Home life in Hellas, Greece and the Greeks - eBooks4Greeks.gr


Home life in Hellas, Greece and the Greeks - eBooks4Greeks.gr

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Cornell University LibraryDF 741.F39Home life in Hellas Greece and the Gree3 1924 028 255 093



MILLS & BOON'SLIST OF GENERAL LITERATUREMY GERMAN YEAR. By I. A. R. Wylie, Author of"The Rajah's People." With 2 Illustrations in Colour and 18 fromPhotographs. Demy 8vo. 10s. Gd. net.FORTY YEARS OF A SPORTSMAN'S LIFE. By SirClaude Champion De Crespigny. With a Photogravure Frontispieceand 15 Illustrations. Second Edition. Demy 8vo. 10b. Gd. net.THE COURT OF WILLIAM III. By E. and M. S. Grew.With many Illustrations. Demy Svo. 16s. net.YVETTE GUILBERT: Struggles and Victories. ByYvette Guilbert and Harold Simpson. Profusely Illustrated withCaricatures, Portraits, Facsimiles of Letters, etc. Demy Svo. 10s. 6d. net.WAGNER AT HOME. Fully translated by Effie DunreithMassib from the French of Judith Gautier. With a PhotogravureFrontispiece and 8 Illustrations. Demy Svo. 108. 6d. net.THE PARSON'S PLEASANCE. By P. H. Ditchfield,M.A., F.S.A. With 25 Illustrations. Demy Svo. 10s. 6d. net.RAMBLES WITH AN AMERICAN. By ChristianTearle, Author of "Holborn Hill." With 21 Illustrations. 10a. 6d. net.A CENTURY OF BALLADS (1810-1910):Their Composersand Singers. By Harold Simpson. Fully Illustrated. Demy8vo. Its. 6d. net.HOME LIFE IN HELLAS. By Z. Duckett Ferriman.With 19 Illustrations from Photographs. Demy Svo. 8s. net.SWISS MOUNTAIN CLIMBS. By George D.Abraham, Author of "The Complete Mountaineer," Member of theClimbers' Club, etc. etc. Illustrated with Photographs and Diagrams.Pocket size. Waterproof Cloth. 7s. 6d. net.BRITISH MOUNTAIN CLIMBS. By George D.Abraham. Uniform with " Swiss Mountain Climbs." 7B.Gd.net.HOME LIFE IN IRELAND. By Robert Lynd. Illustratedfrom Photographs. Third and Popular Edition, with a NewPreface. Crown Svo. 6b.THE ROMANCE OF THE OXFORD COLLEGES.Francis Gribble. With a Photogravure Frontispiece and 16 Illustrations.Crown Svo. 6s.LETTERS OF A MODERN GOLFER TO HISGRANDFATHER. By Henry Leach. With a PhotogravureFrontispiece. Crown 8vo. 6s.THE GERMAN SPY SYSTEM IN FRANCE.ByTranslatedfrom the French of Paul Lanoir. Crown 8vo. 6s. net.SHIPS AND SEALING WAX. By Hansard Watt.With 40 Illustrations by L. R. Brightwell. Crown 4to. 3b. 6d netA volume of light verse.



Published iqio

THEPREFACEAuthor takes this opportunity to acknowledgethe kind courtesy of the Director ofthe British School at Athens, who allowed himto use the school library during his stay. Formuch information concerning Folk-lore he isindebtedto Sir Rennell Rodd's Customs and Lore ofModern Greece, to Dr. Bernhard Schmidt's DasVolksleben der Neugriechen, and indirectly to thesidelights thrown on the subject by the collectionsof Greek Folk-songs of Fauriel, Passow,and G. F. Abbott. The account of Naxos andSantorin was written before he had seen Mr. W.Miller's Latins of the Levant, otherwise he wouldhave been able to make a better use of his opportunities.That work, the outcome of laboriousresearch ina rather obscure but fascinating field,has revealed much that he longed to know on asubject that has had a special attraction for himsince his first visit to the Cyclades many yearsago.MlNETY, MALMESBURY,July 2"]th, 1910.Z. D. F.


LISTOF ILLUSTRATIONS....... FrontispieceFrom a Photo by the AuthorFacing pageEntrance to Harbour and Mount Neriton,IthACASpartaFrom a Photograph, Photochrom Co.The Langada of MangoulaFrom Stereograph, Underwood and Underwood1923The Kalavryta Railway .From Stereograph, Underwood and UnderwoodMegaspeleionFrom a Photograph, Photochrom Co.A Young MainoteCorfu .....From a Photograph, Photochrom CoPeasant's Dwelling, IthacaFrom a Photo by the AuthorThe Town of Naxia, from the SeaFrom a Photo by the AuthorPericles ....From a Photo by the AuthorAn Aged PeloponnesianAthenian Boy in Fustanella3 23444576888144146174

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONSFacingpageThebes : Theban with Chaplet . . . .178From Stereograph, Underwood and UnderwoodAn Epirote ........ 200Monastery of Hagia Triada, Meteora . .221From Stereograph, Underwood and UnderwoodThe Women's Dance at Megara.... 237From Stereograph, Underwood and UnderwoodSchoolboys at Drill in the Stadium, Athens . 253From Stereograph, Underwood and UnderwoodThe Monument of Lysicrates .... 307From a Photograph, Photochrom Co.St. Eleutherios 316From a Photograph, Photochrom Co.

HOME LIFE IN HELLASWERECHAPTER ITHE GREEK MAINLANDan aeroplanist to take an eagle flightover Greece, the features that would strikehim most would be the great preponderance ofmountain compared with level ground, and theenormous coast-line. The sea reaches into theheart of the land from east and west and south,and the great fiord, the Gulf of Corinth, nearlycuts it in two, making the Peloponnesus all butan island,so that a country with an area rathersmaller than that of Scotland has a coast-line farlonger than that of England. 1 The northern halfof Greece is bisected by Pindus, an irregularchain throwing off ranges right and left,so thatfrom any lofty point of view the prospect is a confusedjumble of mountains and deep blue inletsa mingling of Switzerland and Norway. Theplains are few—alluvialstrips on portions of the1Greece has seven times as much coast as England in proportionto its area, and nearly twelve times as much as France.B

2 HOME LIFE IN HELLAScoast, alluvial patches round the heads of gulfs,at the mouths of rivers. The broad basin ofThessaly and the Boeotian level are the most considerablein Northern Greece ; and in the Peloponnesus,which is for the most part a mountainmass with the elevated hollow of Arcadia in itscentre, the undulating plain of Elis opening onthe west, the plain of Argos, the valley of Sparta,and the rich lowlands of Messenia on the south,with the narrow strip on the Achaian shore.Allthese fertile regions are cut off from the rest ofthe land by mountain barriers, but all, exceptArcadia, are easy of access from the sea. Henceit is that in a country where communication byland is difficult and slow, there is considerablecoasting traffic and a large maritime population.More than half the land is unproductive mountain,and only 21 per cent under cultivation, sopastoral pursuits largely claim the attention ofthe rural folk. The man who builds boats andthe man who sails them, and the man who rearsand tends flocksand herds are important factorsin Greece. Nevertheless the husbandmen far outnumberthe shepherds owing to the more exactingnature of the work — 40 per cent of the nationis agricultural, and 10 per cent pastoral. Only8 per cent of the land is pasture in the strict senseof the word, though this does not include thedomain of the nomad Vlachs who wander withtheir flocks on the mountains. More than halfof the agricultural population is of Albanian

origin. 1THE GREEK MAINLAND 3This people forms the backbone of ruralGreece, for your true Greek will not till the landif he can earn a living in any other way. He isinstinctively a townsman and a trader. TheAlbanian is a farmer, and considering that 70 percent of the exports of Greece consists of landproduce, it must be allowed that he is a veryvaluable asset to the kingdom.By far the largest grain-growing district inGreece is the Thessalian plain, which was a lakeuntil the defile of Tempe was cloven betweenOssa and Olympus by a seismic cataclysm whichlet the water out. The ancient myth attributedthe cleft to the trident of Neptune, but it wasVulcan who accomplished the task. Geologistssay that it occurred at no distant period, ifreckoned in terms of geologic time ; but in anycase the plain is a lake bottom of exuberant1The Albanian population of Greece is completely Hellenised.It is of Toskh origin. The Toskhs are the Southern Albanians,whose northern limit may be assigned to the neighbourhood ofthe River Skumbi. They differ materially from the Ghegs orNorthern Albanians. The latter are divided into tribes, theToskhs are not. When the Gheg is a Christian, he is a RomanCatholic, whilst the Toskh is Orthodox. Greek influence hasmoulded the Toskhs for centuries, and a Toskh, even in Turkishterritory, resembles a Greek more than he does his Gheg compatriot,whose chief occupation is fighting. When not thusengaged his condition is that of armed idleness. The differenceextends even to the dress ; the Albanian costume adopted by theGreeks, whose distinguishing feature is the fustanella, the manypleatedwhite kilt, is Toskh. The fustanella is unknown amongthe Ghegs. It is difficult to draw a line of demarcation betweenGreeks and Toskhs in North-Western Greece. But the divisionbetween Toskhs and Ghegs farther north is as sharp asbetween two different nations.

4 HOME LIFE IN HELLASfertility, yielding heavy crops of wheat, barley,and maize, a treeless dull expanse whose monotonyis accentuated by the distant prospect ofthe glittering peaks of Olympus. It might bemade to yield a hundredfold more than it doesat present. Much of it is left fallow, and thecultivated portion is tilled by antiquated andwasteful methods. The Thessalian peasant is themost backward of the Greek agricultural class,and he lives under the most unfavourable conditions.The land consists of large estates, andthe owners are absentees. Some of them areTurks who live at Constantinople, and some areGreeks who live at Athens or elsewhere, butnever on their property.It is one of the peculiarfeatures of Greek life that there are no countrygentlemen. The life, which we in England prize,has no charms for them. People who possessestates in the midst of the most lovely surroundingstell you that they could not endure to remaina week on them. They care nothing for sport, asa rule, and appear tobe insensible to the joy ofthat intimate contact with nature which is the bestpart of the life of so many of us. They prefer theasphalt, the gossip of the cafe and the club, andwhen they quit Athens in the baking days ofsummer, they go to their country-houses atKephisia or at Pofos, where other people havecountry-houses. The Greek is essentially gregarious.Even the tillers of the soil crowd togetherin big villages, often far from the scene

THE GREEK MAINLAND 5of their labours ;you do not find the solitaryhomestead. But this is largely due to want ofsecurity.In the Peloponnesus, where brigandagehas not been heard of since 1847, and where apeaceful population dwells in full assurance ofimmunity from attack, one does come acrossisolated households, not infrequently. The urbanproclivities of Greek landed proprietors have resultedin the division of estates into small holdings.But this is not yet the case in Thessaly,though the Government is alive to the need of it,and is considering schemes of expropriation, andthe creation of homesteads with plots for thecultivation of vegetables and fruit. Both arealmost unknown at present, to the prejudice ofthe public health. Thessaly can never becomeso pleasant a habitat as Southern Greece, owingto climatic conditions. The summers are parchingand rainless, and there is a scarcity of water.The winters are severe. The tempering influenceof the sea breeze is shut out by the girdle ofmountains surrounding the plain.Malarial feveris prevalent, and its effects are seen in the sallowcomplexions, hollow cheeks, and listless movementsof the people, whose poor and monotonousdietary does not afford them sufficient vitality tocombat the scourge.Political and economic conditions,moreover, have contributed to sap theirenergy. Spoliation and insecurity have beentheir lot for centuries. They were under Turkishrule until 1881, ground between the upper and

6 HOME LIFE IN HELLASnether millstones of Turkish Agha and ChristianKlepht. The latter descended from themountains and helped himself to what the formerhad left. The frontier is still the haunt of outlaws,and notoriously the most insecure regionin the kingdom. It is not surprising, therefore,that a certain air of savagery lingers on theThessalian plain, nor that the discontent of thepopulation bursts out into occasional acts ofviolence. The interest of ownership is the mostobvious remedy, and the peasant is sensible ofthis. He contrasts his position with that of hismore fortunate compatriot in other portions of thekingdom, although he is incapable of comprehendingthe difference in the physical conditionswhich would make the small holding a failure inThessaly, whilst it is a success in the Morea.Scientific agriculture and the use of perfectedmachinery are needed in Thessaly in order todevelop its potentialities. At present the regionwhich ought tobe the greatest source of wealthin Greece is the most melancholy in aspect of any,whilst its people live under the hardest conditions.The tiller of the soil should at least be allowedto lead a more human existence, and this couldbe accomplished by providing him with a plot onwhich he could raise garden produce, and adwelling better fitted for habitation than his mudhovel. Above all, he should have this on a securetenure.Differing entirely from the rest of Thessaly, the

THE GREEK MAINLAND 7Magnesian peninsula is a wooded spur of Pelion,the seaward rampart of the Gulf of Volo, whichby an inward curve it turns almost into a lake.Volo is a clean, cheerful, modern town with veryancient associations, for hard by is the site ofIolcos where the Argo was built, her timberscoming from the mountain-side, still clothed withoak and fir. A railway leads from Volo toMilceas, past villages embowered in orchards ofapple, pear, quince, and apricot.Milceas itself isset in the midst of plantations of mulberry trees,for silk is the staple product. It is a place ofbounding rills and springs bubbling from ferntapestriedrocks, of marvellous vignettes of seaand mount, seen through over-arching foliage, ofgay gardens roofed with trellised vines—the finestclusters I ever saw were at Milceas. It has troopsof rosy-cheeked, sturdy children, well clad and wellmannered. Farther west it would become a"beauty spot" and a health resort, with bighotels and a Kursaal and a funicular tothe topof Pelion ; but its remoteness has saved it fromthis, and under the giant plane trees by thepublic fountain the elders inhale the fragrant tumbakiin peace.The deltaicwedge at the mouth of the Spercheios,with Lamia as its centre, separated fromthe Thessalian plain by the chain of Othrys, isone of the regions in which tobacco is grown,and it contains good cattle pastures. South ofit, and cut off by the lofty range of CEta, is

8 HOME LIFE IN HELLASthe Livadian country and Lake Copais, once ahotbed of fever which carried off three out of everyfour children born in the district. Since Copaishas been drained, thanks to English enterprise,the area has become one of the most productivein the country.crops of Livadia.Cotton and maize are the stapleThe golden heaps of grain andthe paler heaps of husks used for stuffing mattressesare conspicuous at harvest time. Whenthe cotton is being gathered the pyramidalmounds look like the white tents of a militarycamp, and the brightly garbed women and childrenmoving between the rows of plants as theypluck the cotton from the pods and drop itintolinen bags suspended from their necks, make apretty picture.A low range of hills divides this from the Boeotianplain, a fatwhich the Albanian element island with a mixed population inprominent—a landof laborious peasants, much richer than thestarved soil of Attica, though the inhabitantsof Athens look down on the Boeotians. Theirpredecessors inthe classical age likewise affectedto despise the country of Hesiod and Pindar,Plutarch and Epaminondas.Attica owes its importance to Athens and thePira?us. The commerce and industry of the lattermake it the busiest centre in the kingdom. Thetall chimneys of its factories recall the aspect ofour manufacturing towns, as the blast furnaces ofLavrion on the east coast of the Attic peninsula

THE GREEK MAINLAND 9remind us of the Black Country. 1 The capitalwith its port and the lead mines form the chiefeconomic assets of Attica, which isagriculturallyinsignificant. The ungrateful soil supports onlya sparse population almost wholly Albanian.There is a point in Central Greece where itsspine, the steep chain ofPindus, sinks to a lowpass. But immediately south of it there is asudden rise, and a mountain knot sends forthranges east and west and south, (Eta to the Boeotianshores, the tangle of intersecting ridges inCEtolia, and the lofty summits Corax, Parnassus,Helicon, Cithasron, which stand as sentinels overthe Corinthian Gulf. South-eastward throughlower Attica extend lower ranges to its extremepoint, " Sunium's marbled steep." The systemdoes not end with the mainland, but reappears inthe JEgean isles, Zea, Kythnos, Seriphos, Siphnos,which are but the tops of submergedmountains of the same formation. This region,unproductive, thinly peopled by wandering shepherdsand rare villages of hardy mountaineers, isas rich in natural beauty as in the myth of theworld's youth. Cithseron is still gloomy andsavage, as it was to the poets of old.Helicon, at1The Lavrion mines were probably discovered and worked bythe Phoenicians. It is almost sure that they furnished a revenueto ^Egina before they became the property of the Athenians.They are mentioned by jEschylus and Xenophon. The present companyexploits the refuse thrown away by the miners of antiquity.It was imperfectly smelted, and yields a good percentage of leadand a certain quantity of silver. The supply seems inexhaustible,and gives an idea of the magnitude of the ancient workings.

10 HOME LIFE IN HELLASwhose foot Hesiod tilled his farm, still laughswith innumerable rills. Parnassus in his mantleof snow rises in austere grandeur above Delphiand the rent whence issues the Castalian spring.The track from Livadia to Delphi by the villageof Arachova takes the traveller through sceneryAt one point he has aof a stupendous character.glimpse of the sea on either hand, mere strips liketarns, buried deep in crumpled mountains.If hecared to climb the 8070 feet of Parnassus—he cando most of it on a mule—Greece lies like a mapbeneath him. East and west is an expanse ofocean—the JEgean on one hand, the Ionian Seaon the other— his vision extends north to thesnows of Olympus, south to those of Taygetus,and ranges over all that lies between.Greece, west of Parnassus and Pindus, presentsa singular contrast to Greece east of the centralrange. The western half is a wilderness of crests,a land of glen and torrent and forest, a clime ofrainy skies, of mist, of vague pearly lights androlling clouds—a landscape that Salvator Rosawould have loved—black Acheron 1 and thegnarled and twisted oaks of Dodona. Farotherwise is Eastern Greece. There the keynoteis one of serene beauty. The contour ofthe naked mountains is so harmonious that they1Dodona and Acheron are beyond the political frontier, butthey are physically a part of Greece. The water of Acheronis not black. Like that of the Acheloiis, it is opaque and lightcoloured. But the gorge through which it flows is intenselygloomy.

THE GREEK MAINLAND 11are always noble insize.form when not imposing inThere is a happy accord of line and colourwhich brings with it a sense of contentment likethat inspired by the simple perfection of a Dorictemple. There is no awe in it, but there is intensegladness—the gladness of a limpid atmosphere, ofbrilliant colour, ever changing with the changinglight—hues of sapphire, of amethyst, of ruby, orof molten gold.But it is idle to attempt to translatethose infinite gradations into the coarser tintsof gem or metal, as it would be to try to reproducethem through the medium of any pigment yet devisedby the art of man.There is no foregroundin Attic and ^Egean scenery. The elements ofrock and water that compose it are rudimentary intheir simplicity. There are no details to distractthe eye. We gaze afar at the divine loveliness ofland and sea and feel that it is good to have beenborn. Such an aspect of nature has some analogywith Greek art at its best, and it may be that suchan environment inspired it.The contrast is not one of physical featuresalone.The Greece that gave to Europe the firstnotions of letters, art, science, and politicsGreece in her glory—was Eastern Greece. TheGreece that matters to us finished at Delphi.The rude peoples of Acarnania, (Etolia, andEpirus remained strangers to Hellenic influences.And when at a later stage of history they emergedfrom obscurity, it was in arms, not in arts, thatthey shone, from the days of Pyrrhus onwards,

12 HOME LIFE IN HELLASwith intervals of darkness, illumined in our owntimes by the heroism and the tragedy of Parga, ofSuli, of Mesolonghi.The physical structure of Western Greece forbidssocial and economic development. The highrelief,mountains holding no soil, a coast fallingsteep to the sea, harbourless, affording no footholdfor man save in one or two malariouspatches, and the swampy character of the valleysimpose on the country a thin population. In thehollow that holds the lakes of Agrinion are grownfruit and tobacco—the latterof the finest qualityand the most important product in that region.In the lagoons round Mesolonghi therice-fieldsafford employment to one section of the inhabitantsand the fishery to another. The fish of theGulf of Lepanto are larger and of better qualitythan those of Piraeus,and a speciality of Mesolonghiis botargo, a preparation of fish-roe and ahigh-priced luxury. These are the only two centresof any account. Turning to Eastern Greece,we find the fertile plains of Thessaly, Lamia, andBceotia, the mines of Lavrion and Eubcea, thelatter practically a part of the mainland. A swingbridgespans the narrow Euripos, with its alternatingcurrent, which so sorely puzzled Aristotleand still awaits a satisfactory explanation. Aftercrossing it we scarcely realise that we have leftthe continent or that these land-locked tranquilwaters are a part of the sea. They afford a secureanchorage for many a mile, and taken together

THE GREEK MAINLAND 13with the spacious harbours of Piraeus, the roundlake-like Gulf of Volo, and the narrow channelbetween the mainland and Salamis, offer a seriesof havens perhaps unequalled anywhere withinso small an area. Busy Piraeus with its variedindustries is the point of contact with the outsideworld. It is in almost daily communication withWestern Europe and with Constantinople and theBlack Sea by means of mail-steamers under diversflags, and twice or thrice a week with Egypt. Itsown steamers serve the islands and the Asiaticports, and two lines, one Greek, the otherAustrian, keep it in constant touch with America.Four miles inland is Athens, the seat of government,and a great centre of education for Greeksfrom all lands. Here, on this eastern side of thekingdom, are concentrated its activities, political,commercial, social, and intellectual. Greece, asof old, has her face to Asia and her back toEurope.There are only two ways of reaching Greece.One is by Piraeus, which is disappointing, forthe traveller arrives in the midst of the din anddust of a somewhat sordid seaport and makes hisway to Athens by a dull road, punctuated byfactory chimneys, through a shabby suburb. Theother is from Brindisi to Corfu and Patras,whence he steams between the castles of Rhionand Anti-Rhion from the Gulf of Lepanto to theGulf of Corinth, through the heart of Greece,between ramparts of crests and peaks, whose

14 HOME LIFE IN HELLASmemory will remain with him throughout his life.That magnificent array of mountains would exciteemotion by its grandeur, but every summit isfraught with legends of gods and men. A closer inspection,however, will reveal a marked differencebetween the two sides of the gulf. The northerncoast is one of stern solitude. Beetling crags fallsheer to the water. For mile after mile there isnot a sign of habitation.there comes a hamlet.Then, at rare intervals,Galaxidi, a tiny town ona low cliff, lives entirely on the sea, peopled bymariners and those who minister to them, thebuilders of ships and the makers of masts andrigging. Within an inlet is a narrow strip ofcultivated plain, on which stands Itea, backed bythe ravine of Delphi and the snows of Parnassus.But it is a coast which repels rather than invites.Men who live on it are thrust out to sea for theirlivelihood by the sterile spurs which strike theirroots deep beneath the waters. Turn to theopposite shore, where the stone pines on the lowred cliffs almost dip into the waves. Villages, asfar as the eye can reach, gleam on the champaign.For this is the littoral of Achaia, the most denselypeopled district in Greece, the home of the currantvine, where land costs twelve times as much aselsewhere.It is the northern fringe of the Peloponnesus,a region separated from the rest of thekingdom in other ways than by the breadth ofthe gulf. Almost an islandthe Corinthianisthmus is barely three miles wide—the Pelo-

THE GREEK MAINLAND 15ponnesus is deeply indented by spacious inlets.Thus open to the tempering influence of the sea,it escapes the baking summers and harsh wintersof Northern Greece. When Thessaly is swelteringunder a pitiless sun, the Peloponnesus iscomparatively cool. When Thessaly is drapedwith snow, the oranges are ripening in Spartaand Messenia. If we climb to the top of the loftybarrier which rises behind the low coast strip, webehold a country that looks little else than amountain mass. Fan-like, ranges run south-eastwardthrough Argolis and Laconia to the stormyCape Malea, south and west through Elis andMessenia to Cape Gallo, and due south, thecentral chain, the longest and loftiest, rises intothe sharp snowy needles of Taygetus, and sinksinto the Mediterranean at rugged Matapan.There are lateral ramifications, so that the landlooks like a billowy sea of crest and ridge andpeak which gives little promise of fertility. Butthe valleys between are hidden from us ;the plainof Argos, the rolling expanse of Elis, the broadgreen vale of Sparta east of Taygetus, and therich Messenian level west of it. The garden ofGreece this last, for it is open to the winds fromAfrica and sheltered from the north by mountains.In the heart of the land is a hollow, itself fromtwo thousand to three thousand feet above sealevel,in part an undulating plain, in part woodedvalleys. This is Arcadia, where the winters arecold and the summers cool and rainy, a region of

16 HOME LIFE IN HELLASpasture and grain.The summer showers of thePeloponnesus are a feature which make itdistinctfrom the generally rainless summers of NorthernGreece. The mountains are high enough to catchand condense the watery vapours from the sea,and also to hold their snows until the dog days,when they descend to the valleys as fertilisingstreams. Thus there is no dry fallow time as inthe north. With such physical environment theproduce of the soil is naturally more varied thanin the rest of Greece. The fastidious currant vinethrives only in the Peloponnesus and the neighbouringisland of Zante. The 3700 acres of Greeksoil devoted to the cultivation of the orange arelikewise in the Peloponnesus. The connoisseurof the orange may like to know that the Messenianfruit is noted for its luscious and juicy qualities,whilst that of Sparta claims priority for itsfragrance and delicious flavour. There are 4gosquare miles of vineyards in Greece, a large proportionof which are in the islands and the Peloponnesus,but the finest vines the country growsare indisputably those of Achaia, where alone theviticulturists have succeeded in producing achampagne. 1Greece is pre-eminently the habitatof the olive. The groves cover an area of 675square miles, much of which is on islands, butthe greater portion in the Peloponnesus. Theolives of the Messenian plain known as Kalamata1Since writing the above I am informed that Tripolitza alsoproduces a sparkling wine.

THE GREEK MAINLAND 17olives are incomparably superior to any others.They are easily distinguished by their slenderpointed shape and rich brown-purple hue.Thereis said to be a secret in their preparation, but thefruit itself is no doubt the essence of the secret.They command a good price as a table delicacy,and indeed there are no others in the world toequal them, so far as the experience of the writergoes. The taste for olives, like that for caviare,is said to be an acquired one, and in so far asconcerns the green Spanish variety, known inEngland as Aceitunas de la Reina, the statementis admissible ; but that harsh and acrid productbears no relation to the delicate texture and suaveyet piquant flavour of the fruit of Kalamata. Theconnoisseur who has not tasted the latter doesnot know what the olive can be.Messenia, too,is the only region in Greece where the dateripens, a distinction it shares with only one otherspot on European soil, Elche, in Southern Spain.Though Sparta cannot boast of the date, she isjustly proud of her peaches, which are as excellentas they are abundant. The sojourner on thebanks of the Eurotas can indulge in that deliciousfruit to his heart's content without remorse forviolence done to his purse. Messenia, on theother hand, scores a triumph in figs, which arelarger and more luscious than elsewhere, and asthey ripen considerably earlier than in otherregions and are the firstto come on the market,they secure a handsome return to the growers,c

18 HOME LIFE IN HELLASKalamata has an advantage over Sparta inthatit is in direct railway communication with Athens,although farther away as the crow flies. TheSpartan must send his produce to the littleof Gythion toportbe carried by sea to Pirams, or toTripolitza and thence by rail to the capital ; butTripolitza is a long way off, and in both casesthe land transport is slow and expensive. Abranch line from Tripolitza is sorely needed.It is not easy to convey in words a notion ofwhat the Peloponnesus looks like. In an areaof such unequal relief the aspect naturally variesgreatly, though one is never out of sight of mountains.The country west of the great central rangeis much more wooded than the region east of it,though Sparta is far from being treeless. Thebarest regions are the high plateaus of Mantinaeaand Megalopolis and the tobacco-growing plain ofArgos, though the latter is relieved by frequentorange and lemon orchards ; and whilst the uplandsof Arcadia are generally speaking nude, theheaviest timber grows in the valleys leading tothem. The plane, the oak, and the fir are thechief timber trees.Conspicuous inthe Vale of Sparta are the tallpoplars rising above the expanse of mulberrytrees. The Eurotas, a clear stream, flows betweenbanks fringed with oleanders. The dominant noteof colour is rich green, relieved in winter by thegold of the orange groves, and in spring by theirsilver blossoms and the wax-like scarlet petals of

THE GREEK MAINLAND 19the pomegranate. There is a profusion of wildflowers,among which narcissi and a delicate paleblue iris hold the chief place.One is apt to invest everything Spartan with astern atmosphere, but, on the contrary, the valleyhas a smiling, contented aspect. The town ismodern. It was planned and built by the Bavariansin 1834. The heavy stone houses and broadstreets are more suited to the climate of Germanythan to that of Greece. They have plenty ofspace, however, set in the midst of gardens. Afavourite resort of the townsfolk is Platanista, alevel plot of ground in the angle formed by theconfluence of the Eurotas and the Mangoula.Tradition has itthat it was here that the Spartanboys were brought to be whipped. It is the playgroundof the youth of modern Sparta, frolicsomeurchins, unmindful of the discipline to which theirpredecessors were subjected. And here theirelders sip coffee and talk politics beneath thestately poplars, from amid whose tremblingleaves comes the soft cooing of doves. Behindrises Taygetus, a mighty mountain-wall withpinnacles of snow clear-cut against the blue.front the lofty barrier of Parnon shuts in thevalley eastward. Parnon is far off, but Taygetusbroods over Sparta and sends her hisInsnows inthe foaming waters of the Mangoula. He alsosends his coldbreath, a doubtful benefit, for thevalley, exposed only to the south wind, has a veryhigh summer temperature, and the sharp contrast

20 HOME LIFE IN HELLASbetween day and night is trying.are very short,The afternoonsfor the sun disappears early froma place which has a wall nearly 8000 feet highimmediately west of it.Behind modern Sparta,in the foreground of the Taygetus, is the Spartaof the Middle Ages, perched on a precipitousdetached rock over 2000 feet high, the Mistra ofthe Franks, the Misithra of the Byzantine despots.Built by Guillaume Villehardouin in 1247, it isone of the most remarkable relics of that bypathin the history of Greece, the Frankishdomination. The Principality of Achaia lastedwellnigh two centuries, and its many vestigeslend to the Peloponnesus that note of Westernfeudalism, with its glamour of chivalry andromance, which contrasts so sharply with thespirit of antiquity and with that of Orientalism.The abandoned city, crowned by the ivied ruinsof the castle of Villehardouin, is a unique historicalmuseum. Its frescoed churches, itsmonastery and dwellings, with the escutcheonsand devices of the knights, are rich inmediaevalFrench and Greco-Byzantine work, and mingledwith these are the baths and fountains of theTurk, ornate with inscriptions in those elegantinterlaced letters which make the Arabic charactersan unrivalled medium for complex decorativedesign.The red-tiled roofs of the villages peeping fromorchards on the slopes will strike the traveller fromNorthern Greece. A distinctive feature of the

THE GREEK MAINLAND 21Peloponnesus is the prevalence of stone dwellings.This gives the country an air of neatnessand comfort as compared with the squalid aspectof the mud walls of Thessaly. From north tosouth there isa progression of building materialfrom mud through wood to stone. It does nothold true universally, of course, especially in thetowns, but in the country generally. At Arakhova,and inthe mountains of Central Greece,the houses are usually of wood, favouring thedevelopment of that vigorous insect life which alltravellers who fare through rustic Greece must beprepared to encounter. But the battalions arelikely to be thinner in the Peloponnesian stonebuiltvillages.It is a pleasant walk from Sparta to Trypi atthe mouth of the gorge down which tumbles theMagoula. The small farms are intersected byrills of irrigation, vines are festooned in theorchards, white doves flit among them. At Trypispreading plane treesare fast anchored by theirenormous roots among the boulders of the torrentbed, and the stream is bordered by a hawthornhedge which, like the piping of the thrush,reminds one of home. So do the fair hair andblue eyes of the women striding aftertheir trottingdonkeys laden with vegetables for the town.That is one of the surprises of the Peloponnesus,to which we will return later.Trypi, like the restof the countryside, is devoted chiefly to agriculture.The silkworm occupies the important posi-

22 HOME LIFE IN HELLAStion of the pig in Ireland, and miles of mulberrytrees minister to his voracious appetite, whilst inevery household may be heard a sound like thatof a gently falling shower. It is the silkwormmunching the succulent leaf he loves. Beautiful insituation is red-roofed Trypi looking out from theshadow of the mountain over the verdant expansedown which winds the silver ribbon of Eurotas.The people are proud of their big church on itslofty rock platform, the outcome of their selfdenial.But it must not detain us, for we haverather an arduous journey ahead. We are boundfor Messenia by the Langada of Magoula, thewildest and loftiest pass of Taygetus. But stay,here comes Aphrodite—not the Paphian goddess,but a Spartan maid who bears her name, acommon one in Greece. Sturdy of limb, frank ofcountenance, the blonde tresses, escaping from thekerchief bound about her head, fall in wavymasses on her shoulders, and she brushes themaway from her great blue eyes—the blue of thewild iris of her native hills. She is clad in thesleeveless cloak, white with black-broidered edges,which bears so close a resemblance to the ecclesiasticalvestment the dalmatic, so that her greeting,Kyrie eleison, associated in the minds of usWesterns with the solemnities of religion, doesnot sound inappropriate. To her it is a part offamiliar human intercourse, and surely never wasgreeting couched in sweeter, nobler words. Shebrings us a basket of wild strawberries culled

THE LAXGADA OF MAXGOULA.\_Underwood & Ujidenvood.

THE GREEK MAINLAND 23from the mountain-side—those small, long, deepcrimson berries whose fragrance and flavour noneof garden growth can approach. Take her gift,but do not offer her money. The Greeks ofSparta are proud, nor must any of the rusticpopulation be measured by the moral standard ofthe Greeks in Levantine seaports. So we thankAphrodite, who wishes us a safe journey andrejoins her friend Euphrosyne. Once more shewaves her hand, and her last word is Khairete—Farewell. The two graceful figures, with linkedarms, are the last we see of Trypi and of Sparta,as we turn to face the pass. The path leads atfirstbetween walls of yellowish rock veined withgreen and red. Like most passes, it follows thecourse of a stream in the gorge it has hollowed.Alpine scenery is much the same everywhere.Naked rocks, belts of dark pines, and occasionalglimpses of snowy crests above—with lateralravines to be negotiated—they are not bridgedin this Langada. It has been improved of lateyears, and one has not to dismount so frequently.There are creepy bits nevertheless, where theledge is uncomfortably inclined towards the edgeof the precipice — places where the schist is smoothand slippery, others where the path is of loosescrees, and passage of man and mule sends thepebbles bounding into the abyss. Altogether itis satisfactory to trust to one's own feet for muchof the road, and watch the clever way in which themules turn awkward corners, carefully measuring

24 HOME LIFE IN HELLASdistances, poised sometimes on a rocky point withallfour hoofs brought together, more like a chamoisthan a member of the equine race. Thesurroundings are of the same titanic character asin similar regions in Switzerland. The Langadaof Taygetus differs perhaps in the colossaltrees which mingle with the firsplanein the bed of thetorrent, which is for the most part invisiblebeneath a bower of foliage, and in one placedisappears altogether into the bowels of the earth,in one of those katavothroi not uncommon inGreece. One is glad to reach the summit, whereThethere is a little chapel dedicated to St. Elias.altitude is given as 4250 feet. North and souththere is a vista of stately peaks rising nearly ashigh again, and westward one looks down on theMessenian plain and the blue gulf with Kalamataat its head. The landscape has a hue of richvelvety green, dotted with white splashes ofvillage. It looks very fat and inviting, as nodoubt it did to the Spartans of old. It takes along time to reach it, however, and the chancesare that the traveller has to sleep at Lada, a roughmountain village with none of the amenities ofTrypi.Kalamata is the most important town in thePeloponnesus after Patras, and villadom attestsits prosperity. The old part of the town is beneaththe citadel, which dates from 1204.Frank,Genoese, Turk, Venetian, and Turk again haveheld the place in turn, and there are vestiges of

THE GREEK MAINLAND 25each. The staple products of the neighbourhoodare fruit and silk. The forest of Koumbes, whichextends from near Navarino to Androutsa, containsoaks of gigantic size. One soon perceivesthe timbered character of this side of the country,as well as the richness of the vegetation. Thegardens in which the houses are embowered havea sub-tropical character which recalls Egypt. Theolive trees are in forests rather than in groves,and they are well tended. One sees few of thegnarled old trunks which are picturesque, but donot pay. The orchards of orange and pomegranateare interlaced with vines trained from treeto tree, and enclosed by hedges of aloes or of thegiant cactus, which bears the prickly pear, andtogether with the date palms reminds us thatAfrica is not far off. This warmest corner of thekingdom might be termed Grcecia Felix, but theamari aliquid exists in the malarial fevers whichcurse every district left undrained, more particularlythe enclosed valleys in the mountains andthe low strips on the coast. The valley of theNeda, which runs into the western sea, isstuddedwith trees which attain an enormous girth — planes,evergreen oaks, and sycamore figs. South of theNeda the currant vine flourishes as well as on theAchaean littoral. The slopes are covered withvine, almond, and olive, and higher up the mountainsthe villages are girt about with orchards ofapricot and pear. Such is the general aspect ofthe South - Western Peloponnesus. Into this

26 HOME LIFE IN HELLASmeridional luxuriance is intruded a northern note.Not far from Mavromati, the ancient Messene,where the River Leukasia joins the Mavrozumenos,there is a bridge that recalls the triplebridge near Crowland Abbey.From two piers inthe centre, arches lead in three different directionsto the three points of land formed by the confluence.Ruined castles, the strongholds of Frankishbarons, crown the heights, not only at Coron, atModon, and at Navarino, but on many an inlandcrest. Most imposing of these is Karytenia, on astupendous crag washed on three sides by theAlphaeus. Karytenia, which is in a tolerablestate of preservation, was built by Hugh deBrienne, one of that famous house which numberedamong its scions three Constables of France,a King of Jerusalem,an Emperor of Constantinople,and two Dukes of Athens, the last survivorof which fell at the battle of Poitiers.Karyteniahas memories of later times, for it was successfullyheld by Kolokotrones against Ibrahim Pasha duringthe War of Independence. It is a fittingeyrie both for the freebooting barons of the MiddleAges and the old Klepht chieftain who is one ofthe heroes of nineteenth-century Greece. Forhere we are in Arcadia, the region whose namehas become a symbol for rural innocence andpeace. These riven peaks, deep gorges, sombreforests, and beetling cliffshardly make a settingfor the sentimental shepherds and shepherdessesof Watteau philandering on smooth-shaven lawns,

THE GREEK MAINLAND 27and the "royal goatherds in silkand lace" whoplayed at being Arcadians in the seventeenthcentury.It was a strange caprice of the Renaissanceto invest the rudest and remotest portion ofthe Peloponnesus with an atmosphere of ease andelegance. Theocritus sang of Sicilian shepherds,and they were rustic folk at least. The artificialshepherds of Virgil were not. But neither pretendedthat they were Arcadians.It was probablythe glamour of the unknown that led to the peoplingof Arcadia with imaginary inhabitants. Forthe real Arcadia was cut off from the world bymountain ramparts, a land of lofty plateaus andgloomy valleys where the winter snows lay long,the nurse of a race hardy, but dull of understanding,a consequence of itsisolation from the currentof humanity. The savage cult of Saturnlingered there for centuries after it had died outelsewhere, and throughout the most brilliantperiod of Greece we seek invain for an Arcadianpoet, philosopher, or artist. Philopcemen, thestatesman and patriot, and Polybius, the historian,were products of Megalopolis, a city within thebounds of Arcadia, but having nothing in commonwith Arcadian life, and itself the creation ofa foreigner, the Theban Epaminondas. But ifArcadia failed to give her children the arts andgraces of life,she bred in them the stern virtuesof patience, sobriety, truthfulness, and courage.Like the Swiss of the Middle Ages, they were themercenary soldiers of Greece. From their rough

28 HOME LIFE IN HELLAScradle they brought the qualities which made theirservices valued, and so they fought the battles ofothers for the bread which the niggard soil oftheir country grudged them. Melibceus did notcarve the name ofhis love on the boles of trees,for he could not write. Neither did he carry aribboned-crook, nor were the pipes ever at hislips ; but the quiver was always at his back andthe bow in his ready hand.Pastoral occupations become a necessity wheretillage is impossible, and in every land the wildestdistricts are the domain of the shepherd, who isthe most uncultured element in the population,and also the hardiest. The youths of Sparta werenot kept in the valley, but sent up into Taygetusto acquire the training which they turned toaccount against the Messenians of the plain. Itwas there they used to thrash the statue of Panwhen the supply of game was short, as Neapolitansin these times upbraid San Gennaro for permittingVesuvius to become unruly, and as someof the inhabitants of South America duck theimage of their tutelary saint in a well forneglectingto protect them from flood or pestilence orearthquake. And so, to-day, the Arcadian mountaineersare noted for their strength and hardihood,and are perforce shepherds. Every cottagehas itsflock, tended during the day by children,elusive, faun-like beings, who manifest neitherpleasure nor discontent nor surprise at thepresence of the stranger, so unlike in this to the

THE GREEK MAINLAND 29inquisitive, obtrusive Greek child of the towns andvillages of the lowlands. At sunset they arerelieved of their task by their fathers, who keepwatch by night against wolf and robber. At theend of October all the live stock is moved to theplains, marching in solid phalanx, goats insheep infront,the middle, mules and donkeys behind,the well-armed shepherds and their fierce dogson either flank. The Arcadian shepherd is nota communicative person, but if occasion arisesfor colloquy, itis well to be to windward of him,if you do not regard the odour of garlic in thelight of an agreeable perfume, and to keep arespectful distance from his dog. The demeanourof the latter, however, generally repders thisadvice superfluous.A glance at the map willof Arcadia isshow how the surfacecorrugated by a complex mountainsystem. There are two plateaus, roughly oval,where husbandry prevails. They are divided bythe range of Mcenalos, the plain of Mantinaea tothe north-east, and that of Megalopolis to thesouth-west. Both grow grain, and on that ofMantinaea hemp isis smuggled into Egypt, where itscultivated for hasheesh whichimportation isillicit. The plain is subject to inundations whichcause it to be malarious in some districts, especiallynear the ancient sites of Tegaea and Mantinaea.Tripolitza—Tripolis is its official designation—owesits name, it is said, to its havingbeen built from the debris of three antique cities,

30 HOME LIFE IN HELLASTegasa, Mantinaea, and Pallantion. It is, however,itself modern, dating from the eighteenthcentury, when it was chosen by the Turks as thecapital of the Morea, probably on account of itscentral position. The present town was built in1828, the former one having been destroyed bythe Turks during the War of Independence.is the centre of the iron industry for the Peloponnesus,why it is not easy to say, for theneighbourhood produces no iron, and its situation,remote from any seaport, isItunfavourable for theimportation of the raw material, as well as forthe distribution of the manufactured article. Theindustry gives it its chief importance, and makesit black and busy. It has also a large trade insheepskins. It is one of the most unpicturesqueplaces in Greece. The plain is monotonous, andbounded by bare mountains. Its elevated situation,three thousand feet above sea-level, andexposed to the north winds, makes it bleak inwinter, when the snow often lies on the groundfor a considerable time. Notwithstanding thesedrawbacks, there seems to have been a dispositionon the part of the Greeks to follow the lead of theTurks in giving it prominence, for in 1875 aroyal palace was begun there, and some progresswas made with the walls, which still remain ; butthe King abandoned the idea, and chose Tatoi,which is still his favourite residence. The plainof Megalopolis is devoted almost entirely to thecultivation of wheat, barley, and maize, whilst

THE GREEK MAINLAND 31that of Mantinaea is in part vineyards, a trade inwine having its centre at Tripolitza.The valley of the Alphasus leads from Arcadiainto the plain of Elis. The upper portion isthickly wooded with oak and plane, and rapidaffluents come down through clefts in the redearth. The steep slopes are covered with massesofrhododendrons, a magnificent spectacle whenin bloom. Lower down, the river sprawls overa wide and shallow bed with numerous islets,whence colossal plane trees rise from an undergrowthof laurel and myrtle. This is a characteristicand oft-recurring feature of the country.The planes love to root themselves in torrent beds,feeding on the moisture which filtersbelow, theirdense green foliage contrasting sharply with thetattered pines on the heights. Some of the mostromantic situations in the Peloponnesus are tofound in the Erymanthus range, the border-linebetween Achaia and Arcadia. Its summits areseen from the Gulf of Corinth and Patras.beHereare some of the most extensive oak forests, overlookedby threatening precipices. The mountainsof Achaia abound in fine scenery, and a good ideamay be obtained of it with little fatigue by ajourney on the mountain railway which connectsKalavryta with Diakophtou, a station on the linebetween Corinth and Patras. The Kalavrytarailway, which is on the Abt system, is a daringpiece of engineering, and the diminutive trainclimbs the gorge in a most wonderful way, dodg-

32 HOME LIFE IN HUl^ASing awkward corners through short tunnels,crossing and recrossing the ravine by bridges ata dizzy height above the boiling torrent, affordingfleeting visions of terrible grandeur mingled withbits of exquisite beauty.of the cliffsFor in spring the ledgesare shelves overflowing with flowers.Daisies are especially profuse, blooming in everycranny and fractuosity of the rock. We meetwith many of our familiar favourites inthe floraof the Peloponnesus— hawthorn and dog-rose,woodbine and the wild convolvulus, whilst thecrocus, the cyclamen, and the divine blue of thesquill greet us as high as we care to climb.Theanemone, too, is with us everywhere, not our paleflowers of the woods, but a variety of rich andbrilliant hues, making a gorgeous carpet.the flowers strange to us atof the asphodel are most abundant.Amonghome, the tall spikesBut it is time to turn from the land to its people.There are many spots to which the author wouldfain take his readers—the glen in Argolis whichleads to Epidauros ;majestic Ithome, most beautifulof Greek mountains ;Kyllene and the falls ofthe Styx; Stromion, where the Neda plunges underground,and where in summer, when its bed isdry, one may walk through itsbristling with coloured stalactites ;tunnelled coursethe wonderfulrock of Monemvasia, that hoary relic of theMiddle Ages which gave its name to the Malmseywine of our forefathers;BassEe, where on a loftyspur of Lykaion stands that lonely temple dedi-

THE KALAVRYTA RAILWAY.{.Underwood &• Underwood.

THE GREEK MAINLAND 33cated to Apollo the Helper, on a site which makesit the most impressive of all Greek ruins. Onewho has been there cannot look at the Centaursand Lapiths, the Greeks and Amazons of thefrieze in the British Museum which adorned thebuilding of Ictinus, without recalling the splendourof its natural surroundings.Mention of the remains of antiquity in thesepages has been avoided as far as possible. Theyconstitute, of course, the supreme interest ofGreece, but adequate descriptions of them are tobe found in the guide-books, and for those whoseek a fuller knowledge, there are the works ofspecialists, scholars, archaeologists, architects,artists, historians. But in this particular caseit is impossible to disconnect the site from thetemple which gives it significance.for the existence of the temple the siteCertainly butwould nothave been visited ; and in like manner, were it notfor ancient Greece, modern Greece would be comparativelyunknown. This would be a pity, for,apart from its august associations, the land hasmany charms, as this very imperfect sketch of itattempts to show.We were in the train winding up the ravine towardsKalavryta, and as we are going to saysomething about the inhabitants of the Peloponnesus,we could not have chosen a more suitablespot, for the Peloponnesus is the most Greekportion of Greece. It is the citadel of Hellenism.And here in Achaia new Hellas was born. InD

34 HOME LIFE IN HELLASFebruary, 1821, there was a littlemeeting at Vostizza,only a few miles from Diakophtou, thestation from which we started. On the 7th April,at Patras, in the church, before the HolyMysteries, the people took an oath to free Greeceor die. The Archbishop of Patras was summonedto Tripolitza, the seat of the Turkish Government.He came here instead, with a few friends, and atthe convent of Megaspeleion, which we shallreach presently—it is about three-quarters of theway to Kalavryta—the flag of liberty was firstraised in that same month of April, 1821. In1827 the Greek Government was established atNauplia, and that Peloponnesian city was thecapital until King Otho removed to Athens in1834.The raising of the standard of revolt is commemoratedannually on the 6th April (25th Aprilof the Greek calendar). But the revolution wasgeneral on the 2nd April. The flag is preservedat the monastery of Lavra, situated betweenMegaspeleion and Kalavryta. It is a whitebanner without the blue cross, but inscribed withthe words—IIpo EXeufep/a?—For Liberty.It wasthere that Archbishop Germanos repaired fromKalavryta after disobeying the summons to Tripolitza.But it was within the convent of Megaspeleionthat the plans were first discussed, andthe monks collected money for arms for some timeere the first outbreak. When that occurred, itwas there that the women and children took

THE GREEK MAINLAND 35refuge. A year or two later, when war ragedfiercely, the monks successfully defended itagainst the Egyptian troops of Ibrahim Pasha.Thus the spot is sacred ground for the Hellenicnation, for it was here and at Aigion (Vostizza),on the shore below that a new Achaian Leaguelaid the foundations of Free Greece. Megaspeleion,as its name implies, is a great cave inthe facethe sea.of a precipice three thousand feet aboveThe facade of the convent is built acrossthe mouth of the cave, and seen from below looksas though it were plastered on the face of the cliffwhich overhangs it—a sort of huge martin's nest.More will be said about it in another chapter.The torch of freedom was kindled in Achaiaand Greece was re-established as a nation inArgolis, two facts of which the Peloponnesiansare justly proud. The first National Assemblywas held at Piade, near Epidauros, in the Decemberof 1 82 1. At Larissa, the fortress ofArgos, the defeat of the Turks in 1822 led tothe Proclamation of Independence, and the firstseat of Government, as we have seen, was at Nauplia.The Peloponnesus had seen less of Turkishrule than the rest of the Greek mainland. It wasthe battlefield of Ottoman and Venetian in theseventeenth century, and was ruled by Venicefrom 1699 to 17 1 5. Its inhabitants are of diverseorigin. The Slavs were expelled or absorbedafter their final defeat at the battle of Patras in807 a.d. The Franks, when they invaded the

36 HOME LIFE IN HELLAScountry in 1205, found isolated Slav communities—the Melings on Taygetus, and the Skortans onthe heights between Elis and Arcadia, but theGreek was preponderant. Nor did the Frankishdomination materially affect him. He remainedthe dominant factor. The origin of the Albaniansin the Peloponnesus is obscure. The fiscal rapacityof the Byzantine Government led to thedepopulation of the country, and Theodore, Despotof Misithra, who died in 1407, introducedAlbanian colonists, and there were further intrusions,notably in1463, after the Turks had conqueredNauplia. But there were probablyimmigrations previous to these. 1 At present theAlbanian element dominates in Argolis, and inCorinthia, in the southern part of Elis, and on thewest coast from the mouth of the Alphasus toNavarino. But the Albanian of the Peloponnesushas retained less of his individuality than theAlbanian of Attica, who has in a measure preservedhis tongue, though that is disappearing.In 1830 the Bavarian officials had to learnAlbanian, and there was formerly a tribunal atAthens in which that language was used.During the Venetian rule in the eighteenthcentury the population doubled owing to a greatinflux of Northern Greeks, and in 182 1 and thefollowing years, when the Peloponnesus alone wasfree, thousands of Greeks flocked into it from all1They are mentioned as mercenaries of Nicephorus Vasilakiin 1075.

THE GREEK MAINLAND 37parts of the Turkish dominions. There are twoother elements of the population—the Mainotesand the Tzakones. These have probably moreright to claim descent from the Greeks of antiquitythan any other section of the Greek-speaking peoplesof to-day. They are, in any case, very interestingvestiges of the past, the Tzakones mainly onaccount of their language and the Mainotes for theirdistinct individuality and customs.In both respectsthey have remained isolated and unchanged.The Mainotes inhabit the central prong of thetrident formed by the three great southern promontoriesof the Peloponnesus. The Tzakonesare found on the western prong, the ancientLaconia, which terminates in Cape Malea, theCape St. Angelo of the Middle Ages, whosesqualls were occasioned by the fanning of thewings of the Archangel Michael. Both are brave.They took the chief share in driving out theFranks in the days of the Emperor Michael VIII.But they differ in other respects. The Tzakonesare honest and peaceful, and whilst they tradedall over the ^Egean, the Mainotes were engagedin piracy and plunder. The Tzakones number atpresent about fifteen thousand families, one thousandof which are settled at Leonidi, on thewestern side of the Gulf of Nauplia. They wereformerly more numerous. The province ofTzakonia was extensive when the Franks came,and the Chronicle of the Morea 1 speaks of it as1Composed about 1300 a.d.

