1 Oscar Sheynin History of Statistics Berlin, 2012 ISBN 978-3 ...

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1 Oscar Sheynin History of Statistics Berlin, 2012 ISBN 978-3 ...

inoculation should be indemnified or given memorial medals. He alsoexpressed his own thoughts applicable to studies of even unpreventablediseases. Dietz et al (2000; 2002) described Bernoulli’s and D’Alembert’sinvestigations on the level of modern mathematical epidemiology andmentioned sources on the history of inoculation. For his part, K. Pearson(1978, p. 543) stated that inoculation was said to have been a custom inGreece in the 17 th century and was advocated […] in the PhilosophicalTransactions of the Royal Society in 1713. Also see Sheynin (1972/1977,pp. 114 – 116; 1982, pp. 270 – 272).6.2.4. Meteorology. Leibniz (§ 2.1.4) recommended regularmeteorological observations. Indeed (Wolf 1935/1950, p. 312),Observations of barometric pressure and weather conditions were madeat Hanover, in 1678, and at Kiel, from 1679 to 1714, at the instigation ofLeibniz.The Societas meteorologica Palatina in Pfalz (a principality in Germany)was established in 1780, and, for the first time in the history of experimentalscience, it organized cooperation on an international scale. At about thesame time the Société Royale de Médecine (Paris) conducted observations inseveral European countries (Kington 1974) and even in the 1730s – 1740sthey were carried out in several towns in Siberia in accordance withdirections drawn up by Daniel Bernoulli in 1733 (Tikhomirov 1932). In thesecond half of the 18 th century several scholars (the meteorologist Cotte,Lambert and Condorcet) proposed plans for comprehensive internationalmeteorological studies.Lambert (1773) studied the influence of the Moon on the air pressure andDaniel Bernoulli encouraged him (Radelet de Grave et al 1979, p. 62): if theinfluence of the Moon on the air is similar to its influence on the seas, itshould be observable, because the Moon’s distance varies, but the elasticityof air and its weak inertia should be allowed for. And, further:Your considerations […] are quite justified; publish them withouthesitating […] whatever are the results […]. Only try to establish themproperly.Toaldo (1775; 1777) statistically studied the connections betweenphenomena concerning meteorology and stated that the weather dependedon the configurations of the Moon. His opinion was not abandoned until themid-19 th century (Muncke 1837, pp. 2052 – 2076).6.3. Treatment of ObservationsIt became necessary after regular astronomical observations had begun(since Tycho Brahe). A problem of determining the Earth’s figure presenteditself in the second half of the 18 th century. Newton proved that the Earthwas an ellipsoid of revolution with its equatorial radius (a) larger than itspolar radius (b), and attempts were being made to prove or disprove thisconclusion by meridian arc measurements. Their lengths were indirectlycalculated by triangulation. Two such measurements are needed forcalculating the parameters of the ellipsoid (although local deviations of thefigure of the Earth corrupt the results) whereas redundant measurements52

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