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Purpose: Analyse - e-asTTle

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Purpose: AnalyseThis section describes the key characteristics of “analyse” purpose writing. Materials areoffered to asTTle users in the spirit of assisting teachers and learners in secondary schoolcontexts develop the ability to critically analyse, describe and evaluate the merits of literarytexts of a wide range (including novels, plays, poems, short stories, films, and so on). Usersare cautioned against using these materials for writers who generally are not functioning atLevel 4 or above, notwithstanding the provision of scoring indicators below Level 4.Using the Scoring RubricThe progress indicators in the scoring rubric have been developed to help teachers understandand evaluate their students’ progress and achievement in writing. Teachers are asked to makea “best-fit” judgement as to the level at which their student’s writing most predominantly sits foreach of the seven content areas: Audience Awareness and Purpose, Content/Ideas,Structure/Organisation, Language Resources, Grammar, Spelling, and Punctuation.Deep FeaturesAudience Awareness and Purpose:This purpose is the early stages of literary analysis and criticism. The difficult issue withthis purpose, notwithstanding its ubiquity in secondary English classrooms, is that theaudience and purpose is somewhat artificial. The traditional audience for analysis writing isthe teacher/assessor, who knows better than the student what the text is about. Thus forstudents the purpose may be to simply rehearse what the teacher already knows or mayhave even taught. In order to address this uncertainty, it was determined that each taskwould specify that the audience was an adult who has already read the text and that thepurpose would be to help this generalised other to understand the “text” in a new, different,more complete, better, deeper or fresher way.The main focus here is to analyse an important literary aspect of a text such that an adult,knowledgeable reader will understand the insight gained or opinion developed by the writerfrom reading the text.Content/Ideas:Analysis requires the identification of interlocked textual content and a deconstruction or amaking explicit of the nature of the interlocked content as it contributes to the shaping ofthe writer’s opinion. Fundamentally, the writer’s opinion is a considered response to avariety of aspects (e.g., language, plot events, characterisation, dialogue, setting, etc.)within a text. The content of an analysis is the presentation of the relevant content of thetext and a chain of reasoning that shows how the content relates to the opinion or “thesis”being advanced by the writer. A thesis or position statement provides the reader with thewriter’s personal opinion or response to the text.Text analysis of key literary domains (i.e., character, theme, setting, language, content) isused to interpret the topic. In the body of the writing, there are main points with elaboration,usually in the form of supporting evidence that may often be quotations from the text. Thispart of the text presents information (i.e., evidence and/or illustration) and uses a range ofpersonal responses, analogies and/or reference to other texts to support the writer’sposition or thesis. The conclusion re-states the writer’s position within the context of apotential continuing dialogue about the real meaning of the text.Structure/Organisation:There is a focus on objects and ideas, rather than events, happenings or processes.Information and ideas are grouped logically and linked thematically. The organisationalsequence of analytic writing often follows the pattern: classification of the text beinganalysed, identification of the approach or opinion being taken by the writer, briefsummarisation of pertinent content from the text relevant to the opinion being advanced,interpretation or evaluation (Rorabacher, & Dunbar, 1979). Note that the first two elementsmay only require a brief paragraph, and that the last two elements may be interwoven andwill constitute the body of the written response. Less-developed writers will make themistake of excessive summarising or including material only tangentially relevant to thewriter’s opinion. The statement of a major thesis concerning the impact of the text on thewriter is commonly presented first, with traditionally three to five main points being used tosupport, extend or elucidate the major thesis. The conclusion will be invoked whensufficient explanation has been advanced to make the thesis clear and evident. Organisingdevices such as paragraphing and conjunctions are used to show relations among contentitems or ideas.Language Resources:A range of specialised literary terms are used to illustrate the characteristics of the text. Anappropriate level of formality is introduced. Arguments name and describe, in nounphrases, generalised participants or abstract concepts (e.g., parents or the gun-controllobby). Arguments employ declarative or stating mood choices to make statements of factand offer personal opinions on the topic. Precise, descriptive, factual language is employedto give detail and credibility to the argument. Persuasive or emotive language is commonlyused to add to the impact on the reader and make the argument seem powerful. Theremay be use of idiomatic (e.g., regional or local) language to appeal to readers’ senses andemotions. Technical language related to the topic (where appropriate) adds authority to thetext and writer. Extensive use of quotations may be used to exhibit not only understandingof the text but also to give a sense of the language used in the text.Verbs are used to make clear the state of play and many existing and relational verbs areused (i.e., being and having verbs such as is, are, have, belongs to). The choice and useof verb-vocabulary often reflects the desire to create particular information-laden meaningsfor the reader. Modals (e.g., auxiliaries that demonstrate possibility, probability or usuality,such as might, can, ought, should, may) are used to give information about the degree ofcertainty involved in the argument. Verbs are commonly in the timeless present tense. Thisadds to the authority of the text, as readers are given a version of the world as it is.Passive structures are also employed to make the text seem more objective and formal.Analyses often make use of nominalisation (e.g., turning verbs or adjectives into nouns)and abstract nouns to enhance the appearance of objectivity and formality. Noun-packing(long noun phrases) is a common device for developing concise and precise descriptions.Adjectives are often stacked to produce densely packed noun-groups. Note that the“naming” of the world through noun choice can add opinion (e.g., protestors vs. concernedcitizens). Additive and causal relations are common in these texts as positions are definedand elaborated and their underlying reasons related. Conjunctions that express theserelations are utilised (e.g., in addition to, and, if and then, so, because, for this reason,etc.).


