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1 Oscar Sheynin History of Statistics Berlin, 2012 ISBN 978-3 ...

5) Dependence between the decisions **of** judges and/or jurors. Cournot(1838; 1843, §§ 193 – 196 and 206 – 225) gave thought to this issue but hisstudy was hardly successful in the practical sense.6) A critical attitude towards statistics; a description **of** its aims andapplications (Chapters 7 and 8 and §§ 103 – 120). **Statistics** (§ 105) shouldhave its theory, rules, and principles, it ought to be most widely applied; itsmain goal was to ascertain the knowledge **of** the essence **of** things, to studythe causes **of** phenomena (§ 120) and the principe de Bernoulli was its onlypertinent sound foundation (§ 115). **Statistics** had blossomed exuberantlyand [the society] should be on guard against its premature and wrongapplications which might discredit it for some time (§ 103).7) Explanation **of** known notions and issues (§§ 64 – 65, 73 – 74).10.4. BuniakovskyHis treatise (1846) was the first comprehensive Russian contribution sothat Struve (1918) called him a Russian student **of** the French mathematicalschool. A list **of** his contributions is in Materialy (1917).1) The theory **of** probability. Buniakovsky (1846, p. I) correctlyattributed it to applied mathematics.2) Moral expectation (see § 6.1.1). Buniakovsky (1846, pp. 103 –122) independently proved Daniel Bernoulli’s conclusion that an equaldistribution **of** the cargo on two ships increased the moral expectation**of** the freightowner’s capital as compared with transportation on asingle ship. Later he (1880) considered the case **of** unequalprobabilities **of** the loss **of** the ships.3) Geometric probabilities (§ 6.1.6). Buniakovsky (1846, pp. 137 –143) generalized the Buffon problem by considering the fall **of** theneedle on a system **of** congruent equilateral triangles. His geometricreasoning was, however, complicated and his final answer, as Markov(Treatise, 1900/1924, p. 270) maintained, was wrong. EarlierBuniakovsky (1836 – 1837) remarked that the solution **of** suchproblems might help to determine the values **of** special transcendentalfunctions.4) Statistical control **of** quality. Buniakovsky (1846, Adendum)proposed to estimate military losses by sample data but his study washardly useful. He (1846, pp. 468 – 469) also indicated that his findingsmight facilitate the acceptance **of** a very large number **of** articles andsupplies only a fraction **of** which was actually examined.5) The history **of** the theory **of** probability. Buniakovsky was one **of**the first after Laplace to consider this subject and made a few **of**factual mistakes.6) Population statistics. Buniakovsky (1846, pp. 173 – 213)described various methods **of** compiling mortality tables, studied thestatistical effect **of** a weakening or disappearance **of** some cause **of**death (cf. § 6.2.3), calculated the mean and the probable durations **of**marriages and associations and, following Laplace, solved severalother problems.After 1846, Buniakovsky continued these investigations. Hecompiled mortality tables for Russia’s Orthodox believers and tables**of** their distribution by age (1866a; 1866b; 1874) and estimated thenumber **of** Russian conscripts ten years in advance (1875b). No one92