Darwinism - Descent withModification
Descent with Modification Darwin stated newer forms appearingin fossil record are MODIFIEDdescendents of older species. (1859) Differed from Lamarck in that all orgscame from a common ancestor and theenvironment plays a major role. Lamarck believed traits were acquireddue to a need to change. Traits thenpassed to offspring. (1801)
Theory of Natural Selection Natural Selection can lead to formationof new species. Darwin’s theory accounts for the role ofnature/environment in the changes thatoccur in a species. Darwin’s theory can explain extinction.
Adaptations . . . .
Adaptation Inherited trait that increases anorganisms chance of survival andreproduction in a particularenvironment. Examples - structural- physiological- behavioral
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Darwin’s Inspirations:Biogeography Species tend to bemore related withspecies from thesame area. These two mammalgroups adapted tosame way of lifebut evolvedindependentlyfrom differentancestors.
Formation of SedimentaryRock Layers
Darwin’s Inspirations: FossilsTraces or remains of an organismthat lived in the past – usually hardparts of organism.
Using fossils to match landforms –similar environments
Some fossils indicate missinglinks between existing groups oforganismsWhales evolved from a terrestrial ancestor
Darwin’s Inspirations:Morphology – body design Homologousstructures =underlyingstructuralsimilarity. Indicatescommonancestry.
Analogousstructures -Darwin’s Inspirations:Morphology – body designsimilar functionbut are likelycoincidental. Result of traitsnecessary forsurvival in aspecific environment.
Darwin’s Inspirations:Morphology – body design Vestigialstructures –body parts thatare present butnot functioning. Remnants of anancestor.
Beyond Darwin . . .Embryological Homologies Similarity in earlystages ofdevelopmentindicates commonancestry.
Beyond Darwin . . .Molecular Homologies Molecularcomparisonsindicateevolutionaryrelationships. Examples• Cytochrome C• Hemoglobin• DNAChimps & Humans have 98% same DNA sequences