descent w modification

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descent w modification

Darwinism - Descent withModification


Descent with Modification Darwin stated newer forms appearingin fossil record are MODIFIEDdescendents of older species. (1859) Differed from Lamarck in that all orgscame from a common ancestor and theenvironment plays a major role. Lamarck believed traits were acquireddue to a need to change. Traits thenpassed to offspring. (1801)


Theory of Natural Selection Natural Selection can lead to formationof new species. Darwin’s theory accounts for the role ofnature/environment in the changes thatoccur in a species. Darwin’s theory can explain extinction.


Adaptations . . . .


Adaptation Inherited trait that increases anorganisms chance of survival andreproduction in a particularenvironment. Examples - structural- physiological- behavioral


Complex Mesh Motion6-DOF Floating Body in Free Surface Flow• Flow solver: turbulent VOF free surface, with moving mesh support• Mesh motion depends on the forces on the hull: 6-DOF solver• 6-DOF solver: ODE + ODESolver energy-conserving numerics implementedusing quaternions, with optional elastic/damped support• Variable diffusivity Laplacian motion solver with 6-DOF boundary motion as theboundary condition for the mesh motion equation• Topological changes to preserve mesh quality on capsize• Coupled transient solution of flow equations and 6-DOF motion, force calculationand automatic mesh motion: custom solver is built from library componentsCyprus Advanced HPC Workshop Winter 2012. Tracking: FH6190763 Feb/2012OpenFOAM: Introduction, Capabilities and HPC Needs – p. 14


Darwin’s Inspirations:Biogeography Species tend to bemore related withspecies from thesame area. These two mammalgroups adapted tosame way of lifebut evolvedindependentlyfrom differentancestors.


Formation of SedimentaryRock Layers


Darwin’s Inspirations: FossilsTraces or remains of an organismthat lived in the past – usually hardparts of organism.


Using fossils to match landforms –similar environments


Some fossils indicate missinglinks between existing groups oforganismsWhales evolved from a terrestrial ancestor


Darwin’s Inspirations:Morphology – body design Homologousstructures =underlyingstructuralsimilarity. Indicatescommonancestry.


Analogousstructures -Darwin’s Inspirations:Morphology – body designsimilar functionbut are likelycoincidental. Result of traitsnecessary forsurvival in aspecific environment.


Darwin’s Inspirations:Morphology – body design Vestigialstructures –body parts thatare present butnot functioning. Remnants of anancestor.


Beyond Darwin . . .Embryological Homologies Similarity in earlystages ofdevelopmentindicates commonancestry.


Beyond Darwin . . .Molecular Homologies Molecularcomparisonsindicateevolutionaryrelationships. Examples• Cytochrome C• Hemoglobin• DNAChimps & Humans have 98% same DNA sequences

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