- Page 1 and 2: Oscar SheyninHistory of StatisticsB
- Page 3 and 4: 12. Chebyshev12.1. His contribution
- Page 5 and 6: pay due attention to style. In 1991
- Page 7 and 8: 1. PrehistoryI trace the prehistory
- Page 9 and 10: contain an embryo of a random varia
- Page 11 and 12: 1.5. AstronomyAncient astronomers d
- Page 13 and 14: (1609/1992, p. 200/63), when treati
- Page 15 and 16: 2. The Early HistoryIn the 17 th ce
- Page 17 and 18: our peasants have since long ago be
- Page 19 and 20: of view states and separate cities
- Page 21 and 22: In 1680 - 1683 Leibniz wrote severa
- Page 23 and 24: the ratio of the chances that they
- Page 25 and 26: without knowing the appropriate var
- Page 27 and 28: 3. Jakob Bernoulli and the Law of L
- Page 29 and 30: 3.2.2. Statistical Probability and
- Page 31 and 32: It is noteworthy that Kepler (1596)
- Page 33 and 34: 4) The Petersburg game. In a letter
- Page 35 and 36: He left aside the elementary case o
- Page 37 and 38: ut only in the second supplement he
- Page 39: determined the appropriate theoreti
- Page 44 and 45: which was of course evident. More i
- Page 47 and 48: Negligible, as he thought, was the
- Page 49 and 50: Knies (1850, p. 24) quoted unnamed
- Page 51 and 52: A physician is a blind man armed wi
- Page 53 and 54: lead to systems of linear equations
- Page 55 and 56: appeal[ed] to all mankind, whether
- Page 57: with unavoidable use of successive
- Page 60 and 61: facts, and only to attribute to the
- Page 62 and 63: 7. LaplaceLaplace devoted a number
- Page 64 and 65: [Chebyshev -] Hermite polynomials (
- Page 66 and 67: an unknown volume ξ (with expected
- Page 68 and 69: until the (non-rigorously proved) C
- Page 70 and 71: Suppose that ∆x and ∆y are the
- Page 72 and 73: We cannot affirm that it was his de
- Page 74 and 75: Poisson’s programme (1837c) of pr
- Page 76 and 77: interactions, etc. sometimes connec
- Page 78 and 79: In 1899, Poincaré (Sheynin 1991a,
- Page 80 and 81: 9. Gauss, Helmert, BesselGauss intr
- Page 82 and 83: And of course Legendre’s qualitat
- Page 84 and 85: approach seems to be virtually unkn
- Page 86 and 87: Although Gauss may well have been t
- Page 88 and 89: That Gauss had been familiar with t
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Nekrasov’s statement [that Bienay

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5) Dependence between the decisions

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changes brought about by the constr

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sometimes useless or unreliable dat

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y issuing from materials pertaining

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inheritance of a rare deformity in

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Lamarck (1800 - 1811) was one of th

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observations, Boscovich applied a s

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exceed its probable error’. I do

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By the study of Boltzmann I have be

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In a manuscript of the same year (1

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Fechner (1855 and 1864) did not com

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11. Bertrand and PoincaréBertrand

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By several examples Bertrand proved

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lim∫n∫ φ ( x) Φ ( x)dxnψ ( x

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probabilities of red and black coin

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12. ChebyshevChebyshev proved his v

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estimates of the integral of a non-

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mathematical analysis cannot derive

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13. Markov, Liapunov, NekrasovI con

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(1900/1924, c. 2) that various conc

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P (ξ ≤ t 2 Eξ) > 1 - 1/t 2and B

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Chebyshev thought that the limits o

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14. The Birth of Mathematical Stati

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statisticians and economists of the

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ut I have lived to see many of them

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Supplement: AxiomatizationI present

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BibliographyThe Supplement has its

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--- (1838a), Untersuchung über die

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--- (1850), Die periodischen […]

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David, F. N., Neyman, J. (1938), Ex

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--- (1937), Professor K. Pearson an

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Henny, J. (1975), Niklaus und Johan

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Kolmogorov, A. N., Prokhorov, Yu. V

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--- (1958, in Russian), Method of L

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Mises, R. von (1919), Fundamentals

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--- (1900), On a criterion that a g

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Raju, C. K. (2010), Probability in

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--- (1997c, in Russian), Markov and

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White A. D. (1896), History of the

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Brendel, M. 9.1.5Brownlee, J. 10.8.

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Gram, J. P. 10.2-5Graunt, J. 2.1.4,

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Mill, J. S. 3.1.2, 8.3, 11.3Mises,

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Wilks, S. S. 7.1-2William III 2.1.3