European Commission - Euromines

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European Commission - Euromines

Economic importanceImportance for economic value chain andemerging (key) technologies• Renewable energysolar cells, photovoltaic's, wind turbines• Energy efficiencyhybrid and electric cars, LED lighting,batteries, buildings and infrastructure• Electronicsflat screens, mobile phones• Aerospacelight weight alloysEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |2


NE Extractive Industry EU27Construction Materials Industrial Minerals Metals1,E+101,E+081,E+091,E+081,E+071,E+061,E+05volume [kg]1,E+04Crushed stoneSandsGravel and pebblesLimestonesMonumental stone aggregatesClays and shalesDolomiteCalcareous massive stoneMarble and travertineGranitSandstoneSlateMarble and travertineNatural bitumen / asphaltGranitetotal1,E+031,E+02Silica sandsGypsum and anhydriteOther chemical and fertiliser mineralsMarble aggregatesKaolinChalkFireclayKaolinitic claysAbrasivesBentoniteNatural phosphatesPrecious / semi-precious stones (ecl. inds. diamoPrecious metalstotalIron (excl. roasted iron pyrites)Mixtures of e.g slagAluminiumNickelUnroasted iron pyritesLead, zinc and tinCopperOther non-ferrous metaltotalEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |31,E+07value [tds. €]1,E+061,E+051,E+041,E+031,E+02volume [kg]value [tds €]Eurostatlast up date 09/09/2010


Enterprises EU-27, 2006 1non-financial business economy1 The total number ofenterprises in theEU-27 non-financialbusiness economywas estimated as20.2 million in2006. Source:Eurostat (tin00050)European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |4


Critical raw materials5,04,5Rare Earths4,03,5PGMSupply Risk3,02,5AntimonyGermaniumMagnesiumGalliumNiobium2,0IndiumTungsten1,5BarytesBeryllium1,0MagnesiteChromiumLithiumRheniumVanadiumBorate LimestoneTelluriumMolybdenum Manganese0,5DiatomiteGypsumPerliteBentoniteIronZinc NickelSilverSilicaAluminumTalc ClaysCopperBauxiteFeldsparTitanium0,03,0 4,0 5,0 6,0 7,0 8,0 9,0 10,0Economic ImportanceEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |5CobaltFluorsparTantalumGraphite


Production concentrationof critical raw materialsEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |6


Main challenges• EU highly dependent on imports ofimportant raw materials (metals and industrialminerals) which are increasingly affected bymarket distortions / commodity marketspeculations• Still potential in Europe (self-sufficient supplyfor construction materials, potential for other rawmaterials), but exploration and extractionface on-going increasing competition fordifferent land uses and a highly regulatedenvironmentEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |7


Barents Regionhigh potential area for ore deposits• Joint project between thegeological surveys of Finland,Norway, Russia and Swedenprovides information on morethan 1600 mines, depositsand significant occurrencesacross the region.• By country, there isinformation on:► 878 deposits in Sweden► 338 deposits in Finland► 243 deposits in Russia► 157 deposits in NorwayEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |9


Access to land• Promote the exchange of best practice in land use planningand administrative conditions for exploration and extraction• Encourage better networking between national geologicalsurveys to increase the EU's knowledge base• Guidance on how extraction activities can be reconciled withNatura 2000 requirements► Important tool to avoid conflicts at site level – link to land-use planning► Knowledge of mineral reserves essential to develop sensitivity mapsand to provide objective, verifiable informationEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |10


European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |11


NEEI and Natura 2000Positive contribution of NEEI to biodiversity• rehabilitation of extraction sites to (re)create habitats andreinstate species (supported by several good practiceexamples).• Site biodiversity action plans useful instruments.Potential effects of mines/quarries on nature• Specific constraints of NEEI regarding location of mineralresources• Biodiversity can be affected throughout the life-cycle of aproject, directly or indirectly. Extent of impact depends ontype/size/method of operation and sensitivity of environment• Mitigation measures exist to prevent/reduce impactsEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |12


NEEI and Natura 2000• Appropriate assessment of NEEI plans/projects(according Art. 6 Habitats Directive; mitigation; alternatives;compensation)► Step by step process to assess significant neg. impacts on Natura2000.► Coordination with EIA or SEA process possible to reduce burden andincrease effectiveness► if required: properly analysed and implemented alternatives /compensation measures• Marine extraction► Extractive activities in marine areas are more and more important.► Marine spatial planning is a key instrument for strategic planning.► Little knowledge on marine biosphere and site effectsEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |13


Azñalcóllar (1998)Baia Mare (2000)European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |14


Directive on themanagement of extractive wasteAdopted 2006“Prevent as far as possible adverse effects on theenvironment and human health of waste fromextractive industry”• Extractive Industry►prospecting, extraction, treatment and storage of mineral resources andthe working of quarries• “Waste facilities”►Any area designated for the accumulation or deposit of extractive waste– dams, heaps, pond• Links with other Directives►IPPC, Seveso, Water & Waste framework Directives, IA Directive, Natura2000European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |15


Mining waste directiveExtractiveIndustriesEnergyMineralsOresIndustrialMineralsConstructionMaterialsNuclear fuelsFossil fuelsFerrousmetalsUraniumCoalOil, oil shaleNon FerrousmetalsPreciousmetalsMinor metalsNot in the scope:waste from off-shore activities,waste resulting“indirectly” fromextractive industryEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |16


