividing the education into steps andlevels and for individual courses ofstudy. The effort to gain more practiceplacements and the quality of schoolpractice will be strengthened.The present education programmeswill continue in a transitional period.The new entry structure has beenimplemented, and the new educationprogrammes have been developed.Students under 25 years of age whohave already completed the first stepof an education may return after aminimum of half a year of relevantvocational experience to complete theeducation in a course of study calledEUD+.Adults over 25 years of age withvocational experience in the field inquestion have the opportunity tocomplete the course of study in ashorter time based on an appraisal oftheir prior learning and a subsequentcrediting of competencies. If therequirement of two years of relevantvocational experience is met, this maytake place as a basic adult education(GVU).A relevant vocationally orientededucation and training programmegives admission to a number of shortcyclehigher education programmesand certain professional bachelorprogrammes.Social and health care trainingprogrammes (SOSU), like thealternating EUD programmes, consistof a combination of practice and schoolstudies.The SOSU programmes comprise thesocial and health care helper education14


(one year and two months) as well asan extension to social and health careassistant (one year and eight months).The admission requirement to theeducation for social and health carehelper is the completion of the basiccourse of study or other relevant tradeexperience.The social and health care trainingprogrammes also include theeducational childworker and careassistant training (PGU). The PGUprogramme qualifies the students forpedagogical and care-related work withchildren, young people and adultsas pedagogy assistants, registeredchild minders and special needs careassistants etc. The duration of PGUis seven and one half months. Theadmission requirement is a basic SOSUcourse of study or other vocational orteaching experience.After the basic course of study, theeducation is undertaken based on anemployment contract between thestudent and an engaging municipalauthority.Furthermore, within the field ofvocationally oriented education andtraining, there is a series of vocationalagricultural and maritime educationprogrammes. The duration of the skilledfarmer education is three and a halfyears and alternates between practiceand school. Maritime educationcomprises for example able seaman,fisherman, coastal shipmaster, etc.The basic vocational education andtraining (egu) is an individuallyplanned offer of education to youngpeople under 30 years of age whodo not qualify directly for anotheryouth education leading to formalqualifications.The course of study is primarily basedon practice and alternates between timein school and time in practice. Theduration of this education is normallytwo years; however, it may be extendedby an additional year of practice.In total, the time in school is from 20to 40 weeks, and normally consistsof courses from the establishededucation programmes, for examplethe vocational education and trainingprogrammes, the adult vocationaltraining programmes, the social andhealth care training programmes, or theagricultural programmes.15


The periods of practice take placein one or more enterprises or asworkshop practice in a technicalschool, a production school or similar.A completed egu education providesvocational qualifications and theopportunity to continue in a generalvocational education and trainingprogramme with credit transfer.The youth education programmescomprise level 3 of the ISCED97classification.Production schoolsThe production schools offer educationof young people under 25 years of agewho have not completed a qualifyingyouth education programme, and whodo not directly have the qualificationsto enter or complete a youth educationprogramme.The purpose of this education is tostrengthen the students’ personaldevelopment and to improve theiropportunities in the education systemand in the general labour market.The offer is planned with the specificaim that young people acquirequalifications that may result in thecompletion of a vocationally qualifyingyouth education.The education programme is basedon activities in diverse workshopsand comprises practical work andperformance of tasks in combinationwith theoretical training in actualproduction and marketing.Furthermore, the schools offerteaching in general subjects so thestudents are prepared to start a generalyouth education. Up to one third ofthe course of study in a productionschool may be spent on studies inother educational institutions. Forexample, these may include studiesof general subjects in an adulteducation centre (VUC) or parts of abasic course of study in a vocationalcollege. Furthermore, the students mayparticipate in practice for four weekseach semester.Higher educationThe higher education programmesconstitute the educational continuationof youth education and providethe students with final vocationalqualifications. They are categorizedaccording to level and duration: theshort-cycle higher education including,among other things, the vocationalacademy education, the mediumcyclehigher education including theuniversity bachelor programmes, the16


professional bachelor programmesand other medium duration highereducation programmes, together withthe long-cycle higher education includingmaster’s programmes (candidatus) andPhD programmes.The latest calculations based on theeducational behaviour in 2005 showthat 44 % of a youth cohort willcomplete a higher education. It is thegoal of the government that at least45 % of a youth cohort complete ahigher education in the year 2010 andat least 50 % in 2015.As a rule, higher education is freein Denmark. However, the studentsnormally pay for books and otherteaching materials. For most highereducation, the schools themselvesdecide how many student seats areestablished. For some educationprogrammes, however, the number ofstudent seats is decided centrally; this isthe case for the medical, veterinary, anddentistry schools.To be admitted to a higher education,the applicant must meet the entryrequirements demanded by the schoolin question. For example, in order tobe admitted to a university bacheloreducation programme, the applicantmust meet the entry requirement ofa general upper secondary graduationdiploma including certain uppersecondary subjects at a specifiedlevel. Furthermore, some bachelorprogrammes require that the uppersecondary exam be passed with acertain minimum mark in average or inindividual subjects.A vocational academy education is ashort-cycle higher education thatas a rule takes two years. Theseeducation programmes are oftendirected towards a specific trade or jobfunction, and they combine theoryand practice. The requirement foradmission to a vocational academyeducation is an upper secondaryeducation or a vocationally orientededucation, typically complemented byrequirements of certain academic levelsin mathematics and English.Today, there are ten technical andeight commercial vocational academyeducation programmes and threeother short-cycle higher educationprogrammes (pharmacy assistant,transport logistician, and offshoretechnical manager). Short-cyclehigher education may give admission17


to relevant diploma educationprogrammes.A professional bachelor education isa profession-oriented, qualifyingmedium-cycle higher education. Theprogrammes for professional bacheloreducation normally take three tofour years including a minimum ofhalf a year of practice. A professionalbachelor education combines theoryand practice and is most often directedtowards a certain trade or job field. Theentry requirements for the professionalbachelor programmes are in most casesa general upper secondary education(whole or in parts); however, certainvocational education and trainingprogrammes (EUD) complementedby general upper secondary coursesalso provide admission. Today, thereare approximately 30 professionalbachelor education programmeswithin health care, biotechnology,laboratory technology, media andcommunication, pedagogy, technology,social sciences, and economics. Aprofessional bachelor educationprovides admission to relevant master’sprogrammes (candidatus) and master’sprogrammes (part-time).The greater part of the professionalbachelor education takes place atcentres for higher education (CVU).Starting 1 st January 2008, the presentCVUs and seven individual institutionsamong the medium-cycle highereducation schools enter into eightuniversity colleges for higher education.Among other medium-cycle educationprogrammes, there are for example: finearts education, maritime/navigationeducation, sign language interpreter,armed forces education, etc. Theduration of these programmes varies.At the same level as the professionalbachelor education programme, thereis the three-year bachelor educationprogramme in the universities. Thebachelor education is a completeeducation giving vocationalqualifications as well as access to a twoyearmaster’s programmes (candidatus).The current structure of the universityeducation was established in 1993when it was decided to divide thelong-cycle university educationprogrammes leading to a master’sdegree (candidatus) into two shortercourses of study: a bachelor course ofstudy and a master’s (candidatus) courseof study. Formerly, there had been only18


the complete course of study leadingto the master’s degree (candidatus)as the first academic degree. Today,all long-cycle higher educationprogrammes in university consist ofa three-year bachelor programmefollowed by a two-year master’sprogramme (candidatus). Henceforth,the education may be extended furtherby a three-year PhD programme (theso-called 3+2+3 model).As a rule, the entry requirement for thebachelor programmes in university is ageneral upper secondary education pluspossibly meeting specific requirementsfor course subjects and level.Admission to the master’s programmes(candidatus) presupposes a relevantbachelor degree or another relevantDanish or foreign education at thesame level.As a superstructure to the master’sprogrammes (candidatus), there is aresearch education leading to a PhDdegree. This education is normalizedto three years of full-time studies. Theprogramme includes the completionof an independent research projectunder supervision and the preparationof a written thesis based on the PhDproject, the completion of researchcourses corresponding to approximately30 ECTS points, participation inactive research environments throughresidences in other, primarily foreign,research institutions, as well asacquiring experience in teaching oranother form of communication skills.The entry requirement to a PhDprogramme is normally a master’sdegree (candidatus), although it ispossible to be admitted before themaster’s programme (candidatus) hasbeen completed. It must be ensured,however, that the combined courseof study has the same magnitudeand is at the same level as if the PhDprogramme were started after thecompletion of the master’s degree(candidatus).The higher education programmescomprise level 5 of the ISCED97classification. The PhD education isconsidered level 6 in the ISCED97classification.Pupils/students and educationalinstitutions within regular educationTable 2.1 shows the developmentin number of pupils/students in theDanish education system over a period19


of ten years per mainline Danisheducation programme.Table 2.2 shows the development innumber of educational institutions overa period of ten years. The table showsthe juridical units – that means mainschools and independent institutions.Main schools are administrative units.Each main school has one or moresubdivisions.20


Table 2.1. Number ofpupils/students inthe Danish educationsystem, and number ofadmissions and pupils/students completing theeducation programmes,1996 and 2005Pupils/students Admissions Completing1996 2005 Change 1996 2005 Change 1996 2005 ChangeNumber % Number % Number %Total 1,015,305 1,155,725 13.8 232,838 238,159 2.3 208,091 212,096 1.9Basic school 1 609,988 712,065 16.7 62,680 67,034 6.9 94,742 92,742 -2.2Youth education, total 219,330 236,003 7.6 103,700 100,390 -3.2 71,466 61,969 -13.3Upper secondary education 107,190 106,492 -0.7 42,375 40,672 -4.0 35,573 33,062 -7.1Vocationally oriented education & training 112,140 129,511 15.5 61,325 59,718 -2.6 35,893 28,907 -19.5Non-qualifying education 20,538 3,989 -80.6 16,840 9,743 -42.1 10,320 12,752 23.6Higher education, total 165,449 203,668 23.1 49,618 60,992 22.9 31,563 44,633 41.4Short-cycle higher education 13,689 18,508 35.2 7,452 8,996 20.7 5,260 5,454 3.7Medium-cycle higher education 95,597 126,275 32.1 30,222 36,784 21.7 18,277 26,660 45.9Professional bachelor education 56,361 68,512 21.6 17,282 19,212 11.2 11,725 15,395 31.3Other medium-cycle higher education 2,061 1,632 -20.8 1,291 802 -37.9 1,084 756 -30.3University bachelor education 37,175 56,131 51.0 12,382 18,365 48.3 5,468 10,509 92.2Long-cycle higher education 56,163 58,885 4.8 11,944 15,212 27.4 8,026 12,519 56.0Uniform master’s programmes (candidatus) 30,134 10,803 -64.2 4,298 636 -85.2 4,269 2,681 -37.2Two-step master’s programmes (candidatus) 21,462 43,344 102.0 6,571 13,263 101.8 2,949 8,868 200.7PhD etc. 4,567 4,738 3.7 1,203 1,451 20.6 808 970 20.0Note 1: Comprises municipal and privatebasic schools and continuation schools.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 2.2. Number ofeducational institutions1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006NumberEducational institutions, total 3,454 3,451 3,451 3,449 3,434 3,442 3,500 3,514 3,513 3,484 3,489Basic schools 1 2,347 2,357 2,372 2,366 2,363 2,378 2,390 2,390 2,378 2,364 2,360Other basic school education 2 437 435 432 439 435 455 468 472 472 460 470Other institutions 3 142 141 141 139 131 123 121 123 124 120 116Adult education institutions 132 130 131 129 135 128 151 151 153 151 153General uppersecondary schools 146 146 146 146 146 146 146 147 146 147 148Vocational colleges etc. 134 133 126 125 124 117 116 119 128 131 132Higher educationcentres (CVU) etc. 34 31 26 26 22 26 39 40 39 38 38Other institutions withhigher education 71 71 70 71 68 60 60 61 61 61 60Universities 12 12 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12Note 1: Comprises municipal and privatebasic schools and continuation schools.Note 2: Comprises municipal youth schoolsand youth boarding schools and specialschools for children. Furthermore, thereare special care institutions and daytimetherapeutic institutions.Note 3: Comprises home economics andhandicrafts schools, the private youtheducation and production schools.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.21


2.2 The adult and continuingeducation systemDenmark has a long tradition ofpopular enlightenment and adulteducation. Adult and continuingeducation (VEU) may be divided inthree categories: formally qualifyingeducation, education not formallyqualifying, and private courses.Formally qualifying adult andcontinuing education may be dividedinto general and vocational educationprogrammes. Among other things, theadult education programmes comprise:Preparatory adult education (FVU)with the purpose to give adults theopportunity to complement their basicskills in reading and mathematics. Bothsubjects are divided into steps, and it ispossible to submit to a test after eachstep.General adult education (AVU) is anoffer to adults over 18 years of age toimprove their knowledge in a series ofgeneral subjects, for example Danish,mathematics and social studies.AVU may be concluded with testscorresponding to the 9 th and 10 th formin the basic school.Higher preparatory single subject course(single subject hf) with the purposethat adult participants achieve ageneral education, knowledge, andqualifications forming the basis forfurther education or increasing theiropportunities in the labour market.Single subject hf may be concludedwith tests corresponding to the generalupper secondary levels.Among other things, the vocationaladult and continuing educationprogrammes comprise:Adult vocational training (AMU)consisting of approximately 3,000different adult vocational trainingprogrammes and a selection of singlesubjects from vocational education andtraining programmes leading to distinctqualifications to perform unskilled andskilled tasks.Adult vocational education andtraining is special adult courses ofstudy within the ordinary vocationaleducation and training.Basic adult education (GVU), whichis the framework in which previouseducation and relevant tradeexperience, complemented with22


elements of vocational education andtraining and adult vocational trainingcourses (AMU) among other things,are combined into a formal vocationaleducation and training programme.The continuing education system foradults (VFV), which comprises higheradult education (VVU) as well asdiploma and master’s programmes(part-time), provides qualifications atthe same level as bachelor, respectivelymaster’s programmes (candidatus).Open education programmes aim tofurther a wide spectrum of vocationalorientededucation offers to the adultpopulation and comprise among otherthings part-time education, singlesubjects, and subject-specific courses.Among education programmes notgiving formal qualifications, there arestudies in evening classes, folk highschools and day folk high schools.The scope of the studies within varioustypes of adult education varies from afew hours to complete full-time coursesof study of several years’ duration.The courses are normally taken on apart-time basis. A part of the courses inthe open education programme takesplace as distance learning. The adulteducation programmes may be publiclyand/or privately financed. In parts ofthe public area, a principle of studentpayment in part has been introduced.In certain education programmes,the state provides a subsidy for livingexpenses.Adult and continuing educationcompleted with a consolidatedqualification, for example singlesubject hf and diploma and master’sprogrammes (part-time) are placed atlevel 3-5 in ISCED97 classificationand are counted in the internationalstatistics (Education at a Glance). Standalonesingle subjects and AMU coursesare not counted.Prior learningPrior learning comprises an individual’scombined knowledge, skills andqualifications regardless of where andhow they have been acquired. In thepresent education system, there arefine possibilities for credit transferof formerly completed education.However, formal education givingcredits is only a part of an individual’scombined competency. With theconcept of prior learning, focus isplaced upon the qualifications that23


the individual has acquired throughvocational experience, popularenlightenment activities or byvolunteer work.The appraisal of prior learning willbe implemented during the courseof the years 2007 and 2008. Afterthat time, all individuals will havethe opportunity to have their priorlearning appraised and acknowledged.The appraisal will take place inan educational institution and inrelation to the education programto which the individual wishes to beadmitted, to have shortened, or tohave certified. This scheme will comeinto force for all adult and continuingeducation up to and including thediploma level. For the individual, anappraisal of prior learning may beused to meet entry requirements to aneducation programme, to shorteningor individually planning a specificeducation or to obtain certification ofparts of an education programme.24


3 FinancesThe 2006 total publicexpenditure on educationamounted to DKK 126.6billion, correspondingto 7.7 % of the grossdomestic product.From 2000 to 2004, theexpenditure increased inreal terms as well as inproportion of the grossdomestic product.3.1 Total public expenditureon educationThe 2006, total public expenditure oneducation amounted to DKK 126.6billion, corresponding to 7.7 % of thegross domestic product (GDP). From2000 to 2006, the expenditure oneducation increased by a good 6 % inreal terms. Since the increase in GDPhas been greater than the increase intotal public expenditure on education,the total expenditure on education as apercentage of the GDP decreased from2004 to 2006.The biggest share of the expenditureon education goes to the basic schoolwhere at the same time the biggestincrease in expenditure was seen – wellover 16 % from 2000 to 2006. In2006, the basic school expenditureamounted to a total of DKK 56.9billion. This includes municipal andprivate basic schools, continuationschools, and youth schools, etc.The expenditure on youth educationgrew from DKK 22.2 billion in2000 to DKK 24.1 billion in 2006corresponding to an increase of nearly8 %. This includes an increase of 14 %of the expenditure on student grants.The expenditure on higher educationincreased by 2.3 % from 2000 to 2006.In the year 2006, a total of DKK 25.6billion was spent on higher education.The category “Adult educationetc.” comprises expenditure onadult education, Danish lessons forimmigrants, production schools,popular enlightenment, folk highschools together with state expenditureon adult and continuing education. In2006, these expenses amounted to atotal of DKK 15.6 billion.Figure 3.1 is a graphic representation ofthe development in public expenditureat various levels of education.25