38 HOME LIFE IN HELLASapart from the rest of the Morea. In 1573Crusius found fourteen Tzakonian villages betweenMonemvasia and Nauplia. There are nowonly seven. In Byzantine times there was aTzakonian colony at Constantinople. The menserved in the fleet, and their skill as mariners washighly esteemed. In those days the Tzakonesoccupied the whole of the country from Argolis toCape Malea. To this day they speak a tonguewhich in vocalisation and in distinct grammaticalforms is recognised by philologists as a survival ofa dialect of Doric. No other idiom of modernGreek is of so ancient a type. 1 The schoolmasterin Greece, as elsewhere, is the arch-enemy oftraditional modes of speech, but Tzakonic, thoughmuch reduced in area, still lives on the Laconianshore, and it is a warrantable presumption toattribute to the Tzakones a more direct descentfrom the ancient inhabitants of the country thanany other section of the population. Hopf, whocombats the theory of Fallmerayer as to the Slavorigin of the modern Greeks, upholds it, strangeto say, as regards the Tzakones. Bishop Willibaldon his pilgrimage to the Holy Land in theeighth century touched at Monemvasia, to which1The Tzakonian lang-uag-e is treated of in Leake's Researchesin Greece, p. 196 ; also in his Peloponnesiaca, p. 304. Thoseseeking fuller information may be referred to Fr. Thiersch :" Ueberdie Sprache der Zakonen," published in the Transactions of theRoyal Academy of Science of Munich in 1832 ; to G. Deville£tude du dialecte Tzaconien (Paris, 1866) ; and to the Vpn/i/mrud)•riji To-aKWi/i/riJs SioMktou (Athens, 1870) of M. Th. Oikonomos, aTzakonian by birth.

THE GREEK MAINLAND 89he alludes as being in the Slavonian land. SirRennell Rodd points out that a Slav tribe mergedin the pre-existing population may have left itsname behind in a region where a language hadsurvived, not understood by the rest of the Greeks.It is a popular belief that the Mai notes havenever been conquered. It would be more exacttosay that they have never willingly submittedto control, and have been successful inrepellinginvasions, and they have invariably obtainedfavourable treatment from the dominant power.Even now they enjoy immunity from the greaterportion of the taxes to which the restof Greeceis subjected. They were certainly reduced byVillehardouin, who built his castle of "GrantMaigne, " near Cape Matapan in 1468. Theirland was ravaged by the Catalans in 1601, and in1614 they were subdued by the Turks and madeto pay tribute, not a heavy one. Legend saysthat it consisted of as much gold as would lie onthe flat of a sword, and another version has itthat a purse was presented hanging at the pointof a sword.Their period of greatest liberty wasduring the Venetian rule of the Peloponnesus,when they were practically independent. Theyhave never easily acknowledged any centralauthority. They rebelled against the GreekGovernment in 1831, and again in 1834, whenthe Bavarian regency ordered them to destroytheir towers. Yet they rendered noble service toGreece in the War of Independence.Twice they

40 HOME LIFE IN HELLASrepulsed Ibrahim Pasha, in 1825 and 1826, whenhe advanced against them from both sides. Butfirstthey made a preliminary raid on the villagesfor the freedom of whose inhabitants they werefighting. For they preserved one characteristicof the Spartans, 1from whom they claim descent,in exalting plunder to the rank of a virtue, thoughthey were never mercenary brigands nor vulgarfootpads. Maina is not all barren, as is oftensupposed. The districts east and west of theirpeninsula export oil, valonea, and red-dye. It isin Mesa-Maine, the shelf which runs along themountain-spine, and the wind-swept rocky extremityof Matapan, that grain is a luxury, andbarley is sown in the crevices of the rocks. Herethe ordinary fare consists of black cakes madefrom lupins, " the grapes of Maina," and the fruitof the wild cactus replaces the figs of morefavoured regions. Flights of quails which areexported to France yield an uncertain revenue tothe people. This is the Kakavoulia, "the landof evil designs," for long centuries the nursery ofpirates. It was to it that Abbot Benedict ofPeterborough referred in the Itinerary ofRichard I—gens mala ibi est. And ill folk they certainlywere until comparatively recent times. But injusticehas been done the Mainotes by assumingthe Kakavouliotes to be representative of the1 A Mainote priest told an English traveller who visited Mainain the early nineteenth century that the predatory habits of thepeople were derived from the laws of Lycurgus.

THE GREEK MAINLAND 41whole people. However, piracy is extinct. Emigrationhas replaced it, and education is graduallyeffacing distinctive peculiarities. Yet Maina isconservative, as it has always been. It remainedpagan until nearly the end of the ninth century,and to-day presents aspects of a primitivestate of society. Maina is the original home ofthe blood feud, which it is supposed to have introducedto Corsica as the vendetta. The Mainotecolony which settled in that island in 1673 stillexists at Cargese. The vendetta survives in spiteof the law, though to nothing like the same extentas when, sometimes for twenty years, familieswere atfeud, and reconciliation only came aboutafter many members on both sides had fallen.Some of the loopholed tower dwellings, whichwere a necessity in those days, still exist. Theentrance is reached only by a ladder, which incase of feud was always drawn up. The womenonly left the dwelling, for according to the law ofvendetta they are inviolable, as are the guests.A person whose life is sought goes scatheless ifhe accompanies a guest. The Mainote scrupulouslyobserves the rules of the game, andholds the common assassin in supreme contempt.Outside the bounds of Maina the feud ceases, andno self-respecting Mainote would attack a foebeyond its borders.For, whatever may be thoughtof the practice, it has its chivalrous side.Treachery is abhorred, and due notice must begiven of intention to attempt the life of a foe. It

42 HOME LIFE IN HELLASbelongs to a barbarous social code, but it is law,and far removed from lawless murder. Indeed,itsexistence militates against the ignoble brawlsso frequently attended by fatal results, toofrequent in Greece, and from which Mainais comparatively free. Another and pleasanterfeature is the duty of hospitality and the sacrednessof the guest, as well as the respect entertainedfor women. The Mainote at home leavesmost of the work to the woman, but her person issafe wherever she goes. The Mainote mothercarries her child in a sheepskin bag which shehangs on a branch whilst she tills the field, oron a nail whilst she kneads the bread, singing tohim war songs the while as a lullaby. Whenhe is ten, his father takes him in hand and teacheshim, as a first duty, to handle a gun. Thoughaverse to work at home, the Mainote will workabroad. He finds his way to America, but notfrequently. The Greek army depends largely onhim for its non-commissioned officers, for hereally likes soldiering, and often remains in theservice after his compulsory term has expired.He is very clannish, like all mountaineers, andthere is great solidarity amongst Mainote communitiesin other parts of Greece. In commonwith other Greeks they are keen to avail themselvesof education. Many Greek army officersare Mainotes, and there are some holding importantcivil appointments. It is perhaps as well tosay that the traveller in Maina is safer than the

THE GREEK MAINLAND 43stranger in London or Paris. South of Gythionhe will find no inn, but the Mainotes in the capitalare only too pleased to furnish a letter of introduction.One will suffice, for it will procure himothers, and theMainotes are exceedingly hospitable.He will see nothing of vendettas, forthough Mainotes affirm that vendetta law stillholds good, they seem of late to be of opinionthat the custom is "one more honoured in thebreach than the observance." He will meet withnothing more remarkable in the matter of dressthan an occasional survival of the baggy breeches,which are more common on the islands. Oddlyenough, Athens, with all its modernity, is thebest place in Greece for costume. The Albaniansof the Attic plain and the neighbouring island ofSalamis still wear it, both men and women, andsome of them are constantly in and out of town.In the more remote districts the unpicturesque,but far less costly European clothes, mostly" ready made," have supplanted it, and so it is inMaina.But if the traveller is prepared for simplefare and primitive accommodation, there is noreason why he should not penetrate as far asTagnarum, where he will find the mouth of Tartarus,through which Hercules dragged up "thehound of Hell," a cave of modest dimensions, andnot in any way terrible, beneath the hill on whichstands the Chapel of the Asomaton, part of whosewalls almost certainly belonged to the Temple ofPoseidon, to whom the inhabitants of Maina clung

44 HOME LIFE IN HELLASlong after the rest of the world had embraced theFaith first unfolded to Greece on the AthenianAreopagus.Here on this bleak headland ofMatapan, theUltima Thule of the Peloponnesus, we will takeleave of its people. They are, as we have seen,diverse in origin and in environment, but theyhave been welded into a more homogeneous massthan the denizens of any other part of the kingdom.The force which has moulded them, whichhas determined the type of nationality, is theHellenic spirit, whose work was finally accomplishedin the War of Independence. ThePeloponnesus may be termed, in truth, the heartof Hellas. Its inhabitants taken altogether aremore sympathetic than in other regions. This isno doubt in part owing to their social condition.The small farm and individual ownership are therule, and they conduce to the formation of a sober,frugal, industrious, and worthy people. Themanners of the rural population are gentler herethan elsewhere, and this is perhaps due to thegreater attention paid by parents to the educationof their children. The school attendance inLaconia and Argolis is larger in proportion thanin any other provinces of mainland Greece. TheCyclades bear the palm in this respect.The term Peloponnesus has been used in thesepages because it is the official designation, as itwas up to the Turkish conquest, with the exceptionof the Frankish and Venetian periods.The


THE GREEK MAINLAND 45Franks used the word Morea exclusively, butthe Venetians appear to have alternated it withPeloponnese. They gave Morosini as a mark ofhonour the title of the Peloponnesian. Thederivation of Morea from the Greek morea onaccount of the supposed resemblance of the outlineof the peninsula to that of a mulberry leaf ispurely fanciful.It has a much closer resemblanceto the leaf of the Oriental plane, as Strabo observes.The Slav word more, the sea, has beensuggested, and rejected as against the principle ofSlavonic derivation.Moreover the Slav tongue,if it were ever the dominant one, had practicallydisappeared before the advent of the name Morea.The assumption of Hopf seems to be reasonable,namely, that Moraia arose by metathesis fromRomaia, the country of the Romaioi, but he wasmistaken in supposing that the word was unknownbefore the Frankish conquest. The Franksarrived in1205, and the name has been discoveredby Mr. Sathas in a manuscript in the BritishMuseum dated mi. Personally, the authorprefers Morea, as being easier to utter andto write, but it has fallen into almost completedesuetude.There remains to be noticed yet one section ofthe inhabitants of the Greek mainlandthe nomadVlach shepherds of Pindus.Rightly they shouldhave been placed among the folk of NorthernGreece.But they wander periodically beyond itslimits, and differ so much from the rest of the

46 HOME LIFE IN HELLASpopulation—although Greek in creed and nationality—thatthey may be classed apart.It is not possible to fix with precision the limitsof this singular people. 1They extend far beyondthe Greek frontier into Turkey, but within thekingdom they wander along the central range ofPindus, westward to the Agrapha district, eastwardalong Mount (Eta to the shores of Locris,and southward to the Gulf of Corinth, which istheir boundary line. Parnassus, Helicon, andCithseron are theirs, and they stretch along theAttic hills, Parnes, Pentelicus, and Hymettus, toCape Sunium. The Peloponnesus knows themnot, but they hold the mountains of Eubcea.winter they descend to the lowlands, and arefound on the plain of Attica in the neighbourhoodInThe origin of the Vlachs is obscure. Some writers claim for1them an ancient Thracian parentage which would give themracial priority to the Hellenes. They are, at present, mainly confinedto the mountain-rib of Grammos and Pindus, though theyare found in Macedonia and Bulgaria. Their centre may be placedat Metzovo, between Trikala and Yanina. They are passionatelyaddicted to wandering. In Turkey they own pack-horses, andare often pedlars on a large scale. They have a common tongue,a Latin dialect which has an affinity with the Roumanian language,though their relation to the Roumanian nation is notprecisely known. They emigrate to other lands, where some ofthem have amassed fortunes as bankers. In spite of their migratingpropensities, they are the best builders in Turkey. Theirhouses are better than any others, and formerly they had a reputationfor the construction of cupolas. Their sympathies areHellenic and their creed Orthodox. It would be grossly unjustto regard the rude shepherds here described as representatives ofthe Vlach people, a race physically and mentally well-endowed,which has furnished Greece with some of her most distinguishedcitizens.

THE GREEK MAINLAND 47of the capital, in Bceotia near Thebes, in Megaris,on the marshy levels about Marathon, and inthecountry round Livadia and Lamia. When theyhave sold their lambs forEaster and when theirewes have lost their milk, so that they can travelwith safety, they seek the heights again, wherethey remain until the following winter. Thesemigrations are effected in a leisurely fashion, fromthe plain to the lower hills and thence to the loftierranges, and vice versa, so that they attain theirgreatest altitude in the summer heats and reachtheirlowest level in mid-winter, when they pitchtheir goat-hair tents and form their mandra orsheepfold. On the mountains they construct rudehuts of brushwood and pine branches, where thewomen and children remain, whilst the men leadthe flocks along the high plateaus, sleeping in theopen in all weathers, wrapped in their thickgrey woollen cloaks. This is their life formonths together, alone with their dogs andtheir charges. Thus one rarely sees their womenexcept when they are on the line of march.These latter are strong, bony, ill-favouredcreatures, harsh of voice, leathern-skinned, cladin coarse homespun, and very dirty withal.last remark applies also toand long, tight woollen hose areThisthe men, whose kiltsof any hue butwhite, their original colour. Garments whichare very rarelychanged, and are always slept in,as well as the sheepskins which are used as couchesin the mandra, are strongly suggestive of vermin.

48 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThe appearance of the men isnot prepossessing.Their long, matted hair, bleached into a dullrusset by exposure to the weather, and rough,unkempt beard, frame a long, osseous countenancewith a receding forehead and eyes close set oneither side of a thin aquiline nose. The expressionis cunning, distrustful, and indicative of lurkingmalevolence. Nor does it belie the character ofhim who wears it. The Vlach shepherd is ingeneral hostile in his attitude to the settledpopulation, with which he has as few relationsas possible.His taciturnity places him in markedcontrast to the loquacious Greek, ever eager fora chat with a stranger. He speaks Greek after hismanner, but it is hard to comprehend his roughdialect, as he jerks out uncouth words. Butamong his own people he talks a jargon based onthe Latin idiom spoken by theRuman Vlachs ofthe north. He is orthodox so far as he has anyreligion.His orthodoxy consists chiefly in sendingfor a priest to bless hismarriage, but he doesnot wait until a priest is within hail, and thereligious ceremony usually comes after themarriage. The chelingas or head-man of eachstani or community pays a small sum for theright of winter pasturage in the lowlands. Butthere citizenship ends. The Vlach ignores thelaw and defies it. His presence in the vicinity ofcivilisation is marked by rapine. He will stealthe flocks of the peasant when he can, and willpasture his own flocks on their growing crops.

THE GREEK MAINLAND 49He is a nuisance to the neighbourhood he visits,and the peasantry are heartily glad when he takeshis departure in spring to share the mountain withthe wild boar and the eagle. Devastation markshis progress. He is the chief cause of thedestruction of the forests with itsserious climaticeffects. His goats devour all the young shootsand bark and kill the saplings, and he is usuallythe author of the forest fires which have doneso much to denude the country.It was from theVlach shepherds that the brigands were mainlyrecruited when brigandage was rife. WhenMr. Vyner and his companions were murderednear Marathon in 1870, six out of the sevenbrigands captured were Vlach shepherds. Thehorror and indignation aroused throughoutEurope by that tragedy put theGreek Governmenton its mettle, and efficient measures weretaken to rid the country of an intolerable scourge.Since then Central Greece has been as free ofbrigandage as the Peloponnesus, and the convenientneighbourhood of the northern frontierhas been the only region at all insecure. ThoseVlachs who did not take an active part in theexploits of brigands were always ready to aidthem. They gave information as to the routeof an intended victim, kept watch whilst thecapturewas being made, signalled the approachof danger when troops were in pursuit, and theintermediary when the ransom was being negotiatedwas almost always a shepherd. That

50 HOME LIFE IN HELLASsphere of activity is now happily obsolete, but ifthere are still potential bandits in the land they areto be found in the shepherd population of thePindus, and it is on that range and in themountains of ^Etolia that the lawless elementwould display itself were political convulsions toupset the reign of order in the country. Theterm Greek brigand as used by Westerns is for themost part a misnomer. The brigands were innearly all cases Vlachs or Albanians, and theassertion that the Greek peasantry were in leaguewith them was a libel on a people in the mainhonest, upright and hospitable. Who the realabettors were has been shown. The peasant wasat the mercy of the brigands, and he knew thatif he denounced them he would be subject toreprisals of the most atrocious character, instancesof which were only too fresh in his memory. Butthe moment he received the least support from theGovernment he was foremost in the field. Thusthe villagers of Arakhova organised themselvesand destroyed the band of Daveli, who hadestablished himself on Parnassus, and for yearshad made that famous mountain a name of terror,free only to his kinsmen the shepherds. He hadcome, like the rest of them from the north, fromPindus, and, like the rest, his operations had fortheir terrain the eastern plains. The centralspine and rugged north-west of Greece wasalways the breeding-ground of brigands, whencethey descended to the eastern lowlands, where

THE GREEK MAINLAND 51there was most booty.Daveli's followers variedin numbers, sometimes they were sixty strong,miscreants of the blackest dye. One of theirhabits was to plunge the feet of their captives intoboiling oil to make them divulge the whereaboutsof their treasure. The threat was usually enough,however. They acted with cynical effrontery andfor a long time with impunity. Even so far off asChalcis, inEubcea, they carried off a young girlof a well-to-do family in broad daylight. It wasone Christmas Day, and her parents were payingvisits. Her shoes were cut to pieces by the rocks,and one of the band walked calmly into Livadiato buy another pair. They sent down to thevillage of Kastri (Delphi) for a priest, takinggood care that the worthy cleric obeyed thesummons, in order that the young lady shouldnot lack spiritual consolation. Pending negotiationsthey frequently displayed her on points of therocks visible from below, in order that her friendsmight know she was alive and well. They wereplaying for a heavy ransom, and they got it.Eventhen, Daveli was not sure of his own cut-throats,and sent her under the care of a shepherd, byanother way down the mountain. He did notwish to lose his reputation and the chance ofanother rich capture. But things did not alwaysend so pleasantly. The band had many murdersto its account. Did the slightest suspicion reston any peasant as to betrayal of their hidingplace,however groundless, he was made away

52 HOME LIFE IN HELLASwith. The day of reckoning came at last. Themountain was surrounded by troops and the bandwas gradually pushed into a defile. But it wasthe peasantry of Arakhova under the leadershipof one Megas who really came to close quarterswith and exterminated it.Twenty-six out of thethirty of which it was then composed were killed,and so cheated the gallows. Daveli died by thehand of Megas, who himself fell shortly afterwards.A stone on the spot—it is, by the way, thescene of the unwitting parricide of CEdipusrecords the event, and the tragoudi which commemoratesthe heroic death of Megas is stillchanted in Arakhova.Before leaving the shepherds, their dogs claima word. We are apt to associate the name ofsheep-dog with the collie. That graceful andsympathetic member of the canine family is farremoved from the savage cerberi who guard thefolds of Greece. Huge and powerful mastiffs,with heavy jowls and ensanguined eyes, they areno doubt valuable auxiliaries in the presence ofmarauding wolves. But, like their masters, theyare of low intelligence, and they take everyoneexcept their masters for a wolf. The solitarypedestrian, entering a mandra unwarily, wouldstand a good chance of being devoured. Thereare tales of people who have met this fate. Thewriter cannot vouch for their truth. Dog storiesin Greece resemble snake stories in India. Butthe event is quite possible. The dogs are really

THE GREEK MAINLAND 58a formidable danger, and it is well to give sheepfoldsa wide berth. 1 The ferocious brutes do notattack those only who approach the folds, butwhen the flock is moving to new pastures theymarch on either flank, and rush upon all theymeet.pleasure inTheir masters appear to take a maliciousseeing a stranger thus assaulted, forthey are by no means ready to call off their dogs.As a rule, the shepherd leans on his staff andlooks steadily the other way. These ill-conditionedMolossians must always be reckoned within mountain excursions, and on their accountalone it is well tobe armed, though the shootingof a dog might have serious consequences, for theshepherds handle their long guns with great skill.The Greeks justly regard the presence of theseunsociable nomads as a perilous nuisance.Proposalshave been made at various times to forcethem to settle, which would be a means of getting1Schliemann relates how in Ithaca, being set upon by four mas-he suddenly thought of the passage in the Odyssey, wheretiffs,Ulysses, in a like predicament, "prudently sat down" ((wrapOdva

54 HOME LIFE IN HELLASrid of them, as they would never submit to asedentary life, and would speedily betake themselvesbeyond the frontier. No steps have beentaken, and the Vlachs still remain as they havebeen for centuries, lords of the mountains,throughout all the vicissitudes which have causedthe plains to change hands many times.

INCHAPTER IITHE ISLESnine cases out of ten the Greek one meetsoutside his own country is an islander. Themajority of those who have founded great housesof business, and have made a name in the worldof commerce and finance, are of island origin. InGreece itself, the immigrant from the islands iseasily distinguishable from the native of the mainlandby his manners and appearance. He is morealert, of quicker wit, more expansive, a betterlinguist, and more ready to get into touch withstrangers. He has the handiness of the sailor,the keen outlook of the trader. The continentalGreek, on the other hand, is slower of speech andaction, more aloof in manner ; he is, in short, apeasant, and even when engaged in pursuits otherthan rural, the soil seems to cling to him. On theGreek mainland, the Boeotian character extendsover a far larger area than Bceotia itself. It is theislander who has won for the Greeks their reputationfor enterprise. He is a man of the world,because the aridity of his native rocks has forcedhim out into the world to seek a livelihood, and inseeking one he has not seldom found a fortune.55

56 HOME LIFE IN HELLASBut it is not physical environment alone that hasdifferentiated him from his continental compatriot.History and race have had their share in his evolution.Nor are the Greek islanders by any meansall cast in one mould. The individuality of theIonian isnot that of the native of the Cyclades.Moreover, island differs from island in its people.Each has its peculiarities of manners and speech,its own customs and traditions. To give a detailedaccount of these would be a task beyond thewriter's knowledge and would far exceed thelimits of this volume. But it would be absurdto pretend to convey a notion of the Hellenicpeople without delineating the salient features ofa section which has had so large a share in thenational development.nearest &nd best known to us.Let us take first the groupTHE IONIAN ISLANDSThe people of the Ionian Islands are a linkbetween Europe and the Levant. The Greeksof the mainland, when the feuds of Greek andLatin were still hot, used to speak of them sneeringlyas "half-Franks." Geographical positionand political circumstances have brought theminto closer contact with the West than any otherGreek-speaking population. Corfu has the characterof an Italian city. This is inevitable whenwe consider that it was ruled by Venice for fourcenturies, from 1386 to the fall of the Republic in

THE ISLES 571797. But long ere this the Ionians had madeacquaintance with the Franks. Robert Guiscardtook Corfu in 1081, and his enterprise was nota mere raid, since he died in Cephalonia in 1085.In 1 146 the Normans of Sicily seized it. In 1179they conquered Cephalonia, Zante, and Ithaca.In 1 194 was established the County Palatine ofCephalonia, which included Cephalonia, SantaMaura, Zante, and Ithaca, under Count MatteoOrsini, who planted in them a strong colony ofApulians from Brindisi.vigorous dynasty of theThis, transferred to theTocchi, was maintaineduntil 1479. Corfu in the meantime had beentaken by the Genoese Vetrano in 1199, held bythe Venetians from 1206 to 12 14, when it succumbedto the Despot of Epirus, who handed itover to Manfred of Sicily in 1259. In 1267 it fellto the Angevins of Naples, who ruled ituntil thedeath of Charles III, when the inhabitants surrenderedit to Venice. In 1797 the Treaty ofCampo Formio brought with it the French occupation.In 1800 was set up the SeptinsularRepublic under the patronage of autocraticRussia. In 1807 the Treaty of Tilsit made theIonian Islands a part of the Napoleonic Empire,and in1815 they were constituted an independentState under the exclusive protection of GreatBritain.Finally they were incorporated into theGreek kingdom in 1864. Thus their history andthe political and socialinfluences brought to bearupon them differed widely from those of the rest

58 HOME LIFE IN HELLASof Greece.The Angevins firmly established thefeudalism of the Normans, and the Venetians confirmedit whilst suffering the baronies to lapse.They were lavish, however, in conferring patentsof nobility. In 1672 no fewer than 112 noblefamilies were inscribed in the Liber Aureus.They purposely kept the people ignorant, leavingthem without schools, whilst they allowed theIonian youth the privilege of taking their degreesat Padua without examination. Residence wascompulsory, so that the wealthy class wereItalianised with the minimum of education. Butin spite of Italian influence, Hellenism, everindomitable, asserted itself. The Turkish conquestof Constantinople stimulated it by theinflux of refugees. Thus came the Theotokisfamily, which is still in the front rank of intellectualGreece. Thus came Phrantzes, thehistorian. The revival of the Greek languagehad its fount in Corfu, and its sponsors were theancestors of the Bulgaris and the Theotokis, whoare prominent in contemporary Hellenic politics.The Ionians are the only Greeks who own an aristocracy,the creation of the Angevins and Venice.No titles are acknowledged in Greece, but theyare still borne in the islands. Corfu is the onlyportion ofthe Greek dominions that was neverunder Turkish rule. Zante suffered it for a fewyears, from 1479 to 1482, Cephalonia for twelveyears longer.Santa Maura has seen more of theTurks, who held it for two centuries, from 1479

THE ISLES 59until it was retaken by Morosini in 1685. Butwhilst the Greek mainland was subjected tofireand sword, the Ionian Islands enjoyed comparativepeace, and with the advent of Great Britainthey enjoyed representative government and freeinstitutions before new Hellas arose. In 1848they were granted an extended suffrage and voteby ballot,a privilege for which England had towait many years. Moreover, the Ionian Presswas allowed a freedom greater than that of anycountry in Europe. The Ionian Republic presenteda remarkable contrast to its neighbours.Here was a State, endowed with free institutions,popular education, even-handed justice, an openmarket, good roads, and all the machinery of anadvanced civilisation within sight of Albania, aland that was—and still is, for that matter—ina condition of primitive barbarism. It used itseducation, its Press, and its Parliament as a meansof getting rid of those who had given it thoseadvantages ;but no Greek has ever been contentedwith alien rule, even though he knows he is betteroff under it. In race the Ionians are originallyakin to the Epirotes with an admixture of theToskhs of Southern Albania.Zante, depleted byTurkish raids, was largely repeopled by refugeesfrom the Morea.There is, of course, a percentageof Italian blood, and the purest Hellenes are probablyto be found in Ithaca and Cephalonia.The latter island always showed the democratictendencies of the Hellene, and was regarded as

60 HOME LIFE IN HELLASinferior to the others by the Venetians. To-dayitspopulation displays more enterprise than thatof Corfu. Some of its sons have amassed greatwealth, and to one of them, M. Vagliano, aLondon merchant, Athens is indebted for hernoble public library. Cephalonia has also preservedthe traditions of the British period morethan the others and has kept up theroads theymade. This is perhaps owing in part to theadministration of Sir Charles Napier, toByron'ssojourn before his last journey to Greece, and tothe fact that English families dating from theoccupation still reside on the island. Catchingthe western rains, the Ionians are the most fertileas they are the loveliest of the Greek isles.Zanteis the richest. Land there is far more valuablethan in any other part of Greece. Corfu is themost varied, and Ithaca the most romantic.Cerigo is no longer officially one of the group,from which indeed it is quite apart. It will bedescribed elsewhere.As an example of the Ionian Islands it may bewell to describe Ithaca, which isless subjected toforeign influence than Corfu, and therefore presentsa truer picture of Ionian life. Moreover,though not as familiar to the modern world as thelarger islands, Ithaca has a far greater name,entwined as it is with an immortal story enshrinedin undying verse.

THE ISLES 61ITHACASteaming past the Echinades, the rugged isletsso named from a fancied resemblance to seaurchins,where Byron was storm-bound for threedays on his way to the place where he was so soonto die, we come abreast of Ithaca, about twentymiles from the mainland. A mountainous mass,sharp-cut against the sky, ' ' clear-seen " Ithacahow apt is the Homeric epithet—shows a precipitouscoast-line, seemingly harbourless. But havingtraversed about half its length, the boat turnsinto a previously hidden fiord which winds intothe heart of the island. Indeed, it almost cuts itin two, leaving only an isthmus about half a mileacross. We soon lose sight of the sea-line.Creeks on either hand afford glimpses of gleamingvillages like those in the background of Leighton'sclassical subjects. Then we open a third creekto the left, narrow-throated, rock-bastioned, theshores clothed tothe water's edge with juniper,wild olive, and oleander. From this strait passagewe come into an expanse of water, with anislet in the middle—an ideal mountain loch. Atits head a horseshoe of white houses ; abovethem more white houses amid orange groves andvineyards ; and above these again, the grey andsilver of olive trees wrestling with the limestonefar up the steeps towards the rampart of topplingcrags against the sky. This is Vathy, well namedthe Deep, for ships of great tonnage may lie close

62 HOME LIFE IN HELLASto the houses. The sea might be hundreds ofmiles away. There is not a suspicion of "themighty wave that ill winds roll without." It isone of the snuggest, and certainly one of themost beautiful harbours in the world. We landon a well-made quay, with an excellent roadwayrunning round the port—a relic of the Britishoccupation.An Englishman will not have much troublein Ithaca with regard to language. English isalmost as much the common tongue of the sea asFrench is of diplomacy, and the Ithacans, likethe Companions of Ulysses, are seafarers. TheGreeks are boatmen, but not as a rule deep-seasailors. These latter only come from certainspots ; Andros is one, Ithaca is another, and theIthacans have the genuine salt in their blood.The little island owns a goodly number ofsteamers. They come to Vathy once only, tobe registered, then trade all over the world, butmainly to British ports. They are commanded,officered, and manned exclusively by Ithacans,who furnish more seamen than they require, andthe surplus sail in British ships. But all arefaithful to Ithaca, and between those who haveretired and those who are having a spell ashore,there is always a contingent at Vathy who hail anEnglishman with delight. They are familiar withhim on the Thames, the Mersey, or the Hooghly.They have often met him on the Apollo Bunderat Bombay or the Circular Quay at Sydney, but

THE ISLES 63he is a rarity at Vathy, so they make much ofhim and try to make him feel at home. Theirhospitality is rather embarrassing inone respect,for they conceive him to be tormented by aninsatiable thirst, and it is a point of honour withthem that he shall not be allowed to pay for anything.There are two things they insist on hisseeing : one is the barber's shop, a wonderfulmuseum of curios from all latitudes and longitudes,such as might have existed at Wapping orRotherhithe when Dickens discovered London.The other is the burial-place of British soldiersa small enclosure containing some twenty-fiveor thirty tombstones inscribed with the names andregiments of the dead.Among them are severalchildren who were born and died here.There isa strange pathos in the thought that these Englishchildren lived their brief span in this remoteislet,probably regarded by most of their countrymenat home as belonging rather to the realm offable than to the real world.Yet to these childrenIthaca was the world and England a legend.They rest in one of the sweetest spots on earth,amid scenes of surpassing loveliness. The littlegraveyard is sheltered by tall cypresses andplanted with myrtles and roses. Debonos, theshoemaker, who has charge of it, will tell you,with a touch of pride, as he hands you the key,that his father was cook to the officers' mess whenredcoats were common objects at Vathy. It is acentury since British soldiers came there and

64 HOME LIFE IN HELLASnearly half a century since they left, and it saysvery much for the Ithacans that the little cemeteryshould be so carefully tended after such a lapse oftime, and in a place seldom visited by Englishmen.Besides the sailors, there is another class ofIthacans who speak English—the tongue wespoke in the days when we were not "smart" andhad manners. These are the members of the oldfamilies—the Petalas, the Karavias, the Dendrinas,the Vrettos, the Dracouli—who were atschool when the islands were under Britishprotection.Alas ! they are a very small and fastdwindling minority.Vestiges of a bygone era,they cherish an affection for the Ionian Republicwhilst recognising the inevitable in the unionwith Greece. Mr. Petala hurried me off to seethe house inhabited by Mr. Gladstone, a modestdwelling with a verandah on the quay. In frontof it, on a pedestal, is a bust of High CommissionerMaitland, known tohis contemporaries as"King Tom," from his arbitrary character, but atrue friend to the Ionians. Ithaca owes to him itsexcellent roads. "Ah, we were somebody then,"sighed Mr. Petala. On my first visit to Ithaca,some years ago, I had the privilege of meetingMr. Dracoulis, then bordering on fourscore, andfull of memories of Mr. Gladstone, whom he hadknown personally, and of the old days before him,when the Dracoulis family was one of the mostdistinguished in the islands. Like others of his

THE ISLES 65class, he had studied law at Padua, when thatuniversity was the Alma Mater of the Ionians.Mr. Platon Dracoulis, of Oxford, is his nephew,by the way. I shall never forget the courtlygrace with which he liftedhis hat when he mentionedthe name of Mr. Gladstone, who standsnext to Ulysses in the estimation of the Ithacans.Some of them remember him ; all speak of himwith reverence.As to Ulysses, there is no doubt in the Ithacanmind as to the identity of the Homeric Ithacawith the "narrow isle" of to-day.Though veryfew of them can read the Odyssey, they know allabout its hero. His name is a household wordwith them, and they show a united front againstall who attempt to rob them of Odysseus. Thecontroversy as to the Homeric sites is as old asStrabo, but the Ithacans reck little. So they sitoutside the Cafe Odysseus on the quay at Vathy,and contemplate the mountain infront with theunalterable conviction that it is "Neriton, tremblingwith leaves," and that the mountain behindthem is Neion. Ravens still croak on the RockKorax. The fount where Eumaeus fed his swinestill flows. In a creek of the Bay of Molo is thegrotto of the Nymphs, where thePhasacians leftOdysseus sleeping. Are not the cyclopasanwalls on Eagle's Crag the remains of his palace?What cold-hearted archaeologist would grudgethe Ithacans their hero ?After all, what other isleso well suits Homer's descriptions? His Ithake

66 HOME LIFE IN HELLAShas preserved its name in spite of the Franks, whochanged it to Val di Compare. It is true an awkwarddocument stands in the way of their claimto direct descent from the subjects of Odysseus, inthe shape of a decree of Venice, dated 1504,granting immunity from taxation for five years tosettlers in Ithaca, which at the time was entirelydeserted. These new settlers, who probably camefrom Cephalonia and were undoubtedly Greeks,are the progenitors of the present inhabitants.The latter got over the difficulty by assertingthat when these seas were swept by corsairs theirancestors sought refugeelsewhere, and returnedin a body at the first opportunity. That opportunityoccurred in 1504, and it is not easy to traversethe statement, forIthaca has no mediaevalhistory like Athens and Achaia. From 1504 youplunge across thirty centuries toIn any case thisthe heroic age.view of the matter satisfies theIthacans, and not a house of these sea-wanderersbut has a Penelope among its girls and a Telemachusamong its boys.The island is divided into four districts : Outlandin the north, Deep Bay in the south, andbetween them Highland (Anoge) and Eagle'sCliff in the narrow centre. Outland and DeepBay are the most fertile. Eagle's Cliff, whereIthaca is half a mile wide, does not yield much,some grapes and olives, figs and quinces. Thelast time I was there it was a sweet Decemberday ; the land was smothered with cyclamens and

THE ISLES 67a small and exquisite pale blue iris.We lookedat the peacock-hued sea on either hand far below,down steeps all scarlet with the ripe berries of thearbutus. The goodman of the little farm waspruning his olives, Penelope was bringing waterfrom the spring, a living caryatid, the amphorapoised on her head, her hands busy with thespindle.Young Telemachus, with the limbs ofan antique bronze, matted hair, and the merrybrown face of a faun, was tending the goats, orfeigning to do so, for he left his charges withalacrity to show us the way to the cyclopaeanwalls, leaping from rock to rock like a goathimself. No wonder the Ithacans are attached totheir island. The stranger soon learns to love ittoo. The pellucid air, the limpid waters, thedream-like beauty of the landscape, every turn ofthe winding paths revealing new visions of rockand wood and sea, exercise a potent spell. Andman, woman, or child, you may wander whereyou will without hindrance and without fear. TheIthacans deserve their reputation as the best ofthe Ionians. They are honest, truthful, andkindly, and they are not afflicted with that indiscreetcuriosity universal among Greeks elsewhere.Only those who have travelled in Greeklands will appreciate the blessedness of thisIthacan virtue. They are open-handed in theirhospitality. Fruit in season the stranger is notallowed to pay for, and seldom wine, outside thetown. The peasant would be affronted who was

68 HOME LIFE IN HELLAStendered money for a draught of milk."Comeinto our Paradeisos," said smiling Zoe' on theday of our arrival at Vathy. As Zoe was a maidof some twelve summers we hesitated. Butparental authority stood at the gate smiling andbeckoning, so into Zoe's Paradise we went, anddid not escape therefrom until we had eaten of allit contained, and tasted the wine, and consented tocarry off a basket of grapes. Yet Zoe and herfriends had never set eyes on us before, nor werelikely to do so again. On another occasion—itwas winter this time and the oranges were ripe—we had paused a moment to admire an unusuallyfine crop, when out tripped Callirhoe, her darkeyes flashing sweetness, with a golden clusterwreathed in glossy leaves, fragrant, fresh culledfrom the bending bough. But this was notenough. Callirhoe insisted on filling our pockets." Do you ever go anywhere near Cardiff? " said anIthacan sea-captain on the day of our departure." I shall be there on such a date and stay for solong a time. I shall have some of that wineon board, and there is always a bottle or twoto spare if you care to take it ashore." The winewas of a much esteemed kind, made from currantgrapes exposed three weeks to the sun, and it wasten years old.Sir Charles Napier, who once held office inIthaca, wrote from the banks of the Indus thatthe Ithacans were the people among whom hehad spent the most pleasant years of his life, and


THE ISLES 69he always wished to return. There must be fewwho have known Ithaca who do not share thatgreat soldier's desire.THE CYCLADESOn a map of the JEgean the Cyclades look likeleaves scattered by a gale. The figure is apt, forthey are in the full track of winds which sweepover them for more than half the year. Britishseamen who have had much experience of "theArches," as they term the Archipelago, willtestify that those seas are not by any means placid.Shelteredby the lofty barrier of Crete from theparching airs that come from the Sahara, theyenjoy a climate more invigorating than that ofneighbouring lands. But the mountains of theGreek mainland deny them the western rains, socopious in the Ionian Islands, so that with fewexceptions their bare steeps nourish nothing butscanty herbage or at most low scrub, and thesmaller ones are often naked rocks. The softcharm of Ithaca, the rich verdure of Zante, arelacking here. The beauty of the Cyclades is oneof outline mainly, and it is perhaps at its highestin the witchery of moonlight. But at all timesand under allaspects, this wonderful embroideryof isle and islet strewn over the "violet-eyed"waters casts a spell of enchantment over the beholder.Such a region is naturally sparing ofproduce.Most of the islands barely sustain their

70 HOME LIFE IN HELLASinhabitants, who are of necessity frugal. This,combined with the stimulating air and temperature,makes them a hardy race, industrious andgiven to enterprise. The large 10,000 and 12,000ton transatlantic liners of which Greece nowboasts are not owned by continental Greeks, butby islanders of Andros, where there is quite acolony of shipowners, mostly related to eachother. It is a community the like of whichformerly existed in our own ports, consisting ofmen bred to the sea, who have sailed their ownships in their time, and whose sons do the samenow. They dwell comfortably in houses withtiled roofs, rare in the Cyclades, where roofs aremostly flat,and many of them have a marble shipcarved over their doors. In addition to the bigliners, they have quite a fleet of "tramps," andthe name " Androu" may be read on the stern ofsteamers in many a distant port.The history of the Cyclades, like that of theIonian Islands,differs from that of the mainlandof Greece no less in modern than in ancienttimes. They have seen more of the Frank andless of the Turk. In fact, some of them havehardly seen the Turk at all, for they have neverhad a resident Turkish population. The Duchyof the Archipelago, founded by Marco Sanudo in1207, lasted until 1566. But Frank rule did notend then, for the Gozzadini of Bologna, whogoverned the islands of Siphnos, Kythnos, andKimolos for centuries, held their castle of Akro-

THE ISLES 71tiri in Santorin until 1617, and Venice did notrelinquish Tenos until 17 18, when Athens hadbeen Turkish for more than two and a halfcenturies. And in the islands the yoke waslighter. Naxos, Andros, Paros, and Tenos were•allowed to retain their own laws and customs.Silk, wine, and food-stuffs remained free of dutyas before. The capitation tax was low, and aboveall things they enjoyed immunity from the odioustribute of children. The Turks did not troublethem so long as the taxes were paid, and once ayear sent a commissioner to receive them. Greekand Latin hated each other more than they hatedthe Turk. The Bey during his short annualsojourn had to listen to mutual accusations andrecriminations, to which, no doubt, he gave littleheed so long as the tribute was forthcoming.There was never any love lost between the haughtyLatins with their aristocratic prejudices and thedemocratic Greeks. The latter invited the Turksboth to Naxos and Andros. They regretted itwhen the Jew, Joseph Nasi, was made Duke ofNaxos. Suleiman the Magnificent had beensucceeded by Selim the Sot. That egregiouspotentate gave the island duchy to his booncompanion. Nasi never visited the islands, butgoverned them by deputy. Nevertheless he remainedDuke of Naxos until his death in 1579.Whatever grievances they might have against theLatins, this was too much for a people who, whenthey had occasion to mention a Jew in conversa-

72 HOME LIFE IN HELLAStion, apologised to their interlocutor as thoughthey uttered something unclean ; so the Greekstried to get back their old rulers, but in vain.The islands were henceforth Turkish. Duringthe War of Independence, when the Greeks werestruggling for freedom, Latin sympathies werewith the Turks, who two hundred and fiftyyearsbefore had ousted them from their possessions atthe instance of the Greeks.But the old feud hasdied out : Latin and Greek have intermarried.Greek is the common tongue of both, and theirrepressible Hellenic nationality has triumphedas elsewhere. There is little to distinguish theLatin of to-day from his Greek fellow-countryman.His name, it is true, attests his lineage. Hisgreater polish and hisare due to the care of his Church.use of the French tongueIt is the LatinChurch that holds together the Latins as a distinctsocial entity. Unlike the Italians of the IonianIslands, the Latin of the Cyclades has generallybeen faithful to his creed. But still there is aleakage, and among the Orthodox Greeks ofNaxos, Santorin, Tenos, and Andros there is apercentage of Latin blood, Italian, French, orCatalan. The process of absorption and assimilationis going on.The stranger to the Cyclades, with a mind benton the myths of Hellas and the splendours ofantiquity, is not prepared for the tinge of medievalromance imparted by the ruined castles, whichspeak of a picturesque phase of history.Scaros

on the spur of a red crag atTHE ISLES 73Santorin, the castleof Andros on a rock in the harbour joined to theland by a high-flung arch, those of Melos andSiphnos, that of Amorgos which displays thesuccessive work of Hellene, Roman, and Frank,were built by the feudal barons, who came tobetter their fortunes as Englishmen go to a newcolony. Sometimes they paid allegiance to theDuchy of Naxos, sometimes they threw it off,according to mood and opportunity. The Dukesof Naxos were great personages, held in highesteem both in Venice and at the Vatican. Oneof them, Giovanni I, came to England in 1404 toseek aid from Henry IV against the Infidel. 1Butas the Duchy outlasted the short-lived LatinEmpire of the East from which it sprang, thebaronies outlasted the Duchy. Their history isfull of incident, of plot and passion. They werenot particular as to how they obtained theirPioneers seldom are.ends.But in the presence of theirstrongholds they are very real personages. 21Henry IV always cherished the idea of a new crusade.Shakespeare indulged in no poetic licence in putting into hismouth the words " We would, dear lords, unto the Holy Land."Henry V inherited the desire. As he lay dying, he stopped theclergy who were reciting the penitential psalms at the words"Walls of Jerusalem," and solemnly declared that had he beenspared, it was his steadfast purpose to have won back the HolyCity for Christendom. He had sent Gilbert de Lannoy to reporton the country, with a view to a campaign.2 In Miller's Latins of the Levant there is an amusing passagereferring to the genealogical pretensions of these nobles. TheQuirini claimed kinship with the Roman Emperor Galba. TheSanudi traced back to Livy. The Crispi, not to be Outdone,

74 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThere is one alien element in the Cyclades, nota large one. The northern half of Andros isAlbanian.In the fifteenth century the populationof the island was reduced, by the raids of corsairs,to about a thousand. It was then, probably, thatthe Albanians came and repeopled it. They preservetheir language and customs, and, unlike theLatins, are not being assimilated, though practicallythey are Greek. With this exception, andthat of the Latins, the Cyclades folk are Hellenesof a purer strain than perhaps any other Greekspeakingpopulation, in spite of the scourge ofpiracy and the ravages of Barbarossa in thesixteenth century.The distinctive dress is fast disappearing, thoughthe vrachoi, the baggy breeches, are pretty generalstill among the older men. The skoupkia, thered knitted cap hanging down on one side, isbecoming rarer every day. The women's costumeis going faster than that of the men. Formerlyeach island had its peculiarity, especially in thehead-dress. The kourli, a coloured kerchiefthrown over a ring of false curls, may be seenoccasionally. At Siphnos the pina exists, a highcap adorned with embroidery, but it is kept ratheras a curiosity than for use ;and at Amorgos someancient dame may still wear the tourlos, a cushionon the top of the head and another behind, boundcited Sallust as " the author of our race." But the most joyouseffort in this direction was that of the Venieri, who based theirclaim to Kythera, the isle of Venus, on their alleged descent fromthe goddess.

THE ISLES 75about in a complicated way with kerchiefs, onecoming over the forehead and another swathingthe mouth. The kuklos of Anaphi is a highwedge-shaped cap over which a kerchief is throwncovering the shoulders. But costumes are keptin cupboards to be shown, like old lace andbrocade.life.They are no longer a part of the dailyHappily the distaff and loom are not banished,and in most of the islands the women make alltheir household linen. In some all clothing isspun and woven at home. There is an excellenthomespun, tawny in hue, dyed in the refuse ofthe winepress. The shepherds wear this, and flatsandals of undressed ox-hide fastened by thongs.The shepherds of Hesiod's day were probablyshod in a similar way. The ancient world is stillwith us in the implements of husbandry—the twoprongedhoe, the plough fashioned from thebranch of a tree, which the ploughman carriesslung on his back to and from the field—and thewinepress in the vineyard. The huge earthenwarejars for wine and oil, and the useful goatskinbag, closed by thongs drawn through a bone, arealso survivals of a distant past. Panpipes stilldelight the rustic ear, and so do the bagpipesa rude contrivance of a goatskin and reeds, towhich is sometimes added a cow's horn. A smalllute, the lineal descendant of the lyre, may be metwith in some localities.But the guitar has largelyreplaced these.Some islands were formerly rich in old furniture,

76 HOME LIFE IN HELLASrelics of the Latin times. But these are now rare.The dealer has laid his devastating hand on theCyclades and has no doubt secured excellent bargains.The people are now aware of the marketvalue of these things. I asked a man in Naxoswhat he wanted for a carved triptych of Gothicdesign, apparently of Spanish origin. He replied,£50. Probably this price was not excessive, butformerly it would have been obtained for £5.Siphnos, long under the rule of the Catalan DaCorogna, was once fullof old Spanish furniture,but it is doubtful if it now possesses a singlepiece. Myconos, too, has been cleared of itsabundant vestiges. Among the old Latin familiesof Naxos, Santorin, and Andros there may lurkhere and there a coffer, a mirror, a chandelier,or perhaps a precious fragment of lace, Venetianor old Greek point. In distant Amorgos, wherethere are now no Latins, one may occasionallycome across a Venetian glass or plate in a humblehousehold, preserved, notwithstanding its fragilecharacter, from the days when the island was heldby the Quirini.Things of a more durable nature—metal-work and brocades—which I was told wereonce plentiful, have disappeared.Almost every island is reputed for some daintyarticle of food. Kythnos still boasts of the loosecrumbling cheese packed in jars for which it wasfamed in antiquity. The people say its flavour isdue to the quality of the pasturage. The softunsalted cheese called mysethra, and usually eaten

THE ISLES 77with honey, is a delicacy consumed all overGreece ;but the mysethra of Ios excels all others.It is made from boiled sheep's milk, strained andpressed into a rush-basket in shape and size like ajelly mould. The natives of Ios also attribute itsquality to the herbage of the island. Tenos isnoted for its barley-cakes. Chick-peas boiled andpounded are mixed with the leaven in the proportionof a tenth to the barley-meal. This partlyaccounts for the excellence of the cakes, but theTeniotes maintain that there is a trick in thebaking known only to themselves. Andros issupreme in sweets, notably one of small greenbergamot lemons preserved whole, and a seductivecake made of walnuts and honey. It has also aspeciality in mouroraki, a spirit distilled frommulberries. The cheese-cakes tyropita, of Santorin—arenot those dear to the youth of England.They are a compound of cheese, eggs, curdledmilk, saffron, and certain spices, much relished inSantorin, but the alien palate needs education toappreciate them. The loukoumi of Syra is nota Greek confection, but a Turkish one, as its nameattests.It was brought to Syra by refugees fromScio, and is flavoured by the mastic which is aspecial product of that Asiatic isle.Wine is a universal product in the Cyclades,but it is an article of export on three islands only.Santorin, both in quantity and quality, far excelsthe others. Zea sends wine to the Greek mainland,and Paros likewise, though in smaller

78 HOME LIFE IN HELLASquantity.Andros and Tenos both grow wheat.Naxos has a speciality in citrons, a noble fruitof extraordinary size, which would be prized inEngland for its decorative character. The bulkof Naxos citrons come to England, but not intheir natural state. They are packed in barrelsin brine, to be converted into candied peel.Naxos also raises cattle,and supplies Athens withveal. Andros exports the lemons for which it isfamous, and Tenos olives. Zea in addition towine has a large export trade of acorns, or ratherthe cups of acorns, for tanning purposes. Themineral products of the islands are emery inNaxos, puzzolana in Santorin, salt, sulphur, andmillstones in Melos, and marble in Paros, wherethe fine-grained statuary marble used by Phidiasand Praxiteles is still quarried.The Cyclades present a great variety,both innatural features and in the customs of the people.In this respect island differs from island in aremarkable way. Beautiful Zea—or Keos, as it isnow once again called, as in classical days—issingular among these generally treeless isles inthe oaks which abound in it. There are saidto be about two millions of them. They arevaluable property on account of the trade in acorncups,and almost every inhabitant owns a few.Some of them are of great size, and give the landscapethe aspect of an English park. Verydifferent in appearance is Melos with its baremountains, yet it has a land-locked harbour which

THE ISLES 79could contain the world's navies. Forlorn anddeserted now, it was busy in the days of sailingships.The French, especially, took the Melianpilots, and it was owing to the energy of theFrench Consul in 1820 that the Venus of Milois now in the Louvre. Melos has furnishedanother superb example of Greek art. ThePoseidon now at Athens was discovered by a manplanting orange trees. But the island was thehome of a far more ancient civilisation, as provedby the pre-Mycenamn remains excavated by theBritish School at Phylakopi. The people are ofan interesting type, many of them with fairhairand dark eyes. Seriphos is a mineral island,exporting iron-ore, but its vineyards are its greatfeature. Special church services usher in thevintage. The people have some peculiar customs.The planting of a vineyard is done in common :all neighbours help.There is a symposium afterwards.Every operation of husbandry—even thesharpening of tools—is made an excuse for feasting.Kimolos, which sends fuller's-earth toAthens, was formerly a pirate's lair. Some of thepeople inhabit ancient tombs hewn in the rock.Siphnos is a picturesque island, with its capitalApollonia on a breezy cliff high above the sea.As in ancient times, Siphnos is noted for itspotters. There is not work enough for them inthe island, so they travel all over Greece, andsettlein town or village until they have suppliedit. Ios, with a snug harbour and a clean little

80 HOME LIFE IN HELLAScapital on a hill, in lieu of trees has a forestof windmills and churches. The latter are small,it is true, but there are nearly 400 of themfor a population of 2200. The Ios folk are notmore pious than the other islanders. They owetheir wealth of churches to the Venetians.Sikinos, one of the smallest of the inhabitedislands, has a steep northern face, but slopesgently to the south and produces wheat and fruit.Man has made it his home for many ages, for atemple of Apollo of the second century B.C.is now used as a church. Pholygandros has agrand coast-line of sheer cliffs some 1800 feethigh.It has a population of about 1000, and inscriptionsshow that it has been inhabited fromancient times. Amorgos, a long ribbon of mountain,precipitous and deeply indented, looks acrossto Asia, and is a sort of outpost of the Cyclades.Its remote situation has caused the inhabitantsthere are about 5000 of them—to retain old beliefsand old customs to a greater extent than thoseof some of the islands. Piracy lingered longerthere than in most places. There are no piratesnow. Adventurous spirits go to America instead,and keep confectioners' shops or become cooks.So it happened that in this rather obscure isle wemet a native talking English—with a twang.We also ate lobsters, a speciality of Amorgos,for a ridiculously small sum. Amorgos is rich inremains, both antique and mediaeval. The vaultedtombs, tholaria, are used as stores or stables.