Surface FeaturesGrammar:This dimension of text refers to accepted patterns in language use rather than withgrammatical choices made by writers to achieve particular purposes. Here we refer toaspects of grammar such as subject-verb agreement, the use of complete verbs/verbgroups, and the appropriate and consistent use of tense-choices for verbs. It is a student’sability to control language patterns at this level of text that is judged here.Spelling:Spelling is considered separately and is related to increasing skill and knowledge abouthigh-frequency words (HFW), simple spelling patterns, complex spelling patterns, and thespelling of irregular or technical vocabulary. The judgement of spelling is made in thecontext of the student’s text but evidence to support the judgement needs to be consideredcarefully.Punctuation:This dimension of text refers to the degree of control a writer shows over punctuation. Thiscontrol ranges from showing an awareness of sentence punctuation to being able to usecomplex punctuation effectively. Again scorers are required to locate evidence to supporttheir judgements about a student’s competence.


Scoring Rubric, Purpose: ANALYSE (English Only)Content Level 2 (Proficient) Level 3 (Proficient) Level 4 (Proficient) Level 5 (Proficient) Level 6 (Proficient)AudienceAwarenessand PurposeContent/IdeasStructureText written for self rather than for anaudience, although may have tokenrecognition of audience (e.g.,occasional ‘you’).Tendency to express purpose asdescription rather than analysis.Text is largely a simplified repetitionof plot elements only; with strongemphasis on personal experienceand reaction.Much irrelevant or repetitive materialincluded.Generally too brief for adequatedescription of relevant text elements.Semblance of organization evident(e.g., some grouping of ideas).Structure may reflect naïve stream ofconsciousness related to personalresponse or reflect order of eventswithin text being analysed.Awareness of audience hassome impact on languageor writing style, includingdirect address to audience(i.e., ‘you’).Largely descriptiveintention, with someelements of analysisidentified.Largely a description of textelements; may have somepersonal response.Description of text generallyskeletal and inadequate,including repetition andirrelevance.Identifies 1-2 point(s)suitable for analysis.Organization largely drivenby plot sequence of sourcetext, though tendency forunsupported jumps.Ideas are sequencedlogically but may not beparagraphed conventionally.Language use and writingstyle is appropriate to theaudience and task.Identifies relevant keyelements of text as requiredin task.Personal response ratherthan analysispredominates.Straightforward descriptionof text is given.Student text may includeunnecessary repetition orretelling of text.Some relevant text analysisattempted.Beginning providesorientation and may providecontext for writing. Mayattempt a conclusion.Attempts are evident ofgrouping or sequencing ofanalysis (e.g., thematicgrouping).Paragraphs are structuredwith main idea andsupporting details. Acrossthe text there is a sense ofan attempt to organizecontent.Audience’s expertise isacknowledged but this maynot always be sustained.Explains relevance of keyelements of text as requiredin task.Uses some appropriate textelements (e.g., plot,character, theme, setting)to explain aspect of textreferred to in task.May show awareness ofauthor’s purpose and craft.Relevant details (includingquotations) are given andwriter attempts to explaintheir importance to theiranalysis.Some use of appropriatepersonal response orreference to other texts.Straightforwardconventional structure isapparent (introduction,body, and conclusion).Ideas are structured andorganized in paragraphswith topic sentences tosignpost key ideas.Some appropriate orderingand linking betweenparagraphs is