Table 3.1. Publicexpenditure oneducation distributed bylevel of education2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006DKK million in 2006 pricesEducation, total 118,577 120,373 122,571 122,342 124,957 125,462 126,555Basic school etc. 47,616 50,062 51,342 52,267 54,130 54,844 56,852Youth education 22,223 22,068 22,820 23,097 24,275 24,545 24,106- of this SU grants 1 2,389 2,415 2,414 2,463 2,668 2,797 2,772Higher education 25,009 24,693 24,634 25,005 26,133 25,833 25,596- of this SU grants 1 6,613 6,921 7,058 7,178 7,310 7,417 7,501Adult education etc. 20,058 19,853 19,819 18,535 16,525 16,048 15,620Education, other 3,670 3,695 3,955 3,438 3,895 4,192 4,381%Total expenditure oneducation in % of GDP8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.2 7.9 7.7Remark: The amounts for 2004-2004 arepreliminary.Note 1: SU: State Education Grant and LoanScheme.Source: Statistics Denmark and FinanceActs.Figure 3.1. Developmentin public expendituredistributed by level ofeducation, DKK billion in2006 prices60504030Basic school etc.Youth educationHigher education20Adult education etc.1002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006Education,otherSource: Statistics Denmark and FinanceActs.26


The 2004 publicexpenditure on educationwas 15.3 % of the totalpublic spending. This isslightly over the OECDaverage.3.2 Public expenditure oneducation as a percentageof total public expenditurein Denmark and selectedcountriesThe expenditures in these statisticscomprise all public expenditure oneducation including student grants etc.In 2004, Denmark used 15.3 % of thetotal public expenditure on education(table 3.2). This puts Denmark slightlyover the OECD average of 13.4 %;countries such as New Zealand,Norway, and Korea used a larger shareof the total public expenditure oneducation (17-21%).total public expenditure in Denmark.This places Denmark over thecorresponding OECD average of3.1 %. Only New Zealand (4.9 %) andNorway (5.3 %) spend larger shares onhigher education than Denmark. Thelarge expenditure on higher educationin Denmark may partly be ascribedto the relatively large spending onfinancial support.To some extent, the distribution of theexpenditure reflects the composition ofthe population.Figure 3.2 shows the total publicexpenditure on education in proportionto the total public expenditure.In 2004, the public expenditure onbasic school and youth educationamounted to 8.9 % of the total publicexpenditure in Denmark. This is a littleless than the corresponding OECDaverage of 9.2 %. In some countries,the expenditure on the basic school andyouth education is somewhat higherthan in Denmark. For example, thisis the case for New Zealand (15.1 %),Korea (12.7 %) and Iceland (11.8 %).In 2004, public expenditure on highereducation amounted to 4.6 % of the27


Table 3.2. Publicexpenditure oneducation as apercentage of totalpublic expenditure inDenmark and selectedOECD countries, 2004Basic school and Higher educationAll education 1youth education programmes%New Zealand 15.1 4.9 21.0Slovakia 11.6 4.3 18.2Iceland 11.8 3.1 17.0Norway 10.0 5.3 16.6Korea 12.7 2.1 16.5Denmark 8.9 4.6 15.3USA 10.1 3.5 14.4Ireland 10.7 3.3 14.0OECD average 9.2 3.1 13.4Sweden 8.3 3.7 12.9Finland 8.0 4.1 12.8UK 8.7 2.3 11.7Portugal 8.3 1.8 11.4The Netherlands 7.5 2.9 11.1Spain 7.2 2.5 11.0France 7.4 2.3 10.9Austria 7.2 2.8 10.8Czech Republic 6.7 2.1 10.0Germany 6.3 2.5 9.8Japan 7.2 1.8 9.8Italy 7.0 1.6 9.6Greece 5.3 2.9 8.5Remark: The expenditures in thesestatistics comprise all public expenditureon education including student grants etc.Note 1: The sums of the education levelsshown do not correspond in all cases tothe number for “All education” becausenot all expenditure is included in the twopreceding columns.Source: Education at a Glance, 2007.28


Figure 3.2. Total publicexpenditure on education(all programmes)compared to total publicexpenditure, in Denmarkand selected OECDcountries, 2004, percentGreeceItalyJapanGermanyCzech RepublicAustriaFranceSpainThe NetherlandsPortugalUKFinlandSwedenOECD averageIrelandUSADenmarkKoreaNorwayIcelandSlovakiaNew Zealand0 5 10 15 20 25Remark: The expenditures in this statisticscomprise all public expenditure oneducation including student grants etc.Source: Education at a Glance, 2007.29


Compared to otherco untries, Denmarkus es many resources oneducational institutionsat all levels. In the year2004, the total expenditure(public and private) oneducational institutions inDenmark amounted to7.2 % of the grossdomestic product.3.3 Total public and privateexpenditures on educationalinstitutions in Denmark andselected countriesIn 2004, the total public and privateexpenditure on educational institutionsin Denmark amounted to 7.2 %of the gross domestic product. Thecorresponding OECD average was5.8 % (table 3.3). Thus, the totalDanish expenditure was only surpassedby Iceland (8.0 %) and USA (7.4 %).The statistic only covers expenditureon educational institutions, sodisbursements for public transferincome such as state education grantsare not included.The majority of the countries spend themost money on basic school. However,the distribution of expenditure betweenthe various education levels depends onthe demography of each country.In particular, when compared toother countries, the expenditure onpre-school (kindergarten and preschoolclass) and basic school is highin Denmark. In 2004, expenditure onpre-school amounted to 0.9 % of GDPcompared to an OECD average of0.5 %. In Denmark, the expenditureon basic school amounted to 3.0 % ofthe GDP, while the OECD average was2.5 %.In 2004, the Danish expenditure onyouth education amounted to 1.3 %of the GDP, which was the same as theOECD average.In 2004, the expenditure in Denmarkon higher education was 1.8 % of theGDP, whereas the OECD averagewas 1.4 %. In Korea and USA, theexpenditure on higher education washigh making up 2.3 % and 2.9 %respectively of the GDP.The total private and publicexpenditure on educational institutionsat all levels show a wide variationamong the OECD countries. Denmarkis among the countries spending themost resources in relation to the GDP(figure 3.3).30


Table 3.3. Total publicand private expenditureon educationalinstitutions as apercentage of GDP inDenmark and selectedOECD countries, 2004Pre-school 1 BasicschoolYoutheducationHighereducation 2Alleducation 3% of GDPIceland 0.7 3.8 - 1.2 8.0USA 0.4 3.0 1.0 2.9 7.4Denmark 0.9 3.0 1.3 1.8 7.2Korea 0.1 3.0 1.4 2.3 7.2New Zealand 0.3 3.2 1.6 1.4 6.9Sweden 0.5 3.1 1.3 1.8 6.7Norway 4 0.3 2.8 1.4 1.4 6.2Finland 0.4 2.5 1.4 1.8 6.1France 0.7 2.6 1.5 1.3 6.1UK 5 0.4 1.5 2.9 1.1 5.9OECD average 0.5 2.5 1.3 1.4 5.8Portugal 0.4 2.8 1.0 1.0 5.4Austria 0.5 2.4 1.4 1.2 5.4Germany 0.5 2.0 1.2 1.1 5.2The Netherlands 0.4 2.6 0.8 1.3 5.1Italy 0.5 2.1 1.3 0.9 4.9Czech Republic 0.5 1.9 1.2 1.1 4.9Slovakia 0.5 1.8 1.3 1.1 4.8Japan 0.2 2.1 0.9 1.3 4.8Spain 0.6 3.0 - 1.2 4.7Ireland - 2.5 0.7 1.2 4.6Greece 5 - 1.0 1.2 1.1 3.4Note 1: Pre-school comprises pre-schoolclass and kindergarten for 3-6 year-olds.Note 2: Expenditure on higher educationalinstitutions comprises teaching as well asservices and research.Note 3: The sums for the education levelsshown do not correspond to the numberfor “All education” in all cases becausenot all expenditure is included in thepreceding columns.Note 4: Comprises only public expenditure.Note 5: Column 2 refers to 1 st -6 th form, andcolumn 3 refers to 7 th -10 th form and youtheducation.Source: Education at a Glance, 2007.31


Figure 3.3. Totalpublic and privateexpenditure oneducational institutions,all programmes, as apercentage of GDP inDenmark and selectedOECD countries, 20049876543210IcelandUSADenmarkKoreaNew ZealandSwedenNorway 1FinlandFranceUKOECD averagePortugalAustriaGermanyThe NetherlandsItalyCzech RepublicSlovakiaJapanSpaneIrelandGreeceNote 1: Comprises only public expenditure.Source: Education at a Glance, 2007.32


Compared to other OECDcountries, Denmarkspends many resourcesper pupil in basic schooland youth education.Denmark also uses morethan the OECD averageper student in highereducation.3.4 Total public and privateexpenditures per pupil/student in Denmark andselected countriesThis statistic only covers expenditureon educational institutions; thus,disbursements for public transferincome such as state education grantsare not included.In 2004, the expenditure per pupilin the 7 th through 10 th form of basicschool was the equivalent of USD8,224 per year. Thus, Denmark’sexpenditure per pupil was considerablyabove the OECD average (USD6,909) For the 1 st through 6 th form, theexpenditure was USD 8,081 per year,only surpassed by Norway and USA(table 3.4).In Denmark in 2004, the expenditureper pupil on youth education was USD9,466, whereas the OECD averagewas USD 7,884. In Norway, France,Germany, Austria, and USA, however,the expenditure per pupil was higherwith Norway spending most (USD12,498 per pupil).In Denmark in 2004, the average costper student in higher education wasUSD 15,225 per year. The OECDaverage was USD 11,100. The cost inUSA was more than twice the OECDaverage, that is USD 22,476 perstudent.The rightmost column of the tableshows the total expenditure on basicschool as well as youth educationper pupil calculated based on thetheoretical duration of the educationprogrammes. The theoretical durationof the education programmes is 12-13years in 29 of 34 OECD and partnercountries 1 (does not emerge from thetable). The education programmesare therefore relatively of the sameduration. In spite of this, there is abig variation in the total expenditures.In 2004, the expenditure per studentvaried from less than USD 60,000in Greece, the Czech Republic, andSlovakia to more than USD 100,000 inNorway, USA, Denmark, and Austria.There is a certain uncertainty to thiskind of statistic; however, the numbersreflect factual differences in the way inwhich the countries prioritize resourcesfor the various education levels.1 Partner countries are primarily African, Asian,and South American countries that participate inthe OECD/UNESCO cooperation but have notachieved full membership.33


Table 3.4. Total publicand private expenditureper pupil/student peryear in Denmark andselected OECD countries– converted using PPP 1in USD, 20041 st -6 thform7 th -10 thformYoutheducationUSDHighereducationExpenditure per studentfrom 1 st form throughyouth education 2USDNorway 8,533 9,476 12,498 14,997 125,650USA 8,805 9,490 10,468 22,476 112,750Denmark 8,081 8,224 9,466 15,225 109,778Austria 7,669 8,969 9,962 13,959 106,397Italy 3 7,390 7,657 7,971 7,723 99,778Sweden 7,469 7,836 8,218 16,218 92,979Germany 4,948 6,082 10,459 12,255 87,660France 5,082 7,837 9,883 10,668 86,406Japan 6,551 7,325 7,883 12,193 84,931Ireland 5,422 6,943 7,309 10,211 82,479UK 5,941 - - 11,484 81,732OECD average 5,832 6,909 7,884 11,100 81,485Finland 5,581 8,918 6,555 12,505 79,901The Netherlands 6,222 7,948 7,037 13,846 74,340Spain 4,965 - - 9,378 69,994Korea 4,490 6,057 7,485 7,068 67,568Portugal 3 4,681 6,359 5,962 7,741 65,051Greece 4,595 - - 5,593 58,850Czech Republic 2,791 4,769 4,790 6,752 52,191Slovakia 2,073 2,389 3,155 6,535 32,857Note 1: Converted to USD by using PPPmeaning that the conversion rate has beenadjusted to take to the real purchasingpower in the country into consideration.Note 2: The expenditure has beencalculated based on the theoreticalduration of both basic school and youtheducation per pupil/student. The column isnot the sum of the other columns.Note 3: Includes only public institutions.Source: Education at a Glance, 2007.34


There is a relatively wide variation inthe expenditure per pupil/student atall educational levels in the OECDcountries. For example, the expenditurevaries from approximately USD 2,000to just under USD 9,000 per studentin 1 st through 6 th form (figure 3.4).Figure 3.4. Total publicand private expenditurein USD per pupil in 1 stthrough 6 th form, in Denmarkand selected OECDcountries, 2004SlovakiaCzech RepublicKoreaGreecePortugal 1GermanySpainFranceIrelandFinlandOECD averageUKThe NetherlandsJapanItaly 1SwedenAustriaDenmarkNorwayUSA0 1.000 2.000 3.000 4.000 5.000 6.000 7.000 8.000 9.000Note 1: Includes only public institutions.Source: Education at a Glance, 2007.35


There are adult andcontinuing educationoffers within general,vocational, and highereducation that receivepublic operating subsidy.The public operatingsubsidy for adult andcontinuing educationamounted to DKK 2.7billion in 2004.3.5 Public expenditureon adult and continuingeducationIn 2004, the public operating subsidyfor adult and continuing education(VEU) amounted to a total of DKK 2.7billion in 2004.The operating subsidy to the generaleducation programmes was DKK 1.1billion in 2004 (table 3.5). The generaleducation programmes comprise thepreparatory adult education (FVU),general adult education (AVU) andupper secondary education (singlesubjects within the higher preparatorycourses (single subject hf), the highercommercial examination (hhx), thehigher technical examination (htx),and upper secondary school leavingexamination (stx).Vocational-orientedVEU only includes the adult vocationaltraining programmes (AMU) andsingle subject EUD etc. In 2004, theoperating subsidies to these amountedto DKK 1.2 billion with just over 91 %going to AMU.The higher education programmesinclude single subjects in short-,intermediate-, and long-cyclehigher education programmes.Additionally, there are short-cycle andintermediate-cycle higher educationprogrammes directly under openeducation programmes such as themarket economist education and thedatamatician education as well as themerit teacher and merit pedagogueeducation or diploma and master’sprogrammes (part-time). In 2004, theoperating subsidies to higher educationamounted to DKK 0.4 billion.From 2000 through 2004, the publicoperating subsidies decreased by 11 %,which should be viewed in the light ofrationalizations following institutionmergers, transition to increased demandcontrol via user payment, introductionof subsidy ceilings, harmonization offees, and a change in the compositionof the education activity.There are various possibilities forcompensation of loss of income duringthe education. In addition to operatingsubsidies to the amount of DKK 2.7billion in 2004 in connection withcarrying out the VEU activities, theparticipants were paid compensation inthe amount of DKK 1.6 billion.From table 3.6, it emerges how thereforms in the area have changed36


the possibilities for compensation.Education leave and the so-calledAMU compensation have been phasedout, and a VEU compensation wasintroduced starting from the year 2001.179 million, and the students in thegeneral VEU programme paid DKK 35million corresponding to 5 %.The disbursement of DKK 1.3 billionfor VEU compensation in 2004concerns persons who participate in avocationally oriented VEU up to andincluding the vocational education andtraining level. This includes AMU. Thedisbursement for VEU compensationamounts to 77 % of the total cost ofcompensation for loss of income. Thestate adult education grants (SVU) areapportioned with DKK 0.1 billion tothe general SVU, which concerns thegeneral education programmes, andDKK 0.3 billion to the higher SVU,which is allotted to persons seekingadult and continuing education withinhigher education programmes.Figure 3.5 shows the distribution oftuition paid by students in each type ofVEU. Of the total student paid tuitionof DKK 676 million in 2004 (notshown in the diagram), the studentsin higher VEU paid DKK 462 millioncorresponding to 68 % of the totalstudent paid tuition, while the studentsin vocational-oriented VEU paid DKK37


Table 3.5. Public operatingsubsidy per type ofVEU2000 2001 2002 2003 2004DKK million in 2005 pricesOperating subsidy, total 3,026 3,175 3,157 2,862 2,704General education, total 955 1,032 1,038 1,098 1,068FVU (prev. reading courses for adults) 14 39 39 48 55AVU/hf 924 978 984 999 1,003Hhx/htx 17 15 15 51 10Vocational education and training, total 1,564 1,635 1,649 1,328 1,237AMU 1,421 1,317 1,306 1,112 1,128EUD single subject 143 318 343 216 109Higher education programmes 507 508 470 436 399Remark: The table does not includeexpenditure on popular enlightenment (folkhigh schools, evening courses and day folkhigh schools), special needs education foradults or expenditure on Danish coursesfor foreigners. The education in questiononly addresses persons who work.Source: Livslang opkvalificering oguddannelse for alle på arbejdsmarkedet,2006 [Lifelong upgrading of qualificationsand education for everyone in the labourmarket, 2006].Table 3.6. Restitutionexpenses2000 2001 2002 2003 2004DKK million in 2005 pricesRestitution expenses, total 2,118 1,967 1,725 1,644 1,646AMU restitution 984 - - - -Education sabbatical 1,009 551 12 - -Adult education subsidy, SVU 125 69 37 23 -VEU restitution - 1,164 1,302 1,261 1,265SVU – general - 49 91 81 89SVU – advanced - 134 283 279 292Remark: The table does not includeexpenditure on popular enlightenment(folk high schools, evening courses andday folk high schools), special needseducation for adults or expenditure onDanish courses for foreigners.Source: Livslang opkvalificering oguddannelse for alle på arbejdsmarkedet,2006 [Lifelong upgrading of qualificationsand education for everyone in the labourmarket, 2006].38


Figure 3.5. Distributionas a percentage of studentpaid tuition in VEUeducation, 2004, in 2005prices DKK5.226.568.3General VEU programmeVocationally oriented VEUHigher VEUSource: Livslang opkvalificering oguddannelse for alle på arbejdsmarkedet,2006 [Lifelong upgrading of qualificationsand education for everyone in the labourmarket, 2006].39