THE ISLES 81There is a temple of Apollo, a gymnasium, and astadium on the site of ancient Minoa.There areHellenic towers, a baronial castle, and a greatconvent overhanging a frightful precipice. Theisland is wildly picturesque from end to end.Still more remote than Amorgos is the lonelyisle of Anaphe, situated east of Santorin, awayfrom the rest of the Cyclades. It has no regularmeans of communication with the world outside,but it supplies the wants of its population of aboutone thousand souls without external aid. Tobaccois, I believe, the only thing it imports. LikeIceland, it rejoices in the absence of snakes.Onthe other hand, it abounds in partridges, andtoujours perdrix is literally true of Anaphiotetables. Inscriptions, tombs, vases, and statuarybear witness to the culture and wealth of itsantique inhabitants. The monastery of Our Ladyof the Reeds is on the site of a temple of Apollo,who dropped Anaphe here to serve as a refugefor the Argonauts. The Anaphiotes alone amongthe islanders have a quarter to themselves atAthens. High up the steep northern face of theAcropolis, overlooking the city, is Anaphiotika,and its houses, whitewashed and flat-roofed, preservethe island character, and are in conspicuouscontrast to the sloping tiled Athenian roofs.Paros, the marble island which gave birth tothe sculptor Scopas, now once more extracts thematerials he employed from the flanks of MountMarpessa. Paroikia, the chief town, is largely

82 HOME LIFE IN HELLASmade up of antique remains. There is scarcelya house but displays fragments of sculpturedmarble. A ruined tower is built of drums ofThe greatcolumns and the gradines of a theatre.church has a pagan altar beneath the Christianone, and the principal portal is flanked by marblesatyrs. Judging from the numbers of ancientcemeteries, Paros must formerly have had a muchlarger population than the nine thousand it nowcontains. Antiparos, separated from it by anarrow channel, is remarkable only for its vaststalactitic cavern. Both islands are bleak inaspect, though Paros has vast vineyards.Pleasant to behold are Andros and Tenos, andas they are in the track of steamers passing betweenthe Mediterranean and the Dardanelles,travellers not bound for the Cyclades see more ofthem than of other islands. Both are well wooded,and Andros especially is copiously watered. Theyare fertile and populous : Tenos has 12,500 soulsand Andros 19,000, the largest population ofany single member of the group. After Syra,it is also the wealthiest. Mention has been madeof its shipowners ;there are also many well-to-dotillers of the soil. As neither island has practicallyseen anything of the Turks—Tenos wasVenetian until 1718—their character is Westernrather than Oriental. The architecture is Italian.Andros isstudded with square Venetian towers,still used as dwellings. The stables are on theground-floor, the living-rooms above, and the

THE ISLES 83dovecote on the top. In Tenos the dovecote isattached to the apotheeke,a building away fromthe dwelling, among the vineyards. In it thefarmer stores his wine and honey and oil :therehe keeps his implements and a still for makingraki. Attached to the apotheeke is, in most cases,a little private chapel. Both islands produce avariety of fruit, but Tenos is noted for its grapesand Andros for its lemons. Menetes, a summerresort of the wealthier Andriotes, is a charmingvillage amid lemon groves and purling streamsand banks tapestried with fern. The Latins inboth islands are provided with churches andschools.for girls.In Tenos there is a good convent schoolIn Exoburgo, Tenos possesses what isperhaps a unique example of a medieval townand fortress, now abandoned and ruinous. Androshas a speciality in cooks and Tenos in nurses.Both go in large numbers to Athens and Constantinople,especially the latter, where they arefamiliar figures. And whilst Tenioties and Andriotesare more generally known outside theCyclades than the denizens of other islands,Tenos is the only island known to Greeks ofother regions. Twice a year from the mainlandsof Europe and Asia, from islands near and far,they flock in their thousands to Tenos to thegreat Panagyris, the festival of the Virgin.Thiswill be treated of in another place. It sufficeshere to note that this Pan-Hellenic gatheringgives to Tenos in some sort the position held of

84 HOME LIFE IN HELLASold by Delos, as the religious centre of Hellas.And as the cult of Apollo was the bond that heldtogether the Confederacy of Delos, so the cult ofthe Panagia at Tenos has had a share in therevival of Hellenic nationality.Well within sight of Tenos is the group ofsmall islands, Myconos, Rheneia, and betweenthem, the tiniest of the three, a mere speck ofland without a tree,Cyclades, theDelos, the most famous of thebirthplace of Apollo, not only thereligious but the political centre of the JEgean,to which embassies came from all Hellas, intowhich wealth flowed from every side—desertednow save for the two guardians who are there toguard the vestiges of its greatness. You beginto see Delos at Myconos, not only in its museum.The houses, which show traces of the days of theItalian Duchy, also show many of a remoter date,for Delos was a handy quarry. When we seethese things in the neighbourhood of every antiquesite, and when we know how much that is precioushas gone into the limekiln, we are not disposed togird at Lord Elgin and his kind, but rather to bethankful to them.When the writer saw the fragmentsof the colossal statue dedicated to Apolloby the Naxians strewing the soil of Delos, he wasglad to think that one foot at least was safe in thegreat treasure-house in Bloomsbury. Delos is adesolation of marble, brightened in spring by acarpet of many-hued flowers. The view fromthe hill Cynthos is very fine, and helps one to

THE ISLES 85realise the central position of the favoured isle.Naxos and Paros rise from the deep blue waterson one hand, Tenos and Andros on the other.In the south-west Siphnos and Seriphos and moredistant Keos, and in the west, much nearer, isSyra, the successor of Delos, the capital andadministrative centre of the Cyclades.In 1825 Luke Ralli, with the consent of hisfellow-refugees from Scio, named theirnew settlementHermoupolis, from the name of the shipHermes, in which they had arrived three yearsbefore. In the same year, 1825, the first twostoreyedhouse was built. They had lived in hutsbefore. That was the beginning of modern Syra.Hermoupolis speedily became the largest city inthe Greek dominions. Athens and Piraeus haveoutstripped it since, but it still compares favourablywith either in some respects.It is far cleaner thanthe latter and better drained than the former.the only place in the Cyclades thatIt ishas horses andcarriages. It has a university, well-equippedschools, an elegant theatre, well-stocked shops,handsome private houses, a very fine square pavedwith marble, engineering works, and dry docks.It is a centre of the Eastern Telegraph Companyall the great lines of steamers call there ;it is indaily communication with Greece and the otherislands, and inalmost daily communication withConstantinople on the one hand and WesternEurope on the other. The refugees, who weresurvivors of the massacre of Scio, were mostly

86 HOME LIFE IN HELLASfrom that island ; some were from Psara, and othersfrom Crete. They went first to Tenos and werebadly received. They tried Zea and were turnedaway. Then they came to Syra, inhabited by afew Latins under French protection, a crag andlittle more, and they made it what it is, thewealthiest and most cultured island in the JEgean ;Tenos and Zea, through their churlishness ortimidity, lost more than they knew. Syra is amonument to Greek vitality, and it is noteworthythat it was created by Greeks of Asia. Hermoupoliswith its 18,700 inhabitants has no water.All has to be brought from afar, yet its streets arekept clean and well watered. It is characteristicthat Syra, arid and scant of irrigation, suppliesAthens with early vegetables. The town runs upthe steep slope, a white heap of houses very conspicuousand striking from the sea. The oldLatin town is at the top, with its old church of St.George, which has a rival now in a large Greekchurch. But the little church of the Transfigurationdown by the shore is dearer to the Syriotesthan their big cathedral. It was built before theybuilt their first two-storeyed house, and in its navein 1825 Luke Ralli—a name well known in Englandand in India—first named the new settlementHermoupolis.Within sight of bright and busy Syra is Gyaros,its antithesis. The smallest of the Cyclades, it hastwo wells and four inhabitants. There are smallerislands to which shepherds resort at certain seasons

THE ISLES 87to pasture their flocks, but the diminutive populationof Gyaros is permanent. The island—it wasa place of banishment under the Roman Empireis leased from the municipality of Syra.This completes the tale of the Cyclades savetwo, and they have been reserved for more detailedtreatment in the form of a narration of personalexperiences. This, the writer hopes, will conveya more vivid notion of the places and those whodwell in them than a general description. It wouldhave been impossible to do the like by all theislands, but the two chosen present features ofunusual interest, whilst differing totally in character.Naxos well deserves the title of ' ' Pearl ofthe Cyclades " for its natural beauty, and it issteeped in an atmosphere of romance both bymyth and authentic history. Santorin fascinatesby its strange and somewhat terrible physicalconditions, and by the extraordinary environmentin which man has continued to dwell on it from aperiod beyond the range of history.NAXOSThe largest and fairest of the Cyclades, oncetheir queen, has become a sort of Cinderellaamong her sisters. The people of the otherislands gave us scant encouragement when wespoke of going there. It was a dull place, theinhabitants were surly and thievish, there was noaccommodation, even the climate was denounced

88 HOME LIFE IN HELLASthe island was a sort of cave of Mollis, lashed byfrequent storms. Our first try failed. We ran byin a gale of wind, for Naxos has no harbour,which no doubt accounts in a large measure forits aloofness. Three days later, however, to oursatisfaction, we were speeding from the ship's sidetowards a cone-like pile of white houses on a hillside.This was Naxia, the capital. On a lowislet, almost touching the shore, stood a marbleportal, a stately ruin which was at once recognisedfrom Tournefort's drawing in the Voyage duLevant. It bore witness to the old traveller'saccuracy as wellas to the unchanged conditionssince he came to Naxos two hundred years ago.The no-accommodation spectre was quickly laid.Within half an hour we were installed in a coupleof spacious rooms, from which we looked downon the steep town and across a purple strip of seato the bare slopes of Paros. Our salon was vast,a place to wander in, sparse as to furniture, butthere was a triptych they would be glad tohaveat South Kensington. The place was spotlesslyclean.Despoina, the daughter of the house, whowaited on us, had soft, liquid eyes, but was ahawk in detecting a speck of matter in the wrongplace. The bed-linen was of the finest, and fragrantof lavender. We paid about two shillingsa day for this. Behind our dwelling rose thecrenellated walls of a thirteenth-century fortress.A litter of broken marble at its base was puzzling,but on looking up I understood. The face of our

THE ISLES 89grey strongholds of the north was there but notthe complexion. This was half marble—a militarywork planned on mediaeval lines, but ofsubstance rifled from the structures of antiquity.The strewn fragments represented surplus materialleft by the builders. It was an astounding spectacle,but there was more in store for us. Wesoon discovered that the streets—narrow alleysthey are in reality—were paved with statuarymarble. The exterior stairways leading to theupper storeys of the houses are made of massiveblocks of it. Lintel, threshold, door-jamb, andwindow-sill are contributions from the samesource. Plinth and column, frieze and cornice,and chunks of mutilated statues have all stoodthe makers of Naxia in good stead. Here andthere, wedged into the framework of a crazytenement, are bits of delicate carving, wroughtby hands that have been dust for more thantwenty centuries. Historical notices of Naxosare scant during the Hellenic period, and almostdisappear after itsDelos in 471 B.C. ;revolt from the Confederacy ofbut here was evidence of theformer existence of a noble city whose vestigeshave served as a quarry for many a barbarousgeneration. Modern Naxia is an odd jumble ofthe mean squalor of to-day with the splendourof a forgotten age.I went across to the islet, only a few yards fromthe shore, to which it was once joined by a molenow ruined. The Naxiotes call it Palati on no

90 HOME LIFE IN HELLASgrounds save a tradition of a palace on the site.Neither isthere any reason, beyond that of localassociation, for assuming it to have been a templeof Dionysos. I made out the remains of a cellaabout eighty feet long, and there is little doubtthat it was a temple of some sort. The nobledoorway, twenty-one feet high, twelve feet wide,is constructed of three huge blocks. The largegrainedNaxian marble is highly micaceous, andglistened in the January sun, looking as snowy asif newly wrought. Doubtless its ponderous charactersaved it. Naught else remained save chunksof marble, white and green and rose, and chipsof diaphanous alabaster. The surface of the isletwas literally covered with them. The edifice musthave been of a sumptuous character. Some of itI had probably seen, coming through the town,in the shape of doorsteps, whitewashed ; for theNaxiote housewife, on the principle of paintingthe lily,carefully applies a coat of that mixture toher marble once a week.As you thread the narrow alleys of Naxia, betweenbulging walls that threaten catastrophe,shored up by relics of nobler buildings, the workof a race that has perished, you are depressed bythe decrepitude of the present and the shadow ofa magnificent past. You climb at last to a pointwhere a thirdfeature confronts you, and an unexpectedone. Grim bastions frown overhead,and beneath pointed arches and groined vaultingsyou pass into a region which breathes the

THE ISLES 91sturdiness of mediaeval Europe. This is thecastro—the fortress that crowns the hill. Thecastro is an imperium in imperio. Within itdwell the Latins, a relic, like it, of the MiddleAges, witnessing to a page of history that isclosed.It was startling in an eastern isle to hearthe Latin Office, to see the familiar surplice ofthe Church of the West. The little cathedral,with its chapter of six canons, endowed by MarcoSanudo in 1207, has survived the onslaughts ofcorsairs, the rapine of Barbarossa, and the machinationsof the Greeks. Its five cupolas—theVenetian builders were evidently inspired bySt. Mark's—are surmounted by slender antiquecolumns. The effect is grotesque, but theChurch had her share in the spoils of theancients. Within we found Gothic tombs datingfrom the Ducal days. The canons belong to theoldLatin families, and derive their revenue fromlands held by the chapter. Here, in theircathedral, the Latins are baptised and married,and here the Burial Office is read over them.But the educational work is in the hands offoreign clergy.French Lazarists conduct a boys'school, French Ursuline nuns a girls' school.The popular and most frequented church is thatof the Capuchins, who are Italians. The canonsconfine themselves to their capitular duties.Thetwo French schools are well staffed and equipped,and draw their pupils from the Latin populationall over the Levant. The children get a sound

92 HOME LIFE IN HELLASeducation, and acquire a refinement itwould beimpossible to find elsewhere. The Latins allspeak French, the Greeks rarely, so that thetraveller comes intocloser touch with the formerthan the latter.The streets within the castro are more spacious,the houses more stately, than thoseof the Greektown. In a Greek land, where titles of nobilityand armorialbearings are unknown, one is struckby the carved escutcheons over many of the doorways.But on shield and lozenge, charged withthe devices of families once famous, Ichabod iswrit large. The families have not all disappeared :there are stillrepresentatives of the De Cigallas,the Veniers, the Lasticqs, the Sommaripa, theDelia Rocca, the Barozzi, and other names formerlyillustrious. But property is rarer thanpatents of nobility. The latter are carefully preserved,however, and some of them show a lineagebeside which more than half the House of Lordswould be parvenu.The Duchy of Naxos and the Archipelago cameto an end in 1566, after an existence of threehundred and sixty years. Perhaps it deserved itsfate. Venetian rule was notoriously selfish, andVenice, if she got her tribute from those to whomshe granted fiefs, cared naught about the mannerin which it was obtained. The Sanudi and theCrispiabominably misused the power entrustedto them. Their government was a system ofrapine. Property was arbitrarily confiscated,

THE ISLES 93lands were siezed, and the population reduced toa condition little better than that of serfs. Thelast of the Dukes was a mere voluptuary ; thenobility were dissolute and impoverished ; theimmorality of the clergy was flagrant and open ;the judicature was corrupt. Such a state wasripe for the heel of the Ottoman. The Greeks,maddened by oppression, scandalised by themanners of the Court, sent two of their numberto Constantinople to ask the Sultan to give thema new ruler. Contemporary travellers afford aglimpse of the gaieties of Naxos and Paros,"places of much diversion." They tell us of"festivities and balls inwhich there was no lackof polished and gracious ladies." So the Latinsdanced to the end, and, truth to tell,the Naxioteswere better off, even under the Turk. Yet here,in the castro, one could not help feeling sometenderness for this remnant of the last great fief ofthe Latin Empire of the East. The vestiges are notof stone only. Look at the fair hair and blueeyes of the children. This little maiden, of thefrank gaze, smiles welcome to the Westernstranger as she trips down the marble stairway.For she is of the West too,and blood is thickerthan water. These women, gravely gracious,these men, reserved but courteous, seem tohavedropped out of old and knightly Europe into analien atmosphere. Mien and manner form astronger line of demarcation between the Greekand Latin towns than the walls of the castro.

94 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThe poorer folk have made their homes inThe family washing hangs out ofthe fortress itself.tower and jutting bartizan.The effect is bizarre,but its humour is tempered by its pathos.Throughthe open doorways of the larger houses, with theirmouldering escutcheons and air of faded splendour,one has fleeting visions of ladies.Marianas,these sad, silent ladies, but Marianas expectant ofnothing. Their red-gold hair, lit by the straysunbeam that ventures falteringly into those long,dim chambers, might belong to a canvas ofTitian or Giorgione. They are of a day thatis dead. The twilight of that day casts its shadeover everything in the castro, yet in its stagnationand decay there is a forlorn charm that growsupon us. Its denizens are not as they were in thetime of Tournefort, who visited them in1700, andsays: "On n'entend parler que d'arbres de genealogie."The family trees are preserved, but they donot talk about them. Nevertheless they are gentlestill, and I hold in grateful remembrance manya little act of kindly courtesy. There are aboutfour hundred of them left, and they are dwindling.Our favourite haunt was what may be termed thecathedral close, surrounded by quaint dwellingstapestried with clematis and passion-flower. Herewe came of an afternoon and heard the canonsdroning the Office, or later—when the purpleshadows ate up the gold on the embattled wallslistened to the ringing of the Angelus, wonderingthe while how far off was the day that it would be

THE ISLES 95hushed, when the last of the Latins had disappearedfrom what has been their home for sevencenturies.We were told there was an archaic statue lyingon a hill-side near Flerio, a few miles from Naxia,and started to look for it. The first mile was ona level sandy road bordered by tall aloes andoccasional palms. Rounding a spur and followingthe pebbly bed of an oleander-fringed stream,we came into a mountain-girdled valley—a bowllikehollow of tender green, dotted with greyrocks. Gorges stretched shadowy fingers intothe hills, and high up inone of them gleamed thewhite village of Melanes embedded in foliage.This, as we approached, was lit up by innumerabledots of gold. The oranges were ripe for harvest.There was nothing to see in Melanes save a Venetiantower. Beyond, the path grew more uneven.The ravine bubbled with springs and was vocalwith rills. The rocks were draped with ferns,maidenhair predominating,and crowned by theuncouth cactus which bears the prickly pear.Figtrees sprouted out of crevice and cranny, oftenmeeting in an arch overhead.The path becamethe dry bed of a watercourse of pure white marble,carved and polished into curious shapes by therains, and we discovered that we were scramblingup a hill of solid marble. Ancient dames, plyingdistaff and spindle, came out of tumble-downhovels to gaze at us. But the hovels were ofmarble. The novelty wore off in a day or two.

96 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThe dry-stone walls of garden and orchard arepiled-up lumps of the glistening saccharoid marbleof which half the island seems to be made. Overthe head of the gorge a stream tumbled in aseries of cascades. On the level above, it slidplacidly between whispering reeds, alive withlittle tortoises. Here was a shepherd-boy cladin sheepskin, carrying his crook. We asked himabout the agalma, and we asked everybody wemet. An agalma there seemed to be, but wecould learn nothing definite as to its whereabouts,and we had to return without a sight of that statue.But we had seen what Naxos was like. Themelancholy of the town vanished inthe laughingsunshine outside. We trod a carpet of crocusand anemone. Tall asphodels and acanthus greweverywhere. The mountains, scarce higher thanthose of our own Lakeland, were in form andcolour the peaked backgrounds of the earlyItalian masters. We forgot the Latins and thecastro, and thought of Ariadne, of Dionysos, andthe nymph Coronis. Yonder soaring peak stillbears her name. The vine and the ivy of Dionysoswere all around us—ivy we had not seen inthe other islands—and high up on the steep sideof Coronon hung the pines whose cones tippedthe thyrsus.It was mid-January, and the temperaturewas that of a warm English June. Trulythis was Naxos—birthplace of gods.Our next trip took us farther afield, to the otherside of the island. For the first hour we had the

THE ISLES 97company of M. Sommaripa, who was going to hispyrgos, as they call their country-houses—andtowers they really are,stout and foursquare withthe forked battlements of mediaeval Italy, datingfrom the times when they had to be held againstthe descents of corsairs. At the gate of this one weparted from its owner.We had no time to accepthis proffered hospitality, which we regretted, forthese towers stillcontain here and there preciousspecimens of old Venetian furniture. And theSommaripa, who came from Verona in 1390, werelords of Paros and Andros, and held the latteruntil the Turkish conquest. The family rankednext to the Ducal House and were connected withit by marriage. M. Sommaripa chatted pleasantlyto us in courtly, measured French. A fine hidalgolikefigure, his appearance and bearing were inkeeping with his mediaeval tower. He was quitein the world here, he said, for the pyrgos commandeda distant view of Naxia, the sea, and theweekly steamer.After a long ascent the valley ofTrageia, the broad central hollow of the island,burst upon us suddenly, the slender peak ofCoronon dominating the north, the sharp ridge ofZia the south. Trageia, in the centre of thebasin, nestled amid olive groves, mingled withthe denser green of oak and plane. The threevillages of Potamia stood out sharply on theopposite slopes, and high up the steep Philoti"twinkled like a grain of salt." Grey oldchurches in the richly timbered lowlands lent

98 HOME LIFE IN HELLASsomething of an English countryside aspect tothe landscape. On the floor of the valley wewere in Devon, riding through hollow lanesbeneath ivied oaks, between banks festooned withthe familiar traveller's joy. Daisy-sprinkledturf, and, inthe orchards, women with white kerchiefs,resembling from afar the rustic Englishhood, strengthened the illusion, but the orchardwalls were marble, and the trees olive. Naxoshas a distinctive character. Roughly oval, someeighteen miles long by fifteen wide, it possessesno harbours, and the fertile soil yields far morethan the inhabitants need. They are thereforeessentially landsmen, and, like the Cretans of old,"ignorant of the sea."We had been amphibiansof late, and found ourselves in a new world. Farout of sight and thought of the sea, the conditionsof life at Trageia are continental. It is thecleanest and most cheerful place in the island.The shops looked more tempting than those ofNaxia. In one there was even a suggestion ofmodes. The people think it ought to be thecapital. They certainly represent the progressiveelement in Naxos. We had coffee under a spreadingplane tree with the Demarch and the doctor.Dr. Valindri had studied in Paris and knewLondon, so he was glad to meet with Europeansin a place where they are so seldom seen. Wewere pleased too, for he was full of interestinglocal information. They wanted us to stop atTrageia, and we were sorry we had made other

THE ISLES 99arrangements, as we should have learnt moreabout the island and its people than we werelikely to do elsewhere. Moreover, used as we hadbeen to the bare rocks of the ^)gean and theniggardly soil of Attica, the rich vegetation was arelief to us. Soon after leaving Trageia wequitted level ground, and began a long andtedious climb, zigzagging up a natural marblestairway to a saddle between two mountain masses,whence we looked down the abrupt face of theisland to the sea. The aspect was bleak after thewooded hollows we had left. Apeiranthos, ourdestination, stood out clear on a naked spur.We were rather apprehensive, for as Naxos isregarded with little favour by the other islands, soApeiranthos is of poor repute in Naxos. Thestory goes that the place was founded by Barabbas,and its inhabitants are assiduous followers in thefootsteps of their ancestor in respect to otherpeople's property. The Naxiote version is thatBarabbas was a Cretan, expelled from his owncountry. The Cretan part of the story is probablytrue. The Apeiranthotes are certainly apeople distinct from the rest of the Naxiotes.They have, as a rule, blonde complexions, like theSphakiotes of Crete, and they speak a dialectwhich, in common with Cretan, preserves ancientwords and inflections. There is little doubt thatthey are of Cretan origin. There are knots ofCretan immigrants in other islands. In Melosthey form a majority. The islanders are very

100 HOME LIFE IN HELLASclannish, and the new-comers would be treated asintruders,and relegated to this remote mountainperch exposed to the northerly gales.The ill-willof the Naxiotes met with reprisals, hence theirevil reputation, though I could discover nothingto justify it in these days. They are a stalwartrace, and not a few women, fair-haired and greyeyed,possessed features of classic regularity.They pique themselves upon their speech, and ayouth pointed out Zia to us as Oros Dios; but hehad no doubt seen the ancient rock-cut inscriptionon the mountain, and the rest of his remarks didnot come up to the same standard of Hellenicpurity.Zia may be a corruption of Zeus, and atrace of the old religion lingers in the reverenceattaching to the cave. Another of our interlocutorswas astonished that we had never seenFingal's Cave of Staffa. We were equally astoundedto learn that he had even heard of it.It was a breach of patriotism not to have visitedour own speleion, which, to him, held as largea place in Britain as that of Zia in Apeiranthos.After Fingal's Cave, it did not surprise me muchto hear of Greenwich Fair. Whether that institutionlives in the memory of Londoners I knownot, but it is green in that of Manoli Detchi, ayouthful septuagenarian—the only mariner wemet in the island—who joined in its revels whenhis ship lay in the Thames. He told us of thosehappily obsolete toys which, drawn sharply downan unsuspecting back, caused "all the fun of the

THE ISLES 101fair." So here in this remote Naxian village weheard about a phase of life in our native landquite outside our own experience—and in our ownlanguage too. Manoli Detchi was the only personon the island who knew English. He had had noopportunity to speak it for twenty-five years, andrejoiced exceedingly.Consequently much of ourtime was passed on his vine-clad verandah, or inhis pleasant parlour, under the gaze of QueenVictoria and Mr. Gladstone, whose portraitsadorned it,- the while Mrs. Detchi, with a lavishhand, plied us with cakes and fruit and wine,home-made and home-grown. The wine ofApeiranthos is the only vintage in Naxos whichmerits the eulogium of Pindar. It is light andhas the flavour of champagne, though it is notsparkling. But none of it ever finds its way downthe mountain. We were lodged by the Demarch,a jovial personage who sang us old songs sprinkledwith Turkish words and wholly Oriental as tomelody, or rather the want of it, to our ears. Akid was killed and roasted inour honour, but thatformed an insignificant part of the elaboratebanquet, which was prolonged by toasts—toomany toasts. The priest, the doctor, and theschoolmaster were our fellow-guests, and we werewaited on by our host's two pretty daughters.The floor of the bedroom was of beaten earth,the roof open to the rafters of oak saplings; butthe linen was fine and spotless and scented, and thecoverlets exquisitely embroidered.After the long

102 HOME LIFE IN HELLASride and the Gargantuan repast, we should haveslept soundly without these luxuries. Next morningwe were taken to see the village beauties andthe village patriarchs, and were sorely entreatedto stay another night. We only got off afterlunching copiously with the Detchis. Our hostwas indignant at the suggestion of remuneration,and sped us on our way with saddle-bags crammedwith far more than our needs.And that is how wefared among the robbers of Apeiranthos, at themention of whom our friends in Naxia had shakentheir heads.Our way lay high over the mountains, andthe sun was setting when we descended into thevillage of Vothro, lining the sides of a ravine.It was the Greek New Year's Day, and thepeople were on their house-tops in gala dress.Happily thesehighland villages have preservedthe costume which is so rapidly disappearing.With the exception of Crete, more of itin Naxos than elsewhere.is retainedWe waited in the villageshop whilst the muleteer went to look for theDemarch. The door was blocked with gazers.The windows were a mosaic of children's flattenednoses. The people were a good-looking, pleasantlot, but it is inconvenient to be a cynosure, and wemoved in a perpetual cloud of spectators. TheDemarch was a quiet man of a practical turn ofmind. He had named his little girls Kyriake andParaskeve—Sunday and Friday—from the days onwhich they were born, and was going to send his

son to an agricultural school.THE ISLES 103His discourse wason emery—the mines are near Vothro—and keetra,the large citrons, the bulk of which go to Englandto be made into candied peel.Vothro lives mainlyon keetra. But we were glad of a quiet eveningafter the festivities of the previous night. Thepriest took us to see the church. He was proudof the iconostasis, the screen of the sanctuary, onwhich is lavished most of the ornament in Greekchurches. It was a heavy structure of marble,apparently of the seventeenth century. A farfiner object was the gigantic plane tree in thechurchyard.We started for Apollonos at eight o'clock nextmorning, taking a boy as guide. It took us fourhours over the worst track we encountered on thejourney. We had to lead the mules most of theway round shoulders that were almost precipices,then came a weary space of loose, rolling stonesa talus of screes. At last we got down to thebeach, white, dazzling, made up of marble worninto smooth pebbles. Then we clambered overrocks of marble, the breakers thundering againstthem, then up a hill of slippery marble, gettingfoothold on the wild sage which sprouted from thecrevices.Here, in a square cutting, we found thestatue we had come to see, lying on its back.It isthirty-four feet long and looks much as depicted inRoss's Inselreise—a drawing he made in 1835, andthe only one that exists, as far as I know. It is farfrom finished. The feet resemble the end of a

104 HOME LIFE IN HELLASmummy-case, except that one foot is slightly advanced.The features are indistinct, but the hairis boldly indicated.There is a deep crack acrossthe head. The marble did not seem so good asmuch close at hand, still unquarried. A shepherdtold us there were grammata higher up ; but wewere tired out, and we knew those grammata—theinscription which gives the place its name, and abasis for the supposition that this is a statue ofApollo, that was intended for his shrine on neighbouringDelos. 1 However that may be, here wasan intention frustrated, how and why we knew nomore than the eagle which at that moment flewover us. But in the presence of this uncompletedwork in its native quarry, lying as it was left byits sculptors at an unknown date, one felt nearer tothem and to their age than in looking on thefinished masterpieces of a museum. Nothing hadhappened to it since that sudden cessation of thechisel.Komiake looked a long way off and terribly highup, perched on the flank of Coronon, but the trackwas better than the last, and the climb waslightened by the splendid scenery and the delightfulfigures of the little shepherd-boys with theirpastoral crooks. This was the most primitivevillage we had seen, as it was the finest in situation.It stands at a greater altitude than any other placein the island, and far away to the east we sawSamos and the high coast ofAsia. But the pigs were1 "0/>or xup&v lepov 'Air6\\oivos.

THE ISLES 105embarrassing. Lords of the roadway, they yieldplace to no biped, and their name is legion.TheKomiake pig is long and spare of frame, and agile.He is also of an inquiring turn and given to exploringthe dwellings on his route, and as thedoors are usually open, half the pig population iswithin them. The inhabitants do not object tothis when the visitors are their own property—theydistinguish them as readily as a shepherd does theindividuals of his flock—but they draw the linestrangers ; consequently there are perpetual raidsand sallies accompanied by human cries and porcinesqueals. I suggested the simple expedient ofstyes, but this innovation was deprecated oneconomic grounds. The free pig forages for hisown living. That the condition of the street isthat of a byre does not trouble the citizens ofKomiake. We were lodged by the doctor, whowas also the Demarch, and found, as elsewhere, avery kindly welcome. The muleteer and the villagebarber strolled into the doctor's saloon and joinedthe party as a matter of course.is unknown here.atClass distinctionChill gusts and lowering skies foreboded stormthe next morning. The mountain -tops wereshrouded, and as we did not relish the prospectof being weather-bound in Komiake, we hastenedour departure, much against the willof our hostand hostess, who strongly urged us to stay, andprophesied snow and disaster, for our path tookus higher up the mountain. The villagers seemed

106 HOME LIFE IN HELLASreally distressed for us, and as we rode awayexclaimed dolefully, " Cheemone, cheemone!"Xet/uoovri does not mean winter only with them,but rain and snow and cold, and they are terriblyafraid of a little weather. We dipped into anarrow gully, and when we got to the top on theother side they were gazing at us from theirroofs, and our kind host and his family were onhis, vigorously beckoning to us to return andpointing to the black heavens. However, wewere quit for a sharp hailstorm, from which wesheltered in a handy cave,for we were roundingthe shoulder of Coronon amid the finest scenerywe had yet encountered. When we got to theother side,and the southern lowland burst uponus with the sea beyond, we were in anotherclimate, a land of sunshine and flowers. Thetransition was sudden and complete from thebleak northern face of the mountains, where ourfriends at Komiake and Apeiranthos were experiencingthe rigours of cheemone. The descentwas long and some of it rough, but at every stepit grew warmer, though Coronon still frownedabove us. Part of our way was bordered byrocks of rose-coloured marble with veins ofa deeper hue, almost carmine. The path wascovered with fragments of it. At last we reachedlevel ground, and Engarrais with its orangegroves and rich gardens. Soon afterwards wecame to the beach and followed it for some miles.Ahead were the hills behind which we knew lay

THE ISLES 107Naxia. Those hills are unique, and I have neverseen any so lovely elsewhere—a miniature mountainrange of most graceful forms, and of auniform hue of emerald, so rare a colour in theCyclades. The grass slopes end in pinnacles ofvivid green rock. It was twilight as we came tothem, and night when we passed the fountainwhich bears the name of Ariadne, outside thegates of Naxia. Our good friend, M. Barozzi,regaled us with hot tea and rum. It grew into ahabit with us during our stay to spend part ofeach evening with M. Barozzi. He it was whohad found us our rooms and helped us in manyways. He spoke French, treasured some boundvolumes of the Graphic, and never tired of hearingabout England and the world outside Naxos.Those pleasant symposia were always accompaniedby tea and the added stimulant, a specifiche prescribed for nearly every ill—against his owninterests, for he was a chemist.His pharmacy isnear the landing-place, but he dwells in the castro,and the tombs of his ancestors are inthe cathedral; for in 1207 the Barozzi held the barony ofSantorin, and one of them was Bailie of Negropontewhen Venice ruled the Archipelago. Santorinwas wrested from them in 1335 by DukeNicholas I of Naxos. They never regained it,though Duke John I gave them compensation in*355- They went to Crete, where they had estates,and when the Turks conquered it in 1699 theycame to Naxos, where they have dwindled with

108 HOME LIFE IN HELLASthe rest of the Latins ever since. When afterwards,at Santorin, we saw Scaros, the ruinedstronghold, an eyrie on theedge of a precipice,built by the first Barozzi, who came with theFourth Crusade, we thought of his descendant,our good friend at Naxos, and the strangeromance of a later age interwoven with theseJEgean isles, apart from their ancient glory. Butthis brings us to Santorin.SANTORINThe lip of a submerged crater, still active—thatis the island of Santorin. A crescent-shaped massof volcanic matter, it tapers to a point at eachend, and isbarely three miles wide in the middle.It is eighteen miles long on the outer arc, twelveon the inner. The approach to Santorin is asight never forgotten. The northern tip of thecrescent falls to the sea on each side in sheercliffs of burnt tufa, crimson in hue. At the topis a layer of white, like the sugared crust on acut bridecake. When that white crust resolvesitself into houses we rub our eyes. Surely it issome dream city, this eyrie of domes and dwellings,roof above roof, crowding the narrowsummit of the razor-edged promontory, clinginglike martins' nests to the cornice of the precipice.Such is the first view of Epanomeria, the secondtown of Santorin. We round the point, openingup the inner side of the crescent. About half-

THE ISLES 109way round the sweep we see something like snowpowdering the edges of crags with a clear dropof a thousand feet or more—black as Erebusthese. That glacier thing is Phira, the capital ofSantorin. It might have sprung from the brainof Albert Goodwin, one of those weird scenes hedrew as known to Sindbad the Sailor, for it islike no other place on earth. As we come nearer,it is a dazzling white fringe set against the zenithbetween the azure and the black face of the cliff.It topples over the dizzy edge wherever there isledge or cranny big enough toTo livehold a dwelling.where two feet from your door you stepinto empty space is a creepy notion, but it is anordinary condition of life at Phira. There areplaces where the cliff is made of soft tufa. Herethere is no need to seek for a ledge. The wouldberesident scoops out his habitation.aA projectionto the left as we disembark is honeycombedwith these freeholds. The notches that give accessto them are invisible to the unpractised eye. Someobjects hopping about the face of the rock wetake to be birds at first. They are children.Several of these pigeon-hole dwellings are so lowthat the sea flows into them. Some are underwater. It is one of the little ways of Santorin tochange its level. This portion sank a few yearsago. But some spots are as suddenly raised, andinthe whirligig of time these water-logged residencesmay be high and dry again, and if Santorinpossesses house agents, they would no doubt be

110 HOME LIFE IN HELLASdescribed as "eligible." The traveller will noteon his disembarking that the houses about thelanding-place, when not in caves, have barrelroofsof cement. This is to enable them to resistnot only earthquakes, but a more frequent danger,the falling of stones from the precipice. Peoplehave often been killed by them. Retaining wallshave been built and rocks shored up, but manyoverhanging boulders threaten disaster.On my first visit to Santorin I arrived at nightand saw nothing of all this. It is perhaps wellfor people who are not Alpinists to go up in thedark. It is the way of mules always to take theouter edge of the path when a bad corner hasto be faced. I saw the lights of the steamer recurringat every zigzag, sheer below, and growinguncomfortably distant as we mounted, but thatwas all. I felt that the road was slippery andvery "knobby" as we floundered up, and wasglad when the mule and I lurched with a clatterinto the twelve foot wide High Street of Phira.I looked out of the window next morning downa gentle slope, brown, treeless, apparently sterile,to the sea three miles away, but it did not look sofar. I went to the other side of the house andlooked over a wall six feet from the door—the seaagain, a thousand feet or so perpendicular beneathme. This was Santorin at its widest. There isnot much of it, and what there is consists largelyof lava, pumice, and volcanic sand. That is whyPhira is perched on the edge of a precipice. Every

THE ISLES 111scrap of land inside is wanted for the vines.Withoutthem the people cannot live.Even the olive,which finds a foothold on the barest hills, is absenthere. There is not a tree on the island save afew figs, and the fig tree has a talent for thrivingon stones.It was a wonderful outlook over that wall infront. The boats below seemed to be suspendedin air, so clear was the blue water, a basin somesix miles long and four wide, with precipitouswalls, and three black islets in the middle. Thewall opposite was Therassia, separated from thesouthern end of Santorin by a strait three mileswide, with a white island in the middle, a sortof stepping-stone. The water a thousand feetbelow went down sheer another two thousandfeet, for the basin is a vast crater, submerged,but with two segments of its lip protruding fromthe sea. The larger, on which I stood, is Santorin,the smaller is Therassia. The three blackislets are cones of eruption. A broad ribbon ofvivid orange-red was flung athwart the sapphirewaters. The discoloration was caused by oxideof iron streaming from a spring in the blackislets. I could see the three masts of a barquemoored in the narrow channel between them. Shewas having her bottom cleaned by the chemicalaction of the water. It takes about a fortnight,and as it costs nothing, is often resorted to byvessels trading in these seas.We sailed over to the islets the next day.From

112 HOME LIFE IN HELLASour boat the face of Santorin could be better seen.Black is the predominant hue, but layers of redand brown tufa streak the basaltic mass, andsouth of the town the cliffs are capped with creamcolouredvolcanic detritus called puzzolana, usedin making cement for submarine structures.Wecame to the first islet, a cone strewn with blackenedboulders, between which grew a scanty herbage.A passage only a few feet wide divided this fromthe second islet. Here the water grew reddish,and innumerable bubbles rose to the surface.Weput our hands over the side of the boat and foundit warm. Presently, at the head of the littlecreek, it grew too hot to touch, and close to therocks it boiled and steamed. The marks of firewere all around us. Huge boulders, cracked andblackened, piled high above, made a fantasticsky-line.To the right rose a cone, its broken topwhitened by fire. At its base were shells ofhouses and the ruin of a tiny church. Thesewere the remains of the littlebathing-place, Vulcano,destroyed in 1866. Nobody has dared tolive here since. We clambered up the boulders.It was not so hard as it looked.afforded a good grip for the hands.The fractuositiesThen came asteep slope, but the ashes made it easy. Even inthis desolation a tiny yellow flower found sustenance.From the top of the cone we looked downinto the crater—a chasm of calcined rocks.Jetsof steam and sulphurous smoke spurted fromcrevices.Another cone, of older date apparently,

THE ISLES 113rose to the north, and to the south lay an unevenplateau, perhaps half a mile wide and rathermore in length. It was made up of scoriae,sulphur, lumps of red lava, and basalt boulders.In places ita drum.sounded hollow to the tread and likeHere the ground was warm, smoke andsulphurous fumes issued from cracks, and the airwavered with heat. In one spot there came frombelow a sound of hissing and bubbling. A gullyfilled with masses of rock and lava barred theway. Getting round the end of it, we made ourway to a range of rocks split and discoloured byfire.Beyond this was a ravine, an abyss of rentand splintered masses, black as night, or whiteand calcined, crushed and contorted. We clambereddown a little way to get a better view ofthose awful walls ending in a confusion of fragments,two black ungainly snouts stretching intothe sea. To the right, across a narrow channel,the third islet showed a frowning face, but it wasgreen on its lower northern end.It rose from thedepths more than two thousand years ago, in197 B.C., therefore it is named Palaia Kaimene,the Old Burnt Island. The Rhodians, thenmasters of the JEgean, called it Hiera—Sacredand reared on it a temple to Poseidon.In 19 a.d.another islet appeared and joined itself to theold one. After seven centuries (726 a.d.) therewas another increase. Theophanes describes theflaming rocks rising from the water. Anotherseven centuries elapsed, when in 1457 a portion

114 HOME LIFE IN HELLASof it, amid fearful rumblings, sank into the wavesand was replaced by a new accretion.Since thennothing has happened to the Old Burnt Island.But after remaining solitary for nearly eighteencenturies it had a companion. In 1573 the greencone to which we first came arose. It was notgreen then, but burnt for a year. So the peopleof Santorin saw two islets instead of one. Othershad risen. Seneca tells of two in 47 a.d., andthere was another in 60 a.d., but they disappeared.This one, however, came to stay, anditbears the name of Mikra Kaimene—the LittleBurnt Island—to this day. Seventy-seven yearsafter the birth of Little Burnt Island thereappeared another, and we have a graphic accountof it by the Jesuit, Father Richard, who witnessedthe phenomenon. Kolombo, as this island wascalled, was not in the basin, but some miles awayto the north-east. Santorin was enveloped in thickvapour. Many people were blinded, fifty died, allsuffered. Earthquake shocks loosened rocks whichkilled many in their fall. Drifting boats werefound afterwards at sea, their crews dead, poisonedby the noxious fumes. But Kolombo,after causing all this trouble, also vanished.Tournefort, who visitedSantorin fifty years afterwards,quaintly remarks on "the singular fecundityof this volcano, whose islets seem to grow likemushrooms." He little thought that seven yearsafterwards there would arrive a permanent additionto them. On the 21st May, 1707, at dawn,

THE ISLES 115some fishermen saw what they thought was adrifting boat, and put off to it. They found itwas a moving rock, and got back to land again ina fright.Other rocks rose, and by the 14th Junethere was an islet a mile in circumference of awhitish colour, and from it issued the orangecolouredstream which is still such a conspicuousfeature. The people named it White Island. Onthe 16th July, at sunset, a chain of great rocks,black, separate, shot up in a spot where beforethere were no soundings. These crashed together,and were called Black Island. On the9th September Black Island and White Islandjoined and formed Nea Kai'mene—New BurntIslandthe largest of the three, and the one Ihave attempted to describe. Santorin had ananxious time during the making of Nea Kai'-mene. There were frequent earthquakes andexplosions. The sea was disturbed and discoloured,and a multitude of dead fish floatedon its surface. It discharged noisome vapourscolumns of dense smoke and steam, mingledwith tongues of flame, arose from it ; and burningrocks were hurled into the air. Calm was notrestored for a year, but on the 15th July,1708, itwas possible to land on the new island. Notuntil 1866 did Santorin have an increase in itsfamily of islets, when Aphroessa arose. But thisaccession to the dominions of King George hada brief existence of two years. Aphroessa disappearedin 1868, although disturbances con-

116 HOME LIFE IN HELLAStinued until the middle of 1870. There existsa very complete account of this last eruption inthe Diary of Dr. De Cigalla, in which the phenomenaare carefully noted day by day. Volcanicbombs were one of its features. They causedsome deaths, notably that of the captain of aforeign merchant vessel. Commander Brine, ofH.M.S. Racer, who saw the formation of the newislet, gives a graphic description of it : "At thewater's edge large blocks of hissing lava andburning clinker slowly made their appearance,steam escaping from them at every pore. Withan iron boat-hook we broke off several pieces asthey rose above the sea . . . there was a constantworking noise . . . sounds of stones crumblingand falling with sharp cracks and reports . . .through the fissures it could be seen that theinner rocks were red-hot, and from every possiblerent or opening escaped clouds of steam and sulphurousvapour . . . the sea round the burningisland was covered with green, red, and yellowflames, shooting up like torches or playing likeserpents on the face of the water."seas appear to have accompanied allThese fieryformer eruptions.Father Richard mentions them in 1650,whilst Seneca, quoting an eye-witness of theeruption which gave birth to Old Burnt Islandin 197 B.C., says: "The sea foamed, smoke cameout, then flame like lightning, then the summitof an island."Santorin and Therassia are but the fragments of a

once greater and fairer isle,cataclysm.THE ISLES 117witnesses to a mightyHerodotus tells of the island Kalliste,of which Santorin is but a vestige, and geologistssupport him in the belief that a great cone formerlyrose where this basin of sea now rolls.Sir CharlesLyell conjectures the date of the catastrophe to beabout 2000 B.C. The forces that wrought it arenot yet spent, as the boiling waters, the smokingrocks, and frequent tremors and rumblings attest.Subsidences often occur, and remains of submergedbuildings are found near the coast. There aresome off Epanomeria. In 1650 two towns, buriedand forgotten, were unearthed by the disturbances.They may be seen near Perissa and Kamara. Itis an eerie place, this Santorin, and it is not to bewondered at that, in times not long gone by,popular belief regarded it as the chosen home ofghouls and vampires and the like uncanny beings.Swallows avoid it, although the cliffs would affordthem an ideal nesting-place. Man, less timid orless wise than the swallows, has dwelt on it fromthe remotest ages. He has left traces whichscience attributes to a period anterior to the cataclysm,if the date assigned to it is correct.To-day,next to Syra, it is the most progressive and themost prosperous of the Cyclades.But whilst theimportance of Syra dates from yesterday and is dueto an accidental cause outside itself, that of Santorinextends through its whole history and isspontaneous.Thera—the ancient name is now itsofficial title—has a great past. Its remains attest

118 HOME LIFE IN HELLASthe opulence and culture of its people in the classicages. The fragments of statuary in the littlemuseum of Phira include examples of the bestperiod of Greek art, among them two heads whichare attributed to Polyclitus. The solitary chapel,known as the Marble St. Nicholas, is perhaps themost perfect antique Heroon in existence. Thecity of CEa is the Pompeii of the Cyclades. Itsexcavation is due to Baron Hiller von Gaertingen,whose sumptuous work on Thera certifies to thehigh estimation in which it is held by the archaeologistand the historian. In later times, whenThera was known as Santorinthe isle of SaintIrene—it was a possession coveted by the filibusteringnobles who carved out their baronies withtheir swords. No less than five castles frowned onits steeps. But it was not all fighting and feasting.Buondelmonti, the distinguished Florentine, whowas the first European scholar to visit and describeGreek lands, arrived at Santorin about the timeAgincourt was fought. He tells how DukeGiacomo I, who died in 1418, tried to sound thebasin with a rope a thousand paces long, withoutsuccess ;" and those who held the rope let it dropinto the abyss, so great was its weight." Evidently,Duke Giacomo had scientific leanings.The vine is practically the only thing that growsin Santorin. Wine is the staple product and byfar the most important export. The other two arepuzzolana and pumice-stone. All three are giftsof the volcano, for it is the sulphur with which the

THE ISLES 119soil is impregnated that keeps the grapes healthy,they say. There are many varieties. The Santorinfolk, I believe, count as many as sixty, andthere is one grape of extraordinary size, as big asa walnut. But as I have never been there whenthe grapes are ripe I cannot vouch for it. A vineyardin winter is a curious sight. The ashen-greyearth is littered with what look like old wickerbaskets.The vines are so pruned and trainedthat they may be woven intowithin which are placed stones.the form of a cup,This is to preventthem from being torn up or damaged by the violentwinds that sweep over the island. It is the treatmentof the grape that mainly contributes to thevariety in character of the wine. The sweet vinosanto comes from grapes that have been exposed tothe sun for fourteen days after being plucked.The much-esteemed nyktos, wine of the night, ismade from grapes gathered before sunrise. Thewines of Santorin deserve their reputation. Likeall vintages from volcanic soil, they are potent, andare largely consumed in Russia. As dessert winesthey are prized, but a grower with whom I dinedgave me a wine of a Bordeaux character which hehad succeeded in producing. I never met withanything like it elsewhere in the Levant. Thoughwine is plentiful water is scarce. It depends onthe rains, and in times of drought has to be importedfrom other islands.There is absolutely nopasturage, and consequently no sheep and cattle.There are enough goats to supply milk, but beef

120 HOME LIFE IN HELLASand mutton come from outside, and in bad weatherSantorin has to go without them. A treelessisland is also necessarily dependent on others forits fuel. Fodder for the transport animals, mulesand donkeys, must be obtained from elsewhere.The vines cannot be sacrificed, yet the mulesdo get a portion of the young shoots. ThoughSantorin is waterless it is very damp. Everythingrusts and moulders, and the inhabitants are subjectto rheumatism. Their eyes suffer, too, from thedust. The volcanic sand fills the air wheneverthere is wind, which is very often. Then thewomen go about with faces swathed in their blackkerchiefs. The existence of leprosy is attributedto the conditions of life and to bad water. Thereis a leper colony outside the town, happily a smallone. Landslips and earthquake shocks, of notinfrequent occurrence, do not add to the amenitiesof existence in Santorin. One would not expectin such an environment to find a very cheerfulpopulation.Yet the people of this weird spot arethe most lively in the Cyclades. The poor aremore polished in their manners than those of theother islands. We remarked it everywhere—atEpanomeria among the seafarers, at Akrotiri onthe southern extremity of the island, at Pyrgosand Emborion, the inland towns—if anything canbe inland in a country where it is impossible toget more than a mile and a half from the sea. Theair of well-being that pervades Santorin is lackingin Naxos, notwithstanding the natural advantages

THE ISLES 121of the latter. The habitations and the streets inSantorin are clean and wholesome, even inqueer troglodyte villagesthosescooped out of the tufaand hidden in gullies. There is little of interesteither in costume or character. Modernity is the noteof this island. But it is not the imitative modernityof the great Levantine seaports, and it isneither ridiculous nor pretentious. It may perhapsbe described as an absence of Orientalism and maybe illustrated by Stamati. He was a cook, theonly one we found in the Cyclades. It may bedoubted whether he has a rival in the Greekdominions. With the slender resources of theisland he prepared a repast that Brillat Savarinwould not have disdained.omelettes at Athens.They pretend to makeStamati made an omelette.Fish is, of course, a stand-by in a land where thesupply of flesh must depend on the weather.Stamati's red mullet en papillate was the work of amaster. He had cooked in France and in Egypt.The French cuisine had no mysteries for him. Hehad written a cookery book in modern Greek.And he took it all as a matter of course. Phirasociety entertains largely. Dinners and soireeskept Stamati going. Sweets and pastry were thecreations in which he took most pride. Such anartist would have starved on any of the otherislands. The Latins were his best customers.The Latins of Santorin, unlike those of Naxos,do not live in the past. The faded splendours ofthe castro are naught to them. They have their

122 HOME LIFE IN HELLASpedigrees but do not set much store by them.Instead, they try to retrieve their fallen fortunes.Ihave met Delendas in Egypt, and Da Carognasin Malta.There are, of course, representatives ofthose distinguished Catalan families on the island,De Cigallas, who came fromas there are of theGenoa in the fifteenth century, though they alsoare probably of Spanish origin. There are aboutfive hundred of them clustered round the Latinchurch and convent. They have schools as inNaxos, and French is so prevalent that it was hardto realise, when enjoying their hospitality, thatour hosts were a relic of a feudal adventure in aremote island, poised over a crater which remindsthem from time to time that humanity has a precarioustenure on Santorin.If the fragments ofthe once " round island," Strongyle, were to followthe rest of it there would be an end of the inhabitantsof Santorin. They know it, but they take itlightly. "If it were to happen we should all gotogether, so there would be no regrets." So,literally, they dance on a volcano. Well, theirancestors feasted in their castles when the Turkwas thundering at the gate.

THE ISLES 123THE NORTHERN SPORADES AND THEARGOLIDSNorth of the Cyclades is the group, off theMagnesian Peninsula, known as the NorthernSporades. There are about a score of them, includingrocks and islets with an intermittentshepherd population, but only four are permanentlyinhabited.Skiathos, nearest to the mainlandand overlooked by Pelion, partakes of thephysical character of that mountain. After thenudity of the Cyclades, the dense woods andthickets of Skiathos are a relief to the eye. Thereis a good harbour, and a deserted town andmonastery, for the 2800 inhabitants of Skiathoshave migrated to other parts of the island.Skiathos has suffered badly from earthquakes.There was a disastrous one in 1868. Skopeloslies to the east of Skiathos. It is the mostpopulous island of the group, containing some5000 souls. The people of Skopelos have hardlyany relations with Greece, but their quaint vessels,with high carved sterns, are to be seen in theGolden Horn, the Bosphorus, and the ports ofthe Black Sea, whither they carry their citrons,their oil, and their good red wine. Skopelosalso is subject to earthquakes—the one of 1867caused great havoc—but it is fruitful and boastsof two harbours. North-east of Skopelos isChiliodromia, the isle of "a thousand paths"—less

124 HOME LIFE IN HELLASproductive than Skopelos, but very lovely withits thickly wooded steeps and train of attendantislets. It swarms with rabbits, and its watersyield an abundance of fish, the main source oflivelihood of its 500 inhabitants, who enjoythe advantage of a good harbour. Far seaward,apart from the rest of the group, rises thebold outline of Homer's " lofty Skyros," 1 its lighthouse,familiar to mariners making for the Dardanelles.Skyros is considerably larger than theother islands, though its population, some 3500,is smaller than that of Skopelos. Its situation isthe most solitary in the JEgean, all other islandsbeing nearer either to each other or the mainland.It consists of two mountain masses joined by anarrow isthmus. Exceedingly well watered, itabounds in fruit, and the valleys afford goodpasturage. It exports oranges and lemons, figs,wine, madder, sheep and goats and a few cattle,and it grows wheat of excellent quality for homeconsumption. Its heights are clad with oak andbeech, fir and plane, and contain veins ofcoloured marble of great beauty. Skyros presentsenchanting prospects on every side, andover it all is the glamour of Hellenic mythhere Thetis concealed Achilles; here Theseuswas slain, and hence his bones were taken byCimon to Athens.1Mr. Walter Leaf, in his edition of the Iliad, has a notereferring to book ix. 668, stating- that the Skyros therein wassaid by the Scholia to be a city of Phrygia, not the island.

