Anthony Boccaletti Paris Observatory -France - Science in Santiago

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Anthony Boccaletti Paris Observatory -France - Science in Santiago

Anthony BoccalettiParis Observatory -FranceAnne-Lise Maire (Paris Observatory - France)Raphaël Galicher (NRC-HIA - Canada)Jean Schneider (Paris Observatory - France)Pierre Baudoz (Paris Observatory - France)Wes Traub (JPL/NASA - US)Pierre-Olivier Lagage (CEA/SAp - France)Daphne Stam (SRON - Netherland)Raffaelle Gratton (Padova Observatory - Italy)and the SPICES Team (70 members)Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


Anthony BoccalettiParis Observatory -FranceAnne-Lise Maire (Paris Observatory - France)Raphaël Galicher (NRC-HIA - Canada)Jean Schneider (Paris Observatory - France)Pierre Baudoz (Paris Observatory - France)Wes Traub (JPL/NASA - US)Pierre-Olivier Lagage (CEA/SAp - France)Daphne Stam (SRON - Netherland)Raffaelle Gratton (Padova Observatory - Italy)and the SPICES Team (70 members)Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


TIMELINE OF EXOPLANETS DIRECTDETECTION PROGRAMSSpace-based1995 2000 2008 2012 2020-2022>2025-30Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileGround-based


TIMELINE OF EXOPLANETS DIRECTDETECTION PROGRAMSSpace-based1995 2000 2008 2012 2020-2022>2025-30Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileGround-based


TIMELINE OF EXOPLANETS DIRECTDETECTION PROGRAMSHSTSpace-based1995 2000 20082012 2020-2022>2025-30Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileGround-based


TIMELINE OF EXOPLANETS DIRECTDETECTION PROGRAMSHSTSpace-based1995 2000 20082012 2020-2022>2025-304m + OASilla, CFH8m + OAVLT, Keck,Gemini, SubaruObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileGround-based


TIMELINE OF EXOPLANETS DIRECTDETECTION PROGRAMSHSTSpace-based1995 2000 20082012 2020-2022>2025-304m + OASilla, CFH8m + OAVLT, Keck,Gemini, Subaru8m + XAOSPHERE / GPI / HiCIAONIR : EGPs young/massive/nearbyObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileGround-based


TIMELINE OF EXOPLANETS DIRECTDETECTION PROGRAMSHSTSpace-basedJWSTNIR + MIR:young EGPsold EGPs ?1995 2000 20082012 2020-2022>2025-304m + OASilla, CFH8m + OAVLT, Keck,Gemini, Subaru8m + XAOSPHERE / GPI / HiCIAONIR : EGPs young/massive/nearbyObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileGround-based


TIMELINE OF EXOPLANETS DIRECTDETECTION PROGRAMSHSTSpace-basedJWSTNIR + MIR:young EGPsold EGPs ?1995 2000 20082012 2020-2022>2025-304m + OASilla, CFH8m + OAVLT, Keck,Gemini, Subaru8m + XAOSPHERE / GPI / HiCIAONIR : EGPs young/massive/nearby30/42m + XAOEPICS/ELTsNIR : EGPs intermediateOld + Super-Earth ?Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileGround-based


TIMELINE OF EXOPLANETS DIRECTDETECTION PROGRAMSHSTSpace-basedold EGP / telluricVIS and MIRJWSTNIR + MIR:young EGPsold EGPs ?1995 2000 20082012 2020-2022>2025-304m + OASilla, CFH8m + OAVLT, Keck,Gemini, Subaru8m + XAOSPHERE / GPI / HiCIAONIR : EGPs young/massive/nearby30/42m + XAOEPICS/ELTsNIR : EGPs intermediateOld + Super-Earth ?Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileGround-based


Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChilePROPOSAL


PROPOSALformer proposal SEE COAST (Schneider et al.) in 2007 to ESACosmic Vision M1/2 (450M€, 2017-18)Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


PROPOSALformer proposal SEE COAST (Schneider et al.) in 2007 to ESACosmic Vision M1/2 (450M€, 2017-18)main recommendations of BDT and EPRAT groups (2008 - 2010):• characterization of close-in planets with transit spectroscopy• characterization of long-period planets with direct imagingObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


PROPOSALformer proposal SEE COAST (Schneider et al.) in 2007 to ESACosmic Vision M1/2 (450M€, 2017-18)main recommendations of BDT and EPRAT groups (2008 - 2010):• characterization of close-in planets with transit spectroscopy• characterization of long-period planets with direct imagingsecond proposal SPICES (Boccaletti et al.) in 2010 to ESA CosmicVision M3 (450M€, 2020-22)1 objective : Study planetary systems as a wholeObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


TOP-LEVEL SCIENCEcharacterization of mature giants planets to Super Earthscharacterization of young giants planets (SE too) and new detectionscharacterization of disks (protoplanetary, debris, exozodii)Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