In 2006, the StateEducation Grant andLoan Scheme disbursedDKK 12.5 billion in grantsand loans to pupils andstudents. 75 % of theexpenditure on educationgrants went to highereducation students.3.6 Expenditure on the StateEducation Grant and LoanSchemeThe state education grants and loansare administered on a monthly basis.There are different rates of grants forstudents living at home and studentsliving away from home, whereas theloan rate is the same. Loans are onlyallotted in connection with a grant.The students are allowed to have amonthly income in the form of salaryin addition to the grant.corresponding to a decrease of nearly5 %.In 2006, the average grant recipientin youth education received grants inthe amount of DKK 21,200, whereasa grant recipient in a higher educationprogramme received an average ofDKK 40,500 per year. In 2006, loanrecipients in a higher educationprogramme borrowed an average ofDKK 22,000, while loan recipients inyouth education borrowed an averageof DKK 18,100.In 2006, the total allocation of grantsand loans from the State EducationGrant and Loan Scheme amounted toDKK 12.5 billion. Of these, DKK 10.3billion were allotted as monthly grantsto 315,800 persons, while the rest wasallotted as loans (table 3.7).From year 2000 through 2006, theexpenditure on grants from the StateEducation Grant and Loan Schemerose by 14 % from DKK 9.0 billion toDKK 10.3 billion.During the same period, the numberof grant recipients grew from 295,000to 315.800 corresponding to a 7 %increase, whereas the number of loanrecipients fell from 108,000 to 103,100The number of loan recipients inhigher education is approximately fourtimes the number of loan recipients inyouth education.an increase over the recent six yearsin the total expenditure on the StateEducation Grant and Loan Scheme.However, the growth seems to havestopped at a level where the totalexpenditure corresponds to just shortof DKK 13 billion. Furthermore, itis noted that most is spent on highereducation – both for loans and grants.The proportion spent on loans tostudents in youth education is relativelymodest.40


Table 3.7. Expenditureon the State EducationGrant and Loan Scheme2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006DKK million in 2006 pricesGrants, total 9,002 9,336 9,472 9,641 9,978 10,214 10,273Youth education 2,389 2,415 2,414 2,463 2,668 2,797 2,772Higher education 6,613 6,921 7,058 7,178 7,310 7,417 7,501Loans, total 2,144 2,289 2,395 2,386 2,358 2,306 2,182Youth education 313 341 358 363 397 424 405Higher education 1,830 1,948 2,037 2,024 1,961 1,881 1,777Grants – average perrecipientDKK in 2006 pricesYouth education 19,900 20,700 20,700 20,600 21,100 21,500 21,200Higher education 37,800 38,100 38,400 39,100 40,000 40,200 40,500Loan – average perrecipientYouth education 16,800 16,900 16,600 16,600 16,800 17,700 18,100Higher education 20,500 20,900 21,100 21,400 21,900 22,000 22,000Number of personsRecipients, total 295,000 298,100 300,400 303,000 309,200 314,300 315,800Youth education 119,900 116,500 116,800 119,400 126,300 129,900 130,800Higher education 175,100 181,600 183,600 183,600 182,900 184,400 185,000Loan recipients, total 108,000 113,400 118,300 116,200 113,400 109,400 103,100Youth education 18,700 20,200 21,600 21,800 23,700 24,000 22,400Higher education 89,300 93,200 96,700 94,400 89,700 85,400 80,700Figure 3.6. Expenditureon grants and loans foryouth education andhigher education, DKKbillion in 2006 pricesSource: Finance Acts.14121086Highereducation, loansHighereducation, grants4202000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006Youth education,loansYouth education,grantsSource: Finance Acts.41


In 2004, the OECDcountries spent anaverage of 18 % of thetotal public expenditureon higher education onfinancial support to thestudents. Denmark spent30 %.3.7 Expenditure on financialsupport of students in highereducation in Denmark andselected countriesWhile expenditure on grants andother transfer income is sizeable inDenmark, relatively little is spent whencomparing internationally on loans tostudents. In 2004 in Denmark, 5 % ofthe total public expenditure on highereducation went to loans. The OECDaverage was just short of 9 %.There is a large variation in theamounts each country uses on grantsand other transfer income and onloans. Denmark is the country thatuses the most on grants and othertransfer income. In 2004 in Denmark,25 % of the total expenditure onhigher education was spent on grantsand other transfer income; thisplaces Denmark in the very top. Inaverage, the OECD countries spendapproximately 10 % of the totalexpenditure on higher education ongrants and other transfer income.Among the Nordic countries, Finlandspends 17 % on grants and othertransfer income, while Norway andSweden are very close to the OECDaverage. Korea, Japan, and UK spenda very small share on grants and othertransfer income, but a high proportionon loans.Note that this statistic on financialsupport includes not only the StateEducation Grant and Loan Scheme,but all forms of transfer income thatis paid in connection with highereducation, for example the State adulteducation support scheme (SVU),Adult and continuing educationcompensation (VEU), social securitycash benefit, and rehabilitation.As seen from figure 3.7, there is a widevariation in the countries’ expenditureon loans. In Sweden and Norway, thestudents borrow approximately 18 %and 30 % respectively of their totalexpenditure on higher education.Overall, the students in over one thirdof the countries borrow considerablymore than Danish students who, onthe other hand, receive high grants andother transfer income. Note, however,that in some countries it is not possibleto account for the loans.A few countries give grants to pay fortuition. For example, this is the case inAustria and Finland; however, this isnot relevant for Danish students.42


Figure 3.7. Percentage oftotal public expenditureon higher educationused for grants and othertransfer income, loans,454035302520and grants for tuition inDenmark and selectedOECD countries, by type151050of expenditure 2004DenmarkAustriaItalyFinlandHungaryBelgiumAustraliaGermanyUSANew ZealandThe NetherlandsNorwaySwedenOECD averageSlovakiaFranceSpainCzech RepublicPortugalGreeceKoreaJapanUKGrants etc.LoansGrant for tuitionRemark: Loans are not listed for countriesfor which the data is not available. InBelgium, Finland, Italy, and Spain publicloans are not provided.Source: Education at a Glance, 2007.43


4 Basic schoolThe number of basicschools has decreasedsince 2000. At the sametime, more pupils havecome by. As a result, thereare now more pupils ineach school.4.1 Number of schools andpupilsIn 2006, there were 2,360 basic schoolscomprised of 1,600 municipal basicschools, 503 private basic schools, and257 continuation schools. Over theperiod as a whole, from the year 2000through 2006, there have becomefewer municipal schools, whereas thenumber of private basic schools andcontinuation schools has increased(table 4.1). Note that the year 2006corresponds to the school year2006/2007, just as 2000 correspondsto the school year 2000/2001.increased steadily. From 2000 to 2006,the number of pupils in basic schoolincreased from 659,300 to 712,600.This corresponds to an increase of 8 %(table 4.2).Additionally, there were 470 municipalyouth schools, youth boarding schools,and special schools where teachingat the basic school level took placeas well as 183 schools in connectionwith daytime therapy and therapeuticinstitutions.While the basic schools have becomefewer, the number of pupils has44


Table 4.1. Basic schoolsper type of schoolMunicipal Private Continuationbasic schools basic schools schools TotalAntal2000 1,668 462 233 2,3632001 1,679 464 235 2,3782002 1,678 469 243 2,3902003 1,666 479 245 2,3902004 1,636 494 248 2,3782005 1,608 506 250 2,3642006 1,600 503 257 2,360Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 4.2. Number ofpupils in basic schoolper form level2000 1 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006NumberBasic school, total 659,300 674,671 688,033 700,646 708,750 712,065 712,633Pre-school class - 71,149 68,920 70,069 67,590 67,363 67,6391 st form - 69,966 70,366 68,227 68,822 67,034 67,1552 nd form - 68,288 69,636 70,506 68,101 68,128 66,6703 rd form - 67,807 68,544 69,861 70,290 67,866 68,0324 th form - 65,470 67,999 68,478 69,716 70,322 67,5885 th form - 64,392 65,550 68,122 68,550 69,570 70,0316 th form - 62,517 64,556 65,651 68,472 68,709 69,6487 th form - 59,025 62,526 64,878 65,528 68,193 68,4338 th form - 56,660 58,886 62,469 64,822 65,547 68,0259 th form - 56,198 56,978 59,189 63,414 64,631 65,41410 th form - 33,199 34,072 33,196 33,445 34,702 33,998Remark: Includes figures for municipal andprivate basic schools and continuationschools.Note 1: Figures per form level are notavailable for 2000.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.45


Figure 4.1 shows the number of pupilsin basic school per type of school in2000 and in 2006. Regardless of typeof school, the number of pupils hasincreased. The continuation schoolshave 24 % more pupils, correspondingto an increase of 5,000 pupils, whilethe private basic schools have 19 %more pupils, corresponding toan increase of 14,500 pupils. Incomparison, the municipal basicschools only have 6 % more pupils,although this represents an increase of35,000 pupils.Fewer basic schools and more pupilshave resulted in the average number ofpupils per school having increased. Asfigure 4.2 shows, the largest numericgrowth has taken place in the municipalschools that have experienced anincrease of 36 pupils per schoolcorresponding to 11 %. On the otherhand, the continuation schools havehad the highest increaseby percent with 13 % more pupils perschool (11 pupils).The anticipated development innumber of pupils until 2015 is shownin the extrapolation in figure 4.3. It isseen that the number of pupils peaksin 2007 with 725,800. Then the totalnumber of pupils will decrease steadily.Figure 4.1. Numberof pupils per type ofschool, 2000 and 2006800,000700,000600,000500,000400,000300,000200,000100,0000Municipalbasic schoolsPrivate basicschoolsContinuationschoolsBasic schoolstotal2000 2006Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.46


Figure 4.2. Averagenumber of pupils perschool, 2000 and 2006400350300250200150100500336 372 168 183 89 100 279 302Municipalbasic schoolPrivate basicschoolsContinuationschoolsBasic schoolstotal2000 2006Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 4.3. Extrapolationof the total number ofpupils in all types ofschools730,000720,000710,000700,000690,000680,000670,000660,0002004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.47


The proportion of bilingualpupils in the municipalbasic schools and in theprivate basic schoolshas increased from 8 %in 2000 to 10 % in 2006.Primarily pupils with afamily background fromTurkey, the Middle East,and Iran make up the bodyof bilingual pupils.4.2 Bilingual pupilsIn 2006, a good 10 % of the pupils inbasic school (excluding continuationschools) were bilingual. Bilingualpupils by definition are children whohave a maternal language other thanDanish, and who do not learn Danishuntil they come in contact with thesurrounding community or throughthe teaching in school.From 2000 through 2006, the numberof bilingual children increased fromslightly less than 53,900 to 69,400,equivalent to a 29 % increase. Asidefrom a small decrease in 2005, theincrease has been steady (table 4.3).The proportion of bilingual pupils inthe private basic schools has generallybeen higher than the correspondingproportion in the municipal basicschools. Through the years, however,the two proportions have converged,and in the year 2006, both werea good 10 %. In municipal basicschools, the proportion of bilingualpupils corresponded to 59,900 pupils,while in the private basic schools itcorresponded to 9,500 pupils.More than half of the bilingualpupils in basic school have a familybackground from Turkey, the MiddleEast, Iran, Somalia, the formerYugoslavia, or Pakistan. With 17 %, thelargest group consists of pupils with aTurkish family background; however,this is a smaller proportion than in2001 when that group made up 20 %.Since 2004, the proportion of bilingualpupils with an Iranian background hasmore than tripled from 3 % to 9 % in2006.Regarding the distribution of bilingualpupils in municipal basic schools, themajority by far (77 %) of the schoolshave less than 10 % bilingual pupils.In comparison, a good 82 % of theprivate basic schools have less than10 % bilingual pupils (figure 4.4).In 97 % of the municipal basic schools,less than half of the pupils are bilingual,and the same is the case for 94 % of theprivate basic schools.In 3 % of the municipal and in 1 % ofthe private basic schools, between halfand 99 % of the pupils are bilingual.In 0.1 % of the municipal and inalmost 5 % of the private basic schools,all pupils are bilingual.48


Table 4.3. Distributionof bilingual pupils inmunicipal and privatebasic schools2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006NumberTotal number of bilingualpupils 53,850 61,124 63,644 66,011 68,360 68,299 69,361Municipal basic schools 1 46,140 53,178 55,812 57,523 59,382 58,918 59,876Private basic schools 7,710 7,946 7,832 8,488 8,978 9,381 9,485%Total proportion of bilingualpupils 8.4 9.4 9.6 9.7 10.0 9.9 10.1Municipal basic schools 1 8.2 9.2 9.5 9.7 10.0 9.9 10.1Private basic schools 9.9 9.9 9.5 9.9 10.1 10.3 10.3Distribution of bilingual pupilsby country%Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100Turkey 18.9 19.5 18.8 19.0 17.5 17.3 16.8Middle East 14.2 14.2 14.9 12.8 16.1 10.8 12.2Iran 3.4 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.1 8.2 8.9Somalia 6.0 5.8 5.9 6.1 5.7 5.5 5.7Former Yugoslavia 5.0 5.2 5.1 4.4 4.2 5.2 4.9Pakistan 6.5 6.3 5.8 5.5 5.1 5.1 5.0Other countries 46.0 45.6 46.3 49.0 48.2 48.1 46.5Note 1: Includes the figures for a fewspecial schools and daytime therapeuticinstitutions until 2004.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 4.4. Proportionof bilingual pupils inmunicipal and privatebasic schools, 200670605040302010016 61 2030.144 38 1215Municipal basic schoolPrivate basic schoolsNone 0


The number of pupilsreceiving general orextensive special needseducation has increasedmarkedly from 2001 to2005. In the municipalbasic schools, the numberof pupils receiving generalspecial needs educationhas increased by 26 %,whereas the numberreceiving extensivespecial needs educationhas grown by 19 %.4.3 Pupils receiving specialneeds educationSpecial needs education is theeducation given in accordance with theBasic School Act to children and youngpeople whose development poses arequirement for special consideration orsupport that cannot be given within theframework of the normal education.Before the municipal reform’s cominginto effect on 1 st January 2007, therewere two kinds of special needseducation: general and extensive.General special needs education undermunicipal management comprised forexample pupils who had difficultiesin single subjects or had difficultiesreading and writing, and it frequentlytook place in the pupils’ regularschool, either as special support in theclassroom or in special classes.Extensive special needs educationunder county management comprisedspecific and expensive measures, andfrequently it took place as extra supportin the regular classroom, in a specialcounty school, or in a special careinstitution or in a daytime therapeuticinstitution. This involved for examplepupils with a hearing impairment,autism, or psychical developmentrestraints. Beginning 1 st January 2007,there is no longer a distinction betweenextensive and general special needseducation since both kinds of specialneeds education are now a municipalresponsibility, whereas it formerlywas divided between counties andmunicipalities.Special needs education also takes placein the private basic schools; here, thegroup of pupils requiring additionalexpenditure is designated severelydisabled pupils.In 2005, 13,600 pupils in municipalbasic schools received general specialneeds education in special classescompared to 10,800 in 2001 (table4.4). This corresponds to an increase of26 %. In the same period, the numberof pupils in municipal basic schools(including pupils in special schools)increased by 4 %.Likewise, the number of municipalbasic school pupils in extensive specialneeds education has increased. In 2005,10,500 pupils received extensive specialneeds education compared to 8,800pupils in 2001. This corresponds to anincrease of 19 %.50


For the severely disabled pupils, theprivate basic schools may apply to theBoard of the State Education Grantand Loan Scheme (the SU Board) for asubsidy for special pedagogical support(SPS). A direct comparison of privatebasic schools and municipal basicschools in this respect is not possiblebecause the statistical bases differ.For instance, it should be noted thatthe private basic schools, unlike themunicipal basic schools, are not underobligation to admit all the children whoapply to the schools.Like in the municipal basic schools,the number of pupils in generalspecial needs education classes in theprivate basic schools has increased.Thus, from 2001 through 2005, thenumber increased by 58 %. In absolutenumbers, however, the increase is onlyfrom 163 to 275 pupils. In comparison,the number of pupils in the privatebasic schools increased by 13 % from80,100 to 90,800 in the same period.The number of severely disabledpupils in the private basic schoolsgrew from 413 in 2001 to 1,010 in2005, an increase of 145 %. This is aconsequence, among other things, ofthe circumstance that there are nowmore pupils in the private basic schools,and therefore, the variation of the pupilpopulation is assumed to approach thatof the municipal basic schools.Figure 4.5 illustrates the numberof pupils in extensive special needseducation in the municipal basicschools as a proportion of the totalnumber of children between six andsixteen years of age.General learning disability is the mostfrequent reason of referral of pupilsto extensive special needs educationand amounted to 43 % of the pupilsin 2005. This category covers widelyand includes persons who are mentallyretarded, late developers, etc. In 2005,23 % of the pupils were referredbecause of behavioural and mentaldifficulties (figure 4.6).In the extensive special needs educationin municipal basic schools, the boys aredistinctly overrepresented, and in 2005,they made up 72 %, corresponding to7,500 pupils of a total of 10,500 (figure4.7).51


Table 4.4. General andextensive special needseducation in municipaland private basicschools2001 2002 2003 2004 2005General special needs education in specialNumberclassesMunicipal basic schools 10,772 11,529 11,515 13,125 13,567Private basic schools 163 130 295 364 275Extensive special needs education/veryNumberdisabled personsMunicipal basic schools 8,798 9,901 9,868 10,233 10,491Private basic schools 413 552 663 866 1,010Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 4.5. Percentageof pupils in extensivespecial needs educationin municipal basicschools in percent of thetotal number of childrenin the age group 6-16years.1.51.41.31.21.112000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Remark: The referral rate to extensivespecial needs education in municipalbasic schools (1 st -10 th form) is calculatedin relation to the pupil base (6-16 years).Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.52