THE ISLES 125The history of the Northern Sporades is muchthe same as that of the Cyclades, though theybecame Turkish a quarter of a century earlier, and1 80 years earlier than Tenos. They were seizedby the Italian brothers Ghisi in 1207, recoveredfor the Greek Emperor 1273, raidedby the Catalansin 1303, annexed by Venice in 1453, andtaken by Barbarossa in1538 with the connivanceof the Greeks, as was the case in the Turkish conquestof Naxos and Andros. Skyros at oncehanded over the Venetian rector Cornaro, withhis staff, and offered tribute. Memmo, the rectorof Skiathos, hoping to hold out, armed the natives,They treacherously killed him,whom he trusted.made overtures to the Turks, and actually let downThe actropes and drew them up into the castle.was all the baser as they had been well treated bythe Venetians. But the result did not answer totheir expectations.Barbarossa promptly beheadedthe ringleaders and carried off the rest into slavery.The terrible Admiral of the red beard, ruthlessand bloody though he was, liked fair fighting.The three small but populous isles—Hydra,Spetza?, and Poros—nestling under the coast ofArgolis, are peopled by Albanians. Hydra has6400, Spetzae 5200, and Poros 4500—a populationpurely maritime. They played a leading partin the War of Independence and were the nurseryof the Greek navy. Hydra hung back at first. Itwas a little republic, and not badly off with atribute to the Porte of £30 a year and fifty seamen.

126 HOME LIFE IN HELLASBut having once made up itsmind, Hydra tookthe lion's share of the fighting, and has the lastingglory of having produced the hero Miaoulis.Spetza? and Hydra own ships and sail them.meets asBothOnemany of the male population out of theislands as in them. There is a strong contingentin the navy, and in command of Greek steamers.All the islands are picturesque, with their whitehouses on the rocks, but Poros excelsthe othersin the superb panorama of land and sea. It isonly four hours by steamer from Pirasus, andtherefore much frequented in summer by the Athenians,whose villas dot it and peep from the olivegroves on the mainland quite close at hand. Thenaval arsenal was at Poros until 1877, an^ tnenaval school is there still. On Poros is the siteof the Temple of Poseidon, made famous fortime by the death of Demosthenes.On the opposite side of the gulf liesallSalamis,stretching across the Bay of Eleusis, close to themainland of Attica, and thrusting out a tonguewhich almost touches it near Megara. The homeof Ajax is about thirty-six square miles invery irregular in shape, and rising toextent,1330 feet atits highest point. The ferry is about five milesfrom Piraeus, soon after leaving which we passthe hill whence Xerxes is said to have watchedthe famous battle. The road commands a view ofits site, round the point of Cynosure The navalarsenal is a mile to the right of the landing-place.Notwithstanding the associations of Salamis, its

THE ISLES 127inhabitants are not nautical, but tillers of the soil.They are Albanians, as are those of Eleusis oppositeand much of the neighbouring mainland.the visitor happens to arrive on a feast day, hewill probably see some characteristic dances andgood Albanian costumes. It is an easy walk tothe monastery of Phaneromene, from which thereis a fine prospect of the bay and town of Eleusis.^Egina, in the midst of the Saronic Gulf andfifteen miles from Piraeus, isIfa conspicuous objectfrom the Acropolis and other points of view atAthens. Though it was politically "an eyesore"to the Athenians in the time of Pericles, its gracefulprofile is very beautiful, especially at sunset,when it is steeped in hues of tender violet. It istriangular, and at the apex rises the symmetricalpeak called simply Oros, the mountain. Fromits summit, 1742 feet,the view embraces Attica asfar as the Isthmus of Corinth, and on the otherside Argolis and Epidaurus, whilst seaward theCyclades stud the ^Egean. The angles at thebase are occupied respectively by the Temple ofAthena on the east, and the modern town on thesite of the ancient one on the west. The lowerportion of the island is well tilled. The rest isbarren mountain. The roads are mere tracksleading through diversified rock scenery, thoughbare of trees. The air of JEgina is very pureand invigorating, and Athenians resort to it insummer. Olives, figs, and almonds thrive, thelatter especially. Sponge-fishing occupies many

128 HOME LIFE IN HELLASof the inhabitants. Another industry is themaking of kanatia—the two-handled amphorae ofred earthenware used everywhere in Greece. The./Eginetans number between 7000 and 8000. Therewere 10,000 in 1826, owing to an influx of refugeesfrom Scio and Psara. There is a strong infusionof Albanian blood, for the island was repeopledby Albanians after it had been depopulated byBarbarossa in 1537. ^Egina has had a chequeredhistory. A formidable rival to Athens in earlytimes, it was destined to become the capital of thenew Hellas in 1826, ere that distinction was conferredon the city of Athens. That was underthe Presidency of Capodistrias, whose bust adornsthe square of the modern town. A better monumentto him is the great orphan asylum he builtand filled with children brought back from slaveryin Egypt, whither they had been carried whenIbrahim Pasha invaded the Morea. The buildingstill remains, though it has been turned to otheruses. -#igina, too, can boast of the first museumestablished in Greece, though most of its treasureshave been removed to Athens.Cerigo, or Kythera, as it is named officially bythe Greek Government, lies off stormy Cape Malea,and with its satellite Cerigotto, or Antikythera,forms a sort of outpost of Crete. It was one ofthe Ionian Islands down to the termination ofthe British Protectorate in 1864, but is not nowreckoned among them, and rightly so, for Cerigoisnot only widely sundered from that group in

THE ISLES 129geographical position, but differs also inclimate,in physical character, and in its people, who aremainly of Cretan origin. The island is twentymiles long by twelve wide.It grows grain, vine,and olive, but much of it is unproductive, and itis far behind the Ionian Isles in fertility, and illsupportsits6000 inhabitants, many of whom goas harvesters to the mainlands of both Europeand Asia. Quails are netted in the season inlarge quantities, and there is some fishing.Natives of Cerigo are largely employed as waiters.Some hotels in Athens are entirely staffed bythem. They are civil and hard-working, andthough a large proportion of them remain yearsaway from the island, they are much attached toit, and never forget the 7th October, when, fewor many, they meet to celebrate the festival of theVirgin of the Myrtle Bough. A picture of thePanagia was borne miraculously across the sea toKythera—they call their island by its ancientname—and lodged in a myrtle bush. Thus theyhave their Cytherean Aphrodite, whose cult wasbrought to their island in a far-off age by Tyrianswho came for the purple murex, of which theshells still strew the shore. Cerigo has been unhappyin its rulers. It fell to the share of theVenieri in 1207, absentees who lived in Crete,and handed it over to tax-farmers. The Venetianswho nominally governed it unl : l1797, lost interestin it when they lost Crete, and left its administrationto a rapacious oligarchy.In 1545 the popula-

130 HOME LIFE IN HELLAStion was reduced to little more than 1800, andin 1562 all wanted to emigrate, which led to thecreation of the Council of Thirty, who did littleto relieve the general poverty.Eubcea—one never hears it called Negropontein Greecethe largest island in the JEgean afterCrete, can hardly be regarded as an island, soclose is the mainland, to which ithas been joinedby a bridge ever since 411 b.c. It belongs nominallyto the Northern Sporades, but its wealth andimportance give it a place by itself. Attica andBoeotia, from which it is divided by a narrowland-locked strip of sea, are far less productive.Indeed, nowhere in Greece is there such an air ofprosperity, save perhaps the Messenian plain andthe currant country bordering the CorinthianGulf. Its mountains catch the rains that wouldotherwise fall on the mainland, which it supplieswith corn and wine. Moreover, they are loftyenough to retain snow — Mount Dirphys is6725 feet—and so become well-stored cisternsand fertilising agents. Eubcea is also rich inquarries and mines. Magnesite is mined by anEnglish company, and fire-bricks areturned outin large quantities. Elsewhere lignite is workedand marble is quarried. In length ninety miles,and varying from four to thirty miles wide, Eubceais geologically a continuation of Ossa and Pelion,as Andros and Tenos are continuations of Eubcea.Steaming through the Euripos, the island presentsaspects of grandeur, and the mountains in

THE ISLES 131the northern half are clad with forests of oak andpine. Passing through the swing-bridge, wherethe straits become a narrow canal, Chalcis comesinto view, one of the most beautifully situatedtowns in Greece, and one of the cleanest andmost cheerful. It contains 8700 out of the 108,000inhabitants of the island. Eubcea has a longhistory. It sent colonies to Italy and Sicily asearly as 900 B.C. It was one of the most prizedpossessions of Venice, and the standard of Negropontewas one of the three hoisted on the tallmasts before St. Mark's. Under the Turks itwas the residence of the Capitan Pasha, and thehead - quarters of a province which includedAthens. It fell to the Turks in 1470, after ithad been ruled for two hundred and sixty-fiveyears, first by Lombard barons, then by Venetians.Unlike the Cyclades, the present populationcontains no traces of their descendants.Onthe contrary, it is the nonly part of Greece inwhich the Turks still linger, except parts ofThessaly.In Chalcis there is also a small colonyof Jews, probably a remnant of the large colonywhich existed there under the Venetians. Withthe exception of Corfu, it is hard to find a Jewelsewhere in Greece. The Albanian element prevailsin the south of the island, and, as in Thessaly,Vlach shepherds range the mountains.

ACHAPTER IIITYPES AND TRAITSGREEK says he is going to Europe whenhe is going to France or Italy. He callsEnglishmen, Germans, or any other Westernpeople who happen to visit or reside in Greece,Europeans in contradistinction to the Greeks.The occidentals in Greece do likewise. Theyare Europeans, and by implication, the Greeksare not. When they leave the Pirasus for Triesteor Naples or Marseilles they speak of going toEurope, inferring thereby that Greece is not inEurope. This is, on the face of it, an anomaly,but it is common sense. The Constantinoplemerchant, when he reaches his home at Moda,does not change from a European to an Asiaticbecause his office is in Galata, and he wouldbe deservedly laughed at if, on wishing hisGalata friends good-bye, he said, ' ' I am startingfor Asia." The Greek is racially and geographicallyEuropean, but he is not a Western. That iswhat he means by the term, and the significationis accepted by both Greek and foreigner. He isOrientalin a hundred ways, but his Orientalismis not Asiatic. He is the bridge between Eastand West, and he may claim to have moulded the132

TYPES AND TRAITS 133latter in times past. Now it moulds him in certainways ; but he is a Hellene for all that, andthere is more than the breadth of the Adriaticbetween Brindisi and Patras. Gaetano saw youoff on the Apulian shore ;Spiridion greets you onthe shore of Achaia. Apulia is remote, on theheel of Italy.It was Magna Graecia once, and atleast one Greek song — 'H Vovfiaa-roXa. — is stillsung in it. But Gaetano is much nearer to Doverthan Spiridion. The latter is probably closer tothe Dover man in complexion than Gaetano, whois usually brown of hue, and he is more thanprobably better educated, but he is farther fromWestern Europe. His komboloia is a detailwhich indicates that. The beads which he letsslide through his listless fingers may once havehad a religious signification. But now theyneither represent the ninety-nine attributes ofAllah nor the Catholic rosary. That chapletwhich is his inseparable companion when hisfingers are not otherwise employed, in which hefinds a solace unknown to Westerns, marks himoff from Apulia as much as from Kent. He playscards in the street at ten o'clock in the morning—proceeding which would excite remark at Dover,though not at Brindisi. But the komboloia isunknown to Gaetano ; so is the water-pipe, thenargileh, whose soothing bubble we hear as wepass the long lines of littletables on the quay atPatras. Yet Patras is very Western for Greece.It is the only considerable town with its face to the

134 HOME LIFE IN HELLASWest. Here is a steamer—a Cunarder which hasdone with transatlantic service—loading currantsfor Liverpool, and here is a Welsh schooner, withthe name Port Madoc on her stern, dischargingsalt cod for a people who for two hundred daysout of the year are not allowed by their creed toeat fresh fish.English ships have come here forcenturies, and Patras was a frequented portwhen the Piraeus was uninhabited save by a fewmonks. Notwithstanding, there is a strangenessabout everything which is not the sleepinessof Southern Italy, and one realises that incrossing the narrow Adriatic one has come to theEast. It is not the black- robed clergy in queerstove-pipe hats with the brim at the top and theirlong hair bunched up into a chignon behind.isnot the saraffs—those bankers with their capitaldisplayed in glass cases set on a table in thestreet. It is not the dress. That, unfortunately,is now mostly European and ugly at Patras,though one has an occasional glimpse of a fustanellaor a white-clad, black-broidered Albanian.These externals are accidents, and do not makethe Oriental atmosphere.ItThat is indicated ratherby manner, by the standpoint from which life isregarded, by the way things go ; and it is not ourway. One instance of it is the vagueness of informationon everyday matters, small but important,such as the hour of departure of trainsand steamers. Time-tables may exist in Greece,but the writer has never seen one. In Athens

TYPES *AND TRAITS 135itself, apart from two or three of the principalhotels, the traveller who wishes to ascertain whenhis train starts must go to the station and inquire,or consult the time-sheets at the booking-office.Ask in a shop or a cafe, and the almost inevitableresponse is a surprised "How should I know?"In Italy the waiter would refer to the handy littleOrario,which may be purchased everywhere fora penny. In England he would produce anA. B. C. On the other hand, the Greek waiteror shop assistant isready with information as tothe policy of European governments, and if youare an Englishman, will probably comment onrecent speeches in the House of Commons, ofwhich he has read a summary in an Athenianjournal. Only yesterday the writer was treated toan explanation of the attitude of Sir Edward Greytowards the Cretan Question by a youthful shopman,who, however, could not tell him how longit took to get to Megara, nor from which stationthe train started. One in his position in Englandwould know and care nothing about foreigncabinet ministers, but the local time-table wouldhave no mysteries for him. This absorbing interestin politics is distinctively Greek, but theconstantly recurring answer to an inquiry "Whoknows?" is Oriental. The Pios exevrei of theGreek is a literal translation of the Kim bileerof the Turk and the Meen araf of the Arab.is facile, and it saves trouble. It is the invariableresponse of the peasant to the traveller who asksIt

136 HOME LIFE IN HELLAShis opinion as to weather prospects, and it isfollowed by the remark "God alone knows," or"It is in the hands of God." This disposes ofthe question finally. There is nothing further tobe said. The Western rustic uses the intelligenceGod has given him to draw an inferenceon the subject from his surroundings—the directionof the wind, the aspect of mountains, thestate of the atmosphere, the behaviour of birdsand insects, which he knows from past experienceare indications of an approaching change ; andhis interpretation of these signs is usually correct.In this he differs from the Greek, who is contentto take things as they come. Whether this fatalismis derived from contact with the Turk orinherited from his remote ancestors is a problem.From what we know of the inquisitive, eager,speculative character of the ancient Hellenes, thelatter assumption seems "improbable. The inquisitivespirit has lost none of its vigour. Thissurvival of the manners of the Homeric age is,indeed, a nuisance. The curiosity of the Greekknows no limits. He is not content with learningthe nationality of the stranger, whence he comesand whither he is going. He questions him asto his family, his calling, his income, his age, hiswife's age if he has one, the number and sex ofhis children, the price he has paid for his clothes,the nature, use, and cost of any article in his possessionwhich happens to attract attention. Andthe traveller is catechised in this fashion at every

TYPES AND TRAITS 137place he comes to, usually in the presence of aninterested audience. It is exceedingly annoying,and to the Western, gross impertinence. But itis not meant as such. It is in the manners of thepeople, and the Greek will freely volunteer informationabout himself, his relations, and hisaffairs. The above applies mainly to rural Greece.In the larger towns greater discretion is exercised,though even in Athens the stranger is the objectof the national curiosity. Those Athenians whoare too polite to ask him directly what is his profession,seek to learn it by indirect inquiries, orassign to him one which seems probable.Amongthe tradespeople of the quarter where he dwellsthe author enjoys an undeserved reputation as anexpert in metallurgy, a branch of knowledge ofwhich he is profoundly ignorant.A habit which strikes the stranger as peculiaris that of calling people only by their baptismalnames. The Greeks do this, not only to eachother, but to foreigners as well.He who sojournsin a Greek community soon finds himself addressedand spoken of as Mr. John or Mr. William.Thisis not so singular as it might appear among anation in which surnames are a comparativelyrecent development. Turks and Arabs have thesame custom for the same reason. Birthdays aretaken no notice of inGreece, but each individualkeeps his festival on the day of the saint whosename he bears. Probably Joannes is the commonestname in Greece as it is with us—the

138 HOME LIFE IN HELLASdiminutive Yanni is invariably used—and all theJohns rejoice on the day dedicated toone of thesaints of that name. Constantine comes nextperhaps in popular favour, and innumerableCostas celebrate with special intention the feastof Saints Constantine and Helena. The manyGreeks whose baptismal names are taken fromantique sources—Sophocles, Xenophon, Demosthenes,Euphrosyne, Calliope, etc.— get over thedifficulty by feasting on All Saints' Day. Sothat Herakles and Aphrodite occupy a temporaryplace in the Christian Calendar, as do also someillustrious names in modern history. The writeronce knew a Constantinople Greek whose baptismalname was Monk. He knew nothing aboutthe monastic signification of the word, but he wasso called after General Monk, of whom his fatherwas an admirer.The Greek custom of eating out of a commondish always strikes the new-comer from the Westas a distinctive peculiarity. As a matter of fact, itis not. It is merely an Oriental habit which theGreek shares with Turks, Arabs, and otherEastern peoples. Of course it is not met withamong the wealthy Greeks, who have probablybeen educated in Europe and live in Europeanfashion, but it is universal among the humblerclasses, and in rural society it extends to thewell-to-do.in an ordinary manner indiscards plates at home.Many a man whom one sees diningan Athenian restaurant

TYPES AND TRAITS 139The Greek Church is dealt with elsewhere ; sufficeto say here that it is Oriental and apart fromthe West, and prides itself on being so. TheCalendar and the retention of the Old Style aredetails, but they are marks of distinctionthe Greek and the West.betweenOnly the other day thewriter was asked by a peasant boy of Kalavrytaif the year were 1910 with the Franks as with theHellenes.The status of women is the most salient Orientalcharacteristic. It is necessary to state here thatthese remarks embrace the Greek nation as awhole.Those who only know Athenian society,with its French salons and English governesses,know no more about the Greek people than onewhose experience is limited to advanced "YoungTurks " of Constantinople knows about the Turks.The noble efforts for the improvement of the conditionof women made by a few Athenian ladiesare spoken of elsewhere, and one of thebrightestfeatures of Athenian life is the excellent provisionmade for the education of girls, rich and poor.None the less, the Greek woman, generally speaking,is regarded as of slight importance comparedwith the man. The Mainote father announces thebirth of a son by firing a gun repeatedly, and thewelcome news is responded to in a similar mannerby his neighbours on the mountain-side. But nofeu dejoie heralds the advent of a daughter. Therewas a time when reading and writing were lookedupon as undesirable for women. There are prob-

140 HOME LIFE IN HELLASably few who hold that opinion now.But thereare plenty who consider that education is unnecessary,if not harmful, for their girls, as Greekswho are working for women's weal know full well.It is sometimes a hard matter to get parents tosend their daughters to school. The wife of theGreek peasant is a drudge in both house andfield, and the wife of the townsman leads as arule a secluded life with no interests beyond thoseof her household. There is very little entertainingamong the Greeks except on the occasion of familyevents, weddings or baptisms. Even in Athens,only a restricted section of society " receives."Dinner-parties are almost unheard of. At socialfunctions the opposite sexes do not mix freely.The ladies discuss their own affairs apart. Thisis a survival of the seclusion of women which wascommon to all Orientals, Christian as well asMoslem. Until the nineteenth century theChristian woman in the East was less free thanher Moslem sister, who enjoyed certain legalrights and privileges denied to the Christian. InMaina and in some of the islands of the ^Egeanthere has never existed, at any period, a Turkishpopulation,more rigid seclusion than that of the harem, downyet women were there subjected to ato times comparatively recent.Girls were rarelyallowed to go out of the house, and when they didthey were veiled and surrounded by a vigilantguard of their relations.They passed their time behindlatticed windows, learning to weave, to sew

TYPES AND TRAITS 141and embroider, and to rear silkworms.They werenever consulted as to the choice of a husband.That was done for them by their friends andrelations, whose interests and predilections alonewere considered, and not those of the contractingparties, who were frequently betrothed whilstinfants of tender age. The spirit lingers still,especially in communities which have had littleor no contact with Westerns, and marriage inall classes is, in the vast majority of instances,a commercial transaction in which the dowry isthe principal factor.The Greeks were always clannish, and they arestill. To the stranger they are all Greeks, but hegradually finds out that to themselves they areMessenians or Laconians or Argives or Thessaliansor Euboeans, and a lengthened sojournamong them teaches him to discern sharp lines ofdivision in the character, disposition, and modeof speech of the inhabitants of the various partsof the kingdom. Athens and JEgina. do not goto war as in old times, nor does Sparta ravageMessenia, but there are marked differences betweenthe populations. The hardest thing in the formationof the Greek kingdom, both during and afterthe War of Independence, was tobring about afusion of the various liberated provinces. Peloponnesuswanted to govern itself, whilst incontinental Greece the Rumeliot capitani in thewest and Odysseus in the east were at daggersdrawn. As Byron said to some German officers

142 HOME LIFE IN HELLASwho came as volunteers in the cause, they hadbefore them the ungrateful and difficult task ofserving Greece in spite of the Greeks. Thosetimes of discord are now happily over, and all areHellenes in matters which affect the welfare ofHellas, but within this greater unity there is astrong feeling of local patriotism. The native ofAttica regards his neighbour in Bceotia as somethingapart. The Spartan on one side of Taygetusdiffers from theMessenian on the other, and theCEtolian does not see eye to eye with the Thessalian.The clannish spirit has more minute ramifications.It marks valley from valley, and wherecostume is still worn, one village isfrom another by thedistinguishedcolour of the women's kerchiefs.In Athens, which is a microcosm ofGreece, the divisions are broader, but distinct.The Athenian will tell you that there are manyforeigners xenoi—at the University, by whichterm he does not mean students of other nationalities,but Greeks from the provinces and theislands. And the provincials themselves sticktogether as much as possible. As a rule you willfind that the employees of a Peloponnesian tradesmanare from that region, and there are restaurantsand wineshops frequented almost exclusively byIonians or Eubceans or Cretans or Thessalians.This clannishness extends in some instances totrades. The bakers of Athens are almost exclusivelyEpirotes. Most of the hotel-keepers areislanders, and of course their staff is recruited

TYPES AND TRAITS 143mainly from the particular island to which theybelong.In a former chapter a passing remark was madecomplexions of many of the Greeksas to the fairin the Peloponnesus. Professor Mahaffy in hisRambles and Studies in Greece has a passage inwhich he notes his astonishment at finding inArgos every second child fair with blue eyes, likea transplanted Northern, and he goes on to saythat, after the deep brown children of SouthernItaly, nothing is more curious than these fairerchildren under a hotter sky. It reminded him ofHomer's King of Sparta, with fair skin and yellowhair, and it seemed to him to be most common indistricts where the blood was unmixed. It maybe so. The colour on statues showed that theancients tinted the hair gold and the eyes blue.is most prevalent in the southern parts of thePeloponnesus, and recurs in the Sphakiotes ofCrete, who are supposed to be of old Hellenicstock, and in the village of Apeiranthos in theisland of Xaxos, whose inhabitants are probably ofSphakiote origin. No contrast can be greaterthan that between the fair people of Central andSouthern Peloponnesus and the dark folk in theextreme north of Thessaly, whose sharp featuresfrequently remind one of the figures on Assyrianmonuments.Both types may be seen in Athensthe latter among the itinerant vendors of sweets,the former among the shoeblacks.ItThese blonde,blue-eyed lads come from Arcadia or Messenia,

144 HOME LIFE IN HELLASand their open countenances are in sharp contrastwith the black-avised saturnine Thessalians,a contrast all the more bizarre seeingthat the occupation of the fair southern boysisblacking the boots of men, whilst that of theswart men from the north is selling sweetmeatsto children.Professor Mahaffy says that in the wilder partsof the Morea are to be found types equal to thosethat inspired the artists of antiquity. This is true,not of the Morea only, though there perhaps itthe most frequent, but of all Greek lands, Asiaticas well as European. It was probably as rare inthe classic ages as it is now. The collection ofbusts in the museum at Athens shows that thediversity of types and their divergence from theideal standard of beauty, perpetuated in the worksof the ancient sculptors, was as great in the daysof Phidias and Praxiteles, of Scopas and Polycleitus,as it is at present. One may walk aboutAthens a long time in search of a Hermes or anApollo. But were they more frequent in the daysof Phidias ? In Room VI of the National Museumat Athens there are thirty-three portrait busts ofthe Cosmetas or governors of the Diogeneion, thatimportant Athenian institution founded in thesecond century before Christ for the education ofthe Epheboi, a body of youths destined for a politicaland military career. The Cosmeta? were nodoubt men of learning and distinction. The bustspresent various types of physiognomy and areis


TYPES AND TRAITS 145probably faithful portraits, but the Cosmetae areas far away from the models of the antique sculptorsas are our head masters and heads of colleges.This being so, one is inclined to accept the terracottagrotesques, allowing for the exaggeration ofcaricature, as fairlyaccurate presentments of thelower ranks of society. The sausage-seller ofAristophanes was not unlike the sausage-seller ofto-day. It is not possible to strike an average ofGreek physical characteristics, but there are typeswhich one familiar with the race would certify atsight as none other than Greek. As a rule theHellene is spare of habit, for he is frugal in dietand his food is light and easily assimilated.Obesity is found to a certain extent among thesedentary classes, chiefly in the seaports, and toa greater extent among Greeks outside Greecethan in the kingdom itself. Among the peasantryit is practically unknown. The greatest varietyof types, including the lowest, but not the highest,is found, as might be expected, in the mixedpopulation of the larger towns, where coarsefeatures and heavy, lumpish figures mingle withthe normal lightly built people. The type is moreuniform in the rural districts and is at its best onthe mountain-side in elastic forms and supple gait.When Edmond About said that in Greece the menpinch their waists, whilst the women have nowaists at all, he was more intent on uttering asmart paradox than on stating the truth. I havenever heard of men pinching their waists, and

146 HOME LIFE IN HELLASmany of the Athenian ladies have very elegantfigures. Beauty of the dazzling sort does notexist. That must be sought at Constantinople,and more especially at Smyrna and Broussa,where, on the other hand, the ladies have neitherthe figurenor the gait of their Athenian sisters.There still clings to them the reminiscence of thewaddle of the days when it was a compliment tosay to a belle, ' ' You walk like a duck. 1 The beautyof the Athenian girl, who is usually stoutly built, isof the buxom, wholesome, homely sort. In thecountry it is enhanced by freshness of tint. Thebeauty of the women of Mesolonghi was remarkedin 1824, and one finds there now splendid specimensof girlhood, free and graceful in movement, oferect and queenly bearing.Still, it must be admittedthat in externals the boys bear the palm, as may bedemonstrated by a visitto the Stadium when theschools of Athens meet there, and comparing theyouths in the arena with their sisters on thegradines. The masculine beauty of the Greeks isthat of the young and the old, of Antinous andNestor. The dignified carriage, the grand headsand snowy beards of some of the old peasants aresuch as one meets with among no other people, atleast, none that have come within the author'sexperience. And that adolescent beauty whichwas the favourite theme of the ancient sculptorsthe well-proportioned frame, the perfectly modelledhead, nobly poised—may still be met with occa-1vwrrawirl irepiTarels,


TYPES AND TRAITS 147sionally in all Greek lands, though more frequentlyperhaps in Peloponnesus than elsewhere. Incomplexion the Greeks range from pure blonde toa tint darker than that of Calabria, approachingeven the Arab.There is a pale olive tint in Greecewhich is not the olive of Spain nor of Italy. Ithas thepatin of a fine bronze and is almost invariablyaccompanied by an oval face and delicatelychiselled features. In Attica dark hair and blueeyes are prevalent as in Ireland, though there isa strong infusion of blonde ; and again, amongthe shepherds, swarthy skins and jet-black hair.Taking the people one meets in the streets ofAthens, they might belong to any country inEurope, except perhaps Russia.There are boys,brown-haired with irregular features and an openexpression, who would pass muster as English.I have an acquaintance, a farmer at the foot ofPentelicus, who has a double in another acquaintance,also a farmer, of the Wiltshire countrysidebetween Cricklade and Malmesbury. But he,like most of the farmers, is of Albanian stock.They are a sturdy people, frank and hearty inmanner, and as a class prosperous, for they puttheir savings into the land and increase theirholdings and their flocks. Not so the Greek. Hisinstincts are mercantile. If he is an agriculturist itis by necessity. His dream is to make moneywithout manual labour; his ideal is to keep a shop.It is not through lack of knowledge that he refusesto get out of the soil as much as it will yield. He

148 HOME LIFE IN HELLASwill profit by improvements if they are made forPut himhim, but he will do nothing by himself.into a bakal's 1 shop and he will work like a Trojan.His commercial instincts led him to cut down theolive trees which hisforbears planted in Achaia,because, owing to an accidental cause some yearsago, the prices of currants ruled high. So currantvines replaced the olives. Then came a drop,partly the result of over-production, to remedywhich it has been necessary to uproot the currantvines ; but it will take at least a couple of centuriesto replace the olive trees.For trees the Greek has small respect.He regardsthem in the light of fuel. Allusion hasbeen made in a previous chapter to the wantondestruction of forests by shepherds. To this mustbe added the practice of tapping pine trees for theresin, used in making wine.This is done in sucha manner as to injure and ultimately kill the tree.The passenger by rail between Megaraand Corinthmay see plenty of examples of it. Again, thecharcoal-burners are allowed to ravage the forestsat will. Princess Sophia takes great interest inreafforestation. She and her children have themselvesplanted a part of one of the hills outsideAthens, and through her influence was foundedthe Forest Lovers' Union. There was even anattempt to institute an Arbor Day as in America,but it collapsed. There is a Forest Departmentof the Government, but it is starved and quite1The Greek bakal is described in the chapter on Athens.

TYPES AND TRAITS 149inadequate to deal effectually with the fivemillionacres of trees and scrub which Greece contains.The Greek cannot be brought to see the importanceof forest economy nor the evil effect of denudingthe mountains.It is a part of the nationalindifference to rural pursuits. An AgriculturalSociety was founded in 1901, and several stationswere established. There is one at Chalandri, nearAthens, where there are some prize English livestock,bought for breeding purposes. But theinstitution languishes, in spite of the encouragementand support of the King. His Majestyhas himself set an example to his subjects inhis dairy farm at Tatoi, which produces excellentbutter.The Greeks arethe most democratic people inthe world. They have no titles of nobility, savein Corfu, and the Corfu noble, when he goes tothe mainland, leaves his title behind him.Wealth,as elsewhere, is a power, and exercises influence,but it brings to its possessor no personal consideration.The Greek loves money, but he isnever servile to those who have a larger share ofit than himself, and his attitude towards rankofficial rank alone exists in Greece—is preciselysimilar.his composition.There is not an atom of snobbishness inCourt chronicles and the doingsof "Society," which have such an absorbinginterest for a considerable section of Englishpeople, are matters of indifference to him, and ajournal which filled its columns with such matter

150 HOME LIFE IN HELLASwould soon cease to have any readers.his credit ;This is tobut, on the other hand, he owes as littlerespect to knowledge and experience as to rankand wealth. He stands in no awe of learning,and will fearlessly discuss a subject of which heknows nothing with one who has devoted a lifetimeto its study.Every Greek soldier is a strategist,and every Greek, of whatever calling, is apotential statesman, though the sole source of hispolitical lore is in the contents of his favouritenewspaper.This self-confidence, carried to excess,has manifest disadvantages. For one thing, it isa hindrance to combined effort. Where all wantto be leaders nothing is accomplished. That isthe chief reason why Greek enterprise in theform of public companies has generally proved afailure. A Greek may work well as an individual,but it is a hard matter to get him to work as partof an organisation, for he is loath toacknowledgesuperior authority, especially if it takes the formof a fellow-countryman. The absence of class distinctionsis apt to astonish the Western traveller,who finds his muleteer a fellow-guest at the tableof his host, the doctor or the demarch of thevillage. The familiarity of waiters and domesticsis rather trying to the new-comer, but he soongrows accustomed to it, and, indeed, it is notoffensive. The manners of the Greek peasantare much better than those of his Western equivalent,and servants come chiefly of peasant stock.The man in the fustanella is a much pleasanter

TYPES AND TRAITS 151person to talk to than the townsman in the Westerngarb. The Greeks as a people are polite, butlapses occur sometimes, and they are almost invariablyfound amongst the town traders, especiallyamong those who have made a little money.They are, however, rare. The most objectionablepeople are the petty usurers who are scattered upand down the land, and who are the scourge ofthe peasantry. In most cases they have acquiredtheir capital abroad, notably in Egypt. They areinflated with pride of purse,arrogant and coarsein manners, and exhibit generally the worstcharacteristics of the Levant. But they are nottypical of the nation, and it cannot be insisted ontoo strongly that the trading Greek of the cosmopolitancommercial centres of the Eastern Mediterraneanis no more representative of the peopleof Greece than was Juvenal's Grceculus esuriens inRome, who probably, in the majority of cases,came from Asia.One breach of good manners is common to allGreeks of the humbler classes : they interruptYou may be asking a question orconversation.making a purchase, when a third party will intercalatean observation, or address the person towhom you are speaking, without a word of excuse,cutting off the thread of your discourse andleaving you helpless until he has finished whathe has to say. This recurs constantly, and it isabominably irritating.Another annoying habitis that of unduly raising the voice when con-

152 HOME LIFE IN HELLASversing. It may be in a cafe or in a railwaycarriage,but if two persons are engaged in adiscussion which is at all animated, they shoutand scream their remarks, effectually stifling allattempts at quiet conversation on the part ofothers. One may be chatting with a friend in acafe, and when this occurs, the only thing to dois to take refuge elsewhere or remain dumb untilthe din ceases. This is one instance amongseveral illustrating a lack of regard for the publicconvenience, without which life would be impossiblein our great Western centres. Anotheris the failure to appreciate the fact that the streetbelongs to the public, not to the individual. Thepedestrian is forced to step from the pavementinto the roadway for the convenience of a knot ofpeople who have appropriated the former as alounge. In like manner the shopkeeper makesit a temporary warehouse, whilst the provisiondealertakes a portion of it to himself permanentlyfor his barrels of salt fish and olives, and, strangestof all, the butcher uses it as a slaughter-house.Less offensive are those who turn it into a kitchen.Towards noon and at eve, he who walks abroadencounters, at short intervals, the brazier of glowingcharcoal in his path, and is saluted by theodour of the particular stew or fry destined forthe repast of its owner.If the passenger on a Greek steamer thinks thatby taking a first-class ticket he secures a littleextra comfort and convenience, he imagines a vain

TYPES AND TRAITS 153thing. There is a deck reserved for him, it istrue, in theory, but not in practice. The thirdclasspassengers find it pleasanter than their ownquarters, and so he finds himself a unit in a compactcrowd of peasants who very seldom changetheir linen, and who invariably sleep in the clothesthey wear during the day, in an atmosphere reekingof garlic. Expostulation is useless. Thereis no real authority on board and regulationsarea dead letter. The thing is submitted to, butnobody seems to see the injustice of it. Thesubject of Greek local steamers is a fertile one.They are capricious in their comings and goings.The only thing certain about their departure is,that it will not be at the hour advertised. As a ruleit is much later, but sometimes the steamer leavesbefore her time and the intending passenger whoarrives at the appointed hour, is left lamenting onthe quay. Again, she has a humorous way ofmissing a port of call in her itinerary, which isdisconcerting to those who have booked thither.The time of her arrival has no relation to thatscheduled on the bill, so that a passenger whohas an inland journey before him, and has madearrangements accordingly, reaches his port ofdisembarkation at, say, two o'clock in the morning,instead of two in the afternoon. The passagemoneyis a variable quantity determined by theamount that can be obtained from the passenger.A stranger will probably pay the sum demandedin the office, and if he happen to compare notes

154 HOME LIFE IN HELLASafterwards with a fellow-passenger it is equallyprobable that he will be astonished, not to sayindignant.Grown wiser by experience, he willmake his next passage a matter of bargain. Chafferingover the price of a ticket is a proceedingat which a clerk in the P. and O. would standaghast, but it is a matter of course in a Greekshipping office. The system has its advantages,as, for example, in the case of rival companies.The aforesaid clerk and another gentleman, say ofthe Orient Line, would certainly resent beingasked by their employers to go out into the streetand buttonhole possible passengers with a view tosecuring them for theirrespective companies, bypromising cheaper rates and holding out otherinducements. They would regard such blandishmentsas contemptible.There is no such squeamishnessin Greece, where the approach of thevoyager is noted from afar by the rivals. If hehas the prudence of Ulysses he is coy to both,feigning indifference ; but by the exercise ofpatience and discretion, he ends by striking anexcellent bargain with one of them. When competitionis keen, in the case of small owners ofone ship, perhaps, stories are told of absurdly lowfares, of no fares at all, with the additional inducementof free refreshments.This has never fallento the author's lot, but it is credible to anyonewho knows the fierce rivalry which exists. Ofcourse this state of affairs cannot last long, andthe weaker purse succumbs. Rival boats leave

TYPES AND TRAITS 155on the same day ; whereas if they left on differentdays, each would get the passengers for whomthe day of departure was most convenient. Butthe Greek does not understand combination, inspite of his intelligence, and he is indifferent tothe public weal. A proof of it is afforded by thecondition of the steamers. They are dirty andill-kept, although the Greek is very clean in hisown household. The author has had a fairlywide experience of Greek steamers, but he hasonly met with one really well found and well keptup. This was due to the captain, one of theCanaris family, who had been educated for thenavy. Captain Canaris had his ship's companywell in hand, and saw that what he wanted donewas done. But this is contrary to the generalpractice, which is to let things slide.Regulationsare made only to be ignored, and everyone is, asfar as possible, a law unto himself. With us, thepolice would have something to say to a cyclistwithout a light after dark. It excites no remarkat Athens, even when he prefersthe side-walk tothe roadway. Incredible though it may seem,the writer has encountered a motor without headlightslong after sunset careering down thefrequented road which leads to Phaleron. TheGreeks have anexpression, Romaika pragmata,an equivalent to the cosas de Espana of theSpaniards. They are unsparing in criticisingthemselves, though they do not like beingcriticised by foreigners. Neither do we, for that

156 HOME LIFE IN HELLASmatter. They are competent legislators, butindifferent administrators. The best-managedinstitutions are those due to private initiative.To the making of laws they attach far moreimportance than to their being carried intoeffect.A significantchange has come over the Greekspirit in one important respect. Formerly theyshared the common Oriental antipathy to Westerns.The term skylo frangho—dog of a Frank— is nowobsolete. The writer remembers hearing it oncemany years ago, not in Greece, but in Constantinople,from the lips of an ancient dame who for somecause had a quarrel with a European. The coconabrought her vituperative eloquence to a climaxwith that epithet, as being the sum of all that wasbase. Truly the Greeks had no cause to love theFranks, who stripped Constantinople of all itstreasures in 1204, ad majorem gloriam Dei, inthat barefaced freebooting expedition which wentunder the name of the Fourth Crusade. And it isopen to doubt whether the Turk was not an easiertaskmaster in Greece and the Archipelago thanFrank or Venetian. But the animus existed downto modern times. The Ionian Islanders werespoken of contemptuously as metrio franghi—halfFranks. Dr. Millingen, who was with Byron atMesolonghi in 1824, says in his Memoirs, theGreeks were averse from every plan suggested bythe Franks, against whom they nourished a hatredlittle inferior to that they entertained for Mussul-

TYPES AND TRAITS 157mans ; and Finlay in his history of events in whichhe took part, refers to the hostility of some of theGreek leaders towards Europeans. The treatmentmeted out to Philhellenes who went outto help the cause of Greece was not encouraging.The German and Swiss committees sent out in1822 a small regiment with the idea of its becomingthe nucleus of a disciplined force. Itsmembers reached Nauplia full of enthusiasm.Most of them were students, some were officers.Rations were allowed them at first,but were soonwithdrawn, and they were told that nobody notpossessed of means should have come. Theylived as well as they could on game and landtortoises,but many succumbed, and when at lastmoney came from Germany to help them to gethome, hardly a fifth of their number remained,and their condition was pitiable. Byron engagedto take them under his protection, and a fewremained on his staff at Mesolonghi. Theirtreatment was not due to want of funds. TheGreek executive had plenty. Count Santa Rosaleft his home and children atthe instance of theGreek deputies in London to offer his services.He was a man of brilliant accomplishments anda statesman. He was regarded with suspicionand made to feel that he was superfluous. Hereminded the Greek leaders of the words of theirown deputies. Pappaflessa replied :''The atmosphereof London seems to have made them forgetwhat sort of men we are here." The ardour of

158 HOME LIFE IN HELLASSanta Rosa was not damped. He served as aprivate soldier, and fell at Sphakteria fightingfor Greece. William Martin, a British seaman,deserted to join the Greeks, and was invaluable asa gunner at the defence of Anatolico. He wasimprisoned and ill-treated for having knockeddown a Greek notable, who in refusing him hisration of bread abused the English in the mostopprobrious terms.William Martin might havedied of want in the land he had helped to defend,had he not been succoured with some of his countrymenat Mesolonghi. These are a few out ofmany instances of the attitude of the Greeks towardsforeigners who came to help them in theirstruggle for freedom. It continued after they hadgained it. Mr. Noel went to Greece in 1830. Hebought an estate in Eubcea, which he made hisadopted country. His idea was to educate thepeasantry and better their condition. He rearedfor each family a stone house of two storeys, inplace of the cabins they had occupied. He builta church and provided a priest for them. Hetried to teach them to get the most out of theland by a more intelligent method than that ofexhausting one patch and proceeding to another.He showed them the use of manure and theeconomy of a proper succession of crops. He lentthem seeds and implements which were not askedfor if not returned. He introduced the Englishplough in lieu of the iron-tipped stake with whichthey scratched the surface of the soil. He brought

TYPES AND TRAITS 159out a Lincolnshire threshing-machine.The localauthorities opposed it, saying it was an inventionwhose object was to diminish the part of the cropdue to Government. The British Minister atAthens was appealed to, and it was allowed. Butthe demarch (thevillage mayor) secretly forbadethe peasants to bring their corn to be threshedby it, and one night an important part of themechanism mysteriously disappeared ; so thethreshing-machine, like the ploughs, was abandoned,and the people returned to the threshingfloor,with its studded planks drawn round andround by horses, a system by which a fifthof the grain is lost or damaged, and the strawspoiled.A similar fate overtook the saw-mill erected byMr. Noel. By it more wood could be sawn ina day than by the old methods in a month. But itwas always out of order. Teeth were broken,replaced, and broken again, and it had to begiven up. A large portion of the estate wasforest, but foreigners were not allowed totheir own forests,exploitnot even for their personal use,without permission of the Government, and theprocess, of obtaining this was so slow and expensive,that it was found to be cheaper to importtimber to a place surrounded by splendid oaksand pines. Once Mr. Noel was attacked by menarmed with guns, severely wounded, and robbedof £600. The robbers were not even pursued.The nomarch (governor of the province) said,

160 HOME LIFE IN HELLAS" We do not want to keep foreigners here, but tobe rid of them." Mr. Noel remained in Eubceaforty-two years and died there at an advanced age,recognising that he had spent his energies anda large part of his fortune in vain. Untiringpatience and good-will failed to triumph overignorance and malevolence. The peasants preferredthe fiscal exactions of the Governmentagents, who, by a system which turned the tensacks of the cultivator into twelve, cheated theState which supported them. It was in theirinterest to oppose all improvement, and thepeasants listened to their promptings. Thevillages of Achmet Agha and Drisi are themonuments of Mr. Noel's efforts. His case wasnot a solitary one.Mr. Leaves, who attempted asimilar enterprise, also in Eubcea, met with atragic fate. He and his wife were robbed andmurdered. M. Lagrange had to sell his propertyat a great loss. Another French gentleman, anardent Philhellene, bought land and built a villageon the slopes of Hymettus. He furnished thepeasants with seed and implements. The samething happened—tacitenmity of the authorities,ignorance and ill-will of the people. Crops weredestroyed, vineyards ravaged, but the ownercould get no redress. He caught a marauderonce and delivered him over to justice. Thebrothers of the arrested man fired at him frombehind a rock and he had a narrow escape.Brigandage existed in Attica in those days, and

TYPES AND TRAITS 161his own villagers kept the brigands informed ofhismovements, with a view of capture and ransom,so that he could only visit his estate withan armed escort.atFinally he gave it up, and diedAthens almost insolvent, though possessed ofproperty which should have brought in at least£2000 a year.This aversion to foreigners is a thing of the past.The Anglo-Greek Magnesite Company, whosemines and works are in Eubcea, the scene of Mr.Noel's fruitless experiment, lease about 4000 acresfrom the Galataki monastery and employ some 500Greek workmen. Both the monks and the peopleare sensible of the advantages they derive fromthe Company, and the Eubceans are now keen onimprovements. The officials of the Copais LakeCompany in Bceotia are on excellent terms withthe peasantry, and are often asked to stand as godfatherto their children, a thing from which theparents would have recoiledin horror in the olddays. Their tenants, who occupy some 28,000acres, for which they pay 20 per cent of theirproduce in kind as rental, are eager to learn andprofit by the methods employed on the modelMarmor, Limited,farms worked by the Company. 1an English company working the marble quarrieson Pentelicus and in some of the islands, employsome hundreds of workmen, and matters runsmoothly. The present attitude towards foreignerswho are in Greece primarily for their own interests,1It should be said that these people are largely Albanian.M

162 HOME LIFE IN HELLAScompared with that during theWar of Independence,and for many years after it, is very significant,and testifies to the moral and intellectualprogress of the people.Nowhere is the stranger so well regarded as inGreece. He has a smiling welcome wherever hegoes, and on all hands is the object of a kindlyinterest. The best place is reserved for him, andthe daintiest morsel at table is his. The openhandednessof the people is embarrassing at times.In a restaurant he is served with an unexpectedmeasure of wine, or fruit and cigarettes are sent tohim, the author of the polite attention concealinghis identity. Little services are rendered himreadily and cheerfully without any idea of reward.Even the boys refuse tips, throwing back a proudlittle head, the sign of negationin the East, witha smiling, but firm, " Eucharisto "— " Thank you."For the Greeks are not menial, and a sojournamong them is a tonic after the interested servilityand ever-open palm to which the traveller has beenaccustomed on continental journeys. Things godifferently in the Balkan countries farther north,in whose cause English partisans have been led todecry the Greeks. These might have rememberedthat during the South African War, when it wasEngland contra mundum, and all Europe wasrejoicing over our reverses and hoping for ourdiscomfiture, Greece alone gave us her sympathy,Greeks alone, in the person of the gallant littleband formed by Greek residents at the Cape,

TYPES AND TRAITS 163fought shoulder to shoulder with our men.Athens is the only foreign city in the world whichhas reared monuments to Englishmen. 1 Thestatue of Gladstone stands infront of the University,and Falguiere's marble group of Byron andHellas gleams among the trees of the ZappeionGardens. Byron may be out of fashion in England,but he lives in the hearts of the Greeks.He is enshrined in their folk-songs. His portraitis in their school manuals. Only the other daythe author discovered a poor boy from Kalavrytawho wore a cheap picture of Lordos Byronos onhis breast, like an amulet. An English lad of hiscondition would not have known the poet's name.He was a hero to the Greek. A wine-grower fromSamos spoke of Gladstone as a second Christ forGreece. Somewhat irreverent hyperbole, but notintended as such. It is a term applied by Greekssometimes to Socrates. At any rate, it was ameasure of the estimation in which the statesmanwas held by the speaker. The feelings of theGreek people are still warm towards England.Of course, there are a few superior persons whojoin in the chorus of detraction which distinguishesa section of the European press, from which they1There is a medallion portrait of George Stephenson on thewalls of the railway-station at Turin, and there is a pedestal bustof Lieut. Waghorn on the quay at Suez. But neither are national.The first expresses the admiration of engineers for a greatengineer ; the second is the generous tribute of a great Frenchmanto the genius of an English pioneer, erected long ere Englishmenbethought themselves that he deserved a memorial, whichtook the form of the statue set up a few years ago at Chatham.

164 HOME LIFE IN HELLAShave derived their opinions. But these do notrepresent the nation. Anyone—but above all anEnglishman—who really knows the Greeks, andyet can depreciate them, must either have awarped judgment or be very ill-conditioned.