SCIENCE - GIANTSKarkoschka (1994)10.90.82 AU Jupiter (green)2 AU Neptune (cyan)Jupiters and NeptunesCahoy et al. (2010)0.70.6CH₄CH₄H₂OH₂OAlbedo0.50.40.30.2KCH₄CH₄NaCH₄H₂O0.10.8 AU Jupiter (red)0.8 AU Neptune (blue)K00.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1Wavelength, µmCH₄H₂OCH₄CH₄CH₄atmospheric informationis rich in the visible:molecules CH 4 , H 2 O ..Rayleigh scat.,metallicity effect ...Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


SCIENCE - GIANTSKarkoschka (1994)10.90.82 AU Jupiter (green)2 AU Neptune (cyan)Jupiters and NeptunesCahoy et al. (2010)0.70.6CH₄CH₄H₂OH₂OAlbedo0.50.40.30.2KCH₄CH₄NaCH₄H₂O0.10.8 AU Jupiter (red)0.8 AU Neptune (blue)K00.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1Wavelength, µmCH₄H₂OCH₄CH₄CH₄atmospheric informationis rich in the visible:molecules CH 4 , H 2 O ..Rayleigh scat.,metallicity effect ...from Stam (2004)Schmidt et al. (2010)Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


SCIENCE - TELLURICSThe Earthsome EarthsWoolf et al. (2002)atmospheric information is richin the visible:molecules O 3 , O 2 , H 2 O ..Rayleigh scat.surface effect : vegetation,cloudsfrom Stam (2008)Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


SCIENCE - TELLURICSThe Earthsome EarthsWoolf et al. (2002)atmospheric information is richin the visible:molecules O 3 , O 2 , H 2 O ..Rayleigh scat.surface effect : vegetation,cloudsfrom Stam (2008)Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


MISSION PARAMETERSThe recipe :Our concern => a single concept where all sub-subsystems are intimately integrated all-together- a high optical quality telescope (5-10 nm on M1) optimized for high contrast- coronagraph for high rejection but to mitigate stellar leakage: Optical Vortex 4 (Mawet et al. )- wavefront sensing: Self Coherent Camera (Baudoz et al. 2006, Galicher et al. 2010)- wavefront correction: Xinetics 64x64- polarimetric device: modulator (rotating half-wave retarder) and analyzer (beam-splitter cube)compatible with OVC4- spectroscopic device: BIGRE-like Integral Field Spectrograph (Antichi et al. 2009), compatible with SCCObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


MISSION PARAMETERSThe recipe :Our concern => a single concept where all sub-subsystems are intimately integrated all-together- a high optical quality telescope (5-10 nm on M1) optimized for high contrast- coronagraph for high rejection but to mitigate stellar leakage: Optical Vortex 4 (Mawet et al. )- wavefront sensing: Self Coherent Camera (Baudoz et al. 2006, Galicher et al. 2010)- wavefront correction: Xinetics 64x64- polarimetric device: modulator (rotating half-wave retarder) and analyzer (beam-splitter cube)SPICES 17compatible with OVC4- spectroscopic device: BIGRE-like Integral Field Spectrograph (Antichi et al. 2009), compatible with SCCTable 3 Overall requirements for the payload.ParametersValuesObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileTelescope diameter (D)1.5 mBandwidths450 - 900 nm (goal: 400 - 950 nm)Equivalent spatial resolution 62 - 120 mas (goal: 55 - 127 mas)Blue channel / Red channel 450 - 700 nm / 650 - 900 nmObservable Stokes parameters I, Q, UContrast at 2 lambda/Da few 10 −9Contrast at 4 lambda/Da few 10 −10Deformable mirror, nb. of elements 64 × 64 actuatorsFOV corrected blue/red channel 6” / 8”FOV imaged blue/red channel 9” / 12”WFE static20 nm rmsWFE DM10 pm rmsFinal pointing accuracy0.5 mas (goal 0.1 mas)Polarimetric sensitivity10 −3


Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileGENERIC CONCEPT


OPTO-MECHANICAL DESIGNOptical implementation by CEA - France!Mechanical implementation by Astrium - FranceObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


OBSERVING SEQUENCE2 observations forIntensity4 observations forIntensity andPolarizationObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


RAW CONTRASTInstrumental simulations developed atObspm by R. Galicher and A.L. MaireObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


PERFORMANCE: YOUNG PLANETSSPICES goes well below theperformance of SPHERE/GPI and candetect and characterize new planets:young Neptunes around late type starsObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


PERFORMANCE: DISKSdisk science :- protoplanetary disks- debris disks- exozodii- SPICES contrast performance => resolved images of star with IR-excess (not imaged before)- Sensitivity to a few zodii => preparatory work for future missions of Earth-like planetcharacterizationObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