Figure 4.6. Reasons forreferral to extensive6special needs educationin municipal basicschools, 2005, percent2 105143General learning disabilitiesBehavioral and mental difficultiesReading, language andspeech difficultiesPhysically handicapped4Sight-handicappedHearing-handicappedBehaviour, contact, well-being6ADHDOther23Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 4.7. Pupils inextensive special needseducation in municipalbasic schools by gender,200512,00010,0008,0006,0004,0002,00007,520 2,971 10,491Boys Girls TotalSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.53


In 2006, there were 62,600teachers in the basicschools. Two thirds of theteachers are women.4.4 Number of teachersIn the year 2006, there were 62,600teachers in the basic schools. 51,400of these were employed by municipalbasic schools, 7,500 by a private basicschool, and 3,700 were employed by acontinuation school (table 4.5).From the year 2003 through 2004, thenumber of teachers in municipal basicschools decreased by 700. Subsequently,the number of teachers increased bygood 600 up to 2006. From 2003through 2006, there was an increase ofgood 500 teachers in the private basicschools. In the continuation schools,the number of teachers increased by200 from 2004 through 2006.When considering the age distributionof the teachers in basic school(excluding continuation schools), it isseen that in particular the group of 45to 54 year olds has diminished in recentyears, although the group is the largestthroughout all of the period. Thus, in2003, the group of 45 to 54 year oldsmade up 32 % as compared to 26 %in 2006. During the same period, thegroup of teachers over 55 years old hasincreased by two percentage points,whereas teachers in the age group 35to 44 years old has increased by nearlythree percentage points. The proportionof teachers 34 years of age or less hasincreased by a good percentage point(figure 4.8).In general, the teachers in the privatebasic schools with 42.8 years of age inaverage are slightly younger that thosein the municipal basic schools who are47.7 years old in average.The gender distribution among teachersand school managers is skewed. Twoout of three teachers are women.On the other hand, two out of threeschool managers are men (does notemerge from the table). The genderskew is strongest among teachers in theyoungest age group (figure 4.9).54


Table 4.5. Number ofteachers in basic school2003 2004 2005 2006NumberBasic school, total 58,512 61,542 62,103 62,645Municipal basic schools 1 51,470 50,773 50,972 51,380Private basic schools 7,042 7,248 7,523 7,549Continuation schools - 3,521 3,608 3,716Remark: Includes both part-time and fulltimeteachers.Note 1: Includes municipal youth schools.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis andthe Association of continuation schools.Figure 4.8. Agedistribution of teachers,percent353025201510502003 2004 2005 200618-34 year olds 35-44 year olds45-54 year olds 55 year olds and aboveRemark: Not including continuationSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.schools.55


Figure 4.9. Agedistribution of teachersby gender, 2006, percent302520151018171716508 7 9 918-34 year olds 35-44 year olds 45-54 year olds 55 year oldsand aboveWomen MenRemark: Not including continuationschools.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.56


Compared with themunicipal basic schools,there are slightly morepupils per teacher in theprivate basic schools. Thenormal class size has beenincreasing in the municipalas well as in the privatebasic schools.4.5 Pupil/teacher ratio andnormal class sizeThe pupil/teacher ratio describes theratio between the number of pupilsand the number of teachers, that is tosay the average of number of pupils perteacher.In 2006, the pupil/teacher ratio was11.1 in the municipal basic schools,whereas it was 12.5 in the private basicschools. Thus, there are slightly morepupils per teacher in the private basicschools (figure 4.10). These numbershave not changed notably in recentyears.The private basic schools have also hada small increase in the normal class size,from 16.8 children in a class in 2000 to17.2 in 2006.The variation in normal class size isgreater in the private basic schoolsthan in the municipal basic schools;here, there has been a slight increaseduring the entire period. The increasein normal class size is primarily a resultof fewer municipal basic schools, whilesimultaneously, there has been anincrease in the number of pupils.The normal class size expresses theaverage number of pupils in a class.Dedicated special classes are notcounted in the normal class sizecalculation.In recent years, the normal class size inmunicipal basic schools has increased.In 2000, the average number ofchildren in a class was 19.0, while in2006 it was 20.1. During the period,the class-size average has thus increasedby one pupil (figure 4.11).57


Figure 4.10. Pupil/teacher ratio, 200613.012.512.011.511.010.510.011.1 12.5Municipal basic schoolsPrivate basic schoolsRemark: The pupil/teacher ratio has beencalculated based on the total time usedby the teacher minus the time used inspecial class teaching plus the teachingtime of the school management. Thetime used is divided with a standardman-year (1,924 hours). All the pupils areincluded except pupils in special classes.Municipal special schools and therapeuticinstitutions are not considered.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 4.11. Normalclass size in municipaland private basicschools 2000-2006212019181716152000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006Municipal basic schoolsPrivate basic schoolsRemark: The normal class size iscalculated as number of pupils dividedby number of classes (excluding specialclasses).Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.58


In 2006, there were nearlyfive pupils for each newerteaching computer inmunicipal basic schools.97 % of the computerswere connected to theInternet.4.6 Key figures for use ofcomputers in Denmark andselected countriesDenmark has chosen to concentrate oncomputers as a means to support andstimulate the pupils in the education.Thus, in 2003, the governmentadopted a plan of action with the aimto strengthen the computer skills ofthe basic school pupils. As a resultof this plan of action, the number ofpupils per newer computer 2 droppedmarkedly, and in 2006, there were lessthan five pupils per newer teachingcomputer in municipal basic schools ascompared to nearly 10 pupils in 2002.Figure 4.12 shows how the computerswere distributed in the municipal basicschools in 2006. 25 % of the computerswere placed in a computer room, while18 % were placed in a classroom and11 % in a communal area nearby. 23 %of the computers were portable.In 2006, 97 % of the computers inmunicipal basic schools had Internetaccess. In 2002, this proportion was81 % (figure 4.13).A survey of the use of computers inthe basic school in the EU countries 3 ,initiated by the European Commission,shows that Denmark had 18 computerswith access to the Internet per 100pupils in 1 st through 6 th form in 2006.This is the second highest number inEU. The highest number is found inLuxembourg, which had 21 computerswith access to the Internet per 100pupils. Norway and UK follow justafter Denmark with 16, respectively 15computers with access to the Internetper 100 pupils (figure 4.14).There is a relatively clear clusteringof EU countries with at least 14computers with access to the Internetand of those with less than 10.Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, UK,the Netherlands, Iceland, and Swedenhad at least 14 computers with Internetaccess per 100 pupils in 1 st through 6 thform. Finland had 11 computers withInternet access per 100 pupils, whereasthe rest of the countries had lessthan 10 computers with access to theInternet per 100 pupils in 1 st through6 th form.2 Newer computers are defined as computers lessthan five years old or used as terminals of a centralizedserver.3 The data from this survey is not comparable withthe Danish statistic for municipal basic schools.59


Figure 4.12. Distributionof teaching computers inmunicipal basis schoolsin percent, 20063025201510525 23 18 15 11 90Computer roomPortableClassroomsLibraryCommunal area nearbyOtherSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 4.13. Proportionof teaching computerswith Internet access inmunicipal basic schools100959085807570812002952005972006Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.As seen from figure 4.15, 96 % of theteachers in Danish basic schools hadused computers in their teaching. OnlyUK had a higher proportion (97 %).With the exception of Hungarywhere 37 % of the teachers had usedcomputers in their teaching, at least 60% of the teachers in 21 of 22 selectedEU countries had used computers intheir teaching.60


Figure 4.14. Number ofteaching computers withInternet access per 100pupils in 1 st through 6 thform of basic school, inDenmark and selectedEU countries, 2006LuxembourgDenmarkNorwayUKThe NetherlandsIcelandSwedenFinlandSpainGermanyIrelandAustriaCzech RepublicCyprusHungaryBelgiumSlovakiaFrancePolandPortugalGreeceItaly0 5 10 15 20 25Remark: The survey data was collectedthrough a telephone survey of teachersand school management. Data wascollected from February through May2006; the teachers were asked to includethe last 12 months in their answers. Thesurvey comprises 1 st -6 th form except forDenmark where the figures comprise all ofbasic school.Source: Empirica: Learnlnd 2006 (HTS).Figure 4.15. Percentageof teachers in 1 st through6 th form who have usedcomputers in teachingin the last 12 months inDenmark and selectedEU countries, 2006UKDenmarkThe NetherlandsNorwaySwedenFinlandAustriaCyprusIrelandCzech RepublicIcelandGermanyLuxembourgSlovakiaItalyPortugalSpainBelgiumFranceGreecePolandHungary0 20 40 60 80 100Remark: The survey data was collectedthrough a telephone survey of teachersand school management. Data wascollected from February through May2006; the teachers were asked to includethe last 12 months in their answers. Thesurvey covers 1 st -6 th form.Source: Empirica: Learnlnd 2006 (CTS).61


95 % continue in aneducation after havingcompleted basic school.The girls primarilychoose the general uppersecondary education,whereas the boys prefera vocationally orientededucation and trainingprogramme.4.7 What do pupils do afterbasic schoolNearly all pupils continue in a youtheducation after basic school. In thespring 2007, almost 96 % of the pupilsin 9 th and 10 th form had enrolled tostart an education directly after thesummer holidays (table 4.6).At the youth education enrolment ofthe 9 th and 10 th form pupils in 2007,45 % enrolled in a general uppersecondary education programme,while nearly 18 % enrolled in avocational upper secondary educationprogramme. Almost 30 % of thegraduating pupils enrolled in avocationally oriented education andtraining programme. It is, however,questionable which education theyoung people will choose in reality.In recent years, a steadily increasingproportion of the pupils, who continuein an education, start in an uppersecondary education programme.vocationally oriented education andtraining programme.There is a distinct difference in boys’and girls’ choice of education. Whilehalf of the girls chose a general uppersecondary education programme, thiswas the case for only 29 % of the boys.On the other hand, a larger proportionof the boys (18 %) than of the girls(14 %) chose a vocational uppersecondary education. A vocationallyoriented education and training wasalso chosen primarily by the boys.Thus, 43 % of the boys but only 27% of the girls chose a vocationallyoriented education and training (figure4.16).In 2005, 39 % started a generalupper secondary education, whereas16 % enrolled in a vocational uppersecondary education programme.In the same year, 35 % started a62


Table 4.6. Behaviourafter basic school2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2 2007 2% %Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100Continue in an educationprogramme 96.7 96.6 96.6 96.4 96.1 95.0 95.6 95.5General upper secondaryeducation 37.8 37.0 38.5 38.3 38.7 39.0 44.7 45.0Vocational upper secondaryeducation 16.3 16.6 15.9 15.8 16.3 16.0 17.8 17.8Vocationally oriented educationand training 34.4 35.5 36.0 36.1 35.4 35.3 30.1 29.7Other education 1 8.2 7.4 6.2 6.2 5.7 4.7 3.0 3.0Does not continue education 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.9 5.0 4.4 4.6Note 1: Other education comprises highereducation and non-qualifying education.Note 2: Figures for 2006 and 2007 originatefrom the enrolment of 9 th and 10 th formpupils in the youth education programmesas of March 15; thus, they represent anenrolment and not a started education.Not all students enrolled start in thechosen education. In 2006, 1.7 % did notfill out the enrolment, while 2 % did not fillout the enrolment in 2007. These are notincluded in the table.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 4.16. Behaviourafter basic school bygender, 2005, percent60504030201005 6 4 529 18 43 50 14 27BoysGirlsGeneral upper secondary educationVocationally oriented educationand trainingVocational upper secondary educationOther education 1Does not continue educationNote 1: Other education includes nonqualifyingeducation and a few artisticeducation programmes.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.63


Figure 4.17 shows the distribution ofimmigrants and descendants by genderwho continue in education after the9 th and 10 th form. The trend is thesame for this group: the girls choseprimarily a general upper secondaryeducation, whereas the boys chose avocational upper secondary education,in particular the higher technicalexamination (htx), and vocationallyoriented education and trainingprogrammes.However, a far greater percentage ofimmigrants and descendants do notcontinue in an education programme.Whereas 6 % of the boys in totaldo not continue in an educationprogramme, this is the case for a good16 % of the boys among immigrantsand descendants. As for the girls, alittle less than 5 % of the total groupdo not continue in an educationprogramme, whereas it is the case for agood 15 % of the girls in the group ofimmigrants and descendants.Figure 4.17. Behaviourof immigrants anddescendants after basicschool by gender, 2005,percent45403530252015105023 14 39 8 16 39 8 32 6 15BoysGirlsGeneral upper secondary educationVocationally oriented educationand trainingVocational upper secondary educationOther education 1Does not continue educationNote 1: Other education includes nonqualifyingeducation and a few artisticeducation programmes.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.64


5 Youth educationToday, 81 % of a youthcohort receive a youtheducation. It is thegovernment’s goal that95 % of a youth cohortreceive a youth educationin 2015.5.1 Number of schools andstudentsThe youth education programmescomprise the higher educationpreparatory general upper secondarystudies and the vocational educationand training programmes that targetthe labour market, but which may alsogive admission to higher education.In 2005, 236,000 students wereenrolled in a youth education. Ofthese, 106,500, equivalent to 45 %,were enrolled in an upper secondaryeducation programme, and 129,500,equivalent to 55 %, were enrolled ina vocationally oriented education andtraining programme.In total, in 2006, there were 148general upper secondary educationalinstitutions in the country. 117 schoolsoffered vocationally oriented educationand training programmes andvocational upper secondary educationprogrammes. The vocational schoolshave many local branches so thatyouth education is available all over thecountry (table 5.1).From table 5.2 it may be seen howmany students have been enrolled ina youth education in the years 2000through 2005, and how they aredistributed by gender.65


Table 5.1. Number ofeducational institutionswith youth educationprogrammes2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006NumberYouth educational institutions, total 269 262 261 264 259 264 265General upper secondary schools 146 146 146 147 146 147 148Upper secondary schools and institutionswith hf 125 125 125 125 125 126 127Private upper secondary schools andinstitutions with hf 16 16 16 17 17 17 17Institutions with adult upper secondarylevel courses 5 5 5 5 4 4 4Vocationally oriented education and trainingand vocational upper secondary education 123 116 115 117 113 117 117Vocational schools etc. 107 101 100 102 98 98 97Social and health care schools 16 15 15 15 15 19 20Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 5.2. Numberof students in youtheducation by gender2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005NumberYouth education students, total 224,523 221,769 218,099 226,260 232,524 236,003General upper secondary education,total 64,679 64,708 65,762 67,483 70,130 72,684Men 24,422 24,127 24,600 25,520 26,992 27,990Women 40,257 40,581 41,162 41,963 43,138 44,694Vocational upper secondaryeducation, total 32,934 33,626 33,850 34,359 36,152 33,808Men 18,262 18,579 18,745 19,038 19,752 19,133Women 14,672 15,047 15,105 15,321 16,400 14,675Vocationally oriented educationand training, total 126,910 123,435 118,487 124,418 126,242 129,511Men 69,073 67,244 65,055 68,238 70,004 71,770Women 57,837 56,191 53,432 56,180 56,238 57,741Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.66


In 2005, there were 72,700 students inthe general upper secondary educationprogrammes comprised of the uppersecondary school leaving examination(stx) and the higher preparatory exams(hf). The majority by far (86 %) ofthese chose stx, while 14 % preferredhf.The vocational upper secondaryeducation programmes, consisting ofthe higher commercial examination(hhx) and the higher technicalexamination (htx), accounted for33,800 students in 2005. The greaterpart (72 %) took hhx, while a goodfourth studied for htx. The drop innumber of students from 2004 to 2005was caused by the closing down of theone-year hhx.In 2005, most of the general uppersecondary students were enrolled in stx(59 %). Hhx followed with 23 % of thestudents. Htx had a share of 8 % of thestudents, while the two-year hf had9 %.In 2005, 129,500 students studiedin a vocationally oriented educationand training programme. Among thevocationally oriented education andtraining programmes, the following inparticular are popular: the commercialeducation programmes, building andconstruction programmes, social andhealth care training programmes,and technology and communicationprogrammes (figure 5.2).In the general upper secondaryeducation programmes, there aremarkedly more women than men,whereas there is a predominance ofmen in the vocational upper secondaryeducation programmes and especially inthe vocationally oriented education andtraining programmes.Figure 5.1 shows the distributionof students in the upper secondaryeducation programmes in 2005.67


Figure 5.1. Distributionof students in uppersecondary youtheducation per educationprogramme, 2005,percent7060504030201059 23 9 8 10StxHhx Hf Htx Other 1(incl. adult uppersecondary level course)Note 1: Other comprises one-year hhxand admission course for the engineereducation.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 5.2. Distributionof students invocationally orientededucation andtraining by educationprogramme, 2005,percent302520151050Commercial26 12 15 5 11 8 7 1 12 2Building and constructionTechnology and communicationTrade and techniqueFood production and cateringMechanics, transportand logisticsServiceBasic vocational educationand trainingSocial and health careeducations etc. 1Agricultural education etc.Note 1: Also includes educationalchildworker and care assistant trainingand podiatrist education.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.68