evident.Audience’s expertise isacknowledged by largelysustained, appropriateselection and interpretationof content.Evaluates merit/worth ofrelevant key elements.Uses appropriate textelements (i.e., character,theme, setting, language, orcontent) to interpret aspectof text referred to in task.Shows some awareness ofauthor’s purpose and craft.Integration of textualevidence into writing.Details (includingquotations) are usedconsistently andappropriately.Use of appropriate personalresponses, analogies,and/or reference to othertexts.Concise introduction to topicand structure overview ofstudent’s own text is given.Strong organizationalstructures/transitions areevident within and betweenparagraphs.Consistent selection,placement, and ordering ofmaterial in paragraphs andthroughout the text.


Content Level 2 (Proficient) Level 3 (Proficient) Level 4 (Proficient) Level 5 (Proficient) Level 6 (Proficient)LanguageResourcesOveruse of emotive language.Inappropriate subjectiveand even emotive languagepredominates.Writer uses appropriatelanguage to give clarity tothe analysis.Appropriate formality islargely sustained.Appropriate formality issustained.Some use of specialisedliteracy terminology but thismay be inappropriate/inaccurate.Basic specialised literaryterminology is accuratelyused.Accurate use of range ofspecialised literaryterminology.Vocabulary choices restricted tosimple statements withoutelaboration or modification.Many simple sentences andcompound sentences.Complex sentencesevident.Complex sentences evidentand used appropriately.Largely sustained use ofappropriate and variedsentences for effect.GrammarUses most basic grammaticalconventions correctly when writingsimple and compound sentences(e.g., consistent use of tense,subject-verb agreement, consistentuse of pronouns, and correct use ofprepositions).Uses most grammaticalconventions correctly whenwriting simple, compound,and some complexsentences.Uses most grammaticalconventions correctly whenwriting simple, compound,and complex sentences.Uses almost allgrammatical conventionscorrectly when writingsimple, compound, andcomplex sentences.Sustained control ofsentence grammar evidentthroughout piece.Control enhancescommunication.Errors may interfere with meaning.Uses the conventions of grammar with few intrusive errors.PunctuationSome simple sentence indicationevident (i.e., caps, full stops, questionmarks).Simple correct sentenceindication evident (i.e., caps,full stops, question marks.Consistent correct sentenceindication (i.e., caps, fullstops, question mark,exclamation).Uses the conventions of punctuation with few intrusive errors.Errors may interfere with comprehension. Errors do not interfere with comprehension.Some other basic punctuationattempted (e.g., caps for propernouns, commas in lists, speech marks,apostrophes for contraction).Some other basicpunctuation correct (e.g.,caps for proper nouns,commas in lists, speechmarks, apostrophes forcontraction).Mostly accurate use ofcomplex punctuation (e.g.,commas, colons, hyphen,ellipsis, apostrophe ofpossession, and dialogueaccurately punctuated whenused).Accurate use of complexpunctuation (e.g.,apostrophes, colons,hyphens). Some successwith embedded,parenthetical, and conditionalphrases or clauses usingcommas, semicolons.SpellingSpells most HFW (Lists 1-4) correctly. Spells most HFW (Lists 1-6)correctly.Few errors within HFW (Lists1-7).Frequently used spelling patternsevident (e.g., changing y to ies, doubleconsonant when adding ing).Approximate spellings showknowledge of consonant sounds,blends, and vowel sounds.Understands most spellingpatterns including somecomplex patterns (e.g.,plurals using ch,sh,x,o).Understands most spellingpatterns including mostcomplex patterns (e.g., soft‘g’ or ‘c’, keep the ‘e’manageable).Demonstrates a good understanding of spelling patterns withfew intrusive errors.