WECHAPTER IVDOMESTIC LIFEhave seen the shepherd athome in hismandra, a rude shieling or a goat-hairtent. That is the most primitive Greek home.The tiller of the soil is better off. The standardof comfort—or rather of discomfort—varies. Thebest peasant homes are in the Peloponnesus, theworst, perhaps, in Thessaly. Let us take theaverage and it will be something like this. A onestoreyedcabin somewhere between thirty or fortyfeet long.It may be of wood or stone, accordingto locality. The roof in some instances will betiled,but more frequently thatched with reeds ormaize-stalks mingled with brushwood. The interiorconsists of a single apartment. One end isoccupied by the domestic animals, the other bytheir owner and his family.Sometimes, but notoften, a low screen divides the two. Only thehuman end of the dwelling has a raised floor ofdried and beaten clay, or of planking if the neighbourhoodis timbered. The fire-place is a flat stone,literally the hearth.If the cottage boasts a chimneythis is set against the wall beneath it. If not, itis placed in the middle of the floor, and the smokeescapes as best it can through holes in the roof.165

166 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThe baking, the only important culinary operation,isdone outside in a clay oven shaped like a beehive.There are beehives, but their form is notthat of a beehive. They are hollowed trunks ofplane trees, sawn into sections about two feet long.In these cylinders the bees are quite at home.Their habitat in a wild state is the hollow trunk ofa tree. But let us return to the dwelling. It issimply furnished. Tables and chairs there arenone. The bedding stacked in a corner occupiesthe largest space. It consists of mattresses stuffedwith maize-husks, coverlets quilted and waddedwith cotton, and cushions which serve as chairswhen the family dines, seated in a circle round therepast spread on the floor. There is a cupboardperhaps, and shelves, a long chest, but no drawers.There is always a large earthen pipkin for water,and a few smaller pots and jars for cooking orstoring provisions. And there is always a loom.But that, like the oven, is outside. If there aretrees it is placed underneath them, if possible insuch a manner that two stems serve as foreposts.In any case the trees afford shade during the longhours the women pass at the loom, for all wovenmaterial for clothes or bedding is home-made.One all-important object must not be forgottenamong the contents of the household. It is theeikon, the little picture, tarnished and grimy, withits lamp, carefully replenished, ever burning beforeit.It is usually a representation of the Panaghia.If not, it is the saint whose name is borne by the

DOMESTIC LIFE 167head of the family, a copy of some stiff Byzantinemodel with long straight nose and eyes devoid ofexpression. On holidays it is decked with flowers,and in case of removal to another dwelling thegreatest precautions are taken lest its lamp shouldbe extinguished. There is no abode, howeverhumble, without this tutelary deity, the palladiumof the household. A touch of colour is given tothis interior by the strings of purple onions andgerbes of golden maize that hang from the roof.Men, women, and children live together in common—often three generations. When bedtime comesand it comes early—the mattresses are unrolled,and the members of the family enjoy a reposewhich would not be ours, under the circumstances.At dawn they rise—a simple process, for it is nottheir custom to undress—at most they throw offtheir outer clothes in summer—and the men go tothe fields. The women, if there is no field workfor them, spin or weave. This is all done out ofdoors. In fact the house is never used except atnight or in bad weather. The women will lollagainst their doorways, or against a tree, and spinfor hour after hour, or seated at their loom inthe shade, they weave through a summer day.The dye for their homespun is either brownobtained from the sap of the plane tree, or redfrom the prickly oak—a disease of the leaf,calledprinakokes—the kermes of the Arabs, from whichwe have our word crimson. Most peasants havea small vineyard, enough to make wine for

168 HOME LIFE IN HELLAShome use. Then they rear silkworms. Thereare few districts without mulberry trees.If theydo not spin silk for sale, they spin enough forkerchiefs or sashes, or perhaps a skirt. Somekeep sheep enough to supply them with woolsufficient for their clothes. If they do not, theyobtain the wool from the shepherd in exchangefor grain. There is scarcely a cabin without anolive tree or two and a fig. Thus they buyneither food nor clothes. The luxuries for whichthey have to pay are coffee, sugar, and tobacco,and one necessity, salt. Sugar is excessivelydear in Greece. Honey takes the place it holdswith us in household economy. But honey isnot suitable for sweetening coffee, and thoughGreek peasants are frugal, few deny themselvesthis indulgence. It is not a breakfast beverage,as with us. The far less costly wine, with bread,and perhaps a few cloves of garlic, suffices thehusbandman until sunset. If anything passes hislips meanwhile, it is more bread and a few blackolives. Bread and olives are his staple food.Bread is really the staff of life of the Greekpeasant, and it is made of pure wheaten flour,and varied occasionally by maize cakes. If hekeeps goats he has milk, which he consumesmainly in the form of yaoorti, a word he hasborrowed from the Turks. It means sour curd,and is an exceedingly wholesome viand. If thereis milk to spare, it is made into a cheese, excessivelysalt and hard, and of the appearance

DOMESTIC LIFE 169and consistency of plaster.Butter he knows notolive oil takes the place it holds with us. Meathe tastes at Easter in the form of Iamb roasted onthe spit, and seldom else throughout the year.This is the diet of the poorest class of peasant,the man who cultivates land on the system of payingone-third of the produce to the owner. It ismonotonous, but nutritious and easily assimilated.It might be made more varied if he grew vegetables,inclination.but he seldom has either the time or theMeals are eaten by the family out ofa common receptacle. Plates are undreamt of;knives and forks are unnecessary, owing to thecharacter of the food. One knife only is neededto cut the bread. It is usually the one employedfor purposes of husbandry. Spoons are providedfor the curded milk, or the mess of maize, or brothof wild herbs. The standard of living with respectto food is better than that of the urban poor inWestern Europe, but as regards the rest—thesleeping, for instance, and the stabling of theanimals in the dwelling—well, the abode of theEnglish cottager is not a model for imitationfrom the point of view of sanitation, but there isa gulf between it and the cabin of the Greekpeasant. The peasant who owns and farms hispatch of land and lives in a two-storeyed house hasa higher conception of comfort and cleanlinessthan the one just described, but his home cannotbe compared with a modest English farmstead,though he is probably better off than the occupant

170 HOME LIFE IN HELLASof the latter. The art of making a home is unknownto the Greek. The nearest approach to itthat I have met with is in the islands, especiallyin Andros.One may meet with exquisite cleanliness,with beautifully embroidered bed-linenscented with rosemary, but never with what wemean by cosiness. Climate may have somethingto do with it. The Greeks are far less in theirhouses than we are, and when they are at homethey appear to spend most of their time in lookingout of the window. They are not given to invitingtheir friends to their houses. It is not thatthey are niggardly, for they will gladly entertainyou at a restaurant at far greater cost to themselves.But it does not enter into their ideas toask you home todinner, even after an acquaintanceof many years. They do not ask each other,so it can hardly be expected that they shouldmake an exception in the case of foreigners. Thecafe is a second home to them. There they meetfriends and gossip. That is one reason, perhaps,why they dislike country life. It offers no alternativeto the home. There the hearth is thesocial centre, whilst in town it is the cafe. InAthens, those who do not own the house theydwell in seldom remain long in the same abode.Two or three years is quite a long tenure. Manypeople make a point of moving every year. MostEnglishmen shrink from the idea of a removaland all that it implies, and submit to it withreluctance. The Greeks, on the contrary, enjoy

it.DOMESTIC LIFE 171With us, the creation and gradual growth ofthe environment which we call home is one ofthe greatest pleasures in life. It possesses nointerest for the Greek. Indeed, it has no placein his scheme of existence. The imposing facadesof Athenian houses conceal, for the most part,a bare and comfortless interior, and a well-keptgarden is rare. The reason is not far to seek.A garden is not made in a year, and a personwho changes his residence every twelve monthsdoes not want to be troubled with much furniture,nor is he particular as to its arrangement, seeingthat it will be carted away in a few months. Ofcourse instances may be cited to the contrary, andthere are delightful homes in Athens. But theyare the exception, and they belong in nearly everycase to people who have lived many years inWestern Europe, or who come from Helleniclands outside Greece. Next door to the house inwhich these words are being written dwells a professorof the University. He does not possessa foot of garden ground, yet he has turned hiscourtyard and exterior stairway into a bower ofclimbing plants, and histhe more brilliantflowery windows are allin contrast with the blank casementson either hand. He. does not occupy hishouse merely, but lives in it. But he is a nativeof Samos, and his taste for flowers is derived fromthe Turks, though perhaps he would not admitit. The foregoing remarks apply chiefly to theGreeks of Athens and the larger towns. In the

172 HOME LIFE IN HELLASmatter of hospitality, for example, a countryGreek makes you free of his house and offers youhis best, but he would not do so if there werea cafe and restaurant handy, and he would livein a town if he could.Home life has no resourcesfor the Greeks as it has for us. It affords themlittle occupation and no amusement. They liketo eat and drink in crowds, where there is noise_and movement. Hence the popularity of thePanegyris or village festival, to which the countryfolklook forward so eagerly as a relief from thedaily round. Their instincts are too gregarioustoallow them to appreciate the domestic intimacywhich we prize.But though home, as we understandit, is a sealed book to them, family holdsa greater place in their lives than itdoes with us.They make more of family events, and these arethe only occasions on which they entertain. Andthey do not lose sight of their relatives as we areapt to do. They keep in touch with all, even thedistant cousin in America, and there are fewfamilies in these days of emigration who havenot atAtlantic.least one member on the other side of theFamily affection and national pride arethe leading Greek characteristics.It used to be said of Greek dress that the menwore petticoats and the women trousers. That isno longer true as regards the women. The wideshalvars, which were tied below the knee and fellin voluminous folds to the ankles, belong to thedays when the eyelids were darkened with kohl

DOMESTIC LIFE 173and finger-nails tinted with henna. They havevanished with the Turks, and Greece knows themno more. And, let it be said here, that Athenianladies are the best- dressed women in the NearEast. They dress elegantly and quietly and withjudgment. They are not given to the dazzlinghues to which their sisters in Constantinople andSmyrna are prone, and the amazing toilettes onemeets with in Egypt are unknown at Athens.They are not slavish copyists either. All the hatsare not of one pattern and one scheme of colour.But they take their cue from Paris, and not eventheir fervent Hellenism can persuade them toadopt the chiton and peplon. " I will do so whenEnglish ladies wear the costume of Boadicea,"said one.It was submitted to her that the caseswere not exactly parallel. Were it possible todetermine precisely the garb of the dauntlessBritish Queen, the chances are that it would notpossess the grace that distinguished that of thewomen of ancient Hellas. Moreover, the Englishdo not claim to be her descendants. Certainlythey do not speak her tongue, whereas the ladiesof modern Athens do use a modified form of thelanguage spoken by those whose forms arechiselled on the frieze of the Parthenon. The"petticoat" still exists among the men. It isuniversal among the shepherds, is worn by manyof the peasantry, and isfrequent all over Greece,including the streets of Athens. It is not Greek.It is not wholly Albanian, for the Ghegs of

174 HOME LIFE IN HELLASNorthern Albania do not wear it. It belongs tothe Toskhs of Southern Albania, the neighboursof the Greeks, by whom it was adopted as thenational dress during the War of Independence.King Otho wore it even after his deposition.Miss Armstrong, inher bright, keenly observantlittle book, 1 adverting to its feminine character,compares the aspect of its wearers to " balletgirls masquerading as brigands." It does certainlystick out like the skirts of a ballet dancer.It is of about the same length, and combined withthe white woollen "tights" the resemblance isludicrously perfect. When its wearer walks itwags like the short dress of a little girl, and looksabsurd on a tall, strong man like the evzonoi ofthe king's bodyguard. Its snowy whiteness ispleasing, but it is stiff with its redundant pleatings.These innumerable pleats are a moderndevelopment. The original fustanella, as wornin Albania and in some provincial districts inGreece, is more like a kilt, or rather the Romantunic, from which it is said to be derived. It fallsbelow the knee, and is a graceful and dignifiedgarment. It is worn either with tight whitewoollen leggings, with black garters tied at theknee, or with greaves of red, blue, or buff, embroideredover the instep, and the tzaroukia—redmorocco leather shoes with points turned up likethe prow of a caique, and tasselled. The shirthas hanging loose sleeves. Over it is worn a1Two Roving Englishwomen in Greece. I. J. Armstrong-. 1892.


DOMESTIC LIFE 175short jacket with sleeves hanging from theshoulder behind. The sleeves serve no purpose,so they are sometimes reduced to flat wings, ordisappear altogether. Some provinces are distinguishedby the colour of the jacket. InEubcea it is dark blue, in Thebes black, andin Messenia buff, elaborately embroidered. Thejackets are allmore or less embroidered, and eachregion has its distinctive pattern. On festivalsthe well-to-do come out in jackets of crimsonvelvet richly broidered with gold. The costumeis completed by the scarlet cap falling overon the left side, with a long tassel,blue or black.Among the poor this is replaced by a knotted kerchief.In Thessaly the dress is much plainer—loose garment of coarse black cloth, reachingbelow the knee, belted at the waist, and whitewoollen hose. In winter, hooded cloaks of blueor white wool or heavy brown frieze are general.White is the dominant note of Albanian costumefor both men and women. The distinctive featuresof the island costume are the vrachoi and the sash.The vrachoi, the baggy breeches hanging in manyfolds below the knee, are worn with cotton or worstedhose, white, blue, or black, and in Cretewith high boots of yellow calf-skin. The jacketsare similar to those of the mainland, but some ofthem are worn tight like vests ;colour and embroiderydiffer with the locality. The island typeof costume extends also tothe Asiatic mainland.Crete has preserved its costume more than any

176 HOME LIFE IN HELLASother island. The jacket is dark blue linedwith crimson. Of the latter colour is the silkensash, which is very long, and wound round thewaist like the Indian cummerbund. The cap is ofblack lambswool. The head-dress of the Greekmainland varies. In summer the peasant completesthe fustanella costume with a broadbrimmedstraw hat. The shepherds stick to thesmall round black cap, in shape like the old foragecap of the British cavalryman. It is also worn inThessaly and by the Vlachs of Pindus.It comesfrom the north, and has its more ornamentalcounterpart in the caps of Montenegro andCroatia. The white calotte of the Albanian isflower-pot shaped like the Turkish fez, only ithas no tassel. The few islanders who have retainedtheir costume wear the loose red Phrygiancap.The Albanian women preserve their costumemore than any others : a short white jacket (kondogouni)with wide sleeves either plain or workedwith silk—over itreaching to the knee.a long sleeveless coat (zipouni)This is of white wool witha band in blue, black, or red. The corners andarm-holes are embroidered in the same colour.The skirt is also white, plain for ordinary wear,but embroidered for festivals, when aveil of silkgauze is also worn over the kerchief of yellowmuslin and a string of coins across the forehead.In winter the zipouni islined with wool—not thewhole fleece, but locks taken from it and inserted

DOMESTIC LIFE 177in the stuff. They are beautifully combed anddressed, and the last row shows beneath the edgeof the garment. This white Albanian dress isvery pleasing. The ornament is restrained andthe whole effect ischaste, yet the flawless beautyof the material makes it rich. The women ofMegara wear a jacket reaching to the hip, tight atthe waist, open at the throat.The shoulders andcuffs of the sleeves are worked in gold or silver.The skirt is dark blue or green, lined with whiteand trimmed with a broad band of red. Over itis a gay apron of rainbow hues. On feast daysstrings of coins and silver chains hang down thebreast, and the cap is trimmed with overlappingcoins. Over it is thrown a veil of transparentsilk in which gold threads are interwoven.In thePeloponnesus, some ladies still wear the scarletcap with tassel of gold wire or silk attached toa cord of twisted gold thread, but the gold-embroideredvelvet jacket is now rare.In the isle ofKythnos the women still drape their heads in linenwhich masks the face beneath the eyes, and thewriter saw only yesterday peasant women ridinginto Athens in a head-dress much resembling theTurkish yashmak.Here and there one meets withunexpected survivals. In the isle of Ios the hairis sometimes worn in a triple plait standingupright behind the head, exactly in the style ofsome of the terra-cotta figurines in the BritishMuseum. The baker's wife opposite, standing ather door at this present moment, still wears theN

178 HOME LIFE IN HELLASdress of her native Epirus, her girdle claspedby round bosses of cunningly wrought silver, intwo pairs one above the other—the Homeric apyvpeoi'HAot—such as one may see among the Mycenasanthings in the Schliemann Collection at Athens.But the doctor's wife has just passed in a "confection" that savours of the boulevards. For thegay garb of Greece is fast disappearing. Theregions in which it persists the most are the neighbourhoodof Thebes and Livadia, the countryround Naupaktos on the Gulf of Corinth and thehighlands of Arcadia, and among the mountainshepherds generally. Athens, in spite of itsmodernity, is the best place for costume, not onlyon account of the provincials who visitit from allsides, but owing to the surrounding country beingpeopled by Albanians. The neighbouring islandof Salamis is noted for the beautiful veils of thewomen. In the Cyclades costume has for the mostpart disappeared. In Crete it is still general,though one sees, alas, Cretans in the streets ofAthens wearing English caps, and European overcoatsover the vrachoi.This mongrel garb is thebeginning of the end. It is succeeded by undilutedWestern raiment, and as clothes are very expensivein Greece, this means for the mass "reachme-downs" of the commonest description and theblack billycock, which seems to have been adoptedby universal consent as the popular headgear inlands bordering the Mediterranean. The onlydistinctive dress of contemporary Greece is what

THEBES :THEBAN WITH CHAPLET.( 'ndermnod & Undmuoad.

DOMESTIC LIFE 179the Greeks term a blouse. It is not a blouse, buta tunic with a skirt which isa faint echo of thefustanella. It is tight at the waist, pleated in front,made of cotton stuff in a small check pattern ofgrey or blue and white, cheap, useful, and notungraceful. It is universally worn by shoeblacksand the boys in the provision shops, and largelyby the labouring classes. It is better than theshoddy importations, for its small cost allows itto be replaced, so that it is never ragged.The Greek cuisine is nearly identical with thatof Turkey. The nomenclature is the same, withthe addition of a Greek affix pilaf becomes pilafidolma is dolmades. There are a few distinctivelyGreek dishes. Perhaps avgo-lemoni may be consideredas one—eggs beaten up with lemon juice.It makes an excellent and refreshing soup withrice, and it is used as a sauce with dolmades,minced meat and rice rolled up in young vineleaves, and with sundry other dishes. Fish plakemay be another. The fish are baked in a largeshallow dish together with herbs, tomatoes, andgarlic, and sundry other ingredients. The resultis a savoury but rather heavy compound. Practicallythe only fresh meat is lamb.Beef of inferiorquality is to be obtained at Athens and in thelarger towns, and pork in winter, when it is largelymade into sausages, called lakonika. The flocksappear to be composed entirely of lambs, for onenever hears of mutton. It is baked, boiled,stewed, and roasted on the spit, and as a rule it is

180 HOME LIFE IN HELLASskinny and flaccid,bearing only a remote resemblanceto the viand known to us under that name.But it is usually eaten with vegetables in the formof a ragout. No matter what vegetable is used,they all taste alike. This is owing to the salsa, asauce composed of oil and tomatoes. It has anindescribable flavour, not in the leastlike that oftomatoes, for the fresh fruit is not used, but a preservemade of pounded tomatoes and looking likeanchovy paste. This compound and oil are thebesetting sins of the Greek cook. He drencheseverything in oil, and in this he differs from theTurk. Moreover, he cannot cook rice. The Turkcooks rice as it is cooked in India, every grain isseparate, and the result is a light and wholesomedish. The Greek pilaf is a heavy, pasty mess.Charcoal is the fuel used for cooking purposes,and it is the best adapted to the grill. Get aGreek to grill some lamb cutlets—about half adozen equal the bulk of a mutton chop—and hewill turn out something palatable, as there is nopossibility of using oil or salsa. And he willstrew the cutlets with dried and pounded savouryherbs—a practice which might be imitated at home,as a variation from the inevitable tomato sauce.is wise in Greece to study simplicity in the matterof food. Olives are nutritious ; curdled milkyaoort—is delicious and wholesome. A good pointin the Greek dietary is the cooked salad of wildherbs—radikia—an excellent tonic,Itbut be carefulto have control of the oil-flask or you will find

DOMESTIC LIFE 181your salad swimming in a lake of oil.Then thereis fruit in its season—always excessively dear, bythe way, in Athens. The flavour of a new potatoor of green peas or artichokes you will neverknow, unless you cook them yourself. The sugarpea,called by the French mange-tout, for the podis eaten as well as the seed, is grown extensivelyfor the Athenian market—it ought to be betterknown in England. I remember seeing it once ina Wiltshire garden. Thinking to renew acquaintancewith it in an Athens restaurant, I was servedwith an amorphous mass which tasted, alas, ofnaught but rather rancM oil—and salsa. Sweetsin Greece are purely Turkish and are called bytheir Turkish names, cadaif, baklava, etc.Turks, the Greeks eat young cucumbers inLike thelargequantities, not in salad, but with the addition onlyof a little salt. They are grateful and refreshing inthe warm weather of early summer.On the otherhand, they prize things which the Turks willnottouch—snails, for example, and the octopus, and thecuttle-fish, which is very popular, but not temptingin appearance. When cooked it looks like a dishof ink. The long fasts enjoined by the OrthodoxChurch lead to a very large consumption of saltfish and caviar—not the Astrakhan caviar, which isas costly as in England—but red caviar, which isimported in tubs. This is pounded with garlic andlemon juice into what is called tarama salata andis eaten with oil.It is a distinctively Greek dish.The Greeks, like the Turks, have the commend-

182 HOME LIFE IN HELLASable habit of plucking vegetable marrowswhen theyare quite young. They are eaten as a ragout, orThe bamiastuffed with rice, or fried in slices.hibiscus esculentus—is an excellent vegetable ofhigh dietetic value. Lemon juice is squeezed intoalmost every dish and it certainly acts as a correctiveto the salsa. Frugality is the keynote ofthe Greek household. As stated above, bread andolives form the staple food. The French travellerTournefoot remarked two centuries ago, "AGreek will grow fat where an ass might die ofhunger," and the remark still holds good. Butthe Greek feasts sometimes. A dinner of circumstancein the provinces might be somewhat asfollows : Tomato soup, made of water and oil, withslices of lemon floating in it. Boiled lamb andpepper pods and rice soaked in oil. A vegetable,young marrows or beans with more oil and lemon.Lamb roasted on the spit. Goat's-milk cheese,hard and salt. Black olives. Fruit, if in season.This would be accompanied by plentifullibationsof resinated wine—a beverage whose odour hasbeen compared to various things—furniture polishand melted sealing-wax among others. A highdignitary of the Church from Constantinople saidof it many centuries ago, that it resembled the juiceof the pine tree rather than that of the grape, anobservation that is strictly true. To the novice itis extremely nauseous, and some people neveracquire the taste. To the Greek it is nectar. Helauds its flavour of turpentine on account of its

DOMESTIC LIFE 183alleged peptic qualities. And it must be said, intruth, that it is the only table beverage in Greece,for Greek wines are either very luscious or strongand heady, and only to be used very sparingly.The Greeks, as a rule, abstain from them altogether,but drink freely of their favourite retsinata.Thered wine is the most highly charged with resinand is acrid. But the white is in universal use.It varies in quality ; some of the best is grown inthe neighbourhood of Eleusis.with resin ;It is impregnatedit is said to preserve it, and the practicedates from antiquity. The fact is that Greececannot produce, or the Greeks cannot make, apalatable light table wine like those of France orthe Tuscan wines of Italy.The Greek customs and ceremonies attendantupon birth, marriage, and death are many, andsome of them peculiar. The newly born Greekchild is bathed in luke-warm wine in which myrtleleaves are steeped. It is then covered with alayer of salt, which being washed off, money isthrown into the water by the relatives as aperquisite for the midwife. When a youngMainote comes into the world he is rubbed withpepper and salt, perhaps to give him a foretasteof the hard life of that rugged province. Thepriest cuts a few hairs from his head, joins themwith wax from an altar taper, and throws theminto the water which will be used for his baptism.Then his amulet is put round his neck, and so heis started on his career. Local customs vary.

184 HOME LIFE IN HELLASAmong the poor of Athens, the infant's firstgarment is made out of an old shirt of the father.In Rhodes, on the eighth day after birth, its lipsare touched with honey by a child, who must bethe eldest of a family, with the words "Be assweet as this honey." In Cyprus the cutting ofthe first tooth is made the occasion of a familyfestival. Friends assemble, songs are sung, andthe child is ceremonially bathed in water andboiled wheat, after which thirty-two of the boiledgrains are strung on a thread and stitched to itscap. There is no fixed limit of time for baptism,but it often takes place a week after birth. It is amuch more elaborate function than with us andlasts about an hour. The infant is rubbed allover with oil by his godfather. The priestmingles oil with the water in the font, blows uponit and in the infant's face, to exorcise evil spirits,then takes it in his hands, holds it up towards theeast, and passes it through the air, making with itthe sign of the cross. Then comes the trineimmersion. The infant is dipped three times inthe water so that its entire body is covered eachtime. Then the priest anoints it, making the signof the cross with the holy oil on the forehead, thetongue, the breast, the back, the palms of thehands, and the soles of the feet. It is carriedthree times solemnly round the font by the godfather,and if a boy, the priest carries it to theiconostasis and holds it up three times before thealtar. There are other ritual details accompanied

DOMESTIC LIFE 185by prayers and recitations of the creed, and thedressing of the infant partakes of a ritual character,so that the ceremony is a lengthy one. Whatthe person principally concerned thinks of ithe does not say, but he usually gives inarticulateexpression to his feelings. Henceforward he orshe has a name. Before baptism the infant isoften called sideros, iron, in the hope that it will bestrong. The male infant is a neepion, baby, tillhe is three, when he becomes pais, a boy. Attwelve he is ephebos, a youth, at eighteen he isneanias, a young man, and at twenty-two he isandros, a full-grown man.Marriages take place at all seasons except themonth of May. The day chosen is usually Sunday,but the day of all days in the year is theSunday preceding the Christmas fast. It is notfashionable now to be married in church. InAthens the ceremony takes place in the house ofthe bride's parents. A temporary altar is set upin the middle of the room. At the conclusion ofthe ceremony the priest and the couple join handsand walk three times round the altar, the guestspelting them with comfits. The most importantpart of the ceremony is the crowning of the brideand bridegroom with wreaths of orange blossom.Hence a wedding is popularly called the crowning.The koumbaros or best man holds the wreathsover the heads of the couple whilst the priestblesses them. He then crowns them, and afterwardsat the time specified in the ritual changesall

186 HOME LIFE IN HELLASthe crowns. The position of the koumbaros isone of real responsibility. In case of the deathof the husband, it is his duty to look after thewidow and children, if there are any. He isusually also the godfather of the first child—anartificial relationship with us, but not with theGreeks. The godfather becomes the brother ofthe parents, the uncle of the other children, andthe tie is as strict as though the relationship wereone of blood. It acts as a bar to intermarriage,for instance.Love marriages are rare exceptions. Thematch is made by the parents and relativesthan by the partiesratherprincipally concerned, thoughthey generally have an opportunity of learningsomething of each other. There are certainestablished usages which, though not legallybinding, are not to be contravened with impunity.Thus it is considered wrong for brothers to marryuntil their sisters have been wed. Again, girlsmust marry in order of seniority. It would notbe right for a girl to be married whilst she had anelder sister who remained single. The men of afamily are thus naturally anxious to see theirsisters settled, and as a dowry is indispensable,its provision is often a matter of serious anxietyand the fruit of great self-denial on the part of thebrothers, if the parents are dead.There are casesin which brothers have remained unmarried foryears, and have devoted all their hard-earnedsavings to the dowries of their sisters. Among

DOMESTIC LIFE 187the poorer classes emigration is resorted to, notinfrequently, solely with thisdowry comes toAtlantic.object, and many aa Greek maiden from across theThis is a bright side of domestic life inGreece. Though woman has not the same freedomas with us, she is never left to her ownresources. The family tie is, as a rule, closerand held more sacred.Wedding customs differ with the locality, butthe central feature, the crowning, is never absent.Marriage among the peasantry is more picturesquethan among the townsfolk.In remote districtsand in the islands quaint ceremonials linger,some of them peculiar to the region in which thewedding takes place. Generally speaking, the engagedcouple must not be seen together beforethe betrothal. On the day appointed the parentsof both parties meet in the house of the priest.The future bride, veiled, is brought there by twoof her friends and presented to the bridegroom,who leads her to the priest and asks for his blessing.Then the troth is plighted by the exchangeof rings in the priest's presence. The couple seeno more of each other until their wedding day.The wedding presents, which include the domesticutensils and furniture of the new home, are carriedin solemn procession through the village inmany districts. There is feasting in the housesof both bride and bridegroom on the eve of thewedding day. The materials are provided by theguests and relatives, and the wedding feast is

188 HOME LIFE IN HELLASoften furnished by the koumbaros. The ceremonialdressing of the bride by her girl friendsis an important function, and isgenerally accompaniedby the singing of songs bearing on theevent. In Sparta, when the bride comes home,the bridegroom's mother awaits her at the doorholding a glass of honey and water. The bridedrinks some of it,in order that her words may besweet as honey. The rest is smeared over thelintel, that the house may be free from strife.Oneof the guests breaks a pomegranate on the threshold.These rites form no part of the ceremonialprescribed by the Church, but the rustics cling tothem. They are undoubtedly survivals of paganantiquity. They vary among the different populations.In some of the Cyclades the pomegranateis thrown at the door and thus broken. Ifsome of the seeds stick it is considered a goodomen. In Rhodes the pomegranate is placed onthe threshold of the new dwelling, and the bridegroomcrushes it with his foot as he enters. Butfirst he dips his finger in a cup of honey andtraces a cross on the door, the guests crying, " Begood and sweet as this honey. " As the bride entersthey throw over her grain and cotton seed, andsprinkle her with orange-flower water. In somedistricts the bridecake takes the form of smallcakes of honey and sesame, which areat the wedding feast,not eatenbut sent to the guests afterwards.Cyprus has many peculiar customs,among which is the solemn bathing of the bride

DOMESTIC LIFE 189by her friends, and the bridegroom by his, a weekbefore the marriage, a relic of lustral rites. MountPelion and the Magnesian peninsula differ fromother localities in the fact that the bridegroomisnot bound to refrain from speaking to the bridebefore marriage, which invariably takesplace ona Sunday. On the previous Thursday there isthe public kneading of the wedding loaves in thehouses of the parents on both sides.On the Fridaythe betrothed partake of the Holy Communiontogether, and "the crowning" is in the futurehome, whilst the wedding feast is held in thehouses of both families. Among the Albaniansthere is one very important distinction. The husbandreceives no dowry with his bride. On thecontrary, he supplies the trousseau, together witha sum of money previously agreed upon. Insteadof the wife purchasing the husband, the husbandpurchases the wife. The wedding ceremonies beginon the previous Monday with the grindingof the corn, which is accompanied by rejoicingsat the mill. On the Thursday there is the ceremonialbringing inof the wood for the fires andthe baking of the cakes. The dough must bekneaded by a young girl, who is attired in theclothes and wears the arms of the bridegroom.The latter and his friends throw coins into thekneading-trough, her perquisites. It is an essentialthat both her parents must be living. On thewedding morn the bridegroom and his friendsproceed first to the bride's house, where he is

190 HOME LIFE IN HELLASsprinkled with water by her mother, who usesa spray of flowers for the purpose. The bridegroom'sparty then sit down to a repast whilst thebride is being dressed. Then there is a procession,accompanied by the priest, to the bridegroom'shouse, where the crowning takes place.The best man, vlam he is called, has manyfunctions to perform. The bride is dressed by herfriends, save for her girdle and shoes. It is thepart of the vlam to invest her with these. Thenhe has to attend her inthe procession, to see thatshe does not fall off her horse or mule, for sherides. He must also take care that she enters thehouse right foot foremost, a matter of graveimportance. Then he has to unveil her for thecrowning, and the veil must be liftedwith a silverobject, usually the handle of a dagger. Finallyit is incumbent on him to steal two objects whilstthe guests are making merry—ornaments orarticles of domestic use. They are, of course,restored afterwards.Sir Rennell Rodd suggeststhat this ritual theft has its origin in the idea ofplacating Nemesis by some material loss in themidst of joy. In any case, did it not occur, therewould be forebodings of ill to the young couple.The marriage rites do not end with the religiousceremony.On the Monday the two families andthe guests assemble to witness the eating of breadand honey by the newly married pair. Then allproceed to the village well or spring, where brideand bridegroom sprinkle each other with water.

DOMESTIC LIFE 191Afterwards the bridegroom offers a repast tohisfather-in-law, and the next day the latter feastshim in turn, together with the principal guests.Thus the wedding and its attendant rites last aweek and a day—rather a trying task for theprincipal parties concerned—but the Albanianbride has the privilege of being exempted fromallwork, except that of a light character, for thefirst year of her married life. A volume mightbe written about the local customs which differentiatepeasant marriage. Mr. Theodore Bentattended a marriage in the island of Santorin,at which priest and bride and bridegroom literallydanced round the altar. The foregoing description,however, will serve to convey a notion of thegeneral features of a Greek wedding. Amongthe nomad Vlach shepherds the proceedingsdiffer entirely. The bridegroom and his supporterssimulate the ancient tribal custom ofmarriage by capture. They arrive fully armedand carry off the bride after a feigned resistance,and a sharp combat amid shouting and muchfiring of their long guns. These picturesqueaccessories are, of course, lacking in the nuptialsheld in the large towns, and an Athenian weddingis a tame affair. It loses by not being held inchurch, for the guests in the drawing-room havea habit of chatting all the way through the ceremony.The English traveller Wheler saw amarriage procession at Athens in the year 1675.Describing the bride, he says: "Her face is so

192 HOME LIFE IN HELLASbedaubed with gross paint that it is not easy todetermine whether she be flesh and blood, or astatue made of plaster." She walked so slowlythat she could hardly be said to move at all.'Wheler remarks further : ' Wives go little abroad,and daughters never, as I could learn, till they goto church to be married." The Athenian brideof to-day is better off than her ancestress intheserespects. That scarcely perceptible progression,which may be taken to signify modest reluctance,is still customary in some Greek villages ofTurkey. It is universal in Egypt, where thebride walks beneath a closed canopy hidden frombut among the Christians of thethe public gaze ;Lebanon the bride is to be seen, paint and all.Greeks, Albanians, and Vlachs marry each theirown folk. Mixed marriages are very rare. Therural population hold the marriage tie and allfamily relationships in great reverence. They arevery chaste and divorce is unknown among them,though by no means rare among the richer classesof Athens. 1All who have lived in Greek lands,in or out ofGreece, know the peculiar wailing chant whichheralds the approach of a funeral.First comes thebearer of the coffin-lid, held upright, swathed inpurple gauze and decked with flowers and tinsel.A boy can carry it with ease, for it is made of thelightest substance, purposely destructible. It is1Divorce is granted by the ecclesiastical authorities, not by acivil court,

DOMESTIC LIFE 193followed by acolytes with cross and banners, andthe priest in coloured vestments, though of late inAthens the white surplicehas come into fashionfor funerals. After the clergy comes the coffin,carried low on staves. It is open, and the body,dressed as for a festival, is exposed to the gaze ofall the world.the usual garb of the civilian.Black clothes and white gloves isOfficers of the armyor navy are dressed in full uniform. Ladies areclad in silken robes, white, and gay with flowers.It is rather startling to the stranger, and even afterone is used to it, there is always something ghastlyin this decking of the dead with the frippery of theliving. The Greeks say that it took its rise underthe Turkish domination, the Turks requiring thecoffin to be opened in order to prevent the smugglingof arms into the country in the guise of afuneral. But the Turks are gone and the customstill obtains. Its origin dates probably from aperiod ere the Turks were a nation. In ancienttimes the dead were clad in their finest appareland crowned with a garland. The relatives do notaccompany the body to the shallow grave, but takeleave of it at the cemetery chapel. The clothesare removed before burial, and in the case of therich, are usually cut up. Church dignitaries werecarried to the tomb, not many years ago, seated ina chair, dressed in full canonicals. A candle isusually left burning by the grave in an earthenwarevessel, and the staves upon which the bier wasborne are left stuck upright in the ground. Aftero

194 HOME LIFE IN HELLASthree years have elapsed, the bones are dug up,washed in wine, and preserved in the ossuary.Those who pay for it have the bones of their relativescollected and hung up in sacks. Rows ofthem may be seen in the pavilion in the cemeteryat Athens. They are numbered and registered, sothat they may be identified. The bones of thepoor are exhumed also,but they are thrown pellmellinto the common charnel-house, the hair inmany cases still adhering to the skulls. The deadmonks in their habits in the Capuccini at Palermo,and also at Malta, make rather a ghastly spectacle,but one in which there is order and purpose. Butthere is no redeeming feature in the gruesomepit at Athens. This treatment of the debris ofhumanity is cynical. Not only does it lack reverence,but common decency.of the past, no dream of the future.There is no memoryThe sight ispainful, and brings with it a sense, not of humiliation,but rather of degradation.of the Athenian press that itIt is to the credithas more than oncecalled attention to it as a public scandal.There are many local funeral customs, but one isalmost universal, that of breaking a pitcher on thethreshold when a funeral leaves the house. InCorfu the house is leftunswept for three days andthen the broom is burnt. Professional mournersstill flourish in some of the provinces and islands,but their services are not in general request asformerly. The myrology or dirge sung in thehouse of mourning and over the grave on anniver-

DOMESTIC LIFE 195saries still survives, and in Thessaly there arewomen famous for these improvised laments.There no other songs are sung for a year by thosewho have lost a relative, and the survivors singover their grave for a few moments when they passthe cemetery.But myrology as a profession is onthe decline. It has always been the exclusiveappanage of women, and its increasing desuetudemeans a loss of revenue for the female portion ofthe population. The earnings of a myrologist ofrepute are considerable. Some of them displayreal dramatic talent in their simulated grief, andthese do not sing the cut-and-dried myrologies,but improvise for the occasion, and sedulouslypractise their art. What consolation the bereavedcould ever have derived from these histrioniclamentations is a question that may be left topsychologists. They are, like much else in Greece,a heritage of the distant past, lingering chiefly incommunities that have come least in contact withoutside influences. The Suliote women gatheringround the bier, and rehearsing by turns theprincipal actions in the life of the deceased, asdescribed by Millingen and other travellers, duringthe War of Independence, is reminiscent of theHomeric age. The funeral cakes kolliva—bakedon the third, ninth, twentieth, and fortieth daysafter burial, are a survival of paganism. They arepartly broken up over the grave, partly eaten, andpartly given away.Among other ingredients theycontain parsley—the symbol of death.In ancient

196 HOME LIFE IN HELLAStimes a person in extremis was said to want parsley,and down to the early nineteenth century at least,a sprig of parsley was a malign gift,signifying awish for the recipient's death. White garmentsare worn as mourning in Thessaly, and the womengo about with uncovered head and loosened hair.In conservative Maina the myrology still flourishes.All fires and lights are extinguished at death andare not relit for a week. Consequently there is nocooking, and at the funeral feastthe guests bringprepared food. Bread and wine are placed nearthe dead, and if a man, his arms are laid byhis side, together with an amulet to ward off evilspirits.Last of all, the priest blesses a nail, whichis driven into the door.the deceased may rest quietly.This is done in order thatThe women cut offa lock of their hair and throw it into the grave,and I am told, but I have not witnessed it, thatsometimes the men scratch their faces. Bothactions are relics of self-mutilation as an expressionof grief. There is a touching dignity in the lastfarewell of the Mainote men.They gather roundthe bier and cry plaintively, Adelphe, Adelphe,Adelphe—O brother ! O brother ! O brotherThen for a few moments they stand motionless withbowed heads, after which they utter the same words,softly this time, almost in a whisper Adelphe,Adelphe, Adelphe—then they kiss the brow of thedead and depart in silence.

THISCHAPTER VTHE GREEK PEOPLEbook is concerned with the HellenicKingdom. Hellas beyond the frontiers doesnot come within its province. But it would beentirely misleading to leave it out of account.Many, nay one may say most of the Westernswho know the Greeks and are familiar with theirlanguage have never set foot in the dominions ofKing George. Greek is the mother-tongue of theWestern child brought up in Smyrna or Constantinople.The inhabitants of Greece form buta fraction of the Greek people. From Epirus atthe gate of the Adriatic right round to Bourgason the Black Sea the coast is peopled by Greeks,and a Greek fringe extends along the Asiatic littoralof the Euxine to distant Trebizonde, wherethe spoken tongue stillforms.The ^Egean is Greek on both itsretains some of the classicshores and allits islands. When Byron wrote "The Isles ofGreece " he had in his mind chiefly the Asiaticislands; Samos with the refrain "Fill high thebowl with Samian wine"; Mytilene, "whereburning Sappho loved and sung "; Scio and197

198 HOME LIFE IN HELLASTeos, " the Scian and the Teian Muse," as Greeknow as they were in the days of Homer and Anacreon.Still Greek are the neighbouring shoresof Ionia and Caria. The harbourless southerncoast of Asia Minor is sparsely inhabited, butGreeks are scattered through Lycia to Adalia,and become more dense in Cilicia, within sightof Troodos, the loftiest peak of Cyprus, whereout of a mixed population of 237,000 there are182,739 Orthodox Greeks and some thousandsmore of other faiths whose mother-tongue isGreek.In the country behind Smyrna they stretch farup the valleys of the Meander, the Hermus, andthe Cayster. Far in the interior are isolatedpatches of Greeks—on Lake Egidir, and on theplateau of the Axylon near Iconium ; whilstCa?sarea, in far-off Cappadocia, is the centre of alarge and active population whose offshoots extendtowards the head-waters of the Tigris.Over on the European continent, though drivenfrom Eastern Roumelia to the number of some40,000 by the Bulgarians, the Greeks are increasingon the Thracian plain from Adrianople to theBosphorus. They till the land round Constantinople,and within that cosmopolitan city they arethe most active element. The visitor to Perafinds himself in a town mainly Greek. The servants,the tradesmen are Greek.In professionaland mercantile pursuits Greeks preponderate.Across the Golden Horn, in Stamboul, where

THE GREEK PEOPLE 199Franks do not dwell, he will find wedges ofGreeks among the Turkish inhabitants. ThePhanar, a densely peopled quarter, clusters roundthe Patriarchate. Far away from this, in theheart of Stamboul, the writer was once startledat seeing the name of Comnenos over a druggist'sshop, in a district wholly Turkish. The triplefortifications extend along the base of the triangularcity from the Golden Horn to the Sea ofMarmora, a distance of some four miles.There,nestling beneath the walls where fell the lastConstantine, a ribbon of Greek population remindsthe visitor that he is in Byzantium. On theseaward face of the city, still clinging to the walls,in some cases using their dismantled towers asdwellings, he finds Greeks again in larger numbers.Yonder on the Asiatic shore stands Kadikeuy, onthe site of old Chalcedon. There he will hear theGreek tongue, will see Greek names over theshops, will rub shoulders on the pier with Greekmerchants who transact business in EuropeanGalata and have their homes in Asia. Fartheraway lie the Princes Islands, and there theGreek element is the dominant one. Beyond theislands, Greek villages dot the coast of the Gulf ofNicomedia. On the Bosphorus, the largest andmost prosperous centres of population—Therapia,Buyukdere, Yeni Keui—are chiefly or whollyGreek, and in its waters Greek fishermen casttheir nets. For the city of the Sultans is still,in its people, largely the city of the Constantines.

200 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThree small islands near Rhodes—Kalymnos,Nisyros, and Leros—chiefly the latter, which wasfirst in the field—have supplied most of thematerial for the Egyptian colony, which bothin wealth and numbers far exceeds other sectionsof the foreign population of the Delta. Fromthese rocks, for they are little more, come thepioneers who traded in the Soudan.Greek storekeeperswere established at Khartoum when thatregion belonged to the domain of the explorer.Nor is Khartoum the southernmost limit of theadventurous Greek trader. Livingstone foundhim in the neighbourhood of the EquatorialLakes.But it is not in commercial enterprise alonethat Greater Hellas has shone. The Isle of Psaragave to Greece Constantine Kanares, her greatestnaval hero. Scio counts among her sons physiciansof European reputation, as well as scholarsand men of letters, chief of whom isKorais, thebuilder of the literary language of modern Greece.Aivali, on the Asian mainland opposite Mytilene,Ambelachia, on Mount Ossa, and Yanina, inEpirus, had their colleges and were centres ofculture when Athens still sat in darkness.Epirus,still beyond the pale, continues to furnish thekingdom with some of itsmost capable and distinguishedmen.Are the modern Greeks descendants of theGreeks of the classic age ? The writer does notpretend to do more than make a brief statement


THE GREEK PEOPLE 201based on the arguments of those whose knowledgeentitles them to its discussion. The conclusionof Fallmerayer that the Greek race isextinct,that it has been replaced by Slavs, and that,consequently, there is not a particle of Greekblood in the veins of the Greek-speaking peopleof to-day, is now generally discountenanced. Itwas refuted by a great authority, Karl Hopf, onthe ground that Fallmerayer had relied on documentaryevidence proved to be false. Hopf alsopointed to the paucity of Slav traces, as in thecase of place names—an impossible condition if thecountry had been entirely repeopled by them. Thepersistence of the Greek language upholds thosewho favour the Hellenic descent of the modernGreeks. But philologists tell us that language isa social, not a racial product ;yet if the Slavsbecame the dominant population of Greece, whydo their descendants speak Greek ? The languageof England is that of the Teuton, not the Celt.When the Franks invaded the Peloponnesus inthe thirteenth century they found Slav coloniesin certain spots on the mountains, distinct fromthe Greeks. To this day, in the Albanian districtsof Greece, even in the vicinity of Athens,the language is Albanian. The late Sir RichardJebb maintained that the Greek language had anunbroken life from prehistoric times.The classictongue was understood by the people until 750 a.d. ,and by 900 a.d. it had ceased to be used. Between1 100 and 1200 spoken Greek began to have a

202 HOME LIFE IN HELLASliterature, and in the thirteenth century it was ingeneral use. The change from ancient to modernGreek is one common to languages, from thesynthetic to the analytic.Professor Mahaffy saysthat the language is that of Plato essentially,despite development and decay. No one who hasa knowledge of ancient and modern Greek candeny this.Latin died and left a legacy to posterityin the Romance tongues, but Greek has alwaysbeen Greek and is living still. As to the artificialreintroduction of Greek from Byzantium, SirRennell Rodd opposes that theory on the groundthat varieties of dialect point to a direct inheritanceof tradition. Moreover, herdsmen and husbandmenemploy a greater number of ancientwords than the townsfolk. This fact tends toprove that the ancient race has lived on in allits purity away from the beaten tracks. SirRennell Rodd maintains that a nationality severaltimes extinguished in its hereditary seat has succeededin overshadowing and absorbing thevarious elements which had threatened to overwhelmit. Professor Mahaffy asserts that themain body of the people are Greek like theirtongue, and adduces as an argument the fact thatin the Greek colonies the barbarians spoke Greek,but when Greek influence was withdrawn returnedto their own language. He also insists on theresemblance in character between ancient andmodern Greeks—Athenians told him that hisSocial Life in Greece was based on studies of

THE GREEK PEOPLE 203the moderns, whereas that work was written longere he visited Greece. Sir Richard Jebb attestshis belief in the undying Greek nationality, "boundto the old Greeks by ties of race and characterand language. The Greek has never been ableto strip himself of his Hellenic character, whetherthe influence was wielded by Roman or Ottoman,Venice or Russia, France or Great Britain, andit will be so to the end."Hellenists approach the question with a pardonablebias in favour of a people who still speak thetongue of Hellas.Ethnologists, lacking the enthusiasmof the scholars, take more cautious views.Though most of them allow that Greek bloodenters into a Hellenised conglomerate, some ofthem incline to the opinion that community oflanguage and tradition rather than lineage islink between the moderns and the ancients.theMr.D. G. Hogarth points out that the broad skull ofthe European " Hellene " of to-day is still furtherremoved than that of the Greek of Asia from thelong skull of the Greek of old. Nevertheless,he admits that there is a surviving strain ofHellenic blood,itself largely contaminated, evenin antiquity, and now mixed with that of Slav,Albanian, Vlach, and Turk.There can be no doubt that those Greeks whoclaim a pure descent from the nation which wasconquered by the Romans in 146 B.C. overstatetheir case as much as Fallmerayer did his.Apartfrom physiological improbability, the vicissitudes

204 HOME LIFE IN HELLASwhich the country has suffered point the otherway.The long Roman subjection, the invasionsof Avar, Slav, and Norman, the Frankish dominationof more than two and a half centuries, theVenetian conquests, and the Turkish rule ofnearly four hundred years cannot but have leftsome traces. To these must be added the manyimmigrations and intrusions of a peaceful character.In 1397, long before the Turkish Conquest,Anatolian Turks settled in considerable numbersin Thessaly, and early in the following centuryabout six thousand families came to augment thecolony. These people were known as Koniarides,from Konia, the ancient Iconium, their place oforigin. About the same period there was aninflux of Yuruks, the pastoral nomads of Turkishrace who are still to be met with on the uplandsof Asia Minor. A little later Mohamed IIdivided large districts into military fiefs granted toTurks who had served him and his predecessors.Not so long ago, two Turks, landowners ofThessaly, sat as members of the Greek Parliament.It may be urged that the progeny of Greekintermarriage with Turks remained Mohammedans,distinct from the Greek population, butthere must have been some leakage. There were,and probably still are, a score of families in thedeme of Boeae, and a whole village near Kastania,speaking Greek and devout Christians, who areknown to be descendants of Turks convertedduring the revolution of 1821. At the capture of

THE GREEK PEOPLE 205Athens in 1687 by the Venetians, thirty Turkswere voluntarily baptised, a remarkable occurrencebecause so rare. 1 The origin of the descendantsof these and others is now lost, but Turkish namesare by no means rare in Greece.But there are two non-Hellenic peoples inGreece of whose presence there can be no doubt,since they have in part preserved theirlanguage,the Albanians and the Vlachs. The latter speaka dialect of Latin mingled with other elements.The Albanians speak Skypetar, an Aryan tongue,claiming to be older than Greek itself. This isnot the place to discuss the origin and history ofthese most interesting races nor the dates of theirarrival in Greece. The Vlachs principally inhabitthe ranges of Pindus, though they spread intoother regions. The Albanians, by the fifteenthcentury, were scattered all over the Morea, andto-day they form the bulk of the population ofAttica, Argolis, and Megaris, with the adjacent1Instances of Christians embracing Islam are far morenumerous. Many of the wealthier classes apostatised in theearlier years of the Turkish domination. Out of forty-eightGrand Viziers after the Conquest twelve only were Turks. Themajority of Grand Viziers before the middle of the seventeenthcentury were renegades or drawn from the tribute children ofChristian origin, many of whom attained that rank. The famousBarbarossa was a Greek renegade of Mytilene. In the sixteenthand seventeenth centuries many of the poorer classes apostatised,the Cretan Greeks, who are now "Turks," among others. TheTurks of the Vizistra Valley, in Macedonia, are Greek in blood.There were many renegades in Eubcea, some of whose descendantsstill remain at Chalcis. It has been reckoned that at theclose of the seventeenth century at least a millionin Europe were of Christian descent.Mohammedans

206 HOME LIFE IN HELLASislands, and a large proportion of that of Achaiaand Boeotia. They occupy the southern half ofEubcea and the northern half of Andros. Corinth,Marathon, Platam, Mantinsea, Leuctra, Eleusis,Salamis—names great in Hellenic story—arepeopled, not by Greeks, but by Albanians ;whilstVlachs feed their flocks on the slopes of Parnassus.About eleven per cent of the population of Greecespeak Skypetar, the language of the Albanians.The tongue is doomed. Military service and theschoolmaster are its foes. There are neverthelessvillages within walking distance of Athens wherethe women and children understand very littleGreek. The men are bilingual, but many communities,notably in the Morea, have lost theirlanguage, though not their sturdy character. BothAlbanian and Vlach are loyal Hellenes. Theyhave identified themselves with the nation andhave brought into it an element of strength andstability.The Vlachs are mainly pastoral and theAlbanians agricultural. In fact there are fewagricultural districts in Greece where the populationis purely Greek. Town life is, as it has everbeen, more congenial to the Greek than ruraloccupations. It is significant that whilst the soilof Hellas is left to the tillage of the Albanian andthe care of the flocks to the Vlach, the Greek isfound in remote towns in Turk and Arab lands,content to follow his favourite pursuit of trading,amid alien surroundings.It is probable that Greece proper is, racially,

THE GREEK PEOPLE 207the least Greek of Greek lands. There is moreHellenic blood in the Cyclades and Sporades, onthe mainland of Asia, nay, even among the"Turks" of Crete. Compare the diversity ofphysical types one meets with in Greece, "whereevery variety of facial angle accosts the eye," 1with the regular features and uniformity of thepurer-blooded Cretans, whether Christian or Moslem.The Greeks of the kingdom, generallyspeaking, may dispute this, though it shouldbe a matter of pride to them rather than otherwise.An Englishman does not feel hurt if he is toldthat he isnot a direct descendant of the AncientBritons, for he knows that his mixed blood hasendowed him with qualities which but for it hewould lack. And it is the same with the Greeks.Mr. Hogarth puts it thus: "Those great andnoble qualities which the modern Greek has displayedso conspicuously this century past belongto him, to my thinking, in spite, not because, ofhis possessing a little old Hellenic blood. . . .The stock that was grceculus even in the AugustanAge has been passing down the road of racialdecay these two thousand years, to be combinednow in Greece with younger and ruder races." 2An Athenian once said to the writer: "I hateAjax and Achilles and all the rest of them.Greeks sit down and glorify them, and do notthink it worth while to do anything more."There1D. G. Hogarth, The Nearer East.sD. G. Hogarth, A Wandering Scholar in the Levant.

208 HOME LIFE IN HELLASwas truth in his statement. Though it is wellfor a nation to have an ideal, it is futile to live onthe reputation of one's ancestors. It may bedoubted whether cultured Europe rendered a serviceto the Greeks inpersuading them that theywere the children of the builders of the Parthenon.The Greek has fine qualities, but vanity is his pitfall.In contemplating the greatness of the past,he failed to perceive the gulf which separatedhim from it. Before the nineteenth century noGreek would have dreamed of calling himself aHellene. Since the time of Justinian he had beena Roman. His traditions did not go beyond thePandects and the Orthodox Church. He knewof the Helladoikoi vaguely as pagans and giants,but it is doubtful whether he would have takenpride in them as ancestors. The ruins of theirbuildings he attributed to giants or a mythic Constantine.The writer remembers being puzzledmany years ago at Constantinople by a little girlwho seemed to doubt his title to the appellationof his creed. " You tell me you are a Christian.You are making fun of me.You are not a Christian.I am a Christian, but I know you are anEnglishman." Aglaia was quite right from herpoint of view. From the time of the TurkishConquest Christianos had been the symbol ofnationality. It was synonymous with Greek.Aglaia only meant that I was not a Greek. Theterm is still used in that sense in Athens itself."Roman," however, is obsolete, though it is in

THE GREEK PEOPLE 209popular use elsewhere, so that in coming to Greecefrom other Greek-speaking lands one has to becareful to substitute Hellenbs and Hellenika forthe Romaics and Romaika, with which one hasbecome familiar. The Athenian would raise hiseyebrows if he were alluded to as a Roman, orhis tongue as Romaic. It was not so formerly.Byron wrote from Athens in 1811 that he hadmade some progress in Romaic.The Greek clergy always kept up a knowledgeof the ancient tongue, but their schools had littleinfluence on the people, since a common literarydialect of the modern language did not exist.That powerful instrument in the revival of Hellaswas mainly the work of two scholars, EugeniosBulgares, a priest of Corfu, and Korais, of Scio,at the other end of Hellas.Eugenios endeavouredto reform the schools. His plea for religioustoleration roused the ire of the clergy. He wassilenced and went to Russia, where he becameBishop of Kherson. Meanwhile the Patriarch ofJerusalem wrote a tract, in which he told theGreeks that Heaven had raised up the TurkishEmpire to protect them against heresy and to bethe barrier against the West, so that they mightescape the snares of Satan, who had led Catholics,Lutherans, Calvinists, and others into the path ofperdition.This was the temper that the pioneersof enlightenment encountered among their countrymen.But the work of Eugenios lived and wascarried on by Korais, who wisely took up his resip

210 HOME LIFE IN HELLASdence in Paris. He would have been impossiblein Greece in its then condition. The foundationof the schools, and the sacrifices made by theirfounders, make a bright page in the history ofmodern Greece. But it needed more than enlightenedscholars to bring about her liberation.And here came in the Albanians and the Vlachs.The latter gave to young Greece statesmen likeKolettes. The former gave her heroes. TheAlbanians bore the brunt of the War of Independence—nay,without them it would never havebeen won. The seamen of Hydra, the soldiersof Suli were Albanians, and they included suchmen as Miaoulis and Marco Bozzaris. Yet thesewere all Hellenes in heart and soul. Mezzaris,a Byzantine satirist of the fourteenth century,refers to the inhabitants of the Morea as a barbarousrabble of Greeks, Franks, Slavs, andAlbanians of whose improvement there was nohope. Yet this " barbarous rabble " triumphedwhere the Byzantine had failed. It was the Moreathat unfurled the flag of Liberty in 182 1. Fromthe "barbarous rabble" arose a new nation, Hellenicin type and character. The indomitablespirit of Hellenism absorbed the newer elementsand made them one with itself.Byzantine civilisation,likethe Byzantine Court, was essentiallyAsiatic. In the nineteenth century Greece becameonce more the eye of Hellas. Modern Hellenesneed no greater glory than this.