When starting the stx programme,the students are 16.5 years old inaverage, while in hhx and htx they areapproximately 17 years old. Whengraduating stx, the students are 19.5years old in average and around 20years old when graduating hhx or htx.In the stx, hhx, and htx programmes,the students have the same age,whereas there is a wider variation inthe age of the students in the two-yearhf programme, which also caters toadults. In average, the students in the hfprogramme are 19 years old when theystart, while their average age is 20.5when they complete (does not emergefrom the figure). The average age whencompleting is only 1.5 years higher thanwhen starting the two-year educationprogramme because the younger agegroups are better at completing thanthe older ones.in average. Most of them are under25 years old when they complete theirvocational education and trainingprogramme but the variation in age isvery wide in the vocational educationand training programmes. For example,students within the social and healthcare system are almost 34 years oldin average when they graduate. Theseeducation programmes as well as othervocationally oriented education andtraining programmes are widely used toupgrade the qualifications of the labourforce, for example via adult apprenticeschemes.In the vocational education andtraining programmes, the studentsare almost 21 years of age when theystart the basic course of study, andwhen they start the main course, theyare nearly 26 years old since someof them do not come directly froma basic course. When they completetheir education, they are 28 years old69


In the upper secondaryeducation, the greater partof the students completesthe programme, whereasonly a good half of thestudents in vocationallyoriented education andtraining complete aprogramme.5.2 Completion, dropout, andbehaviour after dropoutThe completion rate is a measure ofthe proportion of students who havestarted an education programme theyear in question, and who finish thatprogramme.Eight of ten students are expectedto complete their education in theupper secondary programmes. Thereis, however, a large variation. With84 %, stx has the highest completionrate. Then hhx follows with 80 %, htxwith 71 %, and hf with 66 %. In 2005,33,100 students graduated (table 5.3).The vocationally oriented educationand training programmes typically startwith a basic course of study of 20 to60 weeks duration. Approximately70 % of the students complete the basiccourse of study that they started. Unlessthey already have one, the studentsthen need a practice placement so theycan continue with the main courseof study and complete the education.Otherwise, in some of the programmes,the students may continue in schoolpractice. The main course of study takesapproximately three years and 80 %complete their main course (ref. section5.5).Only a good half (51 %) of thosewho start a vocationally orientededucation and training programme areexpected to complete it. This is owed tocircumstances such as not all studentsobtaining a practice placement, somestudents changing to another educationen route, and still others dropping out.During the period from 2000 to 2005,the number of students completinga vocational education and trainingprogramme dropped from nearly39,600 to 28,900. This was caused bya decreasing number of students inthe year groups, a higher dropout rate,and more students choosing an uppersecondary programme.As mentioned in the previoussection, the compositions of thestudent groups in upper secondaryeducation and vocationally orientededucation and training programmesare different, which should be takeninto consideration when comparing thecompletion rates.70


Table 5.3. Completionrates, number of studentswho complete aneducation, and numberof students who drop outon the wayCompletion rates 1 %2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005General upper secondary education 81.8 81.6 80.7 81.0 81.6 81.6Vocational upper secondaryeducation 78.4 78.4 77.7 77.6 78.1 78.4Vocationally oriented educationand training 58.6 55.9 56.0 53.4 50.4 51.2CompletingNumberGeneral upper secondary education 20,933 19,911 20,314 19,446 20,031 20,887Vocational upper secondaryeducation 11,841 10,975 10,890 11,386 11,617 12,175Vocationally oriented educationand training 39,555 38,073 36,313 30,628 31,981 28,907DiscontinuedNumberGeneral upper secondary education 4,407 4,828 4,323 5,331 4,825 4,972Vocational upper secondaryeducation 3,059 3,092 3,211 3,164 3,363 3,490Vocationally oriented educationand training 22,493 22,932 22,820 22,469 25,242 33,129Note 1: The completion rates in boldcharacters are estimates, while the othernumbers are factual.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 5.3. Completionrates in youth educationprogrammes858075706560555045General uppersecondary educationVocational uppersecondary educationVocationally orientededucation and training402000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.71


The major part of the studentsdropping out of an upper secondaryeducation are expected to start a neweducation. The major part (82 %) ofthose dropping out of the general uppersecondary education are expected tostart another youth education. Thesame is expected as regards 85 % ofthose dropping out of a vocationalupper secondary education. Of thosedropping out of a vocationally orientededucation and training programme,only 60 % are expected to start anothereducation (figure 5.4).expected to start a new upper secondarycourse of education (figure 5.5).24 % of the students who drop outof a vocationally oriented educationand training programme are expectedto start a new vocationally orientededucation and training programmewhile 12 % are expected to start ahigher education. A proportion of 9 %is expected to start an upper secondaryeducation programme. 40 % do notcontinue in education within ten years.Since 2001, the tendency to continuethe education has been decreasingslightly in general upper secondaryeducation. In vocational uppersecondary education and in vocationallyoriented education and training, thetrend has likewise been falling since theyear 2003.44 % of those dropping out of an uppersecondary education are expected tostart a vocationally oriented educationand training programme within tenyears, whereas 19 % are expected tostart a higher education 4 . 8 % are4 They may be admitted on exemption or afterhaving complemented with single subject hfclasses.72


Figure 5.4. Behaviourafter discontinuedyouth education –proportion expected tostart another educationwithin ten years90858075706560General uppersecondary educationVocational uppersecondary educationVocationally orientededucation and training55502000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 5.5. Behaviourafter discontinuedyouth education –proportion expected tostart another educationwithin ten years, 20055045403530252015105010 8 44 19 19 15 9 24 12 40Upper secondaryeducationVocationally orientededucation and trainingBasic school andnon-qualifyingeducation 1Upper secondaryeducationVocationally orientededucation and trainingHighereducationDoes not continueeducationNote 1: Non-qualifying educationcomprises primarily production schools.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.73


From 2000 to 2005, theproportion of immigrantsand descendants in youtheducation has increasedsteadily. In 2005, theproportion of immigrantsand descendantscompleting an educationwas generally lower thanthe proportion of ethnicDanes. Irrespective ofethnicity, the women arebetter at completing thanthe men are.5.3 Immigrants anddescendantsIn 2005, one in ten students in youtheducation had an ethnic backgroundother than Danish. In total, there were23,500 immigrants and descendantswith 9,500 in an upper secondaryeducation where they made up 9 %of the students, and 14,000 in avocationally oriented education andtraining programme where they madeup 11 % of the students (table 5.4).In the upper secondary educationprogrammes as well as in thevocationally oriented education andtraining programmes, the numberof immigrants and descendants hasincreased. In 2000, the number ofimmigrants and descendants in uppersecondary education was 6,500,corresponding to 7 %, and 10,000 inthe vocationally oriented education andtraining programmes, correspondingto 8 %.There is a more even genderdistribution in youth educationamong immigrants and descendantsthan there is among ethnic Danes.In upper secondary education, thewomen made up 54 % in 2005, whilethere were largely the same numberof men and women in the vocationaleducation and training programmes.In upper secondary education, thewomen chiefly chose the generalprogramme, whereas the men largelychoose a vocational programme. In thevocationally oriented education andtraining programmes, the men choosea technical education, whereas thewomen especially choose a social andhealth care education (does not emergefrom the table).The completion rate is a measure ofthe proportion of students who havestarted an education programme theyear in question, and who finish thatprogramme.A good 66 %, that is to say twoout of three, of the immigrants anddescendants who start a general uppersecondary education programme or avocational upper secondary educationprogramme are expected to completethe education (table 5.5).Only 39 %, of the immigrants anddescendants who start a vocationallyoriented education and trainingprogramme are expected to completeit.74


When comparing the completion ratesfor ethnic Danes with the completionrates for immigrants and descendantsin the upper secondary educationprogrammes, the ethnic Danes ingeneral, have a higher completionrate. In the upper secondaryeducation programmes, nearly 86 %of the Danish women are expected tocomplete in contrast to 70 % of thewomen among immigrants anddescendants. For the men, thecorresponding figures are 81 % forDanish men and 65 % for men amongimmigrants and descendants (figure5.6).consequence of the women primarilychoosing the significantly shorter socialand health care education programmes.The same pattern is observed in thevocationally oriented education andtraining programmes as in uppersecondary education. In general, theethnic Danes have a higher completionrate than immigrants and descendants,while the women likewise have agenerally higher completion rate thanthe men. Among the women, 47 %are expected to complete a vocationallyoriented education and trainingprogramme in contrast to only 30 % ofthe men (figure 5.7). Besides, womenin general being better at completing,the very large difference may also be a75


Table 5.4. Numberof students in youtheducation by ethnicbackground2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005NumberYouth education, total 224,523 221,769 218,099 226,260 232,524 236,003Danes 208,016 203,947 199,274 205,408 209,935 212,537Immigrants and descendants 16,507 17,822 18,825 20,852 22,589 23,466Upper secondary education, total 97,613 98,334 99,612 101,842 106,282 106,492Danes 91,115 91,005 91,566 93,315 97,163 97,068Immigrants and descendants 6,498 7,329 8,046 8,527 9,119 9,424Vocationally oriented educationand training, total 126,910 123,435 118,487 124,418 126,242 129,511Danes 116,901 112,942 107,708 112,093 112,772 115,469Immigrants and descendants 10,009 10,493 10,779 12,325 13,470 14,042Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 5.5. Completionrates, immigrants anddescendants2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005General upper secondary education 65.1 66.9 62.1 65.1 66.2 66.4Vocational upper secondaryeducation 65.4 67.2 66.0 64.0 65.5 65.5Vocationally oriented educationand training 41.6 41.6 42.9 39.8 38.7 38.8%Remark: The completion rates in boldcharacters are estimates, while the othernumbers are factual.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.76


Figure 5.6. Completionrates in upper secondaryeducation by ethnicityand gender, 2005908070605040302010081 86 65 70Men Women Men WomenDanesImmigrants and descendantsSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 5.7. Completionrates in vocationallyoriented education andtraining by ethnicity andgender, 2005908070605040302010051 55 30 47Men Women Men WomenDanesImmigrants and descendantsSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.77


The upper secondaryeducation programmehas undergone a reformthat has strengthened thenatural science subjects.Consequently, after thereform, more students willbe qualified to apply to aneducation within naturalsciences, technology,and health. Conversely, asmaller proportion of thefuture higher educationstudents will masterthree or more foreignlanguages as comparedto the situation before thereform.5.4 Choice of subjects inupper secondary schoolsUpper secondary education hasundergone a major reform that hasinfluenced the structure and contentsof the education programmes. Thethree upper secondary educationprogrammes: Upper secondary schoolleaving examination (stx), highercommercial examination (hhx), andhigher technical examination (htx) havebeen given a common structure withan introductory foundation course ofstudy with a duration of half a year anda subsequent major line of study with aduration of two and a half years.Each education programme has majorsubjects, mandatory subjects andelectives. In upper secondary schools,the subjects may be taken at A, B, or Clevel respectively, A being the highestlevel.The first year group to start in the newreform began their education in 2005,and they will complete it in 2008.As purposed, the reform hasstrengthened the natural sciences withthe future graduates. Furthermore, thefuture graduates will have fewer foreignlanguages, but the ones they do havewill be completed at a higher level.In stx, the proportion of students withthree foreign languages was 41 %before the reform. After the reform, thisproportion is expected to be less than7 % (figure 5.8).The proportion of students in hhx whohad at least three foreign languagesbefore the reform was 18 %. After thereform, this proportion is expected todrop to 6 %. Thus, there will be a dropof 12 percentage points from 2006 to2008.Since htx is a technical upper secondaryeducation, no students in thisprogramme take three foreign languages– neither before nor after the reform.An important goal of the reform is toincrease the proportion of graduateswho meet the requirements foradmission to an education programmewithin natural sciences, technology, andhealth. This requires that the studentshave taken mathematics at level A, andphysics and chemistry at least at levelB. Only graduates from stx and htxwill have the opportunity to meet theserequirements.78


In 2006, the proportion of graduateswith mathematics A and physics andchemistry at least at level B was14 % for stx, while the correspondingproportion after the reform in 2008is expected to be 22 %, and thus 8percentage points higher than in 2006(figure 5.9).In the htx programme in 2006,nearly half of the graduates had takenmathematics at level A and physicsand chemistry at least at level B. Afterthe reform, barely 74 % are expectedto take these subjects and levels. Thus,here we have an increase just short of28 percentage points.79


Figure 5.8. Proportionof students in 2006 andanticipated proportionof students in 2008 withat least three foreignlanguages in stx and hhx4540353025201510200620085041 7 18 6StxHhxRemark: Foreign languages are heredefined as English, French, German,Italian, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, andJapanese.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 5.9. Percentageof students in 2006 andanticipated number ofstudents in 2008 whotake mathematics A andphysics and chemistry atminimum level B in stxand htx807060504030202006200810014 22 47 74StxHtxSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.80


The number of contractedpractice placements hasincreased markedly from2003 to 2006. During thesame period, the numberof practice placementapplicants and students inschool practice has fallenconsiderably.5.5 Vocational educationand training – practiceplacementsThe vocational education and trainingprogrammes (EUD) are alternatingprogrammes where parts of thetraining takes place in a school, whileother parts take place in practice.Therefore, the students should applyfor a practice placement and enter acontract about a practice placementwith an enterprise. Students whocannot find a practice placementthemselves may take their practice inschool.During recent years, the number ofcontracted practice placements hasincreased markedly. During 2006,nearly 36,100 contracts were entered– an increase of 38 % compared to2003 where slightly less than 26,200contracts were entered (table 5.6).Contracts entered refer to the numberof students who have contracted apractice placement during the year.Ongoing contracts refer to thenumber of students who are placed inpractice with a contract. Students inschool practice refer to the number ofstudents who are in school practice atthe end of December. Total numberof practice placement applicantsincludes students without an ongoingor planned contract who have qualifiedfor the desired main course of study,and who have confirmed theirapplication. Students in school practicedo not have a contract, and thereforethey count as placement applicants.By end December 2006, 4,800students were applying for a practiceplacement, a drop of 58 % comparedto 2003 where there were 11,400applicants. In part, the drop may beattributed to a change in requirementsto the students’ status as applicants.Improved opportunities for obtaining apractice placement, however, have alsocontributed to the decrease.In 2006, there were 62,700 studentswith a contract. From 2003 to 2004,the number dropped from 55,000 to54,200; however, since 2004 there hasbeen a steady increase in the number.There has been a significant drop in thenumber of students in school practice.Thus, from 2003 to 2006, the numberdecreased by 66 %, and in 2006, there81


were slightly less than 2,600 students inschool practice.The significant decrease in numberof students in school practice isowed to improved opportunities toobtain a practice placement as wellas the introduction of restrictedadmission to school practice in eightof the education programmes. Theseeight programmes are: informationtechnology and communication,office with special subject, technicaldesigner, mechanic, electronics andlow power, electrician, carpentry, andcabinet making. The restriction ofadmission to school practice for theseeducation programmes is specific tothe programme. Formerly, in the caseof some education programmes, theenterprises, rather than undertaking atraining contract, let the students takeschool practice. In other cases, a lowemployment rate for skilled persons inschool practice was a decisive factor.Figure 5.10 shows the developmentin number of practice placementapplicants for the period 2003 through2006.ethnicity. In 2006, a significantlylarger number of Danes as well asimmigrants and descendants had anongoing contract as compared to2003. Especially the immigrants andthe descendants have benefited fromthe higher number of contracts. Theproportion of Danes with a contracthas increased by 13 %, whereasthe proportion of immigrants anddescendants has increased by 33 %.In 2006, fewer students wereundertaking school practice comparedto 2003. For the group of Danes,the number of students in schoolpractice has decreased by 69 %, whilethe decrease is 52 % for the group ofimmigrants and descendants.Since the drop has been less forimmigrants and descendants thanfor Danes, the former constituted alarger proportion of students in schoolpractice in 2006 than in 2003. In 2006,immigrants and descendants made up25 % of all students in school practiceas opposed to 17 % in 2003.Figure 5.11 shows ongoing contractsand students in school practice by82


Table 5.6. Practiceplacement applicantsand contracts at the endof December2003 2004 2005 2006NumberContracts entered 26,170 28,493 31,445 36,077Ongoing contracts 55,038 54,200 57,070 62,689Practice placement applicants, total 11,370 10,655 6,586 4,800Students in school practice 7,562 6,936 4,315 2,575Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 5.10. Practiceplacement applicantsand contracts at the endof December70,00060,00050,00040,00030,00020,00010,000Contracts enteredOngoingcontractsPractice placementapplicants, totalStudents in schoolpractice02003 2004 2005 2006Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.83


Figure 5.11. Ongoingcontracts and studentsin school practice atthe end of December byethnicity, 2003 and 200670,00060,00050,00040,00030,00020,00010,000Immigrants anddescendantsDanes02003 2006 2003 2006Ongoing contractsStudents in school practiceSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.84


In 2005, 1.4 % of allstudents in vocationaleducation and trainingprogrammes have hadpractice abroad.5.6 International mobilitySupported by either the Danishpractice scheme, Practice Abroad(PIU), EU’s Life Long LearningProgrammes (Leonardo da Vinci,Comenius), the DK-USA programme,or the Nordic Nordplus programme,students in the vocationally orientededucation and training programmesmay complete a part of their educationat schools or in practice abroad.Typically, the exchange programmeslast from one to nine months andgive credits. That is to say that thetime abroad is credited in the Danishvocational education and trainingprogramme.The number of Danish students in thevocationally oriented education andtraining programmes who complete apractice placement abroad increasedfrom 1,369 in 2000 to 1,866 in 2005.The increase came primarily fromstudents in practice abroad under theDanish PIU scheme and from EUDstudents in practice and study visitsabroad through the EU programmeLeonardo da Vinci.Young Danish people are especiallyattracted to Norway, Great Britain,Germany, and Sweden. These fourcountries account for a total share of72 %.Table 5.7. Students invocationally orientededucation and trainingprogrammes whocomplete a practiceplacement abroadVocationally oriented education andtraining programmesVocationally oriented education andtraining programmes2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Number1,369 1,513 1,395 1,214 1,491 1,866% of all students in the vocational education andtraining programmes1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.4Source: CIRIUS and UNI•C Statistics &Analysis.85


