KAIST Module 1.2.1(newly updated) - Systems Modeling Simulation ...

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KAIST Module 1.2.1(newly updated) - Systems Modeling Simulation ...

CC532Collaborative System DesignPart I: Fundamentals of SystemsEngineering1. System and Systems EngineeringCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Buzz Words: How many of you haveheard…RequirementsFunctionArchitectureSystems EngineeringSystem of SystemsInterfacesSystemComponentsEngineeringSubsystemProject ManagementCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


What is a system?CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Major Topics of SE?Requirements ?- draw lines on paper- can be used for a long time- erase drawn lines- be gripped with one hand- no slip- good look / feel- light weight- environmentally safe- thickness- hardness- colorFunction ?- cheapArchitecture ?Product- graphite core- wood covering the core- rubber eraser attached to the other side- paint and label upon the wood stick-draw black lines on paper with hand-erase written linesCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Requirements, Function, and ArchitectureRequirementsArchitectureFunctionCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Requirements, Function, and ArchitectureRequirementsSomethingNew ?ArchitectureFunctionWeapon SystemAerospace SystemMarine SystemIntelligent Traffic Control SystemVehicle System (Car, Ship, Plane, …)Information SystemNetwork SystemRobot System…CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim6


Really a System is…OperatorsCustomersPeopleProductProcessFacilitiesEquipmentDevicesComponentsServiceOperationHand Writing System ^^CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Module Purpose: What is SystemsEngineering? Provide some common definitions of systemsengineering in the context of space project development. Motivate the need for systems engineering anddemonstrate the consequences of poor systemsengineering. Describe how systems engineering adds value to thedevelopment of large projects. Develop some common systems engineering processmodels and show how they are related.CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


System?• Definition of System“A set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract,forming an integrated whole” [Wikipedia Encyclopedia]“A combination of components that act together to perform afunction not possible with any of the individual parts”[IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms]• Views of System at Different Facets– Process– Task• Sequence of tasks• Sequence of actions– Action• Sequence of functions– Function• I/O map of a componentLess detailMore detailAbstractionCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Components of System Role of Components of system to satisfy one or more functional requirements to achieve, provide and sustain system effectiveness Components of SystemSystemInputSystemElementsProductsOutputPeopleProcessesRef: MIL-STD-499BCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Example : News System‟s ComponentsA News system may include the followingProcesses:• transportation of reporters to the scene, telephone (services)• presentation method, editing procedures (techniques)People:• camera operators, news anchor (personnel)Products:• cameras, monitors (hardware)• schedule management tools (software)• studio, broadcasting tower (facilities)• script, program guide (data)• video, pictures, stories (materials)CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Systems: Natural vs Man-madeNaturalSystemsEcologyBotanyBiologicalAstronomicalAstrophysics……SystemsMan-madeSystemsMechanicalElectronicSoftwareChemicalThermodynamicHuman organizations……CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Views of System in Different Levels ofPeopleMathematicalModel(Researcher)EngineeringDiagram(Engineer)+ -VRCPhysical Object(Technician)CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


WHL Framework in Systems DesignPlayerAPlayerBWhat-to-doRequest/SpecPlayerAImplementation/ServicePlayerBHow-to-doWhat-to-doAttack Defense Attack DefenseRequest/SpecImplementation/ServicePlayerAPlayerBSynthesisHow-to-doWhat-to-doReceiveAttackSendDefenseServe_A Serve_BFailOutFail_BRequest/SpecImplementation/ServicePlayerAPlayerBHow-to-doCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Problem Starting to Solving in DesignSystemINTERFACESubsystem 1InterfaceElectrical SubsystemS/W SubsystemInterfaceInterfaceComponent 1Component 2Component 1Component 2Mechanical Subsystem Component 1… … Interface …Subsystem NInterfaceSystems EngineeringSubsystem 1Subsystem 2InterfaceInterfaceChemical Subsystem 1Biological Subsystem 2Electrical Subsystem 3Chemical Subsystem 1Mechanical Subsystem 2Specialized System Engr.Systems Engineer / Problem Starter Specialized Engineer /Problem SolverEngineering a systemSystems Engineering + Specialized(sub) System EngineeringCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


• DefinitionSystem Engineering?“…interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on thedevelopment and organization of complex artificial systems”[Wikipedia Encyclopedia]“… a branch of engineering whose responsibility is creating andexecuting an interdisciplinary process to ensure that customer andstakeholder‟s needs are satisfied in a high quality, trustworthy, costefficient and schedule compliant manner throughout a system‟sentire life cycle, from development to operation to disposal”[INCOSE]“… transdisciplinary management technology” [A. Sage]“… academic and professional discipline the principal concern ofwhich is the responsibility to ensure that all requirements of systemare satisfied throughout life cycle of the system” [A. Wymore]• Three Iterative Lifecycle of SE [A. Sage]– Planning and marketing life cycle– RDT&E life cycle• Definition Design Development TestCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering– Production life cycle© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Wymore‟s View of System Engr. (SE)• Disciplines that SE is not:– Applied Math– Applied Probability and Statistics– Economics– Operational Research– Computer Science– Numerical Analysis– System Theory / System Science– Specialized Engineering• Human Factors Engineering• Software Engineering• Agriculture• Civil, Electrical, Mechanical, Manufacturing, Industrial, Chemical• Furthermore, SE is not sum of the above disciplines• Main function of SE: a bridge between the system problems generated bysociety and the solutions provided by technologyCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