THECHAPTER VIFAITH AND FOLK-LOREChristian Creed was unfolded to Greecein the first half of the first century, but itmade slow progress among a people to whompagan beliefs — or rather, perhaps, pagan customs— were congenial. In the days of Constantineand Constans and Valens the inhabitantsof Hellas persisted in their attachment to theancient cults. Libanius speaks of being on hisway to the Spartan festival of the Whips, a contestof endurance. Valens passed a law forbiddingthe celebration of the antique rites, but grantedan exemption in favour of Greece at the solicitationof the Pro-Consul of that province of theEmpire. It was not until Justinian that thetemples were affected to the service of Christianityand their endowments to the support of the Christianclergy. But the faith preached aforetime inGalilee had put on a vesture of mingled paganismand orientalism. Pallas Athene was no longerinvoked, and the Parthenon had become thechurch of the Panagia—the All Holy Virgin.But prelates went there on white horses, surroundedby their clergy in sumptuous attire,311

212 HOME LIFE IN HELLASand the archons entered the sacred building onhorseback ; whilst Athenian ladies, painted andperfumed, and escortedby eunuchs, were bornethither in litters by their slaves. Then came theabandonment of the temples and the building ofa multitude of churches of small dimensions,examples of which have been preserved to us.The formularies and practices of the EasternChurch assumed the shape they have retained tothis day. The Orthodox Church stood for theethnic unit known as Greek—or, as it then calleditself, Roman Romaios. It was the depositaryof the language, which it kept alive. It was thecoherent force which conserved the nation.Hence,as we have seen, the term Christian has, for theGreek, a national as well as a religious sense, theformer dominating the latter. The OecumenicalPatriarch, as head of the Church, was, ipso facto,the head of the nation. When Greece becamefree this attribute naturally ceased to exist.Moreover,it was impossible that a subject of the Porte,residing at Constantinople, should remain thehead of the Church in Greece, and after manydifficulties, at last, in1850, the Church of Greecewas recognised as free and independent. It isgoverned by the Holy Synod, consisting of theMetropolitan of Athens and four archbishops andbishops, who during their year of office mustreside in the capital.Their jurisdiction over theepiscopal sees into which the Church in Greece isdivided is absolute. The Patriarch of Constanti-

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 213nople is consulted, as a matter of form, on doctrinalpoints ; but in fact the Church as constituted inGreece is as free from the Patriarchate as theChurch of England is from the Papacy. Thebishops are appointed by the king, albeit aProtestant. He chooses one of three names sentup by the Holy Synod. A bishop must be atleast thirty years old, and must belong to theregular clergy.Here a word must be said as tothe peculiar constitution of the Orthodox Church.The clergy are divided into two bodies, themonastic, or regular, and the secular. The formerare celibates, the latter are obliged to marry beforeordination, but they cannot marry a second time.The monastic clergy alone can become bishops.That is to say, that the hierarchy is the monopolyof monks. Next to the archbishops and bishopscome the archimandrites, who are also regulars.Thus the wealth, dignities, and learning of theChurch are concentrated in the hands of themonastic body. The bishops and a small staffof "preachers," whose services are chiefly requiredin Lent, are paid by the State. Thesecular clergy receive no stipend whatever, butderive their income solely from fees for baptisms,marriages, funerals, exorcisms, reading over thesick, etc. One who aspires to the career servesfirst as a reader, then as sub-deacon. At the ageof twenty-five he is ordained deacon, and at thirtyas priest. Goldsmith's parson "passing rich onforty pounds a year " outstrips the ambitions of

214 HOME LIFE IN HELLASa rural pappas in Greece, who would considerhimself well off on £30 or less. He is not allowedto trade, but he may till the soil, and does so, andone often sees him at the plough. When he isaged or infirm, his flock cultivate his patch andprune his vines for him. He is a peasant amongpeasants, possessing generally less education thanhis parishioners, who kiss his hand as a matter ofcustom, but owe him no respect. The peoplerevere their Church, but not their clergy, whohave no social standing and no learning. Theologymeans the recitation of formularies which havelittle or no meaning to them. I have heard ofpriests who cannot read, but I have never metone. I have, however, met several who do notpretend to understand what they read. Religionto them is a mere formal, material thing.influence over their flock they have none.SpiritualTheythe sum ofadminister the sacraments, and that istheir duty. The multifarious organisations whichdemand the attention of a parish priest in theWest are unknown to them. Their responsibilitiesare confined to their families, and do not extendto their parishioners, of whom they are the friendsand equals, but nothing more.village pappas isYet the lot of thenot altogether an enviable one.His flock are not always ready to pay him hisdues. Then he has to reckon with the communalcouncil, a body which can make his lifea thornyone if its members are adverse to him ; with thedeputy of the electoral division, who can procure

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 215his recall if so minded ; and on the ecclesiasticalside, with the bishops and synod, regulars whodespise the secular clergy. Then he has often tocontend with the res angusta domi—his family isseldom a small one,and always too large for hisscanty income. The pappas is not an imposingfigure, with his slippers down at heel, his blackrobe frayed and green with age.You may oftenfind him seated at the cafe or the bakal's—thelatter is a tavern as well as a provision store, andit is not infrequently kept by his son. Yet he isa worthy man, and the horny palm he presses toyours is an honest one. He is not the fanatic oneis apt to meet in a Spanish pueblo, nor versed inintrigue, nor a drunkard like many a "pope" ofa Russian village. His limitations are those ofhis environment. He does his duty according tohis lights, and if these are dim the fault is nothis.The town clergy must have passed the examinationsof a secondary school before they can takeorders. Consequently they stand on a differentlevel in the matter of education. As they workamong a larger population, their gains are largerthan those of the country. But they also dependsolely upon the fees due for their ministrations.Their position is therefore somewhat similar tothat held by the "pardoner" of Chaucer's day.This obligation to collect their income from themembers of their flock and the absence of a fixedstipend derogates from their dignity, and deters

216 HOME LIFE IN HELLASthe better class of citizens from entering the priesthood.Yet the Greeks, in spite of their reverencefor the Church, appear for the most part contentwith the socialinferiority and scanty education ofthe ministers. The indifference is not universal.So far back as 1844, two brothers named Rizares,natives of Epirus, founded a seminary named afterthem the Rizareion, with the express purpose offorming an educated clergy. The seminarists, intheir black robes with the distinctive letter " R "worked in blue on the collar, and their long hairbunched into a chignon, attract the attention ofthe stranger in Athens. The Rizareion stands ina cypress-shaded garden, off the Kephissia Road.It is a well-conducted establishment, and accommodatesninety-five students, who follow a five years'course. The basis is naturally theology, but itincludes Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, elementaryphysics, geography, and history, and, oddlyenough, the principles of Greek sculpture, theoriginal intentionof which was, perhaps, to combatthe clerical contempt for antique art, as pagan.In any case, a young man leaves the Rizareionwith a mental equipment very different from thatof the ordinary pappas. But unfortunately themajority do not enter the Church at all. Whilststill students they dabble in journalism, and afterwardsengage in lay occupations. A wise provisionstipulates that those on the foundation mustenter the priesthood or pay full fees for the fiveyears.But these form a small minority, and thus

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 217the object of the founders of the institution isdefeated. There is a faculty of theology at theUniversity, but very few avail themselves of it,and its influence on the clergy is almost nil.Only orthodox commentators are admitted intothe Divinity course, and consequently no modernlanguages are required, though the curriculumincludes the elements of algebra, geometry,philosophy, history, and even medicine. Thestudent who has obtained his degree of Doctorof Theology, if he aspires to the hierarchy, mustenter a convent. Failing this, he repairs to atown which is the seat of a bishopric, where,perhaps, he may become the bishop's vicargeneral,or he marries the daughter of an agedparish priest and succeeds to his cure ; but as amember of the secular clergy he can look fornothing higher.As we have seen, the dignities of the Church,with their emoluments, are the exclusive appanageof the regular clergyhieromonachoi as they arecalled in contradistinction to the kosmopapades, orsecular clergy. The two terms may be rendered,sacred celibates and fathers in the world. Thisgives to the former a position differingessentiallyfrom that of the monks of the West. Monasticlife, too, in the Eastern Church is quite other thanWestern monasticism with its many rules andorders. In the East there is only one rule, thatof St. Basil. The only distinction between thecommunities is that of cenobitic and idiorrhythmic.

218 HOME LIFE IN HELLASIn the former the monks live and eat in common.In the latter each member of the community possesseshis own establishment and lives apart, conformingonly to the general rule. There is noascetic rule like that of the Trappists. There areno preaching friars like the Dominicans, no orderdevoted more especially to learning like the Benedictines,no communities and congregations consecratedto a special object. The monk of theEast does not need to have a special vocation as inthe West. He chooses the monastic life either asthe only path to a place among the higher clergy,or as a means of leading a tranquil life, untrammelledby mundane cares. Among the formerclass may be found men well versed in theology,like the present Metropolitanstudied in Germany, orof Athens, who hasof considerable administrativeability. The latter neither know nor careanything about theology ;they are keenly interested in politics.but, on the other hand,I was neverso sick of politics as once at the great convent ofMegaspelion, where I spent a few days. Themonk who acted as guest-master poured forth anever-ending stream of political opinions and forecasts,morning, noon, and night, much to hisdelight, but not to mine. Among other things,he referred to an old prophecy from which hedrew the conclusion that Abdul Hamid would bethe last Ottoman sultan, a prediction which wouldhave been fulfilled if some extremists in Turkeyhad had their way. It is true it was the year of

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 219the war, 1897, so there was some excuse for him,but it may be taken as a general rule that the^average monk never opens the tomes of theFathers, whilst he is a diligent student of thenewspapers. The Orthodox Church has neverpassed through the crucible of the Reformation,and it may be that Greek monasteries, in theirtone, resemble the Western monastic communitiesof the Middle Ages rather than the monasteriesin Western lands to-day. It is certain, however,that the Greek monk is much nearer to the laymanthan his Latin brother. Recalling many, and,on the whole, pleasant experiences of Easternconvents and their inmates, this remains thesalient impression. In the West I have nevermet with the jovial monk of tradition, but in theEast I have. Megaspelion is one of the richest,as it is one of the oldest, monasteries in Greece.The monks are landed proprietors, but they lettheir farms. They do not even cultivate their owngardens, but doze away their time when not engagedin chanting the long offices. They getthrough these, lolling in their stalls in thecavern church ina perfunctory manner, chattingin the intervals, between the portions appointedto each. The monastery possesses a waxenimage of St. Luke, supposed to be endowedwith great virtues. Of far less account in theestimation of the monks is the dismantled library.True it does not contain much save a few oldmanuscript liturgies and a golden bull, in which

220 HOME LIFE IN HELLASletters patent are granted to the convent by theEmperor John Palaeologus, whose signatureappears in spidery characters in imperial vermilion.But they show with pride the rock-hewncellars with their giant winebutts, each bearinga special name. As we wound down the ravineand looked back through the solemn pines at theconvent niched like a swallow's nest on the perpendicularrock wall, the bells rang out a Godspeedto the parting guests—last sign of the monksof Megaspelion. And now, distant in time andspace, we know they still drone their chants anddoze—out of the world, yet not oblivious of it, in sofar as concerns its politics. The Eastern Churchhas known no Reformation, but in Greece itsmonasteries have been rudely awakened to thefact of dissolution.There were 593 of them until1834, when 412 were dissolved. There are nowsome 200 with about 1600 monks. Galatake, inEubcea, is one of the largest, and it has receivedan accession of riches through the income derivedfrom an English mining company which exploitsmanganese on estates belonging to the convent.Phaneromene, a renowned convent on the islandof Salamis, at one time converted to secularuses, has very few monks and boasts of littlebutits fine church. The Meteora convents in Thessaly,once twenty-four in number, are now onlyseven, and of these three are uninhabited, and theinmates of the rest are dwindling fast. Somevaluable manuscripts were rescued from one only


FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 221a few months ago.They are visited by travellerson account of their extraordinary situation, perchedon lofty rock pinnacles, some of them approachedby swaying rope-ladders, and others in a net orbasket suspended by a rope wound up by a windlass.Some Greeks say there are still too manymonks, and raise questions as to their utility. Butwhilst the Greek Church draws itsprelates froma celibate clergy, monks of some sort there mustalways be. They are more numerous outside thaninside Greece ; the thousands on Mount Athosalone far outnumber those in the kingdom. Theyhave long ceased to be learned ; they exercise nospiritual influence ; they destroy rather than preservethe historic buildings they occupy. Manya mosaic and fresco have vanished under the handsof abbots bent on making improvements.Neverthelessone could not but regret the final disappearanceof the monasteries. All who havevisited such establishments as the great conventof Helena and Constantine at Jerusalem mustretain pleasant memories of itsroofsdelightful terracedstretching over the tunnelled streets of thecity to the dome of Holy Sepulchre, where thegenial fathers take the air at sunset—or of MarSaba in a fiery gorge leading down to the DeadSea, plastered against a precipice. The writerwell remembers the warm welcome he receivedthere at the hands of the monks, delighted to meetwith a Greek-speaking Frank in a land given upto wild Bedouin, and their copious libations of

222 HOME LIFE IN HELLASpotent raki in his honour. Such are not themanners of rigid Cistercians perhaps, but theyare very human, and the humanity and franknessof the Greek monk have a charm. He does notpretend to asceticism. That is not to say thatthere are no ascetic monks. But it is a matter of individualinclination, not a common rule, and whenit occurs it is very real. It may be practised by amember of a community ; the idiorrhythmic systemmakes for individual liberty. But the Orthodoxascetic is usually a hermit. Sometimes heoccupies a position similar to that of the anchoretinour English monasteries of the Middle Ages,or he may dwell remote from human companionship.The hermit of Cape Malea has not beenseen of late years. He was well known to manyEnglish skippers, who dipped their ensigns to himon rounding the cape. The writer remembersto have twice seen him wave his tiny flag from theledge of the precipice on which he dwelt.A pillarhermit for many years occupied the capital of oneof the tall columns of the ruins of the temple ofOlympian Jove at Athens. He had no means ofdescending to earth, and he remained there exposedto allweathers, subsisting on food placed by thecharitable in a basket attached to a cord which helet down at intervals. Not so long ago, ProfessorMahaffy encountered a hermit on the summit ofMount Ithome. He was not an ordinary monk.He had been a man of wealth and position wellknown in Athenian society, who for some reason -

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 223withdrew himself from the world.Eagles wouldperch by his side, for he appeared to have attainedthe influence over wild creatures attributed tosome Indian fakirs. They were his friends.A notable point of contrast between the monasticlife of East and West is the excess of religiouscommunities of women over those ofmen in thelatter, whilst in Greece they are a very smallminority and are disappearing. There is onlyone nunnery on the Greek mainland and seven oreight others in the islands. The largest is onTenos.There was one on Naxos which, when thewriter last saw it, a few years ago, contained onlysix nuns, and as these died they would not bereplaced ; so that the place would soon cease toexist as a religious house.the case with most of them.And this seems to beThe preponderanceof males over females in the population of Greeceaccounts in some measure for the paucity of womendevoting themselves to the religious life. Undersuch conditions it is likely that most would marry.But the majority of such communities in the Westhave for their object social service of some kind,and this is as yet only very partially recognisedin Greece as a sphere for women's activities.Greek nuns resemble in some ways the Beguinesof Flanders. As a matter of fact they do littleelse but attend the long offices of the Church.Some of them employ their spare time in makingexquisite Greek embroidery which they sell for theprofit of the community. In nearly all cases

224 HOME LIFE IN HELLASnunneries are idiorrhythmic, each of the nunshaving a separate establishment and ordering herlife much as she pleases. Such communities asthe Little Sisters of the Poor, the Sisters ofSt. Vincent de Paul, or the many sisterhoodsof the Anglican communion, engaged in works ofGreece,charity of various kinds, are unknown inand educational work, like that carried on by theUrsulines or the Dames de Sion, does not liewithin the province of the Greek nuns ;so that wecan hardly regret—and no one in Greece regretsthat they are fast dying out and within a measurabletime will be a memory of the past.It has been said that a Greek is always eitherfasting or feasting. The celebration of saints'days recurs much more frequently than in theWest, whilst the fasts are far longer and more formidable.As in the Church of England, Wednesdaysand Fridays throughout the year are fastdays, but they are more strictly observed.Lentis longer than with us, lasting forty-eight days.In addition, there is the forty days' fast beforeChristmas, from November 15th to December24th. Then there is the fast of the Holy Apostles,from the Monday succeeding the First Sundayafter Pentecost to June 29th. Another fast, knownas the Falling Asleep of the Virgin, lasts fromthe 1 st to the 15th of August. The 5th January,the Eve of the Epiphany, September 14th, HolyCross Day, and August 29th, the Beheading ofSt. John Baptist, are also fasts. Not only does

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 225fasting extend over a much longer period, but itis more rigorous than that enjoined by the Churchof the West. The Lenten fast means abstentionnot only from flesh meat, but also from fish,eggs,Holy Week, called Greatbutter, cheese, and oil.Week by the Greeks, is most stringent, scarcelyanything but bread being'eaten. The Lenten faregenerally consists of vegetables, bread, pickledolives, and fruit. During the forty days' fastbefore Christmas and the fifteen days' fast inAugust, fish and cheese are allowed. The weekbefore Lent is popularly known as cheese-eatingweek, during which products of milk are largelyconsumed.Invertebrates are not classed as fish,so that crustaceans— crabs, lobsters, and shell-fishof all sorts—may be eaten. With the advent ofLent mega sarakoste, the Great Fast, as it iscalled—the provision shops are turned into bowersof evergreens and the Lenten fare isdisplayed inan attractive form — piles of canned lobster, olivesblack and green, red caviar, and festoons of driedoctopus. The latter is an unsightly object withits tentacles and suckers, but the Greeks esteemit, though the cuttle-fish is considered a greaterdainty. The latter is an inky mess when cooked,and a repulsive viscid mass when raw. However,it is sold daily in large quantities in the streets.A species of sea-urchin, resembling the spiny huskof a Spanish chestnut without and the yolk of anegg within, finds favour among the people, buttarama-salata is the great stand-by in fasting sea-Q

226 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThe traveller in Greece during Lent is boundsons.more or less to conform to the Orthodox use offood, for the butchers' shops are closed. In Athensitself Lenten fare only can be obtained, except inthe hotels frequented by Westerns and one or twoof the restaurants, whilst the sojourner in theprovinces keeps Lent, whether he will or no. TheGreeks attach far greater importance to fastingthan the Westerns. Indeed, it would not be toomuch to say that to the majority fasting, and fastingalone, means religion. Millingen and othertravellers in the early nineteenth century observedthat the klephts would not break their fast on anyaccount, though they did not hesitate to committhe greatest atrocities.Pouqueville, who was inGreece in 1798, says that in Maina there was anunwritten law, by which a person eating anythingduring Lent but bread and vegetables boiled inwater without seasoning, would be shot.Finlaytells a story of the traveller Bronstedt beingthrashed by Mainote robbers because they foundeggs in his luggage, which they had taken theliberty of examining on a Friday. 1This exuberantzeal on the part of the Mainotes may perhapsbe accounted for by a desire to atone for theirtardiness in embracing the Faith. They continuedto sacrifice to Poseidon until late in theninth century, when they were brought or driven1This anecdote occurs in a note pencilled by Finlay on themargin of his copy of Millingen's Memoirs of Greece, now, withthe rest of the historian's books, in the library of the British schoolat Athens.

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 227into the fold by the Emperor Basil. A keenlyobservant traveller, Douglas, who was in Greecein1810, remarked that a robber gang or a piratecrew was seldom without its chaplain. Mostfamous brigands have been pious men after theirfashion, and in a comparatively recent case, whenthe son of a wealthy currant-grower of Patras wascarried off to the mountains, the captor was carefulto provide him with spiritual ministrations. Itwould be manifestly untrue to assert that thisdivorce of religion from morality is to be foundalone in the Orthodox Church, but it is certainthat in no other is the practice of religion so completelydetached from conduct.Piety consists inthe observance of externals without regard to theirinner significance. Not so much in dogma as inthe ethos of the people is found the gulf whichdivides the faiths of East and West.Formerly thegreat theologians expended their energies in subtledefinitions of terms, and theirhair-splitting gaverise to polemics which shook the empire.Since,there has supervened petrification. There hasbeen no wave of scepticism,no open expressionof unbelief. Doctrines are subscribed to withoutan attempt to understand their intention. On theother hand, there has been no great movement,no burning enthusiasm, no strivings after anideal. The Eastern Church knows neither aFrancis of Assisi, nor a Molinos, nor a Keble,nor a Wesley.In modern times there has beenone example of an idealist in Theodoros Kaires,

228 HOME LIFE IN HELLASof Andros, a man of great originality and vastattainments, who wished to modify Christianityinto what he called theosebeia. But he drew hisinspiration from the West where he had studied.And he was stifled. The Government suppressedhis college, and the Synod condemned him toseclusion in a convent. The vague longings, thedreams, the broken visions of the infinite in thereligious heart of the West find no counterpart inthe East. It would have had no place for a Bernardor a Theresa. The Virgin is the Panagia,the All Holy, not the tender Mother, the MysticRose. The spirit of self-sacrifice has had noecho there, and the intense personal religionwhich has found expression in evangelicalProtestantism is unknown. Neither the followingof St. Francis nor the Salvation Army wouldhave taken root in the uncongenial soil. There isno contrition, no sorrow. Take even the processionof the Epitaphion on Good Friday. Withits flowers and illuminations it partakes more ofthe nature of a festival than of a solemn mourning.Another marked characteristic of the Greek Churchis the absence of missionary enterprise. It hasbeen placed to her credit that she is not fanatical,and therefore does not wish to proselytise. Thereal reason isthat the Greek regards his religionas a thing for himself, not for the world atIt is a part of his nationality.large.It would have beenbetter for you had you been born a Greek, but asyou are not, your creed is a matter of indifference.

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 229His attitude resembles that of the Jew, who isno means anxious to make converts, or of theTurk, who regards converts from other faiths toIslam with suspicion. He admits Anglican prieststo his choir, and at Jerusalem, even to the altarbut where there is an altar common to the Greekand Latin rites, he is careful to cleanse it aftera Latin celebration. That he is more tolerantto Anglican than Latin finds an explanation inthe fact that the Anglican does not put forthLatin pretensions. As far as the Government isconcerned, there is perfect religious toleration inGreece. The muftis of the Turkish communitiesin Thessaly are paid by the State, and there existsat Athens a small body of Greek EvangelicalProtestants ; but although there is a Greeco-Catholic Church in communion with the PapalSee, under an archbishop, an organised propagandawould not be tolerated for an instant. But,as has been said, the difference between East andWest lies less in points of doctrine than in thespirit in which religion is regarded. The peasantbelieves in the powers of his patron saint and thevirtues of his eikon, and he seeks to probe nofarther into the mysteries of the unseen. Hisnotions of eschatology, so far as he has any, hehas inherited from his pagan ancestors, and theyare gloomy. He regrets and pities the departed,but he looks forward to no joyful reunion. Hethinks of him as wandering in the twilight of theElysian fields, bereft of the genial sunshine, andby

230 HOME LIFE IN HELLAShis dirges are expressions of regret for the lossof the good things of earth. There is no hintof the possible progress to a higher, wider lifethan the one he has left. Charon still loomslarge in the popular imagination and figures inthe folk-songs. Charos he is called, and heis not the grim ferryman of the Styx—only inone Mainote song he isrepresented as a boatman—but as a rider, austere, inexorable—the Angel ofDeath.Black he is, and black his raiment, black the horse he ridesupon,And black the flowers that spring up at his side. 1Goethe's fine rendering of one Greek song mustbe familiar to many. The mountains are dark butnot with storm. It is Charos passing across themwith the dead, driving the young before him,dragging the old behind, and carrying the tenderbabes at his saddle-bow. A song of the IonianIslands provides Charos with a wife, Charontissa.The idea is gruesome. Their table isprepared at sunset : the linen is black, the platesare set upside down. Their banquet consists ofchildren's heads piled high, and they are servedby severed hands of those who have fallen inbattle. Many allusions to Charos might bequoted from folk-literature. He has proteanpowers and appears sometimes as a skeleton.But he is always dreaded, and the popular notionof the after-life is much as that of the ancients1 Lelekos. Epidorpion. Translated by Sir Rennell Rodd.

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 231a gloomy realmwhere the dead find a commonmeeting-place. This melancholy Hades, wherethere is neither award nor punishment, is morereal to the peasant than the Heaven and Hellof which he has heard vaguely. In some localities—Maina is one of them—it is believed that thedead still take an interest in the affairs of theworld. They inquire about it from the latestcomers, and messages to them are whispered bythe living in the ear of the newly dead.places the belief is thatIn otherthey are oblivious of thepast. But everywhere and among all there is afeeling that it is not \vell with them. Death is theprivation of the joys of life. There are two daysin the year which correspond in some sort to AllSouls' Day in the Church of the West. One isthe Saturday preceding the second Sunday inLent, and the other is the Saturday after AscensionDay. The cemeteries are visited and thereis a general commemoration of the dead. Thereare three special services called mnemosyna, heldby families for departed relatives—the first on thefortieth day after burial, the second six months,and the third a year afterwards.The custom of placing a coin between the lipsof the dead was formerly general in the Smyrnadistrict, as the writer well remembers. He hasbeen told it was the same in Macedonia. TheChurch opposed it in vain, but now the coin hasbeen replaced by a waxen cross inscribed with theletters " "— ioxon "'Ljo-ou? Xpurroi vtica"—" Jesus

232 HOME LIFE IN HELLASChrist Conquers." It is in any case a survival ofthe TreipaTucov—the obolus for Charon.The popular hagiology of the Greeks is undoubtedlytinged with paganism. In some casesthe gods of Hellas have been transformed intosaints, in others historical personages have beenblended with mythological beings, whilst somesaints are pure myths. The innumerable minordeities of the ancients continue to exist as localsaints. The ayasmata or sacred springs, and themany chapels on lonely headlands or in spotsremote from the dwellings of man, are relics ofpaganism. Indeed, the latter are often on thesites of antique temples, and not infrequentlybuilt up of their debris.Lofty summits bear theconstantly recurring name of St. Elias. It hasbeen assumed by a facile method of derivationthat this stands for Helios, and that such placesmark the site of a temple of Apollo ; but, as SirRennell Rodd points out, the god did not have ashrine on every hill-top. Moreover, the nameoccurs as frequently in Palestine, where it undoubtedlyrefers to the prophet of Mount Carmel.But St. Nicholas, surnamed Nautes, the sailor, towhom churches are dedicated on the shore ofnearly every harbour and on many a rocky islet,and whose church ata hieron of Poseidon, isdeity.Athens stands on the site ofcertainly the heir of thatHagios Eleutherios, the saint who watchesover childbirth, may be recognised as Eilythina,who fulfilled the same office in ancient times.

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 233The church of the Twelve Apostles at Athensstands on the site of the temple of the TwelveGods, of whom they are the successors. SaintsCosmas and Damian—the feeless saints—HagioiAnarguroi, as the Greeks call them, since theyhealed the sick without demanding money fortheir services as physicians, have their shrine inthe sanctuary of ^Esculapius. At the foot of theHill of the Nymphs, and approached by ancientstairways cut in the live rock marking the site ofsome cult of antiquity, stands the picturesquelittle church of Hagia Marina, with its detachedwooden belfry. Here women bring their sickchildren, undress them, and leave their clothesbehind in the hope of leaving the sickness withthem. The act reminds us of the votive offeringsof the clothes of shipwrecked mariners. There isanother church in Athens which is renowned forits therapeutic virtues. It is a tiny edifice at thelower end of Euripides Street, and it is builtround an antique column which protrudes incongruouslyfrom the roof. The church is dedicatedto St. John the Baptist, but the column belongs,of course, to a pre-existing building, and it is inthe column that the healing power is concentrated.It is a specific against malarial fever.The method of proceeding is to fasten a silkthread tothe column with wax, and the theory isthat the fever leaves the person so doing andpasses through the thread into the column. Inthe island of Melos, Saint Artemida, whose name

234 HOME LIFE IN HELLASreminds us forcibly of Artemis, isresorted to foraid in sickness. Formerly no sailor left thePiraeus without offering a taper at the shrine ofSt. Spiridion, which stands on the site formerlyoccupied by that of the Munychian Artemis.ButCorfu is under the special protection of St.Spiridion. There his body rests, having beenbrought thither from Constantinople by an ancestorof the Theotokos family. On certainfestivals it is carried solemnly through thestreets, and is regarded as a palladium, havingonce saved the island from plague. Most of themen of Corfu are named Spiridion—invariablyshortened into Spiro—inwhose cult ishonour of their patron,by no means confined to the islandnor to the poor and ignorant. The writer metquite recently at Corfu (June, 1910) a Greek whoshowed him an amulet from the shrine of St.Spiridion, and averred that since he had wornit he had enjoyed excellent health and an immunityfrom troubles of any kind. He is not aCorfiote, but an Athenian. He has a Universitydegree, has been called to the Bar, has travelledto Europe and America, and occupies a responsibleposition in a large house of business inLondon. He spoke of the amulet half jestingly,but he believed in it. St. Demetrius is the protectorof husbandry, and has a multitude ofshrines, whilst Dimitris innumerable claim himas patron. In this relation to the soil it is impossiblenot to connect him with Demeter. St.

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 235George also is a patron of farmers, as his nameimplies ; but he is a Proteus in his attributes.There is a festivalthe 3rdheld on the island of Paros onNovember, about the time of the broachingof the new wine, known as the feast of St.George the Drunken methystes— /xeOvcrr^. ThisBacchanalian function reminds us that Paros isclose to Naxos, the birthland of Dionysos—theBacchus of the Romans. It is not surprising,therefore, that St. Dionysios is held in highhonour on that fruitful island, nor that to him isascribed the introduction of the grape. VonHahn, in his Neugriechische Mdrchen, has a storyof the firsttasting of wine by the Naxians whichis not without a shrewd mother-wit: " When theyhad drunk a little they sang like birds; when theyhad drunk more they grew strong as lions ; but ifthey drank still more they became like asses."Naxos was formerly the seat of a peculiar cult,that of St. Pachys—St. Fat—whose province itwas to confer on children the obesity which inEastern eyes is a crowning beauty. To his shrinemothers flocked with their offspring, and whenthe Venetian Sanudi, who ruled the Archipelago,made an ill-advised attempt to put down the practice,they narrowly escaped a revolt of the offendedNaxians.The Panegyris comes within the category ofGreek religious observances, since, like our villagewake, it is the festival of the dedication of achurch, held in honour of the saint. The name

236 HOME LIFE IN HELLAShas the sense of our word panegyric. It is anundoubted survival of the religious assembliesand open-air processions which played such agreat part in the life of the ancient Greeks. Ithas still a firm hold on the affections of thepeople, and is the most characteristic and at thesame time the most pleasant feature of rusticGreece. The Panegyris has wellnigh disappearedfrom the larger towns. There used to be a famousone held near the Theseion at Athens, but it hasgone like Bartlemy Fair at Smithfield. Almostevery Panegyris has its peculiar customs. Atsome a high price is paid for the privilege ofcarrying the eikon in procession. But in everycase homage is first paid to the saint ere thefeasting. A pappas holds the black picture ofsome virgin or saint, stiff and expressionless asthose which served as models ta Cimabue. Thepeople file by and kiss the eikon, dropping theircontribution into the bag heldby another pappas,for the offerings on these occasions constitute alarge and in some cases the major portion of therevenue of the clergy. These festivals are moreor less frequented according to their importance.The Panegyris of Amorgos attracts great numbers,but the greatest of all is that of Tenos. It isheld at the Feast of the Annunciation and inAugust.It partakes of the nature of a pilgrimage,for the Panagia of the Evangelistria Church isreputed above all others for its power of healing.So Tenos becomes twice a year a sort of Greek

THE WOMEN S DANCE AT MEGARA.ll/xdenmcd & Undirwood.

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 237Lourdes, and the sick, the halt, and the blindrepair to the shrine, where miraculous cures aresaid to take place.Not only the suffering and theinfirm attend the Panegyris, but people of allconditions flock to the island from every part ofGreece. Those who cannot find accommodationcamp in the open, and the eikon of the Panagia iscarried through dense crowds from the church tothe seashore and back again. A fair is held, andthe Panegyris means a rich harvest for theTeniotes. The Panegyris of the island Cerigothe ancient Kythera—is noteworthy. It is calledtheFeast of Our Lady of the Myrtle Bough, forthe picture of the Panagia in whose honour itheld is said to have floated to the island acrossthe sea and lodged in the branches of a myrtle.This recalls the classic myth connected with theisland, which tells how Venus rose from the wavesin its vicinity, and in Our Lady of the MyrtleBough there is more than a suggestion of aChristian version of the Kytherean Aphrodite.The religious duties of the Panegyris are alwaysfollowed by song and dance, and here one hasan opportunity of witnessing the national dances,which have a solemnity about them that suggestsa religious origin. The most famous is thatof the women of Megara on Easter Tuesday.Each dancer links hands across her neighbour tothose of the next, so there is a line of crossinghands, and the movements are accompanied by amuted song, which resembles the twittering ofis

238 HOME LIFE IN HELLASbirds. The Syrtos is the most popular dance.The leader holds with the left hand the right handof the next dancer, and so along the line, whichwinds slowly round, now one foot lifted and thenthe other, the bodies swaying inwards and outwardswith the steps. This is Byron's ' ' Romaika'sheavy round." The Clistos, closed, is so calledfrom the method of linking hands across eachalternate dancer. The Tsiamikos is danced by theleader only, who is an expert and displays hisagility, varying the steps by improvised feats.The rest of the line linked by handkerchiefs onlykeep time, singing the while. The Leventikos isperformed by two people only who dance apart.Among beliefs which are purely pagan survivalsis that relating to the Fates, Moirai, whichis not extinct in the rural districts, and not evenamong some sections of the population of Athens.They are represented as wrinkled old women cladin black and dwelling on the tops of highmountains. They come soon after the birth of achild, some say on the third night and othersthe seventh. Their visit must be prepared for.Dogs must be tied up and a table spread for them.It is considered well not toonspeak of them, but ifthey are alluded to it is in laudatory terms, as inJava the natives speak of the tiger as "thegentleman."In Epirus, one is said to bring fortune,another misfortune, whilst the third spinsthe thread which determines the length of life.Formerly girls offered honey cakes to them, and

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 239travellers of the nineteenth century have witnessedthis in the rock-hewn chambers beneath theHillof the Muses at Athens, which guides show totravellers as the prison of Socrates.The new-born infant is surrounded by perils.One of them arises from the nereids, who are onthe look out in order to palm off one of their ownoffspring on the parents and spirit the child away.For this reason all doors ought to be shut when abirth takes place. These changelings are notrecognised at first, but as they grow up theydevelop uncanny qualities, and certain familiesare credited with nereid blood. The nereids arenot water-sprites alone, as in ancient times, buthaunt the woods like the dryads of old. Neverthelessmineral springs are always under theirprotection. They partake of the nature of mortals,and stories are told of nereid brides of mortals,though, as in most popular beliefs, there is avagueness in all that relates to them. They havethe power of becoming invisible, and of slippingthrough chinks and keyholes. They are notwholly evil, but the attitude of the people towardsthem is generally that of fear. There is danger incertain spots during the stillness of noon, especiallyof streams, springs, and crossways. These arehaunted by the "midday maidens," beings resemblingin some sort Sir Walter Scott's "WhiteLady of Avenel. " There is a blend of the satyrand siren in the three maids with goalts' feetwho dance in the mist and snow on the top of

240 HOME LIFE IN HELLASTaygetus.If they lure a mortal they compel himto dance until he dies, or as some versions have it,The paramythiathey hurl him over the precipice.or folk-tales deal with various categories of unseenforces and intelligences. From fear of them therustic Greek mother does not like to have her babeout of sight. When she goes to work in the fields heaccompanies her, slung at her back—he is alwaystightly swaddled—in an envelope which might becompared to a golf-club case or a quiver, which issuspended from the branch of a tree,or a tripodformed of stout sticks, if no tree is handy. I haveoften met with this in CEtolia, and the baby is invariably" good," and seemingly content with hischrysalis-like existence. It is not advisable, however,to express admiration for him or the motherwill be uneasy. She may possibly point her fingerat the child and cry ll Skordo"—garlic—for that isone means of conjuring the effects of the evil eye.The child has already been provided with a safeguardinthe shape of a blue glass bead, a pieceof coral, or a cornelian attached to his cap. Asmudge of soot behind the ear is useful, but spittingin his face on the part of the admirer is amore efficacious precaution. For the possessorof the evil eye works evil unwittingly. He doesnot act through malice, but in spite of himself.Belief in the evil eye is not, of course, peculiarlyGreek, but it still prevails among all classes, andthe Church has special prayers with regard to it.In an unofficial way the Church also recognises

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 241the existence of the tutelary genius of a house, forwhen one is about to be built a pappas with anacolyte is in attendance with incense and holywater. Prayers are said, the owner, the workmen,and the ground are aspersed, and a lamb or afowl is killed and its blood sprinkled on the foundation-stone.This is a propitiatory sacrifice, andthe act is expressed by the verb stoieheono, fromstoicheion—element.In ancient times human liveswere sometimes sacrificed, and there are talessuch even in the Middle Ages, as in that recountedin the popular ballad "The Bridge of Arta."The stocheia, or elemental spirits, are inherent inobjects and places. As of old, stream and fountain,forest and copse have their invisible guardians,and every great tree has its genius. Antique ruinsand statues are especially the resort of these beings,and formerly peasants objected to the removal ofstatues on this account, fearing to provoke thewrath of its genius. Ruined castles and fortressesare guarded by drakones, or dragons. Thisbelief is not, however, confined to Greece. Thewriter, when visiting the great stronghold built byRaymond of Toulouse at Tripoli, in Syria, wastold an awe-inspiring story of a huge serpentwhich haunted the place, and the narrator firmlybelieved in its existence. A curious illustration ofthe belief in the supernatural character of antiqueremains is related by an English traveller in theearly years of the nineteenth century. A servantof the Disdar Agha, the Turkish Commandant ofof

242 HOME LIFE IN HELLASthe Acropolis at Athens, told him that afterLordElgin had removed from the Erectheion the caryatidwhich is now in the British Museum, theneighbourhood was disturbed by wailing cries,the lamentations of the others for the loss of theirsister. Throughout the Middle Ages and down tomodern times among the peasantry the ancientshave been invested with superhuman powers,being referred to as giants and iron-men, capableof lifting the great stones which mark the remainsof their edifices. The rustic belief that the age ofthe pagan Hellenes was preceded by that of thedragons has been in a measure confirmed by themodern science of palaeontology and its revelationsof the giant saurians which wallowed in theprimeval slime. The tutelary genius of a house issometimes visible, in the form of a cat or a dog, ora gonrounaki—a little pig. But it materialisesmore frequently in the form of a snake, which mustnot be killed or some ill would befall the house.If milk is set apart for it, and the reptile becomesin a fashion domesticated, it is a good omen. Forelementals, though not precisely hostile to man,become so if they are provoked. The kalikanzaroiare diminutive beings, tricky elves, who are apt tobe troublesome.Their goats' legs point to a satyrancestry. They are only visible between Christmasand Epiphany, and during that season doorsand windows should be kept carefully closed atnight. They are of human origin, and amongthose said to become kalikanzaroi are children born

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 243on Christmas Day, which is considered as presumptuous.Some supernatural beings are whollymalignant. The Lamia takes the form of ahideous woman thirsting for blood. The Evil Oneis called Ho Mavros—the "black one," and inMaina a black dog is said sometimes to emerge fromthe cave on Cape Matapan, the Gate of Hades of theancients, so that the black dog may be regardedas a modern representative of Cerberus. A prevalentbelief regarding ancient tumuli is that theycontain treasure and are guarded by genii in theform of black men. Of such is theArabou Magoula—the Black Man's Mound at Megalopolis, whichwas excavated by members of the British School atAthens a few years ago. In Greece, as in Turkey,the term Arab includes negroes. The gruesomesuperstition of the vampire vonrkolakes—is notconfined to Greece, but formerly held universalsway over the minds of the people. It has beenmade the subject of a whole literature and canonly be briefly alluded to here. Various meanswere resorted to in order to rid a locality of avampire. Crete enjoyed a bad pre-eminence asthe home of these hideous beings. Spectres ofthe dead have always been prominent amongpopular beliefs, and various means of laying themare prescribed. The Mainotes say that a murderedman will walk the earth until he has beenavenged. Naxos was afflicted with an epidemicof spectral visitors from the year 1830 to 1835,the people alleging as a reason that the dead had

244 HOME LIFE IN HELLASbecome so numerous as to overpower Charos andescape from Hades.Among minor superstitions are those whichregulate the little things of lifethe proper time tocut the nails, to pay visits, and the like. Tuesday,not Friday, is the unlucky day. The Greeksof Turkey say that it is because Constantinoplewas taken on that day, but it is probably of olderdate. The howling of a dog, as among otherpeoples, denotes death, but theomen only holdstrue if the dog's head is turned away from thehouse. That it is unlucky to meet a priest thefirst thing on leaving the house is a belief whichis common to other countries. Soap must not beborrowed of an evening, nor must an egg go outof the house after sunset,otherwise the wine willturn sour and there will be trouble with thepoultry. Bread should not be tasted duringsowing and reaping, or there is risk of a bad harvest.There are other omens and beliefs connectedwith bad husbandry. The ilex is said tohave been the tree which furnished the woodof the cross. The other trees turned the edge ofthe axe or bent away from the stroke,but the ilexyielded. The Greek woodman therefore shunsit. He will not touch it with his axe, neither useits branches for fuel. This legend is probablya foreign importation, Teutonic or Slavonian, butthe divination by the bones of animals is almostcertainly derived from classic precedent. Millingengives a graphic account of an instance which

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 245came under his observation during the War ofIndependence. It was on the eve of a battle,19th April, 1825. At supper the right shoulderbladeof the lamb was handed to Vattini. Placingitbefore the candle, he attentively considered theoutlines presented by the vascular system of thediaphanous portion of the bone. Then in solemntones he said, "Brethren, the enemy is preparingagainst us ; much Greek blood will be spilled, buttwo considerable tombs will be erected by theTurks." All the old Klephts examined the boneand pronounced it to be true. The appearancesof their habitual augury were too plain to be mistaken.Women wise in foretelling the future stillexist, notably in Thessaly. The gift is usuallyhereditary. Like the augurs of antiquity, theyThe birdbase predictions on the flight of birds.always occupied a large place in the imaginationof the ancients. The eagle of Zeus, thepeacock of Hera, the owl of Pallas Athene, thedoves of Aphrodite, the myth of Halcyon hadtheir counterparts in human lifein Anacreon'sdove and Lesbia's sparrow. The swallow is, asit ever was, a favourite. Athenasus quotes a songsung by the boys of Rhodes in his time. Greekboys sing one to-day, the beginning of which hasalmost identical words ": She has come, she hascome, the swallow, bringing the spring and fineweather." And so is the end ": However littleyou give, it will be much. Open, open thy doorto the swallow."

246 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThe Rhodian boy asked two thousand yearsago for a kanastron, a rush-basket of fresh cheese,precisely the receptacle used in the islands to-day.The bird plays a great part in modern popularsong. It receives the confidences of the lover,the last message of the warrior to his loved onesat home. Here is a song of Laconia. It issupposed to be on the lips of a young Klepht." Birds, fly away ;farewell. If you go far hence,to my country, remember that an apple treestands before my dwelling. Rest on the rosyfloweredbranches. And when she whom I loveappears, greet her, and tell her of our old love.You will tell her to await me no more, for Charonhas taken me at a turn in the road, and holds mein the heart of the black abyss, far from wifeand children." A heritage of ancient Hellas alsois the peopling of all external nature with thestoicheia, the tutelary deities of rock and rill.Storms are attributed to elemental spirits at strife.Church-bells are rung to frighten them away.The whirlwind is their work, and rustic dames andgreybeards will mutter " Meli-gala"—honey andmilk—as a talisman. Of old, libations of honeywere offered to the Furies. A thunderbolt is "thestarry axe." An earthquake is expressed in someplaces by the words "God is shaking his hair,"the nod of Zeus.The personification of the moods of Natureconstantly recurs in everyday intercourse, as inthe expression " Vrechei ho Theos"—God rains,

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 247where we should say, it is raining. In times ofdrought a little girl, who must be an orphan,as being more likely to obtain the blessings ofHeaven, is clad in a vesture of leaves and crownedwith flowers. Accompanied by other childrensinging as they go, Perperouna, so she is namedfor the occasion, makes the round of the village,the inmates of every household sprinkling a fewdrops of water on her head. This quaint andpretty form of invocation is the prayer for rain. Itwas formerly a common practice to make passesin the air with a black-handled knife during astorm in order to " cut it." There appears to bepeculiar virtue in the black handle, for a blackhandledknife placed under the pillow is accounteda specific against nightmare.These beliefs and customs, the legacy of remoteages, do not hinder the Greeks from devotedattachment to theirChurch, which holds the firstplace in their hearts. A Greek does not easilychange hisnationality and there are very few instancesof his having done so, but in none of thesehas he changed his creed. He has always remainedfaithful to that, although in the days ofTurkish rule, when the Porte sold the Churchdignities to the highest bidder, the clergy werenot always the friends of the people.In too manycases the higher clergy were rapacious and oppressive,purchasing impunity from Constantinople.They vindicated themselves nobly, however, bytheir conduct during the War of Independence.

248 HOME LIFE IN HELLASNames like those of Germanos, Pappaflessa, andDiakos are written on the imperishable roll ofheroes, and in free Greece the patriotism of theclergy is unquestionable.The learned Dr. Neale and other liturgiologistshave given an account of the officesChurch. To their works must be referred thosewho desire to learn about them. The absence ofthe sermon would strike the Englishman, andperhaps some would count it an advantage. Theof the Greekrelegation of the female portion of the congregationto side aisles or galleries and the total absenceof seats are features strange to the Western. TheGreek never sits down in church and he stands topray. There are stalls along the walls of somechurches, but the writer has never seen in Greecethe crutches or leaning staves which are used inthe churches in Palestine. The total absenceof statues and images is compensated by theeikons or pictures of saints, most numerous on theiconostasis, which takes theof the West.place of the rood-loftIt is a solid screen which completelyshuts off the sacrarium from the body of thechurch.Mention has been made of the procession onGood Friday—on Great Friday, as the Greeks callit—which with military bands and bengal lights isof too festive a character for the occasion inWestern eyes. The crowning function of the yearis, of course, the celebration of Easter. At Athensa platform is erected in the square in front of the

FAITH AND FOLK-LORE 249cathedral, and at midnight the Metropolitan, investments of cloth of gold and mitre blazing withjewels, takes his place upon it and utters the wordsX/wtos avea-rrj— "Christ is risen." The peopleshout in response, "AAr)6S>s aviary— "Verily Heis risen," amid salvoes of artillery and the hiss ofrockets, and for three days the streets resound tothe detonations of crackers and petards. Prominentamong the distinctive ceremonies of the GreekChurch is the casting of the cross into the water atEpiphany. At places on the coast, it. is throwninto the sea by the bishop, if there is one ; if not,by the highest member of the local clergy. It isaccounted an honour to be the one to recover it,and as the Greeks are usually expert swimmers,not a few of the spectators dive after it. Someresolution is needed, for a plunge into the sea inJanuary is a chilly experience, even in Greece.Strangers cannot fail to remark the people crossingthemselves when they pass a church. Often it isthe only indication of some tiny edifice unnoticed .by the casual visitor, but known to the inhabitants.It is done not only by people on foot, but by thosein vehicles.In Athens the electric tramcars havea stopping-place by the cathedral, and most of thepassengers cross themselves rapidly, not once, butseveral times.The Greeks have been reproached sometimeswith confining themselves to the merely externalobservances of their religion.But the writer hasmet with pupils of the Gymnasia, destined for

250 HOME LIFE IN HELLASa secular career, and grappling with the overloadedcurriculum of the Greek schools, who havedisplayed a knowledge of the New Testament moreaccurate and more extensive than that of theaverage English public-school boy, and itwas aninteresting experience to hear the Scriptures discussedin their own tongue.There is a diminutive church in Athens—a gemof Byzantine architecture—standing by the side ofthe cathedral, and popularly though erroneouslycalled the old Metropolis. Its plan and outlinesare those of an edifice dedicated toChristian worship,but it is built of fragments from the fanes ofan earlier faith. Pagan emblems and the figuresof pagan deities adorn its walls.This little churchof St. Eleutherios in a manner symbolises thereligionof the Greeks—essentially Orthodox, yetcontaining adventitious elements derived from thepagan Hellenes.No less a man than Ernest Renan has said,Greece never was seriously Christian—nor issheso to-day. This is true in so far as concerns theemotional and personal religion which is a purelyWestern development. But the Greek mightretort that this is not Christianity. As he understandsit, certainly it is not.