As it is the case forthe basic school,Denmark tops in theuse of computers inupper secondary youtheducation. There aremany computers in youtheducation, and they areused for teaching.5.7 Key figures for use ofcomputers in Denmark andselected countriesIn 2006, there were 37 computerswith Internet access per 100 studentsin upper secondary education. OnlyNorway exceeded this number with40 computers with Internet access per100 students. Immediately hereafter,countries that Denmark normallycompares with follow, namely Swedenand UK with 28, respectively 25computers with Internet access per 100students.In 2006, all youth educationalinstitutions in Denmark had a website, while the average in EU was 88 %.Additionally, 87 % of the schools inDenmark had e-mail addresses formost of the teachers, while 63 %of the schools had e-mail addressesfor most of the students. This is 26,respectively 35 percentage points morethan the average for youth educationalinstitutions in EU (table 5.8). Thisplaces Denmark considerably over theEU average for some of the tools thatamong other things must be availablein order to develop qualificationsand knowledge within informationtechnology.67 % of the youth education schoolsin Denmark had computers in theclassroom compared to an EU averageof 47 %. It should be added that manyDanish young people themselves bringa computer to school. In the Danishschool libraries, there was at leastone computer in 77 % of the youtheducational institutions, which is 19percentage points over the EU average.There is an even greater differencebetween the Danish and European/EU standards as far as computers inthe communal areas are concerned. In2006, there were computers here in80 % of the youth educationalinstitutions in Denmark, whereasthis was only the case for 42 % of theschools in EU.In the Danish youth educationprogrammes, 98 % of the teachers hadused computers in teaching last year.This places Denmark in the top amongthe countries in Europe. Then Swedenand UK follow where over 90 % of theteachers had used computers in classroomteaching within the last twelvemonths (figure 5.13).86


Figure 5.12. Number ofteaching computerswith Internet access per100 students in uppersecondary education, inDenmark and selectedEU countries, 2006NorwayDenmarkSwedenUKThe NetherlandsAustriaLuxembourgIcelandFinlandFranceCyprusOECD averageHungaryBelgiumSpainCzech RepublicIrelandItalyGreeceSlovakiaGermanyPolandPortugal0 10 20 30 40 50Remark: The survey data was collectedthrough a telephone survey of teachersand school management. Data wascollected from February through May 2006;the teachers were asked to include thelast 12 months in their answers.Source: Empirica: Learnlnd 2006 (HTS).Table 5.8. Key figures forinformation technologyin upper secondaryeducation, 2006Denmark EU-average%The school has a web site 100 88The school has e-mail addresses for most teachers 87 61The school has e-mail addresses for most students 63 28Computers in the classroom 67 47Computers in the school library 77 58Computers in common areas 80 42Source: Empirica: Learnlnd 2006 (HTS).87


Figure 5.13. Proportionof teachers in uppersecondary educationwho have usedcomputers in teachingin the last 12 months inDenmark and selectedEU countries, 2006DenmarkSwedenUKIcelandAustriaFinlandGermanyNorwayThe NetherlandsBelgiumItalyFrancePortugalCzech RepublicPolandSlovakiaSpainIrelandHungaryCyprusGreeceLuxembourg0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100Remark: The survey data was collectedthrough a telephone survey of teachersand school management. Data wascollected from February through May 2006;the teachers were asked to include thelast 12 months in their answers.Source: Empirica: Learnlnd 2006 (CTS).88


Practically all studentsthat complete their uppersecondary educationcontinue their education.This is also the case fora good fourth of the fullytrained young people witha vocationally orientededucation and training.5.8 What do young peopledo after having completed ayouth education programmeAn upper secondary education preparesfor a higher education, whereas avocationally oriented education andtraining is vocationally oriented. Thus,it is to be expected that the majorityof the students who complete a highersecondary education continue theireducation. More precisely, 97 % ofthose who complete a general uppersecondary education and 94 % ofthose who complete a vocational uppersecondary education continue theireducation, whereas this is only thecase for 28 % of those who completea vocationally oriented education andtraining programme (table 5.9 and5.10).a general upper secondary school anda good six out of ten who complete avocational upper secondary programmeare expected to pursue a highereducation. Especially the universitybachelor education is popular amongthe general upper secondary graduates.In 2005, 45 % of the graduates fromthe general upper secondary schoolsstarted in university, whereas 29 %started a professional bacheloreducation, and 6 % started a shortcyclehigher education.28 % of the students in a vocationalupper secondary programme areexpected to continue in a universityprogramme, 18 % in a professionalbachelor programme, and 15 %in a short-cycle higher educationprogramme.Although upper secondary educationprimarily prepares for a higheracademic education, 31 % ofvocational upper secondary students areexpected to continue in a vocationallyoriented education and trainingprogramme. This is also the case for12 % of the graduates from the generalupper secondary schools (table 5.9).Eight out of ten who graduate fromIn 2000, one in ten graduates froma general upper secondary schoolcontinued in another upper secondaryeducation programme. This proportiondropped to 4 % by 2005 where theone-year hhx, which could be takenon top of another upper secondary,was closed down. Thus, this option nolonger exists.89


Table 5.9. Behaviourafter completing uppersecondary education –proportion expected tobegin further educationwithin ten years2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005General upper secondary education, total 100 100 100 100 100 100Continue in an education programme 96.2 96.5 96.4 96.6 96.7 96.6Basic school and non-qualifying education 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.7Upper secondary education 10.1 9.9 9.7 9.8 9.9 3.8Vocationally oriented education and training 10.3 10.2 10.4 10.5 10.5 11.6Short-cycle higher education 6.1 5.5 5.2 5.3 5.3 6.0Professional bachelor and other medium-cyclehigher education%28.0 28.6 29.1 27.9 27.3 29.2University bachelor and master’s programmes(candidatus)41.0 41.6 41.4 42.6 43.0 45.3Do not continue education 3.9 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.5%Vocational upper secondary schools, total 100 100 100 100 100 100Continue in an education programme 93.0 93.7 93.4 93.6 93.7 93.6Basic school and non-qualifying education 0.5 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.7Upper secondary education 1.4 1.7 2.1 1.9 2.6 0.9Vocationally oriented education and training 36.3 34.8 33.0 32.6 31.6 30.7Short-cycle higher education 16.2 15.0 13.9 13.3 14.3 15.4Professional bachelor and other medium-cyclehigher educationUniversity bachelor and master’s programmes(candidatus)14.2 16.9 17.6 18.5 17.1 18.024.3 24.7 26.3 26.6 27.3 27.8Do not continue education 6.9 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.1 6.3Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.90


The majority by far (72 %) of thosewho complete a vocationally orientededucation and training programmenaturally leave the education systemand become available to the labourmarket. Nearly 28 % will resumetheir education within the next tenyears. In total, 13 % are expected tostart another vocationally orientededucation and training programme;while a good one in ten is expected tostart a higher education. Table 5.10shows that over time, there is only amodest fluctuation in the percentages.Figure 5.14 shows which educationstudents who graduate from the uppersecondary schools and the vocationalschools are expected to start within 10years.has been increasing in recent years. In2000, a good 54 % were on the way 15months after graduating from a generalupper secondary education.Especially in the higher educationprogrammes, the young people getstarted faster. In 2005, nearly 43 %had started a higher education after 15months as compared to close to 36 %in 2000.The vocational upper secondarygraduates get started the fastest. A good67 % start within 15 months comparedto 53 % of the graduates from generalupper secondary schools.Table 5.11 shows how many arein the course of another educationprogramme 15 months after havinggraduated from an upper secondaryschool. More than half of the graduatesare under way again after 15 months,corresponding to one year plus asummer holiday.The young people get started quickly.As shown, nearly 59 % were on the goafter one year in 2005. This proportion91


Table 5.10. Behaviourafter completing avocational educationand training programme– proportion expected tobegin further educationwithin ten years2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Vocationally oriented education and training, total 100 100 100 100 100 100Continue in an education programme 26.8 26.7 26.9 26.8 28.0 27.9Basic school and non-qualifying education 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.9 2.3 2.2Upper secondary education 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.6 1.4Vocationally oriented education and training 12.2 12.1 12.0 11.7 12.8 13.3Short-cycle higher education 4.3 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.6 3.3Professional bachelor and other medium-cyclehigher education%6.3 6.5 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.4University bachelor and master’s programmes(candidatus)1.4 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.2 1.3Do not continue education 73.2 73.3 73.2 73.2 71.9 72.0Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.92


Figure 5.14. Behaviourafter completed youtheducation – proportionexpected to startanother educationwithin ten years, 20059080706050403020Basic school andnon-qualifyingeducationUpper secondaryeducationVocationallyoriented educationand trainingHighereducation1001 4 12 80 4 1 1 31 61 6 2 1 13 11 72General uppersecondaryeducationVocational uppersecondaryeducationVocationally orientededucation andtrainingDoes not continueeducationSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 5.11. Percentage ofstudents who 15 monthsafter having graduatedgeneral upper secondaryschool have startedfurther education2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005%Upper secondary education, total 54.4 56.9 55.5 56.1 57.7 58.5Vocationally oriented education and training 14.1 13.9 12.5 12.1 12.2 12.3Higher education 35.6 38.7 38.8 39.7 40.5 42.7%General upper secondary education, total 48.4 50.9 49.0 50.7 52.9 53.3Vocationally oriented education and training 5.2 5.3 4.9 5.2 5.1 5.6Higher education 36.7 39.3 38.3 39.5 40.7 43.1%Vocational upper secondary education, total 66.9 67.5 67.3 66.3 65.9 67.4Vocationally oriented education and training 32.6 29.0 26.4 24.9 24.3 24.0Higher education 32.9 37.7 39.8 40.2 39.9 42.2Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.93


6 Higher educationIt is the government’s goalthat 50 % of a year groupreceive a higher educationin 2015. Today, almost44 % of a youth cohortis expected to receive ahigher education.6.1 Number of institutionsand studentsIn 2006, there were 152 institutionsoffering higher education. They varygreatly in size – from big universitieswith thousands of students to smallinstitutions with but a few (table 6.1).Today, there are many ongoingchanges and reorganizations of thestructure of institutions. In 2007several universities have been mergedand amalgamated with sector researchinstitutions, so from 2007 thereare eight universities in Denmark.Furthermore, the major part ofmedium-cycle higher education isconsolidated in seven professionalhigher schools, while the short-cyclehigher education programmes arecombined in ten vocational academies.In 2005, 198,900 students studied in ahigher education programme. Of these,more than 55 % (that correspondsto 110,300) studied in a universityprogramme, 34 % (that correspondsto 68,500) in a professional bachelorprogramme and 9 % (that correspondsto 18,500) in a short-cycle programme(table 6.2).During the period 2000-2005, therehas been a population increase of9 % in the university educationprogrammes. The professionalbachelor education programmes haveexperienced an increase of 5 %, whereasshort-cycle education got almost 5 %fewer students in that period.The increase in medium-cycle highereducation, in particular, is owed tothe number of students in universitybachelor programmes having gone upby 18 %. That corresponds to 8,700students. The increase in numberof students in university bachelorprogrammes is especially due to thestructural change that has takenplace in the university field since1993, and that has lead to long-cyclehigher education being separated94


into a bachelor programme and amaster’s programme (candidatus).This means that the former unitymaster’s programmes (candidatus)have been replaced with a universityeducation programme divided intwo parts where the students firstmust complete a university bacheloreducation before being admitted toa master’s programme (candidatus).An increase is noted in medium-cyclehigher education because the universitybachelor programmes are placed in thatgroup. To some extent, the increase inthe bachelor programmes correspondsto the decrease in the master’sprogrammes (candidatus).95


Table 6.1. Number ofinstitutions offeringhigher education2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006NumberEducational institutions, total 144 140 153 156 155 154 152Vocational schools 43 43 43 43 43 43 42Higher Education Centres (CVU) etc. 22 26 39 40 39 38 38Higher Education Centres (CVU) 4 8 22 24 23 23 23Single institutions offering medium-cyclehigher education 18 18 17 16 16 15 15Universities 11 11 11 12 12 12 12Other institutions with higher education 68 60 60 61 61 61 60Maritime schools 20 16 16 16 16 16 16Police and defence schools etc. 24 20 20 20 20 20 19Artistic and cultural schools 24 24 24 25 25 25 25Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 6.2. Number ofstudents per highereducation programme2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005NumberHigher education, total 188,165 193,553 195,820 197,478 197,610 198,930Short-cycle higher education 19,384 19,784 18,658 16,937 16,990 18,508Medium-cycle higher education 114,757 118,786 120,747 123,047 124,373 126,275Professional bachelor education 65,493 67,439 69,159 69,625 69,591 68,512Other medium-cycle highereducation1,804 1,754 1,697 1,701 1,695 1,632University bachelor education 47,460 49,593 49,891 51,721 53,087 56,131Long-cycle higher education 54,024 54,983 56,415 57,494 56,247 54,147Uniform master’s programmes(candidatus)22,065 20,444 18,630 16,863 13,821 10,803Two-step master’s programmes(candidatus)31,959 34,539 37,785 40,631 42,426 43,344Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.96


In 2005, the young peopleare a little quicker atgetting started on aneducation than they werein 2000. Furthermore,young people in vocationalupper secondary schoolsare quicker at gettingstarted than youngpeople in general uppersecondary schools.6.2 Age at startThe time passing until the youngpeople start a higher educationafter upper secondary school variesdepending on whether they comefrom a general upper secondary or avocational upper secondary school anddepending on which education theystart.In general, the young people who haveattended a vocational upper secondaryschool are a little quicker in starting ahigher education than those who haveattended a general upper secondaryschool. In consequence, the studentsare now younger when they start theirstudies. Since 2002, the median age atthe start of a higher education has beendecreasing.Table 6.3 illustrates the median age atthe start of study. The median age is themiddle value in the age distribution.It means that the number of studentsthat are younger than the stated age isequal to the number of students thatare older. The median age for studentsstarting a short-cycle higher educationin 2005 was 23.4 years. Thus, there is aslight decrease in the age of the studentssince 2002 where the median age of thestudents was 23.8 years.In 2005, for the students in theprofessional bachelor educationprogrammes, the median age was 23.7years at the start of study; this is adecrease compared to 2002 when themedian age was 24 years. In universitybachelor education, the students had amedian age of 21.6 years at the start ofstudy compared to 21.9 years in 2002.Although the greater part of thestudents in short- and medium-cyclehigher education is in the beginningof the twenties at the start of study, arelatively large part of the students havea very high age when they start theirstudy (figure 6.1).The high age at the start of study ispartly owed to the fact that only 38 %in short-cycle higher education and49 % in medium-cycle highereducation come directly from a higherstudy preparatory school. The balancehas another discontinued or completededucation behind them. Thus, many ofthe fresh students have started beforeand subsequently changed their study.97


Table 6.3. Median age ofstudents when startingtheir studies2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Short-cycle higher education 23.8 23.8 23.8 23.7 23.7 23.4AgeProfessional bachelor education 23.8 23.9 24.0 23.9 23.8 23.7University bachelor education 21.8 21.8 21.9 21.8 21.7 21.6Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 6.1. Number ofstudents by age at thestart of study, 200550004000300020001000017 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49 51 53Short-cycle higher educationProfessional bachelor educationUniversity bachelor educationSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.98


Approximately 70 %complete a highereducation. The majority ofthose who do not completestart a new education.6.3 Completion, dropout, andbehaviour after dropoutThe completion rate is a measure ofthe proportion of students who havestarted an education programme theyear in question, and who finish thatprogramme.In the short-cycle higher educationprogrammes, the completion rate is70 %. In the professional bachelorprogrammes, the rate is slightly higher,namely 75 %. In the university bacheloreducation, the completion rate is 68 %.In the master’s programmes (candidatus),the completion rate is 73 % (table 6.4).In 2005, 5,400 completed a short-cyclehigher education, 15,300 completed aprofessional bachelor education, and10,500 completed a university bacheloreducation programme. Practically allwho complete a university bacheloreducation continue directly in amaster’s programme (candidatus).In 2005, 11,500 students earned amaster’s degree (candidatus).Slightly more than half (54 %) of thestudents who discontinue a shortcyclehigher education are expectedto start another education. This isseven percentage points more thanin 2002. Especially, they change tothe vocationally oriented educationaltraining programmes and medium-cyclehigher education programmes (table6.5).Almost six in ten students whodiscontinue their professional bacheloreducation start another education. Inthis group, especially the vocationallyoriented educational trainingprogrammes and medium-cycle highereducation are preferred.68 % of the students who discontinuea university bachelor educationprogramme are expected to startanother education. Nearly half of thisgroup is expected to start in a mediumcyclehigher education programme.Only 19 % of those who havediscontinued a master’s programme(candidatus) are expected to startanother education. The greater part ofthose who do will start in a mediumcyclehigher education programme.Generally, this group has alreadycompleted a bachelor education,however.Figure 6.2 shows which education thestudents start after having discontinueda higher education.99


Table 6.4. Completionrates. Number ofstudents who completethe education, andnumber of students whodrop out on the way2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Completion rate 1 %Short-cycle higher education 71.3 67.5 64.3 69.6 72.0 70.2Professional bachelor education 79.4 76.6 74.7 74.9 75.4 75.1University bachelor education 65.2 66.9 66.5 67.2 68.7 68.2Master’s programmes (candidatus) 76.9 75.5 74.6 72.8 72.6 72.9CompletingNumberShort-cycle higher education 6,381 6,610 6,943 6,904 5,634 5,454Professional bachelor education 14,344 14,921 14,343 15,049 15,086 15,395University bachelor education 8,234 8,056 9,324 9,308 10,254 10,509Master’s programmes (candidatus) 8,026 8,588 9,328 9,855 10,863 11,549DiscontinuedNumberShort-cycle higher education 2,801 2,792 2,994 2,916 2,562 2,294Professional bachelor education 3,671 3,554 4,247 4,672 4,819 5,158University bachelor education 4,730 4,479 5,153 4,742 5,645 5,226Master’s programmes (candidatus) 3,744 3,123 3,598 3,387 4,468 4,606Note 1: The completion rates in boldcharacters are estimates, while the othernumbers are factual.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 6.5. Behaviourafter discontinuededucation – proportionexpected to startanother educationwithin ten years1002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005%Short-cycle higher education, total 100 100 100 100 100 100Continue in an education programme 47.2 54.7 55.6 54.4 55.2 54.1Does not continue education 52.9 45.3 44.4 45.6 45.0 45.7%Professional bachelor education, total 100 100 100 100 100 100Continue in an education programme 62.0 65.5 61.8 62.3 61.3 59.6Does not continue education 38.1 34.5 38.3 37.8 38.8 40.5%University bachelor education, total 100 100 100 100 100 100Continue in an education programme 69.8 72.2 69.5 71.2 68.5 68.0Does not continue education 30.5 27.8 30.6 28.7 31.6 32.1%Master’s programmes (candidatus), total 100 100 100 100 100 100Continue in an education programme 25.7 22.6 21.7 22.8 20.4 19.2Does not continue education 74.3 77.6 78.6 77.6 79.7 80.7Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.