PERFORMANCE: MATURE PLANETSintensive simulations to assess the characterization capabilities (not just detection !!!) led by A.-L.Maire (Paris Obs.)use the Cahoy et al. (2010) models for gas/ice Giants and Stam (2008) models for telluricgiants: extrapolation of spectra to other spectral type than G (Flux conservation). no extrapolationin separation. We consider R = 1 R Jupitertelluric: the extrapolation is approximative because many features can change with Sp (red-edgeA.-L. Maire et al.: Exoplanet characterization using space high-contrast imagingfor instance). We consider R = 2.5 R Earthterization usingSNR-basedspace high-contrastcriterionimagingTable 6. Values of SNR r derived from Eq. (7).to distinguish between modelsTable 5. Star-planet separations for giant planets extrapolated toother stellar types assuming Eq. (3). The values for the solar-typestar are those modeled by Cahoy et al. (2010).Spectral type Luminosity (L⊙) Separations (AU)A0 28 4.2 10.6 26.5 53.0F0 4.8 1.8 4.4 11.0 21.9G2 1 0.8 2 5 10K0 0.45 0.5 1.3 3.4 6.7M0 0.09 0.24 0.6 1.5 3Planet Parameter SNR r NoteJupiter 0.8/2 AU 15Jupiter 0.8 AU metallicity 1/3x 30Jupiter 2 AU metallicity 1/3x 30 CH 4 bandsJupiter 5 AU metallicity 1/3x 30 CH 4 bandsNeptune 0.8/2 AU 15Neptune 0.8 AU metallicity 10/30x 30Neptune 2 AU metallicity 10/30x 25 CH 4 bandsForest Earth 0/50/100% clouds 25 blue channelsOcean Earth 0/50/100% clouds 25 blue channelsClear Earth 0/50/100% forests 12 red channels50% cloudy Earth 0/50/100% forests 30 red channelsCloudy Earth 0/50/100% forests 220 red channelsance of the “red edge” in the planet spectra depends stronglyon the cloud thickness and coverage, but it still alters the spec-Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, ChileNeptune analogs and super-Earths can be detected in the range2–4 AU for stars closer than 10 pc. There are no A stars within5pc(exceptfortheSiriusbinarysystem)sowedonotplotthe


PERFORMANCE - SPECTRAL TYPEM stars G stars A starslimit in separa,on [AU]Jupiter Neptune Super EarthA0 < 20 pc 1 -­‐ 10 2 -­‐ 3 2 -­‐ 3G2 < 10pc 1 -­‐ 7 1 -­‐ 3 1 -­‐ 2M0 < 5pc 0.5 -­‐ 4 0.5 -­‐ 1.5 0.5 -­‐ 1Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


SPECTROSCOPY - GIANTSdist. / Rayleigh scat.G stars onlymetallicityObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


SPECTROSCOPY - TELLURICNo cloudsSurface effects50% CloudsO 3H 2 OO 2Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


SUMMARY2 papers will be out soon :Boccaletti et al. 2012 : summary of the ESA proposal (Exp. Astron)Maire et al. 2012 : performance in terms of characterization (A&A)SPICES capabilities are clarified with our simulations :- which type of planets, stars, separations, distance- which atmospheric properties can be measuredPolarimetric capabilites still to be investigatedSPICES concept is robust but requires R&D (coronagraphy, wavefront sensing and control ....but no specific detectors or cryogenic stuff)SPICES target sample is large. A 5-year mission allows to observe ~100 targetsTarget sample is provided by Radial Velocity & Astrometric programsMarginal characterization of Earth-size planet(s) is possible around the nearest star(s)Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


WHAT’S NEXT ?SPICES not selected in M3Concerns raised by ESA :Technology readiness / time for development / cost envelopefor the futre :• submission in M4 (if any Call for Mission) makes little sense• submit SPICES as L class mission (few years from now ?).650M€+ collaborations (NASA, others ?)Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


WHAT’S NEXT ?SPICES not selected in M3Concerns raised by ESA :Technology readiness / time for development / cost envelopefor the futre :• submission in M4 (if any Call for Mission) makes little sense• submit SPICES as L class mission (few years from now ?).650M€+ collaborations (NASA, others ?)Anyone interested is invited to join ...Observing Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile


TECH. READINESS LEVELSPICES 21Table 6 Summary of TRLs for the main components as of year 2010.TRL RationalTelescope-Primarymirror 7 Processqualifiedonsimilarspacemissions(GAIA)-Secondarymirror 7 Processqualifiedonsimilarspacemissions (GAIA)-Baffles 7 Process qualified on similar space missions (GAIA)-Structure 7 Processqualifiedonsimilarspacemissions(GAIA)Science Payload-rotatingpolarizationmodulator 9 HinodeSolarOpticalTelescope-Polarizercubebeamsplitter 9 HinodeSolarOpticalTelescope-Filters 5 Processqualifiedonsimilarspacemissions(MIRI/JWST)-Deformablemirrors 5 spacequalificationsatJPL-Coronagraph 3 Processverifiedinlabenvironment-IFS 5 Conceptusedongroundenvironment(SPHERE)-Relayoptics 5 Processqualifiedonsimilarspacemissions-WFsensing 5 baselineconceptqualifiedatJPL-Detectors 6 E2VCCD231-84backilluminated-Mechanicalstructures 5 ProcessqualifiedonsimilarspaceenvironmentMain electronics-Electronicboards 6 Qualifiedonpreviousspaceenvironment(MIRI/JWST)-Compressorprocess 9 Spacequalified-Spacewirelinks 9 Spacequalified4PointingissuesObserving Planetary Systems II - Santiago, Chile

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