CHAPTER VIIEDUCATIONEDUCATION in Greece is a department ofthe State under the supervision of theMinistry of Public Instruction.There are threegrades of schools—Demotic, Hellenic, and theGymnasia. The course lasts six years in the first,three in the second, and four in the last. Elementaryeducation is compulsory, and every childis supposed to attend a full course of the DemoticSchools, though the law is not strictly observed,especially in the case of girls. Illiteracy, however,is becoming rarer every year. It is mostprevalent in Thessaly, especially in the northerndistricts near the Turkish frontier. Trikala getsless than three per cent of its population toschool. The Peloponnesus is the best-educatedportion of Greece, if school attendance is takenas a criterion,and Laconia stands highest as faras boys are concerned. As regards girls, Atticawould probably take the lead, owing to its containingAthens and the Pirasus, where facilitiesfor female education are greater than elsewhere.The child is admitted to the Demotic School at theage of six. There are six classes corresponding251

252 HOME LIFE IN HELLASwith each year of the course. The first threeyears are devoted to reading, writing, and arithmetic,elementary history and geography. TheGreek language, both ancient and modern, istaught throughout the course, as well as drawingand singing, and needlework to the girls. Theancient history of Greece is taken in the thirdyear, and the modern history in the fourth. Inthe fifth and sixth years Xenophon and iEsopare read, and the course includes elementarygeometry, botany, and geology. Three hours aweek are devoted to gymnastics, long walks aretaken once a week, and swimming is taught wherepossible.Attendance at the Hellenic Schools isvoluntary, and, unlike the Demotic Schools, theyare not free. The fees are, however, nominal,about seven shillings a year. The pupil mustprovide his books—a heavier item than the fees.He enters at twelve and remains three years.There are from twenty-seven to thirty workinghours a week, and the course includes mathematics,physics, geography, and Greek, ancientand modern. Two hours a week are given toFrench and one hour to Latin in the third year.Gymnastics are compulsory unless forbiddena medical certificate. The Hellenic School completesthe ordinary education of thebyboy intendedfor business. If he is going into a profession orintends to qualify for the higher branches of theCivil Service, he proceeds to a Gymnasium, whichisa feeder of the University, though as a matter


EDUCATION 253of fact many Gymnasium pupils engage in commercialpursuits. Boys are eligible at the age offifteen, provided they have passed the examinationof the Hellenic Schools. They remain at theGymnasium four years. The fees amount totwenty-five drachmas (£i) a year, though thebooks cost considerably more. The workinghours are from thirty-one to thirty-five a week,ten of which are given to ancient Greek. Themore difficult authors are read, including Homer,^Eschylus, Sophocles, Plato, Thucydides, andthe orators. The course provides for advancedLatin and a progressive reading of authors,beginning with Caesar and Cornelius Nepos, andgoing on to Livy, Sallust, Cicero, Ovid, Horace,and Virgil, The mathematical course includestrigonometry. Philosophy is taken much in thesame way as in a French Lycee, and is accompaniedby the teaching of formal logic.Physicalscience is represented by courses of botany andzoology. The history of Europe is taught downto 1815, and in the last year the geography ofthe world. In addition to this there is a courseof sacred history and theology,and three hoursa week are given to the French language.Gymnasticsoccupy five hours a week.The scholastic year for schools of all gradesbegins on the 14th September and ends on the14th June. There is a short vacation at Easter.There are five training colleges for teachers inthe Demotic Schools, situated respectively at

254 HOME LIFE IN HELLASAthens, Patras, Tripolis, Larissa, and Corfu.Women teachers must have passed through theArsakeion, or a Training College. The teachingstaff of the Hellenic Schools and the Gymnasiais drawn from the University. But whereas theelementary teachers in the Demotic Schools havean assured position, there isthe higher schools.no fixity of tenure inA professor in a Gymnasiuma Hellenic School may be removedor a master inat any time by a Ministerial order, against whichthere is no appeal. He is at the mercy of theGovernment in power for the time being, andevery new Minister has his proteges. Here againintrudes the baneful influence of party politics.Thus the teacher must, perforce, have an eyeon the political situation, and can never have botheyes on his work, in which, by the way, it is impossiblehe should take a thorough interest, sincehe is never sure when it may be taken from him.The effect on the pupils is almost as demoralising.The normal Greek boy is warm-hearted and highspirited,and his resentment at the removal of apopular master is apt to take the form of workingunwillingly under a new one, to his own detrimentand also to that of the school. The evils ofcentralisation are not limited to the arbitrary dismissal,of teachers. The subjects to be taught,the hours apportioned to them, and the books tobe used are fixed by the Ministry. It happens,therefore, that manuals are frequently changed—often for the worse. The mania is so great for

EDUCATION 255this that competitions are held forthe writing ofschool books. This deplorable practice annoysboth teacher and taught, who have to throw asidea method to which they are used foran untriedone, a source of delay at the best, and a cause ofexpense to the parents, who have constantly topay for new books.The Demotic Schools are supported by theDeme or commune to which they belong. Theyare, therefore, less under the thumb of the Governmentthan the higher schools. In each prefecturethere is a Council of Management for the DemoticSchools contained in it. It is presided over bythe Bishop, and consists of the localInspector ofSchools, the Director of the Gymnasium, and twocitizens, one of whom must belong to a learnedprofession. The Demotic Schools receive a subventionfrom the State, but it is a mere trifle comparedwith that allocated to higher education2459 drachmas as against 3,467,962, according tothe statistics of one particular year. This is thereverse of the practice of most other countries,where State aid is afforded to elementary instruction,whilst the higher branches are self-supporting.Another contrast is offered by the ratio ofthe numbers attending the elementary schools tothe population, which is smaller than with us,whilst that pertaining to secondary and advancededucation is greater.The University of Athens consists of fiveFaculties, viz. Theology, Law, Medicine, Philo-

256 HOME LIFE IN HELLASsophy, and Mathematics.The last was not providedfor from the foundation, and more recentlythere has been added another, that of Pharmacy,a department of knowledge the teaching of whichis not considered elsewhere to belong to thefunctions of a university. Its study is pursuedfor three years, that of all the other Faculties extendingto four. There is only one examination,at the end of the four years' course. Students musthave passed at least two years at a Gymnasium,but there is no matriculation nor anythingcorresponding to Responsions or the PreviousExamination.Students must obtain a certificateof attendance at lectures, for which they pay afee of 2 drachmas a year. There is a fee of 250drachmas for the legal and medical examinations,and one of 50 drachmas for the diploma. Attendanceat lectures is not strictly enforced. TheFaculty of Law is the most popular, and that ofTheology the least. The study of Philosophy includesphilology and history, and the diplomamay be taken as the Greek equivalent to our Artsdegree. There is, of course, no collegiate systemas at Oxford and Cambridge. The organisationresembles rather that of German and FrenchUniversities, though it knows nothing of therigid periodical examinations of the latter, nor theStudentencorps which regulate the social side ofthe former.The students enjoy absolute individualliberty.They live where and how they like,wear no distinctive dress, and there is nothing to

EDUCATION 257distinguish them from the ordinary citizen. It ischaracteristic of the democratic spirit of the Greeksthat there is no scholastic status. The freshmanis the equal of the man in his fourth year. Thusthe University life of Athens is much less coherentthan with us. There are neither theassociations which spring from the bond of acommon public school nor the pursuit of a commongame or sport. There are no games, in fact, andathletics are represented by attendance at a gymnasium,which is compulsory for the first two years.The only sport known to the Athenian student isa political demonstration, for politics invade thegroves of Academe as they do every other sectionof Athenian life. The only social tie which hasany influence is that of the pains, the fatherland,which to the Greek means the particular city,province, or island from which he comes. Thusthe students are segregated into groups accordingto their place of origin. A table at a restaurant isset apart for students from a particular island orprovince, or they will frequent the same cafe ;butbe sure that the proprietor of restaurant or cafe isa patriotes, that is,he comes from the same islandor province. For, in this respect, the Universityonly reflects the larger life of the city, which issplit up into sections determined by the patris ofthe inhabitants. On an average about a third ofthe University students come from Greek landsoutside Greece. In 1902 they numbered 800 outof a total of 2574. In 1841, three years after the

258 HOME LIFE IN HELLASfoundation, there were, in all, 292 students. In1885 there were 550, and the numbers increased to1 100 in 1863, to 2634 in l886 >and 3331 in l89°-There has been a slight decrease since then. Thelate Mr. Tricoupis wisely put a tax in the form ofa stamp upon entry to the University. He foresawthe evil results of a plethora of professional menwithout occupation. But a greater deterrent toacademic ambitions was undoubtedly the spectacleof barristers punching tickets on the tramcars, ameans of livelihood which, I am assured by AthensUniversity men, is not unknown to graduatesto-day. It is now felt that the University wasmade too cheap and its degrees too facile. Theresult has been the creation of a large body ofeducated unemployed to swell the ranks of politicalpartisans and place-hunters. Two privateestablishments provide for those who doubt theutility of the academic and literary education furnishedby the Gymnasia. One is the RouspoulosIndustrial and Commercial Academy, divided intoa preliminary school and several technical schools.Modern languages receive attention in the former,and in the latter are taught the principles of commerceand manufactures, mining, and engineering.The other is the Athenian School of Trade andIndustry, which has a commercial and technicalside. In the former English and French aretaught, with optional Italian. Commercial geography,the laws relating to custom-houses, andthe principles of banking are given prominence.

EDUCATION 259On the technical side German istaught, togetherwith chemistry as applied to manufactures andagriculture, especially as regards the productionof wine, oil, and currants. The success of theseinstitutions, notwithstanding that the fees are farhigher than those of the State schools, indicatesthe trend of public opinion. There are two CommercialSchools established by the Government,one at Athens, the other at Patras ; but the Statesubvention of 6000 drachmas is ridiculously smallif compared with the 3J millions granted to highereducation. The Polytechnic School can beenteredonly by those who have passed throughthe Mathematical School. Engineering,mechanics,electrical science and its applications are theleading subjects of study. But the Polytechnicstudents are barely a tenth of those at the University,whilst the pupils at the Agricultural Schoolsat Halmyros and Athens number about fifty.The teaching staff alone of the University— 105professors and lecturers—more than doubles them.Yet Greece contains 5,563,100 acres of tilled land.But the Greeks cherish their University as anational institution. They made and paid for itthemselves, in spite of the reluctance of KingOtho and the ill-will of his Bavarian Ministers,who were no lovers of knowledge. One of them,Maurer, wrote a book in which he stated thatGreece, among other things, produced sugar,dates, and coffee.The Greeks, whatever may betheir defects, are not cast in that mould. Finlay

260 HOME LIFE IN HELLASis right in saying thatduring the Turkish dominationit is probable that the proportion of Greekswho could read and write was as great as in anyotherEuropean nation. They certainly never lostentirely the light of learning during the darkestperiod of their national life.In the Elementary Schools there are 168,000 boysand 42,570 girls.It must be remembered that inGreece the males outnumber the females by about18,000 in a total population of 2,632,000. Ofcourse this does not account for the disparity inschool attendance, the causes of which have beenadverted to. Many parents prefer to send theirdaughters to private schools, which are numerous,and in so far as concerns Athens and the largertowns, schoolgirls are little inferior in numbers toschoolboys. There are three Training Collegesfor women teachers, and of thethe Demotic Schools 800 are women ;4346 teachers inthough thisis but a small fraction of the whole, the majoritybeing engaged in private establishments. Chiefamong the girls' schools at Athens is the Arsakeion,so called from its founder, Arsakes, anative of Epirus. The Arsakeion has branches atLarissa, Corfu, and Patras. There are fourdivisions—the Kindergarten, the ElementarySchool, the Intermediate School, and the NormalSchool or Training College. A child enteringthe Elementary School at say six, remains thereuntil she is ten. She then passes into the IntermediateSchool, where she remains four years.If

EDUCATION 261she passes into the Normal School, she remainsanother three years, the whole course extendingover eleven years—the last three being devotedchiefly to the theory and practice of teaching.The Intermediate course includes the modernhistory of Europe as well as the language, literature,and history of ancient and modern Greece,with geography and the subjects generally appertainingto the course of a secondary school.French is compulsory, so is singing, but the pianois optional. Household work and sewing aremade a special feature, and a physician giveslessons in hygiene. The Hill School is namedafter its founder, Dr. Hill, an American missionary.It is older than the Arsakeion—indeed, itdates from 1831, before Athens was a capital.There are ten classes, and the number of pupilsaverages perhaps two hundred, some of whom areboarders.Notwithstanding its missionary origin,there is no proselytising. In fact, the girls areprovided with a church and a chaplain withinthe building. The languages taught are Greek,English, and French, in addition to the usualsubjects. Many of the best Athenian familiessend their children to the Hill School, which welldeserves the repute in which it is held. At theother end of the social scale is the Parnassusnight-school for shoeblacks and servants. Thereare classes every night from 6 to 8.30, exceptduring the hot months. It is, of course, free, butthe boys pay for their books. The school is

262 HOME LIFE IN HELLASmanaged by a committee of ladies and gentlemenof the Parnassus Literary Club, some of whom aredoctors, who prescribe and dispense medicinegratis to the ailing. A great point is insistenceon cleanliness. Physiology is a part of the course,and gymnastics and singing are taught. Theboys are very eager to learn.They would not beGreeks if they were not. Some of them get beyondthe three R's, and learn geography andGreek history and the elements of drawing. Theyeven read Xenophon in a modern Greek version.It is a novel experience to hear a shoeblack countingup the parasangs covered by the Ten Thousand,but not an uncommon one in Athens.

CHAPTER VIIIPUBLIC LIFEthe House of Commons were composed ofIFsomewhat more than 3000 members, the UnitedKingdom would have a representative body aboutequal to that of Greece, in proportion to the population.This will give some notion of the largeamount of public attention absorbed by domesticpolitics and the energy consumed in party strifeand electioneering tactics. Party, in Greece, isnot so much a matter of principles as of persons,therefore parties vary as to quantity, waxing andwaning with the disappearance of old leadersand the advent of new ones. The Chamber ofDeputies consists of 234 members chosen by 71electoral districts for a period of four years.Members must not be under thirty years of age,and they must be residents in the district theyrepresent. They are paid 1800 drachmas—about£j$—for each session, and for a special sessionthere is a supplementary allowance of some ^60.The mode of election is by ballot, and is on thebasis of manhood suffrage. Ministers need notbe deputies necessarily, but if they are not theyhave no vote in the Chamber. They receive 9600263

264 HOME LIFE IN HELLASdrachmas a year, about £384. By a singularenactment the quorum requires the presence ofmore than half the members, so that legislation isoften blocked by the party in opposition absentingitself en bloc. There is no Second Chamber, andseeing that there is no aristocracy, a second wouldonly be a replica of the first. The Senate whichexisted under the former Constitution was not asuccess. It distinguished itself chiefly by votingan increase in the emoluments of its members.There are, however, in Greece warm advocates ofthe restoration of a Second Chamber on new lines.The old Senate belonged to the days when constitutionalGreece was still in swaddling clothes,when Deputies were attended by escorts fromtheir constituencies toprotect them from violenceon the part of their political adversaries, and therewere sometimes three changes of Ministries intwo days.A joke is still repeated in Athens and fatheredupon the representative of a Great Power, who issaid to have remarked that a turkey was boughtunder one Ministry, plucked under another, andeaten under a third. This would lose its pointnow ; neither do Deputies hurl gross accusationsat each other across the Chamber as they didformerly. There is more circumspection in theconduct of debate and less versatility in respect ofadherence to party. Nevertheless, politicians dostill change sides with disconcerting rapidity.must be remembered, however, that a change ofIt

leaders does not involvePUBLIC LIFE 265a change of principles.This personal element in politics is, nevertheless,an undoubted evil. It gives rise to intrigues inwhich time and energy arewasted without anyadvantage to the commonwealth. Political considerationsare allowed to intrude into the businessof administration, and even to interfere with thecourse of justice. County Court judges are removableat the pleasure of the Minister, forexample. The system by which a change ofMinistry involves a change of public servants,even down to messengers and attendants, is undeniablya vicious one, and one of the most pressingneeds of Greece is a permanent civilservice.This would abolish, to a great extent, the professionof political hanger-on and place-hunter.As there are too many legislators, so there aretoo many administrative divisions, which occasionneedless expense. The country is divided intotwenty-six nomoi or prefectures.The Nomarch isappointed by the King at the request of theMinister of the Interior, and at any change ofGovernment he gives place to the nominee of thenew Minister. The twenty-six nomoi are dividedinto 439 demes, each governed by a Demarch,who does not depend on the Ministry for the timebeing, but is elected by the inhabitants of thedeme for a period of four years, as are the membersof the Municipal Council.Voting is by manhoodsuffrage, as in the case of the Parliamentaryelections. The Demarch may prove very useful

266 HOME LIFE IN HELLASon these occasions, and is, on this account, oftenallowed to exercise a considerable amount of powerin his deme. As he need give no account of hisrise if he pays in the revenue previously agreedupon, the temptation to levy arbitrary taxes isgreat.It is the class of professional politicians whofoment political agitation. The peasant at largeis not really interested in politics beyond thenatural desire to keep down taxation. He feelsassured of an easier existence when the party hehas voted for is in power, and troubles himself nofurther. The Constitution of 1862 was not of hismaking.It is not a product of the people, but ofpolitical theorists, who copied the institutions ofother nations. Whether the ready-made politicalgarments fit the wearer upon whom they werethrust is a question which the writer will notattempt to discuss. But the prevalent notion ofregarding political controversy as an end, ratherthan as the means to an end, is certainly to losesight of the main issue.Despite the democraticcharacter of Greek legislation and the total disregardof rank, personal influence has had andstill has great weight in the elections. The Greekswould not tolerate a King or a President of theirown nationality, but there is a tendency to welcomea more arbitrary form of rule in the person of aDictator.Cultured and thoughtful Greeksandthey are not few in Athens — point out that thereal benefits that have accrued to the country are

PUBLIC LIFE 267due, not to Government, but to private initiative.The descendant of one of the foremost figures inthe War of Independence, in speaking of this tothe author, compared Greece, politically, to abody without a head. He also regarded thefranchise, as at present exercised, as an evil,sincethe people were incapable of using it to theiradvantage—in other words, the nation was betterthan the Governments it had elected. He is notalone in his opinions. There has long been agrowing distaste for sterile party manoeuvres inthe thinking portion of Greek society, and atendency to detachment from politics. It is amisfortune, for it is that very element which thecountry needs in the conduct of its affairs.Party intrigue and personal animosities are thechief hindrances to public business, and in theinterests of sound legislation they should be discountenancedby legislators themselves. Ameasure of prime importance in the path ofreform is the dissociation of the Army frompolitics. Under the present constitution officersare eligible for election to the Chamber andoccupy seats in it. This is recognised as anevil by a considerable section of the population.Legislation is not the business of the army, whosefunctions should be purely executive. When itoversteps those limits it constitutes a danger tothe commonwealth. The election of officers asdeputies is not only wrong in principle but subversiveof discipline in the army itself, for the

268 HOME LIFE IN HELLASspectacle of a subaltern, who happens to be amember of the Chamber, criticising the actionsof the Minister of War, who is his superior,cannot but have a bad effect in the service.Moreover, an officer zealous in performing hisprofessional duties has no time to devote topolitics. The exclusion of officers from Parliamentand theestablishment of a permanent civilservice are two of the most urgent questions demandingthe attention of the legislature.No less than ten per cent of the direct taxationcomes from the land and crops. There is alsoa tax on horses, mules, donkeys, and camels, aswell as on professions and occupations. The dutyon houses and buildings is a progressive one.The protective tariff on foreign goods is enormous,amounting in many cases to more than the primevalue, so that their consumption is altogether impossibleto the poor.Food-stuffs of native originare also very dear. The price of olive oil, anarticle in daily use, is preposterous, consideringthat it is a staple product of the country. Notonly tobacco, but salt, petroleum, matches, playingcards, and cigarette-paper are State monopolies.The cigarette is practically the only mode ofsmoking in Greece, and a certain number of papersaccompanies each packet of tobacco purchased,according to its size. The quantity of paper isinsufficient unless the consumer makes hiscigaretteof abnormal thickness, so that he is forcedto use up his tobacco at a greater rate than he

PUBLIC LIFE 269intended or have the remainder of a packet uselesson his hands. The problem is also solved by theemployment of smuggled paper. Smuggling ofall kinds is naturally rife in a country where fiscalexactions are so numerous. The burden fallsheaviest on the poor. Although it has beenlightened for them in some ways, as in thereduction of taxes and facilities for deferred paymentin case of bad harvests, the system of taxfarmingfacilitates extortion and is" at the same timedetrimental to the interests of the State, whichreceives far less than the people pay.A methodof collecting revenue which involves an expenditureof eight million drachmas (£320,000) on atotal of 22,325,000 (£893,000) is undeniablywasteful. The revenues assigned to the paymentof the interest on the foreign loans are collectedunder the supervision of the International Commissionof Control. The first loan of £800,000was raised in London in 1824, and was notfinally liquidated until 1892. The formidable debtincurred at various periods since that date hasbeen occasioned by military expenses, but thethorny subject of Greek finances cannot be enteredon here.The machinery for the administration of justicebears more resemblance to that of France thanto ours. The highest court of civil and criminalappeal bears the famous name of the Areopagus.There are also local Courts of Appeal at Larissa,Nauplia, Patras, and Corfu. The Courts of First

270 HOME LIFE IN HELLASInstance number twenty-six, and there are distributedthrough the country about three hundredand fifty tribunals, whose functions combine thoseof a Police and a County Court.Crimes of violenceare more numerous than any others ; Attica enjoysa bad pre-eminence in this respect, and next comeAchaia and Elis. These are the most populousprovinces, and they contain the two largest seaports.It is only fair to their inhabitants to putdown the prevalence of crime to this cause. Inthe wild mountain districts of Agrapha andKarpenisi, statistics show that there is much less. 1There is great laxity in dealing with crime. Inone year, 1890, there were 2301 homicides and 23condemnations to death, and the death sentence isnearly always commuted.Convictions are few inproportion to the crimes, and it is stated that uponthe fall of the Deliyannis Ministry some years agothere were in Laconia alone no fewer than 1247fugitives from justice among a population ofi26,ooo. 2 On the other hand, crimes againstproperty are comparatively rare. Burglary isalmost unknown, and in this respect as well as inthat of street robberies the inhabitants of Athensenjoy far greater security than those of London,notwithstanding the incontestable superiority ofour police organisation. Prison discipline, as itis understood in the West, does not exist.Whilst1And in the Cyclades there is the least.2Premeditated murder is so rare that it may be considerednon-existent. Suicide is unknown.

PUBLIC LIFE 271the sanitary well-being of the convict isnot caredfor as it is in our prisons, he is not deprived oftobacco, and conversation with his fellow-prisonersis unrestricted. Even pocket-money is his, bythe sale of trifling articles of his manufacture tovisitors. The stranger to Athens is not a littleastonished in passing by a prison to find himselfapostrophised by the inmates, who with palmsthrust through the grated windows freely beg ofthe public in the streets.Nor do they beg in vain,for they are regarded rather as suffering misfortunethan expiating a misdeed. Sympathy goes out tothe man who is undergoing punishment, whilst itscause is apt to be overlooked. The assassin iscommiserated, but his victim is forgotten.It maybe said that imprisonment has no terrors in Greeceneither is any stigma attaching to it. Certainlythe inmates of the prisons show no signs of eithershame or compunction. They are more interestedin party politics than anything else, for there isalways a hope that with a change of Ministry willcome a remission of the sentence. Here againpolitics interfere with the course of justice, andthose who know best aver that the vote is indirectlya means of bringing the law into contempt.The Army and Navy, which have drawn so muchattention upon themselves of late, are in thecrucible.It is impossible to foretell what developmentswill take place or what form they willeventually assume. They have taken mattersin their own hands to a large extent of late,

272 HOME LIFE IN HELLASand the public attitude towards them is one ofexpectancy, not to say anxiety. Nothing morethan a brief outline of their organisation will beattempted here. Military service is compulsoryand universal. It begins when a man is twenty-oneand lasts until he is fifty-one. He serves twoyears with the colours, ten in the reserve, eightin the territorial army, and ten in the territorialreserve. The territorial army is a potential, notan actual force. Neither is it usual for a man toserve the whole of his two years in the first line.The army in the field consists nominally of about50,000 men. Its peace strength attains 29,000 ofall ranks as a maximum. The infantry are armedwith the Mannlicher-Schbnauer rifle, and the fieldartillery with the Schneider-Canet quick-firinggun.There are certain infantry battalions calledevzonoi. These are riflemen and picked troops.They are the only soldiers who wear the fustanella,the national Greek—or rather Albanian dress.They are drawn almost entirely from the mountaindistricts of CEtolia,in Western Greece, especiallyfrom the neighbourhoods of Lidoriki and Agrapha,and from the highlands of Arcadia in the Peloponnesus.It is from the evzonoi that the King'sbodyguard is recruited, and there are always someof them on duty at the palace. The aspect of thestreets of Athens, which are always sprinkled withthe uniforms of officers, leads to the belief that thearmy is over-officered. This is said, however, notto be the case. The number of officers seen in

PUBLIC LIFE 273Athens is owing partly to the concentration oftroops at the capital, and partly to the fact thatretired officerscontinue to wear their uniform, sothat some of the older men one sees are not on theactive list. It is true, nevertheless, that the officersseem to have very little to do. At all hours of theday and night they are at the cafes talking politics,reading newspapers, or playing dominoes.Thereis a military club, founded by the Crown Princewith the object of bringing officerscreating an esprit de corps.together andIt is frequented, butthe majority appear to prefer the. society of thecitizens.Life is expensive in Athens, and countryquarters would be more economical for subalterns,whose pay ranges from £53 to £64 a year, but astown-loving Greeks they probably prefer thecapital. The reserve men come up for training inthe cool weather, and thebarracks and camp onthe Kephisia Road and at Goudi are then full ofsoldiers. They are clad in a neat serge uniform ofkhaki colour, and are a fairly well set up body ofmen—some of the cavalry-men from the Volodistrict especially so. There is not the same lineof demarcation between officers and private soldiersas with us. The latter salute their officers whenthey meet them, but both frequent the sameestablishments, and an officer may often be seenin friendly chat with a soldier. It is true thatwhere service is universalthe private may be of asuperior social status to that of his officer. Nevertheless,the indiscriminate mixing of ranks would

274 HOME LIFE IN HELLASnot consort with our notions of discipline.Butdiscipline of any kind is repugnant to the Greek,and that is one reason, perhaps, why so few menremain in the service when their time is up,although there is a college fornon-commissionedofficers by passing through which they may obtaincommissions. The artillery and engineers areofficered from the Evelpidon College at Piraeus.The students entering it must possess a certificatefrom a Gymnasium, and the course lasts five years.There is also a Subalterns' School for infantryand cavalry with a three years' course. There isnothing corresponding to our Staff College. Theofficers of the Staff at the Ministry of War changewith a change of Ministry, for the new Ministerhas his own following, and there are as manypillars of the ante-chamber, to use the Frenchexpression, in the army as in other branches ofthe public service. The ordering of the nationaldefence is thus made to depend on the swing ofthe political pendulum. Comment would be superfluous,and if the party of Army Reform make theriddance of this abuse one of the planks in theirplatform they will deserve well of their country.The Navy is recruited by conscription or enlistmentfor a period of two years. It consists ofabout 4000 officers and men. There are about5000 men of the naval reserve under thirty-fouryears of age. Naval officers are educated on thetraining-ship Hellas at the Pirasus. They enterat sixteen and remain four years. They make

PUBLIC LIFE 275periodical cruises during this period in theAdmiral Miaoulis. The men are drawn principallyfrom the islands, especially from Hydra and Spetzai,and from the maritime population of Galaxidiin the Gulf of Corinth. They are trained forthree months at the Naval School at Poros andthen sent to the Arsenal at Salamis, whence theyare drafted to their ships. They are short, wiry,alert, smart in appearance, and thoroughly typicalseamen. The navy occupies a large place in thenational affections. It played a great part in theWar of Independence, and the names of Kanaresand Miaoulis are still green and potent to awakenpatriotic sentiment, and the Society for the Formationof a National Fleet, which was founded in1866, has gathered subscriptions from Greeks, richand poor, the world over. A lottery has also beenorganised, the drawings taking place every threemonths, and it brings in a steady increment to thecoffers of the Society. But a modern navy is avery expensive thing if it is kept abreast of moderndevelopments. The handy brigs of Hydra were amatch for the lumbering Turkish three-deckers inthe twenties ; and when Abney Hastings, whoof Salonagave his life for Greece, won the battlewith the steam corvette Karteria in 1827, theGreek navy was more than abreast of its contemporaries.With the advent of torpedoes it toedthe line in starting a torpedo school in 1880. Butof lateimprovements have been so multiple andrapid, both in speed, armament, and devices for

276 HOME LIFE IN HELLASattack and defence, that a ship is barely launchedbefore she becomes obsolete, and the game canonly be played with the aid of vast resources.The history of modern Greek legislation mightbe roughly divided into three periods. The firstgeneration belongs to the men who took part in thefight for freedom, Klephts and sailors. They gaveproof of patriotism with their lives. But it wasnarrow, often restricted to clan or province. Theirmethods were those of the Pashas, from whoserule they had but just freed themselves. Thenext generation gave evidence of national growth.It created a constitution, established schools,rebuilt the towns, made roads, and its legislativeacts displayed care for and devotion to thecommon weal. But personal ambitions and partyfeuds compromised the public interests. Theperiod, nevertheless, was fruitful in improvements.The next generation saw the direction of affairspass almost exclusively into the hands of twoclasses represented by the University and Capital.The University men were chiefly lawyers, but theyincluded graduates of other faculties, and fromthis element arose the class of professional politicians.The capitalists were frequently speculatorsand promoters, Greeks in blood but not born inGreece. Through their influence financial interestsand financial schemes were allowed too great asway in the deliberations of Parliament. Greedof place and greed of pelf were the characteristicevils of this period. Popular opinion and party

PUBLIC LIFE 277government acted as a corrective, and neither evilis so accentuated at present, though both exist.Under the Constitution of 1864, the King ofthe Hellenes appoints the Prime Minister andchooses the members of the Cabinet, and he haspower to dismiss them. He can also prorogue orsuspend Parliament. On the other hand, no actof the King is valid unless countersigned by aMinister, who thereby renders himself responsible.When the reign of King George comes to beviewed in the cold light of history, the verdict ofposterity will be that he accomplished a very difficulttask wisely and with consummate patience. Hewas seventeen when called, mainly through theinfluence of the British Cabinet to occupy a thronefor which he had then probably no particular inclination.The Greeks had set their hearts uponanother ruler. Prince Alfred, then a midshipmanin the Royal Navy, had been chosen by anenormous majority, 230,016 votes out of a totalof 241,202. This was ratified by the NationalAssembly less than a month before the election ofthe young Prince of Denmark, who had receivedsix votes in the same plebiscite. Prince Alfredwas ineligible by the terms of a treaty previouslyentered into by England, France, and Russia,which contained a provision that no member ofthe reigning houses of those Powers should sit onthe Hellenic throne. There were, of course, otherreasons which rendered it inadvisable, but this wasa conclusive one.

278 HOME LIFE IN HELLASIn the seventies of last century a young couplemight be met nearly every day in the streets ofAthens, walking briskly, accompanied by a hugeDanish hound. King George and Queen Olgahave from the first led the simplest and mostunostentatious of lives. When in Athens theKing may be seen daily riding or driving toPhaleron, but he passes much of his time at Tatoi,a modest estate inParnes, about fifteen miles away.a delightful situation on MountHe has carefullyabstained from personal interference in the conductof public affairs, save when it has been necessaryto safeguard the 1 principles of the Constitution,which he insists shall be religiously preserved.Retiring and unobtrusive by character and temperament,he has persistently and indefatigablyworked for the welfare of the country, and hisrelations with the most powerful Courts of Europehave enabled him to accomplish his object. Greeceowes him an incalculable debt, the measure of whichwill only be known in the future. Queen Olgahas failed to win the sympathy of the Greeksapparently for no better reason than that she is aRussian, and in spite of her noble devotion to thepoor and suffering, of which the great EvangelismosHospital is a lasting monument. The CrownPrince has directed his energies to raising the toneof the army and promoting esprit de corps amongthe officers. Prince Nicholas is the artist of thefamily. Princess Sophia, who has the eyes and thedisposition of her revered mother, the Empress

PUBLIC LIFE 270Frederick, has in the conduct of her householdand the upbringing of her family set a greatexample, and she has worked strenuously to bringabout an amelioration of the conditions of homelife among the humbler class. The Children's Hospitalis her creation. The most popular memberof the Royal Family is Princess Andrew—PrincessAlice, the daughter of Prince Louis of Battenburg.She won the hearts of the Greeks by learning theirlanguage ere she came among them, and she takesa part in their social movements. The mention ofthe name of Princess Alike invariably brings asmile and words of affectionate eulogy. The membersof the Royal Family of Greece are not hedgedabout with formal pomp. The indifference of theGreeks to rank brings to them one advantagethey are never mobbed, but allowed to come andgo with the freedom of ordinary citizens. Oneafternoon in the Museum on the Acropolis, theonly other visitors were a lady and gentleman andtheir children. It was quite by accident that Ilearned from a custodian that the lady who examinedthe objects with a discernment that cameof knowledge was the sister of the German Emperorand the granddaughter of Queen Victoria.

GREEKCHAPTER IXLITERATURE AND JOURNALISMliterature, like the Greek tongue,never wholly perished. Through the Byzantineperiod, when futile polemical treatiseswere relieved by chronicles only less dreary, theplant still lived to flower in the folk-songs ofGreece, the dithyrambs of the Klepht, and thelyric love ditties. Modern Greek letters, however,began with Rigas, who sang of liberty anddied for it in 1798. The poetic tradition wascarried on by the two Ionians, Solomos andValaorites, and their mantle has fallen uponPalamas, whose Hymn to Athena, Iambs andAnapcests, and Songs of my Country would winhim a high place among contemporary Europeanpoets were a knowledge of the idiom in whichthey are written more widely diffused. Amongthe novelists Bikelas would probably be accordedthe palm by his countrymen.His Loukas Lariashas had, perhaps, more readers than any otherwork of fiction in modern Greek. It deals with asubject of which the Greek isnever tired, the rebirthof Greece, although his hero is not a hero inthe conventional sense, but a very human person280

LITERATURE & JOURNALISM 281whose character islimned with painstaking skill.But Bikelas has a firmer and more assured touchin his Tales from the JEgean.In them he drawsfrom his own experience, and working infamiliarmaterial, gives vivid transcripts of island life,minutely studied.He has passed many years ofhis life in England, and Greece owes to him faithfultranslations of Hamlet and Macbeth. Roi'deshas a large circle of readers ; his most widelyknown novel is Pope Joan. Karkavitzas has adevoted public, and Papadiamantes is one ofthe most popular of short-story writers. Episkopoulos,a brilliant journalist, has done work ofa more lasting nature, like his Tales of Eventide,which appeared originally in an Athenian journal.Drosines is best known by his novel Herb ofLove, the scene of which is laid in Eubcea ; andhis Fairy Tales for Children display a daintyimagination. He is the interpreter of countrylife, which he loves, a rare characteristic in aGreek.His Rural Letters are fresh and truthfulpresentments of a phase of existence too littleknown among Athenians, and he has written abook devoted to Bees and another to Birds.Karavitzas and Kasdones are among the widelyread writers of stories. M. Psychares, who haslong been a protagonist on the popular side inthe language controversy, is best known by hisMy Journey, a brilliant sketch of Greece as hesees it, but his output in the realm of fiction isconsiderable. Madame Parren, in her Books of

282 HOME LIFE IN HELLASabout woman ancient andthe Dawn, has writtenmodern, and her novel The Witch is perhapsthe best known of her works. This list by nomeans exhausts the names of writers in verse andprose who would claim notice in a treatise dealingwith contemporary literature in Greece.Theauthor does not pretend to do more than callattention to its existence, otherwise it would benecessary to give some account of the work ofProvelenghios, Polemis, Porphyrias, Gryparis,and others. The Greek public is naturally restricted,and a section of it finds its literarypabulum in foreign authors, so that not a fewmen who could do original work are forced tooccupy themselves with translation and journalism.The drama suffers most heavily on thisaccount, owing to the mania for French playsand musical comedy. The most popular contemporarydramatist is Melas, and Tangopouloscomes next perhaps. In the immediate past thetwo most prominent names are those of Ranghabesand Bernadakis. Both have gone tohistory for inspiration. The latter in MariaDoxaparte has taken an incident of the FrankishConquest of the Morea ; and in Nikephoros Phokasthe action is laid in Crete of the tenth century.Hehas also presented a modern version of Euripidesand a translation of Faust. ^Eschylus has foundan interpreter in Soteriades, and Sophocles inManos and A. Vlachos. But the Greeks do nottake kindly to the metamorphosis of their ancient

LITERATURE & JOURNALISM 283masterpieces.The University students especiallylook upon it as sacrilege, and some time ago theymade such an uproarious demonstration againstone of these representations that it had to be withdrawn.So the people, who would understandvery little of Euripides insacrificed to pedantry.his pristine Attic, wereHistory is the department of literature in whichmodern Greek is perhaps strongest. Tricoupis'History of the War of Independence is more or lessfamiliar to Westerns. The History of the GreekPeople, by Papparagopoulos, has become a classic.The History of the Athenians from the TurkishConquest to the Campaign of Morosini, by Kamporoglou,is a careful study for which the materialsare not easily accessible. Sathas has made valuablecontributions, embodying much original research,to a knowledge of the Venetian epoch.Lampros in his Mediceval Greece has thrown lighton a hitherto little -known period. Romanoshas done much to elucidate an obscure phaseof history in The Greek Despotat of Epirus.Meliarakes has accomplished a similar task in hisHistory of the Empire of Niccea after the LatinConquest f Constantinople. All this is work ofsolid value to the student. Recent history hasfound an exponent in Kyriakides, whose ContemporaryGreece comes down to 1892.Idromenosin his Life of Capodistrias deals with the birth ofthe new kingdom, and Evangelides in Events afterthe Fall of Otho with that of the actual Constitution.

284 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThere is a healthy tone about popular literature inGreece which might be emulated by countriesnearer home. The series issued by the Societyfor the Diffusion of Useful Books consists ofvolumes costing fourpence each, some of themadmirably written, and all of them educative inthe best sense of the term.There is an excellentChildren's Library, which includes translations ofchildren's classics, such as Hans Andersen. TheMarasle Library, which derives its name from awealthy Greek who originated and endowed it,has for its object the publication of works oforiginal merit and the translation of standardauthors. Macaulay is included in the series.Among books in foreign languages those inFrench predominate. One sees in the bookshopsfrequented by University men a sprinkling ofscientific works in German. English books arenot so plentiful. Illustrated art books and specialnumbers of illustrated journals constitute the bulkof them. Hall Caine and Marie Corelli are knownto the Athenians in translations, and standardnovels like David Coppetfield appear as feuilletonsin the newspapers. Dumas, Victor Hugo, andJules Verne seem to be the most popular Frenchwriters in translations. New French novels haveclients who read them in the original.There arefar more booksellers in Athens than in any Englishtown of the same size and their shops are well frequented.Indeed, the book is an important itemin the Athenian scheme of life, and this differ-

LITERATURE & JOURNALISM 285entiates the Greek from other nations in the NearEast. The comparative paucity of bookshops inwealthy Egypt is in marked contrast.But Egypt,with its immense Greek colony, is the best customerof the Athenian publishers. It is there that Greekwriters of fiction find their largest public.It was on the 24th March, 1824, less than threeyears after the standard of revolt had been raised,that the Greek Telegraph was started at Mesolonghiunder the auspices of Colonel Stanhope, Byron's"typographic Colonel," an enthusiastic believer incivilisation by newspaper. But it is doubtful ifthis was the first newspaper in Greece. A printwas issued in the island of Hydra, then the chiefpolitical centre, and Psyllas, an Athenian journalistof ability and judgment, edited the Ephemeris.In the following year the Genike Ephemeris, a sortof official gazette, was established atNauplia, thethen seat of government. There are now, Ibelieve, some 150 journals of various descriptions,and Athens with its population of about 170,000contrives to support thirteen dailies. The Greektemperament is congenial to the development ofjournalism. In one respect the people have notchanged since, in a memorable address from theAreopagus nigh two thousand years ago, theywere described as loving to hear or tell of somenew thing. If a Greek has but a halfpenny in hispocket, and it is a question of expending itupon bread or a newspaper, the chances areoverwhelmingly in favour of the latter. Most

286 HOME LIFE IN HELLASof the papers have come down to a halfpenny.The newsboys gain about a third of a farthingon every copy. Everybody reads their wares,including the boys themselves. At least, theymanage to learn their contents and proclaimwhat they judge to be the most attractive items.If any news of assumed importance arrives,thepapers issue supplements, and the boys are letloose again, careering through the streets withshrill cries of " Pardtima." " All the winners," thestereotyped rubric of the London newsboy, hasno place in their vocabulary. The interest ispurely political. Sporting events, which occupyso large a space in our halfpenny evening papers,have no place in their Athenian contemporaries.The debates in the Chamber and party moves,with comments thereupon, come first. Everythingwhich transpires abroad that has any bearingon Greece is carefully chronicled. The utterancesof European statesmen concerning Greekquestions are reported in full, and are often madethe subject of a leading article. There is littlecourt news and no " society " gossip. A columnis devoted to current events in Athens, andanother to the world outside. The typographyand get-up of the papers is generally good, andnearly all of them are copiously illustrated. Advertisementsare few and rates low, and the largestcirculation probably does not exceed 15,000, sothat special cables are rare. The most importantitems in foreign newspapers are telegraphed from

LITERATURE & JOURNALISM 287Corfu, where the mail arrives some thirty hoursbefore it reaches Athens. The European Pressis ransacked on its arrival, and the "padding"derived therefrom keeps the Athenian readerabreast of political events. Some papers makea feature of discoveries,news.inventions, and scientificAthenai and Neon Asty have a literaryflavouras distinguished from mere news ; thelatter is distinguished by its articles on socialtopics. Akropolis, written in a popular style,makes a speciality of non-political articles ofgeneral interest, and some of the best shortstories have first seen the light in its columns.Hestia— The Hearth—is an evening paper, notaddicted to sensational headlines, and maintainingin its articles a high literary level. It is wellserved by its London correspondent, whose lettersare a special feature. It also gives considerablespace to book reviews and Hellenic archceology,and on the lighter side it has a well-edited columnunder the alliterative heading Me Liga Logia,which may be freely translated " News in a Nutshell,"a rubric once familiar in the London Echo.Another ably conducted paper is the bi-weeklyKratos. It has no party ties, and circulates chieflyamong Greeks outside Greece. The large andincreasing Hellenic population in the UnitedStates has opened up a new field for Greekjournalism. There are, I am told, no less thanseven Greek newspapers published in America.Personally, I only know one, the Atlantis, now

288 HOME LIFE IN HELLASin its seventeenth year, a well-printed eight-pagedaily. Judging from its advertisement columns,its coffers are fuller than those of its contemporariesin the mother country. There are manyAthenian weeklies, fortnightlies, and monthlieschildren's papers, women's papers written bywomen, and family journals—most of them illustrated.The learned professions have also theirorgans, and there are others devoted to particularinterests. Romeos, the Athenian Punch, is ahousehold word in Greece. The letterpress isthe work of one man, Mr. Souris, who for morethan a quarter of a century has laughed goodnaturedlyin verse week by week. Romeos is atour de force, but the modern Aristophanes hasfound time for other work, of which PhasoulisPhilosopher, is the most notable.One fears to touch on the great language controversywhich divides Greek men of letters intotwo camps, the advocates of the Katharevoussa,or "purified" tongue, and the vulgarists, knownas Malliaroi, the long-haired. The latter maintainthat the so-called " restored " language is a purelyartificial concoction, an incongruous mixture, notpartaking of the antique spirit, but of Orientalpedantry. Those who use it think they are revertingto Xenophon, but in doing so they showthat they have not escaped yet from the influenceof the Turk. A true imitation of the ancientswould be to produce modern things as they did.Popular Greek is a development along the linesfollowed by the Romance tongues from Latin.

LITERATURE & JOURNALISM 289To arrest it is to replace a living thing by a deadone. M. Pallis, a great classical scholar, andM. Psychares, also a distinguished scholar andlitterateur, are champions of the vulgarists. Theformer asserts that an Italian writing an article inMediaeval Latin or saying "Date mihi panem,"would not be more absurd than a Greek employingthe "purified" language. The latter citesthe vulgarists Solomos and Valaorites, declaresthat the literary treasures of modern Greece arefound alone inthe popular tongue, and points tothe sterility of the purists. The latter have, onthe other hand, a strong advocate in ProfessorHadzidakes. The battle must be left to the Greeksalone. Whatever the issue may be, it is certainthat at present the spoken and written languagesdiffer widely as to words, if not as to construction.It must not be thought that the popular tongueis not Greek. The peasant when he bids you sitdown will say " Kathize," as Socrates to Strepsiadesin The Clouds of Aristophanes. And likeSocrates, he will call the clouds nephelai. In theolive groves on the banks of the Kephisus, "wherethe Attic bird trills her thick warbled notes thesummer long," the nightingale is still aedon tothe man with the hoe.The traveller Douglas said of Athens in 1810,the Greeks of the classic age would have lessdifficulty in understanding the moderns than thecontemporaries of William of Malmesbury andFroissart in comprehending the English andFrench of their descendants.v

CHAPTER XATHENSATHENS became the capital of Greece in 1834.il It was not the first capital. Nauplia precededit, and for a time ^gina, whilst Corinth wasthe seat of government during a period of thewar. Some thought the choice was not a wiseone.importance.Patras was a place of far greater wealth andIt had long maintained commercialrelations with Europe, it was in touch with thecivilisation of the Ionian Islands, it was a seaport,and behind it and on either side lay the mostfertile region of Greece. Corinth had its advocates,and its geographical position certainlyseemedto mark it out as the centre of thekingdom. It commands the traffic between thenorth and south through itsnarrow isthmus, andthe two seas make it the natural place of exportfor both east and west. But the fortune of itsyouth seems to have fled for ever, and Corinthremains now, as it has been for centuries, littleelse than a large Albanian village.Men's mindshad been occupied with a waterway through theisthmus since the days of Periander, two thousandfive hundred years ago. Demetrius Poliorcetes290

ATHENS 291was dissuaded from it by his engineers, who had anotion that the levelsame.of the two seas was not theCaesar studied the project and might havecarried it out had not affairsenergies in other directions.of State diverted hisCaligula thought ofit and abandoned it. Nero actually began it, withcharacteristic theatrical accessories. He gave thefirst stroke with a golden pick, and had placedfifteen thousand men on the works when he wascalled away by a revolt in Gaul. The CorinthCanal as an accomplished fact was reserved forthe end of the nineteenth century. But it is,commercially, a failure. Steamers coming fromthe Adriatic save 202 miles in the passage to thePiraeus. The saving is less for vessels from theMediterranean, and in any case not enough tocover the expense incurred in dues. Moreover, itis too small — 75 feet wide, 26 feet deep—for vesselsof large tonnage to pass through in safety. Aswe steam between the sheer rock walls with a vistaof open sea at either end and a railway bridge200 feet above, in the middle, it is melancholy toreflect that perhaps the chief benefits of the canalhave fallen to geologists, to whom ithas affordedfacilities for observing the strata, and to theswallows who nest in the crannies.In any case ithas done nothing for Corinth, forlorn on its flatshore, looking all the flatter from its contiguityto the Akro-Korinthos, that magnificent isolatedrock soaring nearly 2000 feet above it. Corinthlabours under two great disadvantages : it is

292 HOME LIFE IN HELLASnever free from malaria and it is frequently shakenby earthquakes.In 1858 it was destroyed almostentirely. Athens, on the contrary, is one of thehealthiest spots in Greece, and in a land whichcounts, on an average, ninety-four earthquakedays in the year, it enjoys a remarkable immunityfrom disaster. The shocks with which it is visitedoccasionally are rarely violent enough to causedamage. Sentiment had the largest share inchoosing it as the capital, but in these respectsthe choice was happy. The arid character of theAttic plain was commented on by Pindar andThucydides, and no doubt by others before them.Certainly it has come in for animadversion eversince. The "chorus of hills" which bound it onevery side but that open to the sea are not highenough to hold the clouds, but, on the other hand,they are low enough to admit the northern breezes,which temper the summer heat. The thin, transparentatmosphere renders a high temperaturemuch more tolerable than in a damp climate.Between the hours of nine and five on a summerday, the pavements of Athens scorch and thereflection from the white walls blinds, but the heatis never what is termed stifling, and it is alwayspleasant in the shade. In the morning, when thesky is rosy behind Hymettus, before the sun haspumped up the dewy coolness of the night, and inthe evening, when he sinks in vaporous goldbehind the ranges of the Peloponnesus, one istempted to say there is no climate in the world

ATHENS 293comparable to that of Athens. Certainly there isnothing precisely like it anywhere else in the NearEast. The peculiar sweetness of the air strikesone every time one returns to it. The cold isharder to combat than the heat, in houses wherethere are no appliances for artificial warmth.February, March, and even April can be verychilly, and the thin air makes the cold more penetrating.The lovely weather of December is oftenprolonged into January. Hence the local proverb,"January tries to be spring when it can."Athens stretches north from the Acropolis farover the plain, runs up the western, southern,and eastern slopes of Lycabettus and across theIlissus to the sharp rise beyond, whilst a stragglingsuburb extends towards Phaleron on thesouth, and another, more compact, to Patissiaon the north. An isolated ridge of no greatelevation rises from the plain and ends in thepeaked Lycabettus. A mile away on the southernoutskirts of the city is a group of lower hills, theabrupt table of the Acropolis, with its acolyte,the rugged Areopagus, and beyond the morerounded summits of the Hill of the Muses andthe Hill of the Nymphs, the former crowned bythe conspicuous remains of the Philopappusmonument, the latter by the dome of the modernObservatory. The steep flanks of Hymettusbring the mountain barrier nearest, eastward ofthe city. On the west and north it is formedby -^Egaleos and the loftier Parnes and Pentelicus.