Figure 6.2. Behaviourafter discontinuededucation – proportionexpected to startanother educationwithin ten years, 2005100%80%60%40%20%0%Short-cyclehigher educationProfessional bacheloreducationUniversity bacheloreducationMaster’s programmes(candidatus)Note 1: Other includes upper secondaryeducation and non-qualifying education.Vocationally orientededucation and trainingShort-cycle highereducationMedium-cycle highereducationLong-cycle highereducationOther 1Does not continueeducationSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.101


Students in short-cyclehigher education andprofessional bachelorstudents are better atcompleting their study inthe designated time whencompared with universitybachelor students.6.4 Length of study and ageat graduationIn the short-cycle higher educationprogrammes, the average length ofstudy has been practically constantat two years during the period from2000 to 2005. In 2005, it was 2.1years (table 6.6). The quickest 25 %completed the education in a little lessthan two years, whereas the slowest10 % take three years to complete.Practically everybody complete inthe designated time, and the spreadshows the variation in the designatedtimes to complete a programme. Someprogrammes take almost two years,whereas the longest take four years (forexample the police education).Likewise for the professional bachelors,the length of study has been relativelystable in the period shown. In 2005, thestudents took an average of 3.7 years tocomplete their study. In this group, the25 % quickest students took 3.3 years,whereas the 10 % slowest took 4.8 yearsto complete their study. Likewise inthis case, the length of study varies from3.5 to 4.5 years. Thus, a small group ofstudents take a longer time to completetheir studies.The university bachelors took 3.4years to complete in 2005. From 2000through 2004, the average time ofstudy was 3.5 years. The 25 % quickestgraduated in 2.8 years 5 , whereas the10 % slowest students took almostfive years to complete. In average, thestudents thus have a delay in theireducation of nearly half a year.In the master’s programmes(candidatus), the students took anaverage of 3.4 years to graduate,which corresponds to the level in theyears 2000-2004. The 25 % quickestmaster’s students (candidatus) took 2.3years, whereas the 10 % slowest took5.6 years to graduate. As the master’sprogrammes (candidatus) have adesignated duration of two years, this iswhere the longest delay is found.Traditionally, students in Denmarkhave been older of age whengraduating, and their age has beenincreasing. However, it seems thatthis trend is turning except for theuniversity bachelors where the age hasbeen constant.5 Corresponds to a designated duration of threeyears because the start is usually in September andgraduation in May.102


In 2005, the age of the studentswho completed a short-cycle highereducation was 25.8 years. As such,they were slightly younger than in2000-2001 when the age was a littleover 26 years (figure 6.3).After a slight decrease in 2005, thestudents who completed a professionalbachelor programme were 27.3 yearsold, whereas the students in theuniversity bachelor programmes with25.2 years of age were a little more thantwo years younger.From 2000 through 2005, thestudents in the master’s programmes(candidatus) have generally becomeslightly older at graduation. From agraduation age of 27.8 years in 2000,the age rose to 28.6 years in 2004. In2005, the graduation age had fallenslightly to 28.5 years.Table 6.6. Average timeto graduate in number ofyears2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005YearsShort-cycle higher education 2.0 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.1Professional bachelor education 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7University bachelor education 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.4Master’s programmes (candidatus) 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 6.3. Median ageat graduation292827262524232000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Short-cycle higher educationProfessional bachelor educationUniversity bachelor educationMaster’s programmes (candidatus)Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.103


In higher education, thereare more students comingto Denmark than thereare Danish students goingabroad. This is the casefor students in exchangeprogrammes as well asfor students taking a fulleducation abroad.6.5 International mobilityThe Danish students have theopportunity to complete an educationabroad. This may take place througha study visit or a practice placementabroad as a part of a Danish educationprogramme (exchange students)or through students taking a fulleducation abroad. Likewise, foreignstudents have the option to come toDenmark for a study visit or a practiceplacement, or they may take a fullDanish education.Normally, the exchange visitsfor students in higher educationprogrammes last three to twelvemonths, and they give credits. That isto say, the subjects that are completedabroad give credits in the Danisheducation so that the stay abroad doesnot prolong the study.Several students in higher education goon an exchange programme supportedby an international educationprogramme such as Erasmus orNordplus. In 2005, this was the casefor approximately 45 % of all Danishexchange students. Others went withsupport from their own educationalinstitution, from private foundations,or financed by themselves. More than75 % of the foreign exchange studentscame to Denmark on an internationalexchange programme.In 2005, 4,744 Danish studentscompleted a study visit or practiceplacement abroad as a part of a Danishhigher education. During the same year,6,479 foreign students completed anexchange programme in Denmark. Thegreater part of the exchange studentsstudied in a long-cycle higher educationprogramme (table 6.7).As shown in figure 6.4, the number ofDanish exchange students increasedfrom 4,326 in 2000 to 4,785 in 2003.Then the number dropped to 4,606 in2004 and rose again to 4,744 in 2005.However, the increase seen from 2004to 2005 is due to the short-cycle highereducation programmes being countedfrom 2005 on. If the short-cycle highereducation programmes were notcounted, there would have been a statusquo.104


Table 6.7. Number ofstudents in an exchangeprogramme, 2005Danish students Foreign studentsabroad 1in DenmarkNumberExchange students, total 4,744 6,479Short-cycle higher education 142 230Professional bachelor education 1,001 1,515University bachelor and master’sprogrammes (candidatus) 3,601 4,734Note 1: Comprises students in alleducation programmes who receiveinternationalisation subsidy by taximeterand students in studies under theresponsibility of the Ministry of Culture.Includes only students in programmesof at least three months duration givingcredit.Source: CIRIUS.Figure 6.4. Number ofDanish students in anexchange programmeabroad and number offoreign students in anexchange programme inDenmark700060005000400030002000100002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Danish exchange studentsForeign exchange studentsRemark: Comprises students in alleducation programmes that receiveinternationalisation subsidy by taximeterand students in studies under theresponsibility of the Ministry of Culture.Includes only students in programmesof at least three months duration givingcredit. Short-cycle education has not beenincluded before 2005. The short-cyclehigher education programmes are markedin red.Source: CIRIUS.105


The universities send out the moststudents. The five countries whoreceived the most Danish exchangestudents were USA receiving 15 % ofthe total students abroad, Great Britain(10 %), Germany (9 %), Spain (8 %),and France (7 %).During the same period, the number offoreign exchange students in Denmarkhas shown an increasing trend. From2000 to 2005, the number of foreignexchange students increased steadilyfrom 3,849 to 6,479. The universitiesreceived nearly three fourth of allforeign exchange students. The mostforeign exchange students came fromGermany (12 %), France (11 %), Spain(11 %), Italy (8 %), and USA (15 %).Since 2002, more foreign exchangestudents came to Denmark than Danishexchange students went abroad.While some students choose to take apart of their education abroad, otherschoose to take the entire educationabroad.In 2005, 3,523 Danish students werepursuing a full higher education abroadsupported by the State Education Grantand Loan Scheme (SU). Since 2000,this number has dropped 17 %. Themajority of the Danish students go toanother European country, while 18 %go to countries outside of Europe (table6.8).England was the preferred country forforeign studies, and 43 % of the Danishstudents chose to go here. 10 % went toSweden, 9 % to Norway and USA, and5 % to Germany.At the same time as the number ofDanish students taking a full educationabroad has fallen, there has been anincrease in the number of foreignstudents taking a complete educationin Denmark. In 2005, there were 5,342foreign students taking an completeDanish higher education. Add to these224 foreign PhD students. Except forstudents from the Nordic countries, themajority of the foreign students takestudy courses that are offered in English(figure 6.5).In 2005, approximately one third moreforeign students came to Denmark thanthere were Danish students abroad topursue a full education.The greater part of the foreign studentscame from China (20 %), Norway(17 %), Iceland (11 %), Sweden(10 %), and Germany (5 %).106


Table 6.8. Danishstudents taking acomplete course ofstudy abroad2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005NumberTotal 4,245 4,208 4,212 4,068 3,860 3,523Europe 3,358 3,353 3,399 3,301 3,110 2,890Other countries 887 855 813 767 750 633%Total 100 100 100 100 100 100Europe 79.1 79.7 80.7 81.1 80.6 82.0Other countries 20.9 20.3 19.3 18.9 19.4 18.0Remark: Comprises SU qualifyingeducation.Source: CIRIUS, calculations based ondata from the SU board.Figure 6.5 Foreignstudents taking acomplete course ofstudy in Denmark40003500300025003526200015001000928 88820035000Short-cycle highereducationProfessional bacheloreducationSource: CIRIUS – special run fromStatistics Denmark.University bachelor andmaster’s programmes(candidatus)224PhD programmes20042005107


In 2005, 87 % of the18-29 year olds in nonpaideducation receivedgrants from the StateEducation Grant and LoanScheme. In addition, 82 %had paid work, while 36 %complemented theirincome with student loans.90 % had other incomesuch as interest, childsupport, and housingbenefits.6.6 The students’ incomeThe students may be either paid,partially paid, or non-paid. The paideducation programmes include thevocational education and training maincourses of study and the social andhealth care helper education, while thepartially paid programmes comprise thesocial educator and nursing professionalbachelor education. The greater partby far of the students are in a non-paideducation programme including theupper secondary schools, the vocationaltrade basic course of study, and mosthigher education programmes.In this section, only the 18-29 yearold students in non-paid educationprogrammes are considered.Table 6.9 shows the proportion ofthe 18-29 year old students in nonpaidprogrammes that received thevarious types of income in the period2000-2005.In 2005, 91 % of the students receivedpublic transfer income. The greaterpart of these by far (87 %) receivedgrants from the State EducationGrant and Loan Scheme, while 7 %received labour market subsidies, 3 %received cash benefits, and 1 % receivedrehabilitation support. 82 % had workbesides studying, while 90 % had otherincome such as interest, child support,and housing benefits.The number of students with studentloans has dropped from 42 % in 2002to 36 % in 2005.Table 6.10 shows the proportion ofthe students in higher education thatreceive grants, earn wages, and take upstudent loans.In the short-cycle higher educationprogrammes, 84 % received grantsin 2005, while 90 % and 92 %,respectively received grants in theprofessional and university bacheloreducation. In the master’s programmes(candidatus), 81 % received grants.The proportion receiving grants hasbeen stable since 2000 in the universitybachelor education programmes, whilethe proportion in the rest of the highereducation programmes has decreasedby three to four percentage points since2002.108


Table 6.9. Proportion of18-29 year old studentsin a non-paid educationwho receive therespective income2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005%Public transfer income 93 93 93 92 92 91- Grants 89 89 89 88 88 87- Rehabilitation 2 2 2 2 2 1- Cash benefit 3 3 3 3 3 3- Sabbatical subsidies 1 0 0 - - -- Labour market subsidies 8 7 7 8 7 7Wages 82 82 81 81 80 82Other income 88 89 87 88 89 90Student loans 39 41 42 41 38 36Remark: Comprises primarily students inupper secondary education, vocationaltrade base course of study, and highereducation.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 6.10. Proportion of18-29 year old studentsin a non-paid educationwho receive therespective income2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Grants %Short-cycle higher education 88 91 90 86 85 84Professional bachelor education 93 93 93 92 91 90University bachelor education 92 92 92 92 92 92Master’s programmes (candidatus) 84 83 83 82 82 81Wages %Short-cycle higher education 76 77 76 76 76 80Professional bachelor education 83 83 82 82 82 83University bachelor education 84 84 84 84 83 84Master’s programmes (candidatus) 86 85 84 85 85 86Student loans %Short-cycle higher education 42 45 46 44 41 37Professional bachelor education 52 53 54 52 49 45University bachelor education 44 45 46 44 41 37Master’s programmes (candidatus) 52 52 54 53 49 47Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.109


In general, the proportion of studentsworking in addition to studying hasbeen relatively stable since 2000. From2004 to 2005 however, the proportionin short-cycle higher educationincreased from 76 % to 80 %.The number of studentscomplementing their income bystudent loans has fallen since 2002regardless of education.Although a decreasing proportion ofthe students take student loans, theaverage amount that is borrowed hasincreased irrespective of educationprogramme. For instance, students in abachelor education borrowed an averageof DKK 25,600 in 2005 compared toan average of DKK 21,300 in 2000(figure 6.6).Since 2000, there has been a generalincrease in the students’ average grossincome, which is the total incomeexcluding student loans. Students inshort-cycle higher education, however,experienced a small decrease from 2000to 2001, while students in universitybachelor and master’s programmes(candidatus) experienced a smalldecrease from 2001 to 2002 (table6.11).Figure 6.7 shows the percentagedevelopment in average gross incomecompared to the development in theconsumer price index.For students in professional bachelorprogrammes, the increase in averagegross income has been above theincrease in the consumer price indexduring the period concerned. On theother hand, the average gross incomeof students in short-cycle highereducation programmes was steady from2000 to 2002, whereupon it increaseduntil 2005 when it caught up with theconsumer price index for the first timeduring the period concerned.For students in university bacheloreducation programmes, the averagegross income was steady from 2001to 2003 at which time it again beganincreasing. The same development islargely observed for students in the twostepmaster’s programmes (candidatus),although in this case there was adecrease from 2001 to 2002.110


Figure 6.6. Averageamount of studentloan for 18-29 year oldstudents in non-paideducation who receivestudent loans, currentprices DKK27,00025,00023,00021,00019,00017,0002000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Short-cycle higher educationProfessional bachelor educationUniversity bachelor educationMaster’s programmes (candidatus)Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 6.11. Averagegross income for 18-29year old students in nonpaideducation, currentprices DKK2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005DKKShort-cycle higher education 89,900 89,542 89,910 91,422 94,043 101,380Professional bachelor education 89,440 93,641 96,403 98,155 102,727 106,679University bachelor education 90,192 93,746 93,733 94,811 96,831 99,719Master’s programmes (candidatus) 108,418 111,580 110,364 111,784 114,672 118,239Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 6.7. Developmentin the average grossincome of 18-29 yearold students in non-paideducation, index120115110105100952000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Short-cycle higher educationProfessional bachelor educationUniversity bachelor educationMaster’s programmes(candidatus)Consumer price indexSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.111


7 Time spent from completing the 9 th form untilachieving vocational qualificationsIn average, the Danesuse 4.2 years more thanthe designated time tocomplete a vocationallyqualifying education aftergraduating from the 9 thform.Frequently, more time is used onobtaining a vocationally qualifyingeducation than is stipulated for theparticular course of study. This isbecause the students can change theirchoice of study, they can take breaksfrom the studies, and some choose totake more than one youth education.Table 7.1 shows the total time used bythe students to obtain a vocationallyqualifying education.The total designated duration of studycorresponds to the straight course from9 th form graduation to the completionof a vocationally qualifying education.Designated time for a teacher’seducation is three years in generalupper secondary school and four yearsin a teacher’s training college, a total ofseven years 6 . This is not the only courseto a teacher’s education; however, it isthe most direct one.6 In practice, a little less than seven years becausemost programmes start in August/September andterminate in June.Furthermore, the additional timeused by the students completing the9 th form is shown. The additionaltime comprises: 1) change of studies,referring to the time used on a course ofstudy not completed, 2) double youtheducation, meaning the time used onanother youth education after havingcompleted one youth education, 3) aneducation break, referring to the timenot used for education, for instancefor work, military service, travellingetc., 4) 10 th form since the 10 th formis optional, and 5) other time, mainlycovering an extended time to completethe study programme.In average, a student uses 9.5 years afterthe 9 th form to obtain an education.Of these, 5.3 years are used on thedesignated time of studies and 4.2years on additional time. The largestpart of the additional time is used onan education break of 2.5 years. Inaverage, change of studies, 10 th form,and other time each constitute 0.5years, and a double youth education112


adds 0.3 years. The average time usedon changing study and on 10 th formare practically independent of whicheducation is taken, whilst other types oftime used vary depending on educationprogramme.The longest education break is foundin vocationally oriented education andtraining programmes, short-cycle highereducation, and professional bacheloreducation, while the university studentstake the shortest breaks.In the vocationally oriented educationand training programmes, an averageof 3.7 years is used on designated timeof study. An additional 4.1 years areused on completing the education. Adouble youth education is naturallymost common in the trade programmesbecause many choose to take ageneral upper secondary as well as avocationally oriented education andtraining.a master’s programme (candidatus),and they are therefore counted in thatcategory.With 5.1 years, the master’s students(candidatus) have the highest use ofextra time. Their break in educationis less than average; however, othertime, mainly consisting of study delays,being almost two years in average, ismuch higher than in other educationprogrammes.Figure 7.1 depicts the additionaltime used by the students to obtainvocational qualifications.With 3.4 years, the university bachelorshave the least extra use of time. Here,the break in education is also theshortest. Note that only studentswho do not continue in a master’sprogramme (candidatus) are countedhere. The majority by far continues in113


Table 7.1. Time spentfrom completing the 9 thform until achievingvocational qualificationsTime spent on obtainingvocationally qualifyingeducationVocationallyorientededucationandtrainingShortcyclehighereducationProfessionalYearsbacheloreducationUniversitybacheloreducationMaster’sprogrammes(candidatus)Total7,9 9,0 10,5 9,4 13,1 9,5Total designated time of study 3,7 5,1 6,5 6,0 7,9 5,3Additional time used 4,1 3,9 4,0 3,4 5,1 4,2Change of study 0,4 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,6 0,5Double youth education 0,5 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,0 0,3Education break 2,6 2,5 2,7 2,0 2,2 2,510 th form 0,5 0,5 0,5 0,4 0,5 0,5Other time 0,2 0,3 0,2 0,4 1,9 0,5%Proportion of the 2005 yeargroup expected to obtain theeducation33 6 17 5 15 76Remark: The calculations simulate thecourse of study of a youth cohort based onthe education behaviour in 2005.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 7.1. Additionaltime spent by studentsto attain vocationalqualifications, years654321Change of studiesDouble youtheducationEducation break10 th form0Vocationally orientededucation and trainingShort-cyclehigher educationProfessional bacheloreducationUniversity bacheloreducationMaster’s programmes(candidatus)Other time114Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.