Content Level 2 (Proficient) Level 3 (Proficient) Level 4 (Proficient) Level 5 (Proficient) Level 6 (Proficient)Spelling(continued)Some success with multisyllabic(e.g.,hygienic),irregular (e.g.,yacht), ortechnical words.Some success with complexmultisyllabic, irregular, ortechnical words.Sustained control of complexmultisyllabic, irregular, ortechnical words.


Annotated Examples for Analyse PurposeAudience Awareness andPurpose 5PNo specific audience identified –generally detached stance, suitablefor analysis. The structure of theanalysis helps the audience bybeing well paragraphed, using topicsentences, and supportingassertions by specific references orexamples.Content/Ideas 5PThe text’s central ideas aredescribed succinctly and linked tothe beliefs held by the writer. Thecomparison is used to evaluate thetext, using specific references,stressing the impact on the writer.Structure/Organisation 5PAn introduction is followed bythree paragraphs (each based on anopening topic sentence andexpanded by discussion andreferences) and by a summarisingconclusion. Some repetition ofmaterial occurs as the writer assertshis(?) own beliefs.Language Resources 5PThe writer demonstrates anunderstanding of literary analysisincluding the conventions oflanguage. The personalised natureof the topic allows more than usualfirst-person material. Severalsentences change their subject partwaythrough.Grammar 5PGenerally sound use of language –some complexity handled well.Overly enthusiastic for pronouns.Punctuation 5BThe convention of identifying titles(underlining) is ignored. Commaspose several difficulties. Capitalsare used accurately with a challengebeing the word/concept “Dust”.Spelling 5BAccurate spelling of an appropriateset of straightforward words.To achieve Level 6 the writer would need to:• Develop more distinctive points so that the argument is more refined and able to be developed.• Control the sentences so that the ideas are succinctly expressed and well supported.• Only have summary and concluding material in the final paragraph – no new material


Audience Awareness and Purpose4PNo audience identified – generallyappropriate analytical writing.Content/Ideas 4PNames of text and author notidentified. Little idea of literaryconventions. Primarily a characterdescription – little analysis of whatpressures formed the character,except loneliness. No examinationof beliefs nor of the challenge ofbeliefs. Basically ignored theinstructions. Final paragraphintroduces “admiration” but noanalysis.Structure/Organisation 4PParagraphed, but not argued.Introduced without preparing forthe argument, ending with newmaterial. Some attempts to illustrateassertions, including usingquotation.Language Resources 4ASentences frequently lack anessential word for completeness – averb, preposition, article…Vocabulary is simple yetappropriate for the type of ideabeing presented.Grammar 3BDeficiencies in sentenceconstruction, including verb forms.Punctuation 4BRandom use of capitals.Inconsistent use of punctuationmarks.Spelling 4PMostly accurate spelling of simplevocabulary. (Handwriting stylemakes being definite about spellingdifficult.)To achieve Level 5 the writer wouldneed to:• Understand and apply literaryconventions for analysis andpresentation.• Construct an argument bydesigning topic sentences thatallow a case to be developed andargued by paragraphs ofexplanation and references orexamples.• Construct sentences that havecompleteness and grammaticalcorrectness.


There is no glossary available for the analyse purpose.

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