294 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThe thoughts of one arriving inAthens for thefirst time are probably bent on the Acropolis, buthis eyes will almost surely at firstbe drawn to thebold and graceful outline of Lycabettus, the noblerock some nine hundred feet high, consideratelydropped by Athena to serve as a bulwark forherAthenians. It is the antithesis of the Acropolis,for it is without a history. It has not even beendetermined if it was the Anchesmos of theancients. But it is the dominant feature of thecity, from which itsoars, an abrupt peak cappedby the white monastery of St. George, and itsbeauty never palls. The inhabitants of Athensascend it on St. George's Day in crowds. Onthe other three hundred and sixty-four days of theyear, as a rule, they leave it severely alone—anadvantage to those who wish to enjoy the prospectit affords in tranquillity. That and also the viewfrom the Acropolis have been described by ChristopherWordsworth and many travellers since.If this were a guide-book it would counsel as apoint of view for Athens itself, as distinct fromits environs, the open space near the so-calledTheseum, for the reason that it includes bothLycabettus and the Acropolis, whereas if eitherbe taken as a standpoint it is left out of thepicture.As the Cannebiere is to Marseilles and theToledo to Naples, so isin the estimation of the citizens.itStadium Street to Athens,Needless to say,has nothing in common with either, save that it

ATHENS 295is regarded as the principal thoroughfare. In itare situated the Boule—Parliament, theMinistryof Finance, the High Court of Appeal, and theRoyal Stables, none of which can be consideredinspiring architecturally. But its shops andrestaurants are of the best, and it is the mainchannel of communication between Constitutionand Concord Squares, which may be taken as thetwo centres of the city, the former that of thecourt quarter and the latter of commerce.Parallelwith Stadium Street is the less frequented butmore spacious University Street, and beyond thisagain, on rising ground, Academy Street.UniversityStreet, with its broad pavements and handsomebuildings, ranks with the finest thoroughfaresin Europe, and not one among them can showanything to compare with the Academy, a reallysuccessful revival of Ionic. The University andthe Public Library are Doric ;the latter is a goodexample of the order. The southern end of UniversityStreet leads to the space in front of thePalace, where the Kephisia Avenue deboucheson to Constitution Square. The site is the mostimposing in Athens, though the Palace does notenhance it. The Bavarians wanted to place iton the Acropolis. It is said that King Otho puthis foot down on that project. If so, the worldowes him a lasting debt. The Palace Gardens,planned by Queen Amalia, are open to the publictwice a week—a boon, for thisdelightful grove isthe only shadeful spot in the city. The gardens

296 HOME LIFE IN HELLASare flanked on three sides by the Kephisia Avenue,the Amalia Avenue, and that of Herodes Atticus,and they abut on the grounds of the Zappeion.The three avenues are planted with pepper treeswhose branches droop over the broad pavement,and flanked by mansions—the Mayfair and Belgraviaof Athens. The Zappeion grounds arethe chosen promenade of an evening.The terracecommands a prospect it would be hard tomatch. From a broad flight of marble steps,flanked by statues of the brothers Zappa in frockcoats,we look across a foreground of shrubs andwinding walks to the stately columns of theTemple of Olympian Jove, rising high abovethe palms, the most grandiose of Athenian fanes,one of the first to be begun and the last to becompleted. Did not Plutarch moralise over itsunfinished state ? To the right towers the abrupteastern face of the Acropolis, pitted with caverns,crowned with frowning walls, and above, againstthe sky, the gleaming marble of the Parthenon. Tothe left, the Ilissus, oleander-fringed, and beyondit the low hills of Agras with their vesture ofdwarf pines, against which the restored Stadium,fronted by the statue of M. Averof, also in a frockcoat,stands out sharply in raw whiteness. Betweenthe tall Olympian columns in front, theshimmer of the ^gean, framed by the shouldersof Hymettus, the distant peaks of Argolis, anddotted with isles of opal and mother-of-pearl.would be idle to try to describe this at sunsetIt

ATHENS 297when the sea is incarnadined, the mountains robedin deepest violet, and the Parthenon a rosy flame.The Athenians, meanwhile, seem to reck little ofthese things. They are too busy over politicsat the little round tables of the open-air cafe.The Agora of modern Athens is ConstitutionSquare. Everybody puts in an appearance thereonce at least in the twenty-four hours.Politiciansfrequent the caf6s, and the haute volee of Athenssociety the patisseries. The two best hotels are inthe Square. It is the foreigners' centre. Touristagencies divide it with photograph shops anddealers in antiquities. In the warm summerevenings the festoons of twinkling lamps amidthe orange trees throw a softlight on the groupsscattered at the tables which fill up the wholecentral space. The scene is bright, but it canscarcely be called gay. Unlike the French andItalians,the Greeks of the middle-classes have atendency "to take their pleasures sadly."Out of Constitution Square runs Hermes Street,due west, older and narrower than Stadium Street,but containing the best jewellers' and goldsmiths'shops. It is the best-paved thoroughfare inAthens. Branching from Hermes Street northwardsis JEolus Street. This runs through theheart of the business quarter, which may be saidroughly to lie within the triangular area boundedby Hermes Street, Stadium Street, and ^EolusStreet. The latter ends in a square flanked bythree great buildings—the Post and Telegraph

298 HOME LIFE IN HELLASOffice, the National Bank, and the MunicipalTheatre. West of iEolus Street, and like it runningnorth and south, is the Street of Athena, abroad boulevard of a popular character. Beyondthis is a vast and populous quarter inhabited by thehumbler classes. It is penetrated by arteries,Euripides Street and others. Its denizens takea pride, seemingly, in displaying their bedsteads,perhaps as a sign of Athenian citizenship. Bedsteadsare unknown among the rural poor. Thestreets are full of children, as in similar neighbourhoodswith us,but Athens does not contain anythinglike the noisome London slums.Poverty isnot so dire ; house-room, though dear enough, is notso exorbitant ; and the bright, clear air batheseverything. There is no grimy blackness, nohopeless squalor. Wine-shops are abundant.Most of them are gardens roofed with vines. Theworkman pays his penny for his half-oke (abouttwo-thirds of a pint) of wine, and the vintnersupplies him with olives. He will make merryfor the better part of the evening on this, trollingwith his mates those Greek choruses in a minorkey which sound so lugubrious to Western ears.He has air and elbow-room, a comfortable seatand a handy table. If he were told that the Englishworking-man recuperates in a sort of dirty horseboxnor dreams of the luxury of a seat, he wouldnot believe it.Some travellers have said that there is no intoxicationin Greece. It would be truer to say that

ATHENS 299there is no drunkenness of the baser sort. Thefiery mastika leads tobrawls, which occur chieflyin the seaports ; but the beverages of the Greekare not stupefying, and rarely sophisticated. Hegrows merry at times over his wine, but it is lightand harmless. The Greeks of the humbler sortspend more time in taverns than Englishmen of thesame class, but with no lamentable results. Onereason is the more wholesome nature of the beveragesaforesaid, but a greater is the wholly differentcharacter of the places in which they are consumed.These are not part of a vast system ingeniouslydevised to promote the sale of alcoholic liquors.They are owned by the individual who keeps them,and who, in many cases, is the proprietor of thevineyard which is the source of their supplies.Moreover, a Greek never drinks without eatingsomething, however little. A liquid is neverserved unaccompanied by a solid. An essentialin every establishment isan array of diminutiveplates containing these addenda— morsels of watermelon,sections of oranges, nuts and fruit accordingto season, pickled celery and pepper-pods,shell-fish, sliced tomatoes, cubes of bread coatedwith caviar or soft cheese, roasted chick-peas,tziro, a small fish, dried, pounded, and dividedinto strips. The variety is greater or less accordingto the place. Some are noted for specialdelicacies of their own, but olives, white cheese,and haricots are never absent. Then the Greeksupplements wine with copious draughts of water,

300 HOME LIFE IN HELLASor simply dilutes it. A goblet, clear and cold, isserved as a matter of course with the strongerliquid. So that mere drinking is not the onlyresource of the tavern, nor are itsfeel that they must drink soclients made tolong as they remainin it. Neither do they hide their potationsbehind blinds and screens in a reeking atmosphere.For three parts of the year they frequentthe garden, amidst growing plants, trellisedcreepers, and wandering vines, and the tavernitself is open to the broad light of day, its tablesoverflowing on to the pavement. The division ofan establishment into compartments graduated bythe price of the refreshment is unheard of, norwould it be tolerated. A measure of wine of thesmallest entitles the purchaser to the full range ofthe premises. Thus the Greek tavern is a muchsimpler and a much saner thing than the Englishpublic-house. There is no plush, no gilding,none of the garish adornments of the gin-palace.Fresh air and shade are itsits only adornment flowering plants.chief attractions, andThe Greek,like the Englishman of old, takes his ease in hisinn. No stigma attaches to it, and no sense ofdegradation is felt by the man who frequents it.The man—for no Greek woman enters a tavern,nor is she ever employed there to serve ;she goesto a cafe with her family, and ladies on shoppingexpeditions may be found in the patisseries.Butthe spectacle of a tavern crowded with women ofthe poorer class, so frequent in London, is unknown

ATHENS 301in Athens. Another point of divergence is thepractice of paying on delivery. The Londontavern-keeper demands payment before the liquoris consumed, assuming that his customer isdishonest. The Athenian host never troublesabout the score until the guest takes his departure.The former may be the wiser of the two, but hismethod has a shrewd moral significance.Apart from the first-class hotels—one of whichat least is equal to any in Western Europe—andthe second-class hotels in the vicinity of ConcordSquare, some of which are allthat can be desiredin cleanliness and service, the wanderer in Athensoften comes across an inscription, Xenodocheion touHypnon—literally, Hotel of Sleep. These establishmentsprovide bed, but not board. They are usedby country-folk who have business in the capital,for their tariff is modest, and the frugal Greekcares to spend very little on his sustenance.They are found chiefly in Athena Street andin the vicinity of the railway-stations. In theprovinces the inns are of the same kind, sometimeswith a restaurant attached.They are fairlycomfortable, and the traveller can always count onbeing provided from outside with tolerable fare.He will not find bathrooms, but the towels will bespotless, and ahair-brush and comb and pair ofslippers are part of the furniture of his room.tooth-brush is not included in these little amenities,so he is reduced to using his own. There will beno extras in his modest bill, not even that twoA

302 HOME LIFE IN HELLASshillings forimaginary attendance which figuresm the account of the English innkeeper who hascondescended to entertain him. To return toAthens, here is a wine-shop, one of many. Theproprietor is a medical man who owns a vineyardin Santorin. The doctor comes over occasionallyto look after it. But he leaves everything to hismanager, a young fellow from a village a fewmiles out of Athens, whose assistant is a sturdylittle boy from the distant isle of Anaphe. Hecarries wine to houses all over Athens. Hisworking hours average fourteen on week-days andfive on Sundays. He is not carrying incessantly,of course. Such a feat would tax the powers of aHercules. In the intervals he attends on casualcustomers and is employed in divers ways, so thathe is on his feet most of the time. For this hegets about eighteenpence a week, food and lodging.His father is a sailor, trading between theBlack Sea and British ports. Panayoti wants togo to sea too, and is anxious to see England.He is diminutive for his age—thirteen—but thickset,and he walks as though he were on a movingdeck.This is not because he was born on a smallisland. Anaphe is firmly anchored, but much ofhis childhood has been passed in boats. He isstrong and handy, and will do well enough at sea,but, like most islanders, he is very quick and intelligent,and his ultimate destination will probably beAmerica, the gulf which swallows so much of theyouth and energy of Greece. Our wine-shop is

ATHENS 303not much frequented by casual customers—thepalate of the Athenian people ismore attuned totheir native resinata than to the vintage of Santorin.The latter has its amateurs nevertheless.The doctor is not ashamed of his wine-butts, andwhen he is at Athens his professional friendscome to see him at the shop. Three or fourworkmen come at their dinner-hour, then thebarber from next door and the photographer fromover the way. A couple of cavalry officers in theirgreen and gold uniform add a note of colour tothe assembly. Three civilians, who speak Greekas a mother tongue and suddenly drop intoGerman equally colloquial, but with an accentand an intonation evidently not acquired in theFatherland, would be a puzzle did we not rememberthat about five miles north of Athensthe traveller's gaze is arrested by a church spire,an unwonted spectacle in Greece. Hard by isa graveyard, the stones lettered in the Greek characterindeed, but the names German. A bevy ofschoolgirls approach chattering voluble Greek,but their blue eyes and blonde pigtails are thoseof the Teuton madchen.This is a survival of thedays of King Otho and the Bavarians.The littlecolony was founded in 1837. Its members haveremained Catholics, and they have preserved theirtongue, though Greek is more familiar to them.Save in this and their descent they are Greeks.Hence the explanation of our bilingual friends inthe wine-shop, into which there enters a youth con-

304 HOME LIFE IN HELLASning a book. He proceeds to assist in attendingto the guests. The book is on a table at our elbow.We take it up. It is Latin—Cornelius Nepos. Itsowner can parse it and turn it neatly into Greek.Of course he is far more at home with Xenophonor the Odyssey. Halley's comet happens to bea topic of conversation. He knows the period ofits occurrence, and displays a fairly extensiveacquaintance with the ways of comets generally.Questioned as to eclipses, he demonstrates thoseof the moon by diagram. That this comes froma boy engaged in serving halfpenny glasses ofwine excites no remark.Education bears no relationto social status in Greece. Christo is theyounger brother of Spiro, who has charge of theshop. When he has finished his course at theGymnasium he will go to the University. Spiro,asked as to what faculty hisbrother will take up,replies, " Opos aresei"—what he pleases. Christohimself has as yet an open mind on the matter.Greeks like to have one lettered member of thefamily, who, to his credit, never assumessuperiority over his unlettered brothers. It istrue, his lot is often less enviable than theirs froma worldly point of view.In this case it has fallento Christo, and he accepts it as a matter of course.He instances in the concrete the social conditionsof his nation, and so does the propinquity of theworkman's blouse to the officer's gold lace andthe doctor's broadcloth at the tables he serves.The workman may have a brother in their posi-

ATHENS 305tion, as they may have brothers in his.Whetherwhat has been termed an educated proletariata wise thing or the reverse, it is the way ofGreece.Distinctions exist necessarily, but thereis no caste. The rich do not despise the poor,nor do the poor envy the rich.Nestling beneath the northern face of the Acropolisand running far up its steep slope, a regionbounded on the north by Hermes Street, west bythe Street of the Philhellenes, and extending eastwardto the Theseum, is the Athens of history.isNotof ancient history necessarily, though it containsnearly all the antique remains within the city, butof the Middle Ages onward to the Independence andthe time immediately following it. It is the Athensof the Frankish Dukes and the Turks ; the Athensto which Cockerell came in December, 1810, whenhe found three young Cambridge men, Graham,Haygarth, and Byron, lodging in the house ofthe widow Macri ; the Athens known to Dodwelland Leake, Tweddell and Chandler, Sibthorpeand Hawkins, Stuart and Revett ; the Athens discoveredby the pioneers of the study of Hellenicantiquity among Englishmen, Wheler and FrancisVernon, in the seventeenth century.Archaeology is not all dryasdust. It has itsromance, and volumes might be written on the rediscoveryof Greece from its dawn in 1430 withCyriacus of Ancona onwards.But the thoughtsof an Englishman turn naturally to those of hisown race who took part in the lifting of the veil.

306 HOME LIFE IN HELLASThey came when the night of Athens was at itsdeepest. Greek scholarship had grown in WesternEurope since the fifteenth century. During thesame period Greece grew more obscure, until atlast those who reverenced the name of Athensdid not realise that it had a material existence.Yet Athens was never quite dead. FrancisVernon, who spent two months there in 1675,wrote that it was second only to Rome in itsremains. Chandler, who came a century later,was "delighted and awed." One likes to recallthe fresh enthusiasm and the emotion of thesediscoverers of a new old world. One would liketo see the house where Byron lodged. 1Finlay'sresidence still exists, and ought to have anabsorbing interest for all students of the historyof mediaeval and modern Greece. They are verycharming, these old houses. They ramble inspacious courtyards where lemon and orangeglint against the dense green in winter or starryblossoms breathe perfume in spring. Broad1A Smyrna merchant told the author that he was once inAthens, when he fell in with an Englishman to whom he expresseda great desire to see the Maid of Athens. His acquaintancemade an indifferent response and the conversation turned toother matters. Eventually the Englishman asked him to hishouse to take pot-luck. On arriving they were received by hiswife. " Allow me to introduce you to Mrs. , the Maid ofAthens." There was nothing remarkable in her, said Mr. W.—fine eyes ; but all Greek girls have fine eyes. The name of theEnglishman was Black. He was in the Consular service whenhe married Theresa Macri, the Maid of Athens. She survivedhim, dying in 1875 at the age of eighty. She was described as atall old lady with features inspiring reverence. There are stillpeople of the quarter who remember her.

ATHENS 307wooden balconies draped with jasmine jutforthfrom them, and terraces cunningly arrangedunder a spreading fig tree in a cool corner affordair and shade in the baking afternoons. AnAthenian described this quarter to the author as"our Faubourg St. Germain." It is no longerfashionable, but a few old families linger there.They are far better off in their vast, cool roomsand shady balconies than the up-to-date Athenians,who look so unhappy behind the iron railingsof their trim double-fronted villas built on modelsof a German watering-place of twenty-five yearsago.Hadrian Street—the Bond Street of Athensin the forties and fifties—winds through the' heartof this from east to west. At its eastern end isthe Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, in themiddle of an open space. The author used to bepuzzled as to how Byron could have written TheCurse of Minerva and a portion of Childe Haroldin that slender shaft, which looks as though itwere solid, and at present has no means of ingress.But Dodwell revealed the mystery throughan engraving inhis Tour, showing the interior ofthe monument as an alcove in an apartment of theFranciscan Convent, in the south-east angle ofwhich, as he explains, it was "partly immured."Byron wrote to a friend in 1811 : "I am livingalone at the Franciscan Convent with one friar (aCapuchin, of course) and one frier, a bandy-leggedTurkish cook." The circular alcove would afforda welcome retreat, and there beneath the piece of

308 HOME LIFE IN HELLASmarble carved into a leaf pattern which forms itsroof he handled Lord Elgin so fiercely, his indignationsharpened perhaps by the proximity of thescene of the depredations, for the east cliff of theAcropolis almost overhangs the monument. Theconvent has been cleared away with its garden"laid out in the Italian manner," and "the threethornedacacia," as described by Dodwell, whowas there five years before Byron. He says theconvent preserved the monument, and it may betrue, for an offer was made for it in 1801 by anamateur whose name is not recorded. However,it has survived the convent, as it precededit. It was erected in 337 B.C., one of manymonuments in that Street of the Tripods whosename is preserved in the modern Odos Tripodonwhich probably follows part of the ancient way.We regret the convent for the sake of its associations.Chandler came here and tells of thebeauty of the prospect from it. He speaks,too, of the shouting of the Turkish patrols atnight from the Acropolis above.century before, remarks onand noise " from the same source.Wheler, just a"the great hallowingHe, too, soughtthe hospitality of the little " hospitium or cell ofthe Capuchins, adjoining the Lantern of Demosthenes" —the popular name for the ChoragicMonument, which clings to it still. People willsay they live near the Phanari, though they knowit is a Mnemeion. Wheler describes the city asabout four miles in circumference, with 8000 or

ATHENS 30910,000 inhabitants. There were eight Epitropoior magistrates to decide causes among theChristians. He counted 200 churches, fifty-twoof which were in use. Most of these would betiny Byzantine fanes, a few of which remain.But a place which contains 200 churches, besidesmosques and baths, to say nothing of tribunalsand a garrison, can hardly be called an obscurevillage, as it was assumed to be by many in thelast century. Chandler said in 1765, those whocalled it a small village must have beheld theAcropolis through the wrong end of a telescope.He was pleased with the behaviour of the people,and remarked that Greeks and Turks lived onmore equal terms than elsewhere. Wheler, whowas at Athens a century before him, made similarobservations. He had seen few towns in Turkeyas well preserved or that enjoyed greater privileges,and he gave the reason. The Atheniansin every difficulty appealed to their patron, theKizlar-Agha. A little romance attaches to this.Vasilike, a beautiful Athenian, was carried off asa slave to the Seraglio at Constantinople, andSultan Achmet I became so enamoured of herthat he could refuse her nothing. She did notforget her birthplace in the hour of her prosperity,and like the Empress Irene eight centuries earlier,she used her influence in the interests of theAthenians. Athens then occupied the rank of aprovincial town in the pashalik of Egripos, whichincluded the island of Negroponte, and the main-

310 HOME LIFE IN HELLASland provinces of Bceotia, Locris, and Attica.suffered the usual exactions and injustice, andVasilike pleaded its cause with the Sultan, withthe result that it was detached from the tyrannyof the Pasha of Egripos and his myrmidons, andgranted as a fief to the Kizlar-Agha, a functionarywhose title means, literally, the Master of theGirls, though he is known more familiarly toEuropeans as the Chief Eunuch. This personage,more powerful than any Pasha, himself appointedthe Voivoda or Governor of Athens, who wouldspeedily have been presented with a bowstring hadhe been guilty of maladministration. Achmet Idied in 1617, but the privilege he granted wascontinued by his successors, and Athens remaineda fiscal appanage of the Palace down into thenineteenth century. Thus Byron's line, " Slaves,nay the bondsmen of a slave," was literally true,for the Kizlar-Agha, though wealthy and potenthe bore the title of Highness and ranked with theGrand Vizier, whom he could often make and unmake—wasin reality an Ethiopian slave. ThatAthens of all places should have fallen into thepossession of this sable thrall is a supremeinstance of the irony of fate.ItAccorded as a boon,it might rather have been accounted the depth ofdegradation ;yet a boon it was, inasmuch as itsaved the city from the rapacity of the ordinaryform of Turkish rule. The shadow of her ancientglory seems at all times to have inspired respect.Under the Byzantine Empire—and the Byzantines

ATHENS 311were perhaps more rapacious than the TurksAthens enjoyed certain privileges.For instance,the Praetor of Thebes, notwithstanding hissuperior jurisdiction, might not enter the city withan armed force.a centre of erudition.In later days Athens still remainedJohn of Basingstoke, Archdeaconof Leicester, went there for the purpose ofstudy in the reign of our Henry III. 1 Hewas accomplished in all the learning of his time. 2Yet he said that he had seen and heard fromHea grammarlearned Greeks things unknown to the Latins.brought back a system of numerals,which he called the Donatus of the Greeks, andamong many newly discovered books the Testamentof the Patriarchs, which he showed to hisfriend Robert Grosseteste, the great Bishop ofLincoln, who had it translated into Latin.Before this certain Athenian clerics — philosophersMatthew Paris calls them—came to the Court ofKing John, where they engaged in theologicaldisputations with English divines. The chroniclerdescribes them as grave of countenance andhaughty in bearing. 3Ramon Muntaner, soldier and historian, whoheld a command in the expedition of the InfantFerdinand of Majorca, gives a glowing accountof the brilliant Court of Athens, the wealth of the1John of Basingstoke died in 1252.2"Vir in trivio et quadrivio ad plenum eruditus."—Matt. Paris,Chronica Majora, v. 285-7.3"Vultu et gestu severi."—Matt. Paris, Historic/. Anglorum,iii. 64.

312 HOME LIFE IN HELLAScity, and the prosperity of the surroundingcountry. Yet when he was there in the reign ofDuke Guy II, who died in 1308, Thebes, with itsgreat castle of Santomeri, was more importantthan Athens. The doughty Catalan saw what hehad never encountered in the West, a prosperousmiddle-class. Down to the fifteenth century thecities of Greece were far in advance of those ofFrance and England, in commerce, industry, andthe amenities of life. Europe still looked to theEast for arts and learning.When Mohammed IIhe was astonished not only at the antiqueremains on the Acropolis, but at the splendidbuildings and spacious quays which thevisited Greece in 1458, two years after the Conquest,FlorentineDukes had constructed at the Piraeus. Inthe early nineteenth century the Piraeus consistedof a monastery, a shed, and a few hovels.In 1836 its population was 1500.some 70,000. But Athens never ceased to be aIt now numberscity. The portion in which we now are was walleduntil 1835. One of the gates—Bobonistra—stoodsomewhere in the area now occupied by ConstitutionSquare, which gives an idea of thegrowth of the modern town. The city ofHadrian, which lay to the east of his Arch, as theinscription tells us, is now an open space, mostof which is taken up by the Zappeion and theRoyal Gardens. Here and there fragments ofpavement or a marble plinth remain. These andcolumns of the Great Temple are the only re-

ATHENS 313mains of the new Athens reared by the Emperor.The region south of the Acropolis, an importantquarter of the city in the time of Thucydides, isnow deserted. The venerable rock is no longerthe centre of Athens, which in these days hasspread northwards.Following Hadrian Street westward we come toa busier quarter, the nucleus of old Athens/ wheretraces of the Turk are mingled with the relics ofantiquity. The shops and cafes are meaner thanthose of new Athens, but the district has morecharacter and interest. Here history was made.Stadium Street and Concord Square have no storyto tell.Old-fashioned people cling to the quarter.The bubbling nargileh reminds us that we are inthe East. A narrow street devoted to shoemakers,and another given up to the din of coppersmithswith their " rude mechanicals that work for bread,upon Athenian stalls," are vestiges of the oldbazaar. Here is the dismantled mosque, to thebuilding of which went one of the great columnsof the Olympeion—in pieces. Beside it stands aCorinthian facade, a fragment of the Stoa ofHadrian, and successively the Palace of theFrankish and Turkish Governors, demolishedunder King Otho. Westward is the Doric gatewayof Athena Archegetes and the Clepsydra ofAndronicos Cyrrhestes—the Tower of the Winds,which gives its name to ^olus Street, stretchingnorthward in a long perspective. It is hard torealise that this monument was once a tekkeh of

314 HOME LIFE IN HELLASthe Dancing Dervishes. Yet Dodwell has adrawing of its interior with the mevlevi engagedin their corybantic devotions. In some of its outwardaspects the neighbourhood still correspondsto Dr. Wordsworth's description, though there isno muezzin calling the Faithful to prayer. Buthow strange it is to read that this insignificantbackwater, outside the stream of Athenian life,was then "the only street of any importancewith no foot-pavement and a gutter in the centre."That was in1832, on the very eve of emancipation;yet there were "no books, no lamps, nowindows, no carriages, no newspapers, no postoffice."Imagine the Athenian of to-day withouthis newspaper.Through a district poor and populous, butredeemed from sordidness by the flowers andfoliage that embellish the humble dwellings, wecome to the western limits of the region and theTheseum, best preserved of the remains of ancientAthens. From Theseus and Herakles the thoughtsof the Hellenist will turn to an Englishman.Here in 1799 was laid to rest the brilliant youngCambridge scholar John Tweddell. During fouryears of travel he had laid up a great store ofknowledge which he had embodied in journalskept with minute care. He had engaged a Frenchartist,Preaux, to accompany him and copy, to usehis own words, " not only every temple and everyarchway, but every stone and every inscriptionwith the most scrupulous fidelity." The bulk of

ATHENS 315this, together with 150 drawings of costumes andusages and 40 views, were deposited with Thorntonat Constantinople.Lord Elgin, then ambassador,ordered everything to be given into hischarge. This was done, and it was the last thathas ever been seen of either journals or drawings.Lord Elgin stated that he had sent them to arelative of Tweddell in England, but they neverarrived.There was a controversy at the time, butthe mystery has not been cleared up to this day.The loss is irreparable, for the things that wererecorded by a most sedulous student and accurateobserver have themselves perished.Take any turning to the south and the streetssoon become stairways leading up to Anaphiotike—a quarter inhabited by islanders from Anapheand Santorin, who live in flat-roofed houses likethose they have left. Narrow lanes wind up anddown, following the contour of the rock. Thegoats and chickens—everybody seems to keeppoultry here—lend a rural touch, and the baggybreeches and red bonnets smack of the JEgean.The colony is not old—drawings of the early nineteenthcentury show a bare slope—and I couldnever learn from the inhabitants how it came here.It is fed by a perennial stream of immigrants.The children—they are almost as numerous as thechickens—want to show you the way to theKastro. It is the fortress up here, the Acropolisdown below. And a fortress it is. You do notsee the temples, only the ochreous brown shoulder

316 HOME LIFE IN HELLASof the rock. And the grim walls—those walls ofmany builders—frown overhead. It is the Acropolisunder its military aspect. Athens is spreadout at your feet, flat and white. It seems to be athing apart, for Anaphiotike is quite different tothe rest of the city. It has a charm of its ownthough, and is a splendid point of vantage for asunset. But we must not linger more, and to thecheery Kalee nykta of these rural citizens wehurry down the steep ways and through oldAthens to the Cathedral Square, a few pacesbeyond which is Hermes Street and modernity.The Metropolitan Church was built in 1855. Fourarchitects used the materials of seventy demolishedchurches to achieve a triumph of ugliness, devoidalike of taste and inspiration. Happily, they didnot lay under contribution the tiny church—some40 feet by 25—which stands a few paces away, apigmy compared to it in size, but immeasurablygreater in everything else. It is an exceedinglybeautiful example of Byzantine at itsisbest, but itnot on that account that it claims attention here.Its builders, like those of the new cathedral, drewtheir material from older edifices.Its walls containfragments Hellenic and Roman, nude figuresof pagans, an archaic friezebehind the apse, thesigns of the zodiac in low relief on the lintel, theByzantine eagle, heraldic animals of the MiddleAges, and the arms of the Villehardouins, theFrankish rulers of the Morea. It is an architecturalepitome of the history of Athens—the

ATHENS 317Athens we have been visiting — just within whosebounds it stands.The modern city does not lend itself easily todefinition as to character. The writer has knownit compared to Leamington, which recalls anotherfamous comparison based on the presence of ariver. There are houses at Leamington and thereare houses at Athens. The alleged resemblanceto Edinburgh consists only in similarity of geographicalposition.But the Acropolis can hardlybe likened to Calton Hill, nor Lycabettus toArthur's Seat. And nobody would be boldenough to assert that the skies of " Auld Reekie "are those of Attica, or the tints of the SaronicGulf those of the Firth of Forth. The designersof new Athens probably had in their minds aSouth German capital, but there are bits of itwhich remind one of a watering-place on theRiviera. In short, Athens is Athens. Itscharacteristics are brightness and whitenesstoo much of both in summer. Yet one wouldnot willingly forego those broad, stately roadwaysand spacious pavements. Dust is the greatestscourge-—fine, impalpable dust which invades andcovers every object within doors as well as without.This has already been much abated by theand when that work isasphalting of the streets,completed—and it is being pushed forward rapidly—it will be reduced to a minimum. Taking allthings into consideration, life in Athens is pleasanterthan in Western cities.There is less smoke,

318 HOME LIFE IN HELLASless noise, and more space, and, above all, there isthe "most pellucid air" of Euripides. Even thewhite hot silence of a summer noon isnot oppressive.The nerve-shattering din which is rapidlymaking London uninhabitable has not invadedAthens. The tramways are not noisy. The onlyother public conveyance is a very light and handytwo-horse bus—a really admirable vehicle. Happily,Athens is still Oriental enough not to be in ahurry, even when it is at work. No wonder centenariansare numerous in Greece.Here is the beginning of an Athenian day.Theprofile of Lycabettus is still dark against the kindlingeast when there comes the tinkle of bells.We know they are borne by goats by the dull,muted sound. The timbre of the goat-bell is thesame everywhere. It is unmistakable, differingalike from the fuller tone of the sheep-bell and thesharp jingle of the mule-bells. The tinkle is followedby the cry of Gala, galata (milk), and a tallfigure in fustanella seizes one of his charges bythe leg and draws from her the morning supplyfor the household of the civil servant opposite.The stentorian tones of the goat-herd are quicklyfollowed by the shrill treble of Loostro-verneekifrom the throat of a diminutive shoe-black goinghis round. He has his regular customers, but hedoes not mean to lose a chance one for want ofadvertising, and he has his reward. A coupleof pair of boots are thrown out, and he unslingshis box and sets to work on the doorstep.

ATHENS 319Ephemerides ! The cry is short, sharp, almostimperative, like a word of command, and a youthwith an air of importance comes round the cornerin a hurry with a sheaf of newspapers wet fromthe press. His command is obeyed. Heads andhands are thrust forth and rustling sheets arerapidly exchanged for halfpence. The civil servantopens his window with a rattle. His eagernessis not unreasonable. The turn of a divisionmay throw out the Ministry and him out of hisplace. The whirlwind passage of the newsboyis succeeded by a calm. The neighbourhood isdeep in politics. Presently the silence is brokenby a long-drawn tremulous note Agria radeekia—from the lips of an old woman bowed beneatha hamper of salad herbs—dandelion and other.She emphasises the adjective agria—wild, forwildings are supposed to possess more virtue thangarden-grown saladings. She culled them on theHill of the Muses, or perhaps farther afield, atdawn. For a penny she will sell enough for afamily, and it would not be amiss to purchasefrom her, for tramping the hills and stooping ishard work at her years, and her earnings arescanty. Avgafresca kai limonia—fresh eggs andlemons. An unwritten law decrees that the twoshould be sold together ; it does not appear why,unless it is because they are conjoined in thatwholesome and excellent sauce known as avgolimone.The vendor is a woman of another typethan the poor old herb-gatherer. She makes light

320 HOME LIFE IN HELLASof her two baskets as she strides along, a buxomAlbanian, clad in her white national garb. Butnow the fish is up from Piraeus, and the loudvoicedvendors—why should so mute a creatureas the fish be attended in every land by so muchnoise in the selling?—are shouting Oraia psariafresca—fine fresh fish. They do not pretend it isalive like their English congeners. It is carriedin shallow round wicker trays poised on the head.In Lent the cry of psaria isreplaced by meethta,(mussels), astoko (lobster), and above all soupies(a corruption of sepia, the repulsive cuttle-fish soprized by the Greeks). The vegetables are carriedin panniers by donkeys and in carts. In winterand early spring, kornopeethia is the most frequentcry. The huge cauliflowers come all the way fromEleusis, journeying through the night over thelow pass of Daphne, and along the Sacred Wayto Athens. In late spring the dominant cry iskolokeethakia (young marrows), and anginares(globe artichokes), withfresca bisellia (green peas).Skortha (garlic) isperennial, and the demand forit is so great that it frequently constitutes the onlyitem of a donkey-load. Kreetika Cretan is awinter cry, which is puzzling at first. It refersto Cretan oranges. The vendor avails himselfof an ellipsis. A little later in the season thedominant cry is mespila when the loquat, mostrefreshing of fruit, is abundant. Meanwhile,little girls in neat pinafores are tripping to school,and the streets are dotted with the figures of

young bluejackets.ATHENS 321But the frock does not makethe monk. The Greek Government has ordainedthat all pupils of the Hellenic Schools and Gymnasiashall don the garb. The bluejacket's uniformis easy, inexpensive, and a good dress for a schoolboy.It looks well on the little fellows, especiallyin summer when they are in whites, but on youthsof seventeen, who are palpably not sailors, it israther absurd. However, it adds to the brightnessof the crowd.At noon the church-bells clang inharmoniously.The street cries have ceased for some time, butnow comes a new one, yaoorti, and here is Dimitriat the door with that grateful edible.He carrieshis basins of yaoort in a tin case with a glass front.He will be round again in the evening, and hebrought us the milk at six, carrying the pail, forhe belongs to a cow-dairy, and cows are rarelydriven through the streets like the goats. So hetrudges his round three times a day. He was upat four and he will finish his work about nine.He has no Sundays off. He is twelve. His bareblack poll sometimes streams with rain, but moreoften it braves a sun which would give a Westernsunstroke through a straw hat.But Dimitri, withhis laughing dark eyes and cheeks of the precisehue of a fully ripe nectarine, looks well, and he iscontented with his lot. He has no holidays,properly speaking, but in Lent and at fastingseasons, when milk is not wanted, he has an easytime. On the other hand, Kosta, the bakal's boyY

322 HOME LIFE IN HELLASopposite, works all through Lent. He had the afternoonsof Easter Monday and Christmas Day, andthat is all he gets throughout the year. His hoursare from 5 a.m. until 10.30 p.m.—often 11. Everymorning at 6 Kosta may be seen sweeping thepavement in front of the shop. He sweeps theroadway as well, and takes a particular pride in it.Then he fetches water from the conduit and at halfpastsix takes down the shutters. He is fetchingand carrying more or less all day. Every fewminutes a shrill female voice calls bakali from oneof the neighbouring houses. The resoundingname Pantopoleion (General Store) writ largeover the shop-fronts is ignored by the Athenians,and probably by the bakal himself. The Turkishword is consecrated by long use. Kosta respondsto the call, receives the order, and executes it.Heis square-built and sturdy, fair and grey-eyed,taciturn as a Turk. He nods rather than speaks,but he never forgets what he is told, and he isscrupulously honest. There is never a mistakein his change, and if the stranger pays too muchhe calls his attention to the error. He comes fromTrikala, far north, on the Turkish frontier, andthere isprobably Turkish or Vlach blood in hisveins, though he would be offended if he were toldso. He is a Hellene like the rest of them. Moreover,he has learnt to write Greek and isin greatrequest among his Thessalian countrymen who donot know grammata—itinerant vendors most ofthem—as a letter-writer. He is fifteen and is saving

ATHENS 323his scanty earnings in order to go to America,that Mecca of the modern Greek. His masteris a Thessalian too, and so are most of hiscustomers. The bakal at the next corner is fromEleusis, and the people who frequent his shop arepeasants from the countryside, less rude and betteroff in the world than the Thessalians.When onehas sojourned for a time in Athens it is interestingto note all these little worlds which make thecapital a microcosm of Greece. Here in SolonStreet is a bakal from Euboea, a smart man ofbusiness like most of the Eubeans, and drivinga good trade. Among his boys is a thirteen-yearoldwhose fair skin and blue eyes do not belong toEubcea, but tell of the south. "Where do youcome from, Jorgo? " "Kranithi." Sure enough,he is from Kranidion, on the extreme point ofthe Argolic peninsula. But Sophocles, darkhairedand alert, is of another stock, and tells youhis birthplace is Chalcis.A restaurant is sometimes attached to the bakal'sshop. The bakal does not keep it himself, but letsoff a portion of his premises, a room or a garden,to a cook, who is frequently an islander. In thesame way, wine-shops are often eating-houses atthe same time under this system of dual proprietorship.The vintner supplies the cook's customerswith wine, and thus sells more than he wouldotherwise. The bakal always combines the callingof a tavern-keeper with that of a provision-dealer,and his establishment is furnished with chairs and

324 HOME LIFE IN HELLAStables, at which professional men and merchantsdo not disdain to sit, though even in democraticAthens society sorts itself automatically in theseestablishments. There is one in Stadium Streetlargely frequented by officers, and it is rarelyentered by workmen or peasants. It is the samewith the cafes. The Cafe Zacharatos is frequentedby members of the Chamber, officials and politicians,and by people of importance generally,together with some who wish tobe thought important.In the Cafe Byron the visitor findshimself in a literary atmosphere with a contingentof University students. In the "Helvetia" theUniversity element is dominant. The cafes donot sell wine, but they supply spirits. Thecreamery galaktopoleion—confines itself to milkproducts and confectionery, and is a very popularinstitution with all classes.It serves as a restaurantfor many, and the number of creameries ison theincrease. The patisseries are a combination ofcafe and confectionery. They are the chosenresort of the elegant section of Athenian society,especially certain establishments in the neighbourhoodof Constitution Square. Tea-rooms are,however, the dernier cri of the select. Athens eatsat noon punctually. The clangour of the churchbells has scarcely died away when the streetsarefull of people hurrying to their midday repast.The tramcars are crowded with business mengoing home, and the restaurants grow suddenlybusy. One cannot go far in any part of Athens

ATHENS 325without coming across an eating-house. Thebest are in Stadium Street. In the popularquarters they abound. Often they occupy cellarsand are approached by a steep flight of steps fromthe pavement. The Greek easily turns restaurateur.There are many establishments of whatmay be called an amateur character. A group ofUniversity students will prevail upon a shopkeeperto cater for them, and meet at noon and evebehind a screen in a corner, and the fare is oftenbetter in these extemporised dining-rooms than inthe regular establishments. Their clients alwaysbelong to the same province, and the city isof these little coteries.fullIt has been computed thatonly about a third of the population isborn.AthenianIn the early years of the nineteenth century,according to Finlay, the proportions were thesame, and of the native third, he says that morethan half was Albanian. But these conditionsare by no means new. Tacitus in his day remarkedthat the old Athenians were extinct, andhad been replaced by divers races. The modernAthenians are therefore a conglomerate, fusedinto a more or less homogeneous whole. It wasnot so in the early years of the new kingdom.the thirties, forties, and fiftiesInthe Athenians bornheld aloof from the Phanariots from Constantinople,whom they called heterocthones, they themselvesbeing autocthones. The Phanariots werelooked upon with a jealous eye and kept out ofpublic offices. Then came the wealthy bankers

326 HOME LIFE IN HELLASand merchants from the countries inwhich theyhad enriched themselves. This was the classwhich cultivated relations with the Franks, inwhose countries they had dwelt and with whosemanners they were acquainted. They werescouted at first by the Athenians, but they arenow influential.They inoculated the sleepy landowners andpetty traders of the Athens of that day with ataste for luxury and display, and also with a maniafor speculation and risky finance which led tospeedy disaster, the ill effects of which are still felt.But the narrow local patriotism of the nativeAthenians and the Constantinopolitantraditionsof the more cultured Phanariots needed theawakening touch of a new element, and, forbetter or worse, it had to come, inevitably, fromthese Greek representatives of the plutocracywhich holds so large a place in modern Europe.Its forerunners, it is worth noting in this connection,were the Florentine Acciajuoli who ruledAthens in the fourteenth century. The power ofthe financial aristocracy which was destined toreplace that of the Baron and the Churchman wascradled in the palace of the Propylaea.Athenian society is not given to gaiety.It hasbeen stated in a former chapter that people do not"receive" largely. The Court is the quietest inEurope. The New Year's Ball is the one functionin the year. There are two good theatres, whichare pretty well frequented in winter. Carnival

ATHENS 327brings with it the usual dances and one greatmasked ball. Concerts at the Odeon and elsewherealways draw a goodly audience. The ParnassosClub is the most active of the socialcentres, and its severer literary side is temperedby fetes intimes and musical evenings. ButAthenians do not care much for indoor gatherings.The stranger soon notices that ladies paymore attention to their outdoor toilettes than tothose of the house. The evening drive to Phaleronand the evening promenade to the Zappeion aretime-honoured institutions, and constitute theprincipal social event of every day. In summerthere is an exodus from town. Kephisia is stilla favourite resort, as it was in ancient times.Some eight miles from Athens on the road toPentelicus, it is still as Aulus Gallius describedit in the Noctes Attici, a place of shady groves,smooth lawns, and limpid springs whose murmuris mingled with the song of birds.whilst the guest of H erodes Atticus,It was there,that he inventedthe term " classic " as applied to literature.It has had a long life. The late M. Syngros,that modern Herodes Atticus, had a countryhousein the neighbourhood, and Kephisia is thesummer abode of the wealthy, whose villas andgardens appear to be the object of greater carethan their town-houses. That it should alwayshave been chosen as a retreat isnatural enough.It has ample shade and abundance of water, bothrare in Attica. These advantages, no doubt,

328 HOME LIFE IN HELLASdetermined the choice of Plato,not far off,whose villa wasbetween Heraclea, the Bavarian villageof to-day, and the shrine of Artemis Amarysia,the modern Marousa.Phaleron has its devotees. Founts and trees itcannot boast, but it has the sea, and the bathingat Phaleron is unrivalled.It is worth the journeyto Athens to have that experience. There is noshivering inthose azure waters or on those sunsmittensands. The Athenians have it at theirdoors. It is a twenty minutes' tram-ride fromConstitution Square. But they do not take fulladvantage of it.There prevails a singular superstitionthat it is not good to bathe until melonsare ripe. That is not until July, so that duringthe latter half of May and the whole of June theyendure a sun inconceivable in England, but avoidthe Phaleron beach. This excessive prudencewould astound an English watering-place, wherea temperature equal to that of a fine AthenianJanuary day is considered inviting for a dip.Swimming and gymnastics are the two formsof athletics which appeal to the Greeks. Gameshave little attraction for them. The tennis courtson the banks of the Ilissus are a fashionablerendezvous, but the game is not pursued withardour. The young girls play, but there is alack of lady players. There are golf links, butthey are used mainly by Western residents.Football,which has gained such a hold all over theContinent and elsewhere— I have seen a very good

ATHENS 329game played in the island of Minorca—has noadherents in Greece. Cricket was started in theIonian Islands under the British regime, but ithas died out. The only memento of our occupation,except the roads, is—ginger-beer. TheIonians have stuck to that, but they have abandonedthe wicket. The prominence given tophysical culture in the education of the ancientGreeks has caused the moderns to make gymnasticscompulsory in the schools, and they wiselyinsist on its being treated as one of the mostimportant lessons. Athletic clubs have beenformed in various centres, but there is lacking thespirit of sport as we understand it, and athletesdo not receive much encouragement.If the Athenians do not play football or croquet,they have learnt how to play bridge. Cardsoccupy an undue portion of time, and althoughgambling does not prevail to anything like theextent it does in England, as on the Turf, forexample, play is an evil in Athenian society. Itwould be very unjust to assume that the wholeof society is given up to card-playing and trivialpursuits. The bulk lead a pure, sane, and affectionatefamily life, and a large section find relaxationin intellectual work. The Parnassos Society,which includes both sexes, expends its energiesin various directions, and its weekly lecturesand readings bring together a throng of the bestsocial elements in Athens. The Byron Society,a younger body—it was founded in 1868—circu-

330 HOME LIFE IN HELLASlates books throughout the country. Englishpeople ought to feel a sympathy for it, since itsubscribed for and set up a statue of Byron atMesolonghi in 1881, and instituted a festival inhis honour. The Society for the Propagation ofHellenic Literature was founded in 1869. It mustbe remembered that these are not Academicbodies, but purely social and popular.Athenian ladies have been accused of indifferenceto the lot of their poorer sisters, of possessingno initiative, of putting forth no effort towardssocial amelioration, and generally as wanting inideals. But how does this stand in the face ofthe following facts?The Union of Greek Women, which is wellhoused in Academy Street, is varied in its activities.It provides a shelter for aged domesticservants, and undertakes the care of the sick poorin their own homes—a work of charity that ismade educative, for people are invited to attendlectures on the proper treatment of the sick. TheUnion lays special stress on the prevention ofconsumption, which is all too rife in Athens, andcarelessness is the chief contributory cause. ASeminary for Women Teachers and an IndustrialSchool for Girls are established at the headquartersof the Union, which owes its existence toMadame Parren, the well-known writer. Anotherinstitution, known colloquially to Athenians as the" Poor Girls," is a technical school and workshopfor destitute women and children, who are taught

ATHENS 331to comb, card, and spin wool, to embroider,and to make lace and carpets. The Home ofSt.Catharine provides board and lodging at therate of 30 drachmas (about 24s.) a month for girlsemployed in shops, girl students, and others inAthens who are separated from their families.Not only does this excellent institution provide forthe material wants of itsproteges, but opportunitiesare afforded them of improving their educationby means of evening classes, lectures are givenon the hygiene of the home and person, and thegirls are encouraged to develop habits of selfrelianceand independence, and the dignity ofwomanhood is instilled into them as a principle oflife and conduct.The Orphanage for Boys is one of the oldestcharities in Athens. Its inmates wear a neatuniform, and have an excellent military bandwhich plays them through the streets when theyset off on their periodical country walks. Theyare all taught a trade. The Orphanage for Girlswith its hospital was founded by Queen Amalia,and the present Queen is its patron. The girlsreceive an education in which housekeeping ismade an important element. They are eagerlysought for as servants, but in some cases theymarry on leaving the Orphanage, and as noGreek, however humble his position, will take awife without receiving money with her,marriageportions are provided from a special fund. Chiefamong the hospitals is the great Evangelismos,

332 HOME LIFE IN HELLASsituated in a healthy, open spot on the farther slopeof Lycabettus. It is well equipped and wellstaffed, and visited periodically by the mosteminent practitioners in Athens. It is managedby a committee of ladies presided over by QueenOlga, who takes an intimatepersonal interest inits welfare. The nursing staff is managed by aDanish lady. It is not an easy matter to obtainnurses. The Greeks consider nursing as a professionbeneath their dignity, although whentrained they are quick and capable.Nevertheless,nothing will induce them to appear in public inuniform. The Children's Hospital outside Athens,at Goudi, is a model establishment. It is due tothe initiative of the Crown Princess Sophia, whohas made it an object of constant personal careand supervision. The Home for Incurables ismanaged by a committee of twenty ladies. TheInstitution for the Blind, a handsome building inthe Byzantine style, is in University Street. Amost useful charity is the Soup Kitchen, built bythe Princess Sophia. It supplies wholesome,well-cooked repasts for ten and twenty leptas—penny and twopence—and is a real boon to thenecessitous in a city where food is exceedinglydear, and in the lower class of eating-houses oftenof dubious quality, and prepared under dirty andinsanitary conditions. The Royal Hellenic Schoolof Needlework, founded by Lady Egerton, thewife of a former British Minister, has become in agreat measure self-supporting. The making of

ATHENS 333exquisite lace and embroidery, for which Greecewas formerly famous, was becoming a lost art,and it was the aim of the foundress to revive it, atthe same time creating an industry which wouldbenefit the women of Greece. It has severalbranches, and the women and girlshave provedenthusiastic pupils and produce most beautifulwork. The designing is done mainly at Athens,and some of the branches have specialities. Theisland of JEgina reproduces old Greek point, andCrete makes lace of distinctive Cretan type.Corinth is engaged on white embroidery on linen,a very beautiful class of work. Korope, a villagebehind Hymettus, is busied with coloured embroideryof Albanian pattern. The island ofKephallenia turns out needlework of a specialIonian character. Athens has devoted itself tothe reproduction of old designs, Greek, Frankish-Greek, and Byzantine, and has even gone to theremote Mycenaean Age. Some of the work is ofa very intricateIt is all beautiful and distinctive.nature and demands great skill.In a land where politics claim so much attentionone might expect to find ladies' political associations,but there are none, and the feminine vote isas yet below the horizon.But that Greek ladiesare capable of united philanthropic effort,are notunmindful of the welfare of their sex, and arestriving to improve its condition, is amply provedby what precedes. A Greek mother, asked as tothe number of her children, used to reply, "Two

334 HOME LIFE IN HELLASboys and—I beg your pardon—three girls." Thedeprecatory parenthesis is no longer considerednecessary. Girls need no apology for havingcome into the world. It is thought worth whileto educate them, and if they will they may taketheir place beside their brothers in the lectureroomsof the University. There are girl graduatesin philosophy, and lady doctors who havetaken their degrees at Athens or in Paris. Toappreciate the significance of this, we must rememberthat when Greece recovered her freedomthe woman who could read and write was a phenomenon.Travellers of sixty or seventy yearsago tell of their surprise at finding well-dressed,well-mannered ladies of the richer class destituteof these elementary accomplishments.In those days their only recreation seems tohave been the bath. It is not so now ; but a spiceof Orientalism lingers inthe baths, rendered aromaticand stimulating by a cunning decoction ofwhich some of the ingredients are rosemary andleaves of the walnut and lemon tree.The Athenian ladies have been reproached fortheir short, ungraceful figures, their lack of charm,and the plainness of their features, redeemed onlyby their eyes. A short sojourn in Athens wouldsuffice to disprove this. The Athenians are rarelytall,but their figures are often elegant, and withoutany pretensions to extraordinary beauty theypossess distinction. They certainly need moreexercise; but that is provided for the younger

ATHENS 335generation. It is noticeable that there is a growingtendency towards greater stature and a betterdevelopedphysique in the Athenian schoolgirl ofto-day. Whether this is the effect of tennis andgymnastics or not, it is patent to all who care toobserve. The Athenian falls short, not in herface and figure, but in her voice. She inherits abeautiful and expressive language, but she failsto do justice to it. The shrill, strident intonationand sharp, hurried utterance detract from thedignity of a personality otherwise charming, andspeech brings with it a sense of disappointment.Undeniably intelligent, quick in her sympathies,and displaying in her conversation a wide rangeof knowledge, there issomething that we invariablymiss in the Greek, and sooner or later wediscover it to be an insensibility to beauty of thehigher kind. She will sit and gossip with herback turned to a fine sunset, and can rarely discriminatebetween the vulgar and trivial and thegood and true in art. Notwithstanding, theAthenian lady isof the Near East. She stands on another level.Of her, and no less of the whole nation, it maythe foremost among the womenbe said there is a wide gulf between the presentand the epoch of Independence. If we considerwhat Greece was in a past not yet distant, andcompare her with what she is now, we must admitthat her progress has been littleshort of miraculous.Take one detail alone. When King Othocame to Athens in 1832 there was not a single

336 HOME LIFE IN HELLASroad practicable for wheeled traffic in the country.In 1906 there were 845 miles of railway, 4883miles of telegraphs, and 436 miles of telephone.Post offices did not exist when Athens becameonce more Greek. Now there are between 700and 800.And the moral progress has been not awhit behind the material.the administrative and socialAthens has the aspect,machinery, and theembellishments of any other European capital,and we take it for granted. But when we seethe troops of children thronging the streets ontheir way to or from school, we forget the centurieswhen Greece was subjected to the infamous tributeof children, which tore boys from their parents andtheir faith to swell the ranks of the Sultan's janissaries.When, on the Acropolis, we admire thegrace and strength of the Caryatides, we are aptto overlook the time, not so very long ago, whenthe Erectheion was the harem of the Disdar-Agha.It is hard to withhold admiration from a peoplewho won their way through this, stubbornly preservingtheir nationality. For the Greeks werenever blotted out as were the Bulgarians for aperiod.Want of balance has always marked opinionsupon Greece. They have erred either on the sideof unqualified praise or of wholesale condemnation.This was the case during the struggle forindependence. That Greece still lived came as arevelation to the West.People were dazzled bythe wonder of it, and carried away by enthu-

ATHENS 337siasm, dreamed of a revival of the greatness ofthe past.Others based their judgment on theirexperience of a handful of Levantine traders,assigning to the whole nation the qualities of thelatter. It needed the common-sense of a poet totake a saner view. Byron wrote in 1824: "Theformer state of the Greeks can have no more effecton their present lot than the existence of the Incason the future fortunes of Peru. Instead of consideringwhat they have been or speculating onwhat they may be, let us look at them as theyare. . . . Allowance must be made for them byall reasonable people." The poet rightly insistedthat time was needed for them to show what stuffthey were made of, "when the limbs of the Greeksare a little less stiff from the shackles of four centuries."A comparison between the Greeks of then andnow, if it does not justify the wild visions thatwere entertained by the Philhellenes of those days,must lead any unprejudiced mind to the conclusionthat they have made enormous strides. Yetjudgment is apt to be less indulgent than it was.One reason is, perhaps, that people do not knowtheir classics so well nowadays. Those whobut classicalspecialise in them know them better ;learning is not so generally diffused. When LordCochrane took command of the Greek fleet headvised the Provisional Government at NaupliaHowto read the First Philippic of Demosthenes.many naval officers of the present generation are

338 HOME LIFE IN HELLASfamiliar with the Attic orator ? The exigencies oftheir profession leave them little time for aughtelse. And education generally has followed otherand broader lines than when the classics were itsbed-rock. But Greece can never have quite thesame meaning to those who are unacquaintedwith her literature. Yet she is more deservingnow of sympathy than in the days when it was solargely given to her. Finlay tells how throughthe stern-windows of Cochrane's cabin he saw theHydriote brigs sail out of harbour because thedemand for two months' pay in advance had notbeen acceded to. Such a thing would be impossiblenow. The nation has left its childhoodbehind.WILLIAM BRENDON AND SON, LTD.PRINTERS, PLYMOUTH

"Dammy, that's your sort."Daily Chronicle." More enthralling than the most romantic novel." Sporting Life.FORTY YEARS OF ASPORTSMAN'S LIFEBYSir Claude Champion de Crespigny, Bt.With 15 illustrations, and a portrait in photogravureSecond Edition. Demy Svo. 10s. 6d. netMILLS & BOON find it difficult to decide which reviews toquote for this magnificent Sporting Volume, which hasbeen reviewed enthusiastically by almost every organ ofnote in Great Britain, and so interesting have the reviewersfound it that notices have appeared running to OVERTHIRTY-TWO FEET within six days of publication.In choosing that which appeared in The Daily Telegraphit must not be inferred that it is the most favourable or the longest{The Sporting Life devoted nearly three columns to it), but theshort extract here given, gives some idea of the many good thingscontained in this capital story of a real sportsman's doings :"Few better sportsmen ever took the field than Sir Claude Championde Crespigny, whose breezy, manly reminiscences are here given, to the worldin a comely and most entertaining volume. ^The book, from cover to cover,is of good sportsmanship all compact ; without a touch of exaggeration,or even the faintest taint of egotism, it tells the story of a sportsman'sadventures in the saddle and under canvas, at sea and in the sky, andabounds in capital anecdotes and in sage, sensible reflections. There isnothing the least superficial about Sir Claude's experiences. He has servedin the Navy and in the Army, in India and in South Africa ; has riddenmany thousands of miles to hounds and over steeplechase courses ; was apioneer of ballooning, and one of the best shots in the country. Thoughhe has turned his 6oth year, he still looks forward to many seasons of activesport, having kept himself 'as hard as nails,' and retained undimmed hisyouthful enthusiasm for the open-air life. When to these qualifications isaddedthe innate modesty of good-breeding and good-fellowship, it is obviousthat Sir Claude's equipment is one of exceptional brilliancy and attractiveness.It is seldom indeed that one encounters so thoroughly stimulating andvigorous a record as may be found between the covers of the present livelyand well-written volume.'MILLS & BOON, LTD., 49 RUPERT STREET, LONDON, W.

THE PARSON'SPLEASANCEBy P. H. DITCHFIELD, M.A.Demy 8vo. With 26 Illustrations. 10s. 6d. netDaily Graphic—"With a light and graceful touch Mr.Ditchfield is always keen to impart a literary flavour to hisdescriptions, and now and again to tell a witty story or apiquant episode. There are many reasons why Mr. Ditchfield'snew book should be read and re-read. Its charmingand sympathetic pictures are not by any means the least ofits attractions."Evening Standard. — " Reveals the existence of a numberof old survivals of the past, a number which comes as adelightful surprise even to those who have interested themselvesin these old merry-makings."Daily News.— " Will bring considerable pleasure to thosewhose love of literature is coupled with a relish for theattractions of rural life."Scotsman.— "A pleasant record of sympathetic observations."Daily Telegraph.—" Lovers of the leisurely essay willhere find a book after their own hearts."Church Family Newspaper.— "We refer our readers tothis abundantly furnished, entertaining, and, in the bestsense, charming book."Daily Mirror.— "A very pleasantly written record."Manchester Courier.— " The spontaneity of each individualpaper is not lessened by this, and the reader's enjoyment isintensified, for one can turn at will either into secluded walk,or well-stored library, or busy village street, or quaint foreigntown. In all his hobbies the author is enthusiastic, and hisown evident pleasure carries the reader's feelings with him."DundeeAdvertiser.— "This erudite volume is a perfect mineof miscellaneous minerals, with many gems here and there."MILLS & BOON, LTD., 49 RUPERT STREET, LONDON, W.

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