8 Adult and continuing educationThe proportionparticipating in activitieswithin adult and continuingeducation has gone up.In 2006, more than one in four (26 %)of the Danish labour force in the 25-64years age group had participated in anadult and continuing education activity(VEU activity) within the last fourweeks before the time of the survey.This proportion is slightly higher thanin 2004 and 2005, but considerablyhigher compared to 2003 where thecorresponding proportion was 14 %(figure 8.1).Compared to Finland, Norway, andFrance, the extent of VEU activities ishighest in Denmark (table 8.1).The length of adult and continuingeducation (VEU) varies greatly. Inorder to obtain a uniform concept,the activity is measured by translatinginto full-time student years. A studentyear corresponds to a full-time studentduring one year. For example, a studentyear in adult vocational training(AMU) is 1,480 hours per year, while astudent year in Danish as a secondarylanguage is 756 hours.From 2003 to 2004, the activityfell by approximately 4,000 studentyears. Table 8.2 shows two oppositedevelopments: A rise in the activity inhigher education (e.g. diploma andmaster’s programmes (candidatus)) anda heavy decrease in the activity withinDanish as a secondary language.Figure 8.2 shows the development ingraphical form.115


Figure 8.1. Proportionof the labour force inage group 25-64 whohas participated in VEUactivities within the lastfour weeks3025201510502003 2004 2005 2006Source: Eurostat.Table 8.1. Proportion ofthe labour force in agegroup 25-64 in selectedEU countries who hasparticipated in VEUactivities within the lastfour weeks2003 2004 2005 2006%Denmark 13.7 21.8 24.0 26.1Finland 13.5 20.3 19.6 19.5Norway 15.8 15.5 16.0 16.1France 7.8 8.1 7.9 8.0Source: Eurostat.116


Table 8.2. Student yearsin public VEU, total andper type of VEU2000 2001 2002 2003 2004NumberStudent years, total 66,654 62,708 61,807 62,366 58,264General level 39,916 37,616 38,342 37,473 30,134- of this Danish as asecondary language 14,526 14,983 16,236 15,118 8,486Trade oriented level 13,212 12,664 13,863 12,047 11,710Higher level 13,526 12,428 9,602 12,846 16,420NumberTotal number of persons 430,856 427,325 415,730 382,541 448,485Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Figure 8.2. Student yearsin public VEU, total andper type of VEU70,00060,00050,00040,00030,00020,00010,00002000 2001 2002 2003 2004General levelVocationally oriented levelHigher levelStudent years, totalSource: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.117


9 ResultsThere are several ways of looking atthe education level of the population.Two ways are presented here: By meansof tabulations of the achieved level ofeducation of the population and bymeans of extrapolations of the presentbehaviour to future populations.These two methods are used fordifferent purposes. Tabulations ofthe achieved level of education maybe used for comparison and status ofthe present situation. However, whenviewing the present populations, oftenmany changes have taken place sincethey started in the education system.Extrapolations are useful if one desiresto learn about the significance ofpresent behaviour for the future. Here,we get a picture of how the future willbe if the behaviour that we know todaycontinues.other OECD countries and then bylooking at the highest education heldby persons in the workforce. Thesetwo tabulations build on the educationlevel the population has achieved;however, because of different methodsof counting, they are not directlycomparable. After the two tabulations,an extrapolation is made of theeducation level that the current youthcohorts are expected to have in 25years assuming they educate themselvesaccording to the study behaviour in2005.In this chapter, the education level ofthe population is first illustrated bycomparing the education level of thepopulation in Denmark with that of118


Among the OECDcountries, there isa difference in theproportion of the variousgenerations that havereceived at least a youtheducation. The generationdifferences contributeto explaining thedevelopment in educationlevel in the variouscountries.9.1 Proportion with at least ayouth education in Denmarkand selected countriesIn 2005, 87 % of the 25-34 year oldshad at least a youth education, whileit was 83 % for the group of 35-44year olds. As such, 13 % of the 25-34year olds and 17 % of the 35-44 yearolds had no education besides basicschool. Among the 45-54 year oldsand the 55-64 year olds, 78 % and75 % respectively, had at least a youtheducation. This corresponds to 22 %of the 45-54 year olds and 25 % of the55-64 year olds without an educationbesides basic school (table 9.1). Becauseof different methods, the numbersare not directly comparable with thenumbers in section 9.2 and 9.3 (see thepreface to this chapter).The proportion with at least a youtheducation is higher than the OECDaverage for all four age groups. In theOECD countries, 79 % of the 25-34year olds and 71 % of the 35-44 yearolds had at least a youth education. Forthe group of 45-54 year olds, it was64 %, while the OECD average for the55-65 year olds was 54 %. However,as seen from the table, there is a widevariation among the OECD countries.Figure 9.1 shows the percentageswith at least a youth education in thedifferent age groups. The countriesare listed by decreasing percentage of25-34 year olds with at least a youtheducation.Among the 25-34 year olds, Denmarkis placed in the upper third togetherwith for instance Korea, Finland andSweden.The difference between the 25-34 yearolds and the 55-64 year olds is generallya little less in the countries where themost 25-34 year olds have at least ayouth education.As shown in the figure, Korea standsout with a large difference between thepercentages for those two generationswith at least a youth education.119


Table 9.1. Population inDenmark and selectedOECD countries that hasattained at least uppersecondary education,2005, percentage by agegroup25-34 years old 35-44 years old 45-54 years old 55-64 years old%Korea 97 88 60 35Czech Republic 94 93 88 83Slovakia 93 92 85 68Sweden 91 90 82 72Finland 89 87 78 61Switzerland 88 85 82 77Austria 87 84 78 70Denmark 87 83 78 75USA 87 88 89 86Hungary 85 81 76 61New Zealand 85 82 78 66Germany 84 85 84 79Norway 83 78 74 73Belgium 81 72 60 48France 81 71 60 51Ireland 81 70 55 40The Netherlands 81 76 69 59Australia 79 66 61 50OECD average 77 71 64 54Greece 74 65 51 32UK 73 67 65 60Iceland 69 67 63 49Italy 66 54 46 30Spain 64 54 41 26120Poland 62 50 47 43Portugal 43 26 19 13Source: Education at a Glance, 2007.120


Figure 9.1. Population inDenmark and selectedOECD countries that hasattained at least uppersecondary education,2005, percentage by agegroup1009080706050403020100KoreaCzech RepublicSlovakiaSwedenFinlandSwitzerlandAustria 1DenmarkUSAHungaryNew ZealandGermanyNote 1: UK and Austria include some short,vocationally oriented youth educationprogrammes.NorwayBelgiumFranceIrelandThe NetherlandsAustraliaOECD averageGreeceUK 1IcelandItalySpain25-34 year olds 55-64 year oldsPolandPortugalSource: Education at a Glance, 2007.121


The labour force numbered2.67 million in 2005. Ingeneral, the educationlevel has increased forthis group.9.2 The highest completededucation in the labourforceThe labour force is comprised ofpersons in the 15-69 age group who areeither working or jobless. Students whoare enrolled in a full-time educationprogramme and who work less than 28hours per week are not counted in thelabour force.In 2005, the labour force numbered2.67 million persons, correspondingto 70 % of the total population in the15-69 age group. During the period2000-2005, there was a decrease ofapproximately 30,000 in availability inthe Danish labour market (table 9.2).For one in four in the labour force,corresponding to 675,900 individuals,basic school is the highest completededucation. 39 %, corresponding to 1.04million, have completed a vocationallyoriented education and training, and aproportion of 29 % of the workforce,corresponding to 760,100 individuals,has a higher education. The percentagedistribution is illustrated in table 9.2.is primarily owed to generationdifferences. The younger year groupsin the labour market have a highereducation than the year groups who areretiring in these years.From 2000 through 2005, there hasbeen a decrease from 29 % to 25 %in the proportion with basic school asthe highest completed education. Thiscorresponds to 93,100 persons. Duringthe same period, the proportion withan upper secondary education has beensteady at a good 7 %, while the sharewith a vocationally oriented educationhas been 39-40 %. The total share witha higher education has increased fromslightly more than 24 % to a little lessthan 29 %.Figure 9.2 shows the distribution ofthe labour force by highest completededucation.In general, the education level hasincreased for the labour force. As inthe preceding section, this change122


Table 9.2. Labour force(15-69 year olds) byhighest completededucation2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005NumberAll education 2,698,360 2,696,163 2,689,772 2,673,706 2,666,350 2,668,321The basic school 769,031 746,482 729,295 703,786 687,763 675,910Upper secondary education 203,213 200,401 198,101 196,594 194,096 196,432Vocationally orientededucation and training1,068,016 1,072,353 1,068,152 1,054,879 1,044,974 1,035,909Higher education 658,100 676,927 694,224 718,447 739,517 760,070Short-cycle highereducation120,986 123,673 127,303 137,625 141,834 144,529Professional bacheloreducation302,795 310,774 315,975 320,538 326,991 334,314Other medium-cyclehigher education46,901 47,334 47,500 49,302 49,599 49,574University bacheloreducation27,527 28,773 29,643 30,823 32,360 34,116Long-cycle highereducation159,891 166,373 173,803 180,159 188,733 197,537%All education 100 100 100 100 100 100The basic school 28.6 27.7 27.1 26.3 25.8 25.4Upper secondary education 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.4Vocationally orientededucation and training39.6 39.8 39.7 39.5 39.2 38.8Higher education 24.3 25.1 25.8 26.8 27.7 28.5Short-cycle highereducation4.5 4.6 4.7 5.1 5.3 5.4Professional bacheloreducation11.2 11.5 11.7 12.0 12.3 12.5Other medium-cyclehigher education1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9University bacheloreducation1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3Long-cycle highereducation5.9 6.1 6.5 6.7 7.0 7.4Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.123


Figure 9.2. The labourforce (15-69 year olds)by highest completededucation in 2005,percent45403530252015105025Basic school7Upper secondaryeducation39Vocationally orientededucation and training5Short-cycle highereducation16Medium-cycle highereducation 17Master’s programmes(candidatus)Note 1: Comprises professional bachelor,university bachelor, and other mediumcyclehigher education.Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.124


81 % of the young peopleare expected to gothrough a youth educationprogramme, 76 % of themwill obtain vocationalqualification, that is to saya vocationally orientededucation or a highereducation.9.3 Future youth cohortsIt is the goal of the government thatin 2015, 95 % of a youth cohortachieve a youth education, and that50 % achieve a higher education. Inorder to keep track of these goals,it is extrapolated each year whichcourse of study future year groups willtake. The extrapolation shows whichcourse of study the new youth cohortwill take over the next 25 years aftercompleting the 9 th form assuming thatthe education system and the studybehaviour will be as it was in 2005.Figure 9.3 shows the result of theextrapolation of which course of studya youth cohort will follow over 25years. The figure shows the expectedcourse of a youth cohort through theeducation system based on a knownbehaviour in 2005.Nearly 56 % of the students leavingbasic school in 2005 are expected tostart in upper secondary school, nearly40 % to start a vocationally orientededucation and training programme,and a little less than 5 % will neverstart an education. That is to say,95 % are expected to continue in ayouth education programme.Slightly more than 81 % will completea youth education. That is to say, a partdrops out on the way. If those personsare included who do not take a youtheducation but qualify via vocationalexperience and single subject higherpreparatory examination (hf) andcomplete a higher education, a good85 % obtain at least a youth education.Of the total year group, 53 % willreceive an upper secondary educationand nearly 38 % a vocationaleducation. In both categories, almost10 % take both educations.Three in four (76 %) end up witha vocationally qualifying education.That is to say, a vocationally orientededucation or a higher education as thehighest completed education. 33 %are expected to receive a vocationallyoriented education. This proportionis split in 8 % in commercial, 17 %in technical, and 8 % in anothervocationally oriented education (mainlysocial and health care). Almost 44 %end up with a higher education – ofthese 6 % with a short-cycle highereducation (KVU), 23 % with amedium-cycle higher education(MVU), and 15 % with a long-cyclehigher education (LVU).125


Not everyone receives an education. Intotal, nearly 15 % end up without anykind of education after basic school,while a good 9 % end up with studyqualifications, that is to say primarilyan upper secondary education.Table 9.3 and table 9.4 showextrapolations of the youth cohorts inthe period from 1990 to 2005, first fora youth education, and then for thehighest completed education.It is noted that especially theproportions with an upper secondaryeducation rose significantly untilaround 1995. Since then, the increasehas been less; however, the proportionwith a vocationally oriented educationhas dropped slightly.When considering the finalqualifications 25 years after the 9 thform, the proportion receiving aneducation increased strongly during1990-2000, but then remained steadyduring the following years (table 9.4).Figure 9.3. Educationprofile 2005WithoutvocationalqualificationsWith vocational qualifications 76.1 %With vocationally oriented With higher education 43.5 %education and training 32.6 %StudyqualificationsCommercial Technical SOSU etc. KVU MVU LVU14.7 % 8.2 % 16.8 % 7.6 % 5.6 % 22.9 % 15.0 %9.2 %1.1 %5.2%3.2 % 5.8 %Higher education13.6 % 29.4 % 8.2 % 40.3 % 3.4 %Others18.8%With a youth education 81.2 %Vocational education and training(vocational qualifications)Of this bothqualificationsUpper secondary education(study qualifications)37.6 %9.7 %53.3 %2.2 %12.0 %Vocationally orientededucation and training17.5 %5.1 %Upper secondary education4.6 % 39.6 %55.9 %Basic school 100 %Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.126


Table 9.3. Proportion ofa youth cohort with ayouth education1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005Youth education 76.1 82.1 83.6 81.2 80.6 81.0 82.0 81.2%Upper secondary education 47.2 51.9 52.2 51.1 52.3 52.1 53.8 53.3Vocationally oriented education andtraining40.3 43.3 43.6 40.9 39.0 39.7 40.0 37.6- of this both qualifications 11.4 13.1 12.2 10.8 10.7 10.8 11.8 9.7Proportion with higher education w/oyouth education3.0 3.0 3.9 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.4 4.1At least a youth education 79.1 85.1 87.5 85.8 85.0 85.3 86.4 85.3Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.Table 9.4. Finaleducation qualifications1990 1995 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005%With vocational qualifications 66.5 74.2 80.0 78.5 76.6 77.0 77.0 76.1Vocationally oriented educationand training35.3 36.8 35.2 33.2 31.7 31.6 33.2 32.6Commercial education 15.4 12.3 10.3 8.5 7.9 7.7 8.8 8.2Technical education 16.9 17.1 18.8 18.1 17.1 17.5 17.5 16.8Social and health education etc. 3.1 7.4 6.1 6.6 6.6 6.4 6.9 7.6Higher education 31.2 37.4 44.8 45.3 44.9 45.4 43.8 43.5Short-cycle higher education 5.6 5.9 8.8 8.2 6.8 7.0 5.9 5.6Medium-cycle higher education 17.4 23.0 23.4 23.3 23.8 23.3 23.7 22.9Long-cycle higher education 8.2 8.5 12.6 13.8 14.4 15.1 14.2 15.0Without vocational qualifications 33.6 25.8 20.1 21.5 23.4 23.0 23.0 23.9Only study qualifications (uppersecondary education)12.7 10.9 7.6 7.3 8.4 8.3 9.4 9.2Directly from basic school 7.1 6.2 2.8 3.6 4.0 3.2 3.1 4.6After discontinued education 13.8 8.7 9.7 10.6 11.0 11.5 10.5 10.1Source: UNI•C Statistics & Analysis.127


Facts and Figures 2007 is an outline of the Danish educationsystem with a quantitative description of trends and developmentsin various fields of education.The education system is changing continuously keeping up withnew generations and new requirements from the labour market.This publication presents a series of key figures in tables andgraphs showing the directions of the development. Primarily,the publication illustrates the development by Danish figurescomplemented by equivalent figures from selected countries.ISBN 978-87-603-2691-2

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