NASA: Systems Engineering?Systems engineering is a robust approach to the design,creation, and operation of systems.The approach consists of:– identification and quantification of system goals– creation of alternative system design concepts– performance of design trades– selection and implementation of the best design– verification that the design is properly built andintegrated, and– assessment of how well the system meets thegoalsThis approach is iterative, with several increases in theresolution of the system baselines (which containrequirements, design details, verification plans and costand performance estimates).Ares 1CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


What to do in systems Engineering ?•The systems engineering discipline shall be appliedthroughout the project life cycle as a comprehensive, iterativetechnical and management process to:– Translate an operational need into a solution through a systematic,concurrent approach to integrated design and its related downstreamprocesses– Integrate the technical input of the entire development community and alltechnical disciplines– Ensure the compatibility of all interfaces– Ensure the integration, verification, and validation processes areconsidered throughout the life cycle starting with system conceptselection– Identify, characterize and mitigate risks– Provide information for management decisionsEnsure and certify system integrityCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


NASA‟s Purpose of Systems Engineering Systems Engineering Principles Know the problem, the customer, and the consumer Use effectiveness criteria based on needs to make system decisions Establish and manage requirements Identify and assess alternatives so as to converge on a solution Verify and validate requirements and solution performance Maintain the integrity of the system Use an articulated and documented process Manage against a plan Main Purpose of Systems Engineering Increase the probability of success Reduce risk Reduce total-life-cycle costSource: INCOSE SE Practice Working Group, “An Identification of Pragmatic Principles – Final Report,”Ed. J. C. DeFoe, INCOSE, January 21, 1993.CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Actual/Planned CostActual/Planned ScheduleImpacts of Systems Engineering3.0Cost Impact3.0Schedule Impact2.62.690% Assurance (1.6)2.290% Assurance (1.6)2.2Average Cost Overrun1.81.8Average Schedule Overrun1.41.41.00% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 24% 28%1.00% 4% 8% 12% 16% 20% 24%0.60.6SE Effort = SE Quality * SE Cost/Actual CostSE Effort = SE Quality * SE Cost/Actual CostSE Cost : actual cost of performing SE tasksSE Quality : subjective evaluation using a 0-1 scale where 0 represents SE of no value,0.5 indicates a normal SE effort, and 1 is unexcelled, world class SESource: SECOE 01-03, INCOSE 2003CC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Systems Engineering Process• The systems engineering process is a top-down,comprehensive, and iterative problem-solvingprocess, applied through all stages ofdevelopment, that is used to:– Transform needs and requirements into a set of systemproduct and process descriptions (adding value andmore detail with each level of development)– Generate information for decision makers, and– Provide input for the next level of development.• The fundamental systems engineering activitiesare– Requirements analysis– Functional analysis/allocation– Design synthesisCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Systems Engineering in “V” ProcessCustomer wantsCustomer Experience& FeedbackCustomer satisfactionUser Requirements& Concept ofOperationsSystemRequirements &ArchitectureSystemDemonstration &ValidationSystemIntegration & TestSystemsEngineeringExpertise for specific domainSub-SystemDesignSub-SystemIntegration & TestProcure, Fabricate,& Assemble PartsSpecialized(Sub) SystemEngineeringHighly iterativeMostly serial* Adapted fromINCOSE presentationCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


A Traditional View of the Systems EngineeringProcess Begins with Requirements AnalysisRequirementsAnalysisMeasure progress and effectiveness;assess alternatives; manageconfiguration, interfaces, data productsand program riskFunctionalAllocationRequirements LoopUnderstand the requirementsand how they affect the way inwhich the system mustfunction.Design LoopSystems Analysis,Optimization & ControlIdentify a feasible solutionthat functions in a waythat meets therequirementsVerification LoopShow that the synthesizeddesign meets allrequirementsSynthesis/DesignCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


The Systems Engineering „Vee‟ Model Extends the TraditionalView with Explicit Decomposition and IntegrationMissionRequirements& PrioritiesDevelop SystemRequirements &System ArchitectureAllocate PerformanceSpecs & BuildVerification PlanDesignComponentsSystemDemonstration& ValidationIntegrate System &VerifyPerformance SpecsComponentIntegration &VerificationVerifyComponentPerformanceFabricate, Assemble,Code &Procure PartsCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Common Technical Processes to Manage the TechnicalAspect of the Project Life Cycle - NASA Model ( 7123.1A)The Systems Engineering EngineCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems Engineering© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


Set up a plan for each ofthese EARLY!Design Budgets• Power• Memory/data• Communications• Mass• $$$• Other resourcesInterface Control• Harness & Connectors• Structural connectionsWith Process ComesSystems Engineering Practices• Software protocols & signal processingAcquisition strategies• Purchase• In-house• Contribution• OtherCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems EngineeringDocumentation Organization•Requirements (!!)•Materials Lists•CAD drawings•Safety documents•Interface controls•Configuration managementIdentify design drivers•Cost•Schedule•PerformanceExecute a riskmanagement plan© 2012 Tag Gon Kim


ProjectPhasesNASA‟s System Engineering ProcessMajor Project Reviews PrecedeEach Key Decision PointPre-AConceptStudiesFORMULATIONAConcept &TechnologyDevelopmentBPreliminaryDesign &TechnologyCompletionFinalCDesign &FabricationIMPLEMENTATION D E FSystem Operations &Assembly,SustainmentTest, & LaunchCloseoutKeyDecisionPointsMajorReviewsA BC D EMission Concept ReviewSystems Requirements ReviewMission/System Definition ReviewPreliminary Design ReviewCritical Design ReviewFIndependent CostEstimatesSystems Integration ReviewOperational Readiness ReviewFlight Readiness ReviewPost Launch Assessment ReviewCC532: Lect. 1 - System and Systems EngineeringDecommissioningReview© 2012 Tag Gon Kim

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