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1 Oscar Sheynin History of Statistics Berlin, 2012 ISBN 978-3 ...

ut I have lived to see many **of** them tacitly adopting the very processes theybegan by condemning.It was difficult to correlate Mendelism and biometry: the former studieddiscrete magnitudes while the latter investigated continuous quantitativevariations. Later developments threw a different light on this subject(Johannsen 1922).I (2010) collected pronouncements **of** celebrated scientists about Pearson,both positive (Kolmogorov, Bernstein, Mahalanobis, Newcomb) andnegative (Fisher). Here, I only quote two authors.Fisher (1937, p. 306) objected to Pearson’s view **of** maximum likelihood,stating that hisPlea **of** comparability [between the methods **of** moments and maximumlikelihood] is […] only an excuse for falsifying the comparison […].Hald (1998, p. 651) **of**fered a reasonable general description **of** one aspect**of** the Biometric school:Between 1892 and 1911 he [Pearson] created his own kingdom **of**mathematical statistics and biometry in which he reigned supremely,defending its ever expanding frontiers against attacks.Of special interest is the testimony **of** Camp (1933) who worked underPearson at the Galton laboratory. Although patently prettifying Pearson, heput forward facts and impressions hardly available elsewhere.It is also necessary to mention W. S. Gosset (pen-name Student). Not amember **of** the Biometric school, he was one **of** the pioneers in thedevelopment **of** modern statistical method and its application to the designand analysis **of** experiments (Irwin 1**978**, p. 409). Specifically, best known ishis work on treating small samples and the t-test. Fisher aptly called him theFaraday **of** statistics (Ibidem, p. 410) since, in a sense, his intuitive feelingwas better than his mathematics. It was perhaps this circumstance that KarlPearson had in mind when, in a letter **of** ca. 1914 to Chuprov’s follower,Anderson, he called Student kein Fachmann (**Sheynin** 1990a/2011, p. 153).E. S. Pearson & Wishart (1943) published Student’s collected papers andE. S. Pearson (1990) is a most informative source about Student and hiscontemporaries. It does not, however, include the bibliography **of** his worksnor contain a concise description **of** his findings.14.3. The Merging **of** the Two Streams?I (§ 14.1-4) noted that the Continental statisticians were not recognizingPearson. Many **of** his colleagues, Chuprov wrote, like Markov, shelve theEnglish investigations without reading them. The cause **of** that attitude wasthe empiricism **of** the Biometric school (Chuprov 1918 – 1919, t. 2, pp. 132– 133):The reluctance, characteristic **of** English researchers, to deal with thenotions **of** probability and expectation led to much trouble. It greatlydamaged clearness […] and even directed them to a wrong track. […]However, after casting away that clothing […] and supplementing the140