Ajka plant (2010)European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |17


Key Deadlines• Adoption: 15 March 2006, Entry in force: 1 May 2006• Transposition: no later than 1 May 2008► so far 25 Member States have transposed and notified itApplies to all new installationsExisting facilities by 1 May 2012• Reporting: 3 years reports from MS – by mid 2011• Implementing measures: to be adopted “asap”,adopted in May 2009European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |18


Main Requirements►►►►►►►►►Prevent risks for the environment and health notably byapplying Best Available Techniques (BAT)PermittingPublic participation, transboundary impactsWaste management planConstruction and managementMajor accident prevention policyPrevention of water, soil, air pollutionFinancial GuaranteeClosure and after closure proceduresEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |19


Major Accident PreventionObligations at 3 levels:1. Member States: Risks identification and limiting measures2. Operator: Before start of operation, internal emergency plan Risk identification and evaluation Designation of a “risk manager” Organization, planning for emergencies Monitoring, audit and review3. Competent Authority: External emergency plan Measures to contain the accident and to minimise impact on humanhealth and environment Communication to the public and relevant authorities Rehabilitation, restoration and clean-up after accidentEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |20


Worth to note• 5 May 2010 - European Parliament calling for a general banon the use of cyanide mining technologies in the EuropeanUnion• Guidance on inspection activities, exchange of information ofrehabilitation of the closed and abandoned facilities andassessing the utility of updating the best available techniquereference document (BREF review), consultant: DHI, Denmark -final report is expected by early 2012► Seminar on inspection► Seminar on Rehabilitation of the abandoned and closed facilities.• Inventories of the closed waste facilities -to be finalized andmade public by May 2012 (Article 20)► All existing permits have to be adapted to the requirements of theDirective by 1st of May 2012 (Article 241 )European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |21


Efficiency & recycling• Huge potential of EU’s Urban Mines• Tackle illegal shipment of waste to thirdcountries through a more harmonisedenforcement of Waste ShipmentRegulation• Develop best practices in the area ofcollection and treatment of key wastestreams• Develop eco-design measures aimed atfostering more efficient use of rawmaterials in productsEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |22


Awareness• List of critical raw materials helped to raiseawareness• Hints for urgently needed activities in some policyfields (trade, WTO court case, research calls forproposals)BUT• basemetals, construction materials and industrialminerals are the backbone of our society.► What is neeed?European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |23


Research• Under FP7 new funding opportunities havebeen created for projects on:► Advanced underground technologies forintelligent mining► Substitution of critical raw materials► Coordination of activities in Member States in thearea of the industrial handling of raw material• FP8? RAW MATERIALS ?European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |24


European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |25


R&D - preliminary findingsEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |26


Marine environment• Shallow water zones• Deep sea mining - future (ore)mining• Advanced technologies („key-holesurgery“ to minimise the impact)European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |27


Marine ZonesSource: BGR after Symonds et al., 1998European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |28


The Context - EUROPE 20204 Flagships Initiatives out of 7• An industrial policy for the globalisation era• Resource Efficient Europe• An agenda for new skills and jobs• Innovation UnionEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |29


An industrial policy for theglobalisation era• Industry matters• Lessons learned from the finacial andeconomic crisis• The importance of the manufacturing valuechain• List of critical raw materials helped to raiseawarenessRAW MATERIALSEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |30


Resource Efficient Europe• Increasing pressure on natural resources• The need to be more efficient both forECONOMIC and ENVIRONMENTAL reasons• RecyclingRAW MATERIALSEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |31


An agenda for new skills and jobs• A challenge for the extractive and recyclingindustries• High Tech Skills - geologists and engineers• Inside and outside EuropeRAW MATERIALSEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |32


Innovation Union• A matter of survival in a globalised world• It is about►►►►►►technology – crucial step stoneProcessesBest practicesStandardsProcurementRegulationsCreativity inRaw MaterialsEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |33


Key components• Technology-Focused policy areas► Extraction, processing, recycling► Substitution• Non Technology policy areas► Improving Europe's raw materials regulatory framework,knowledge and infrastructure base, e.g. access to land..► Promotion of excellence, resource efficiency andrecycling, e.g. public procurement and private initiatives.• International cooperation► Promoting appropriate international cooperation, notablywith other countries/ regions of the world.May deal with different policy issues such as geology,European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |34


Material Flows and Statistics• raw materials avilibility► primary raw materials – base metal and byproductrelationship (e.g. Zn – In)► resouce and reserve statistics► recovery rate and reclyling► urban mining and landfills► import and export statistical dataEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |35


Next steps• Review of the comments made in theframewotk of the workshop on the 28th ofFeburary• New internal proposal• Support by Member States - cruicial• Communication by SummerEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |36


Thank you for your attention !References:Report on critical raw materials:http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/raw-materials/critical/index_en.htmReport on best practices in area of land use planning, permitting and geological knowledge:http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/raw-materials/sustainable-supply/index_en.htmNatura 2000 guidelines:http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/natura2000/management/guidance_en.htmTrade raw materials activity report 2009:http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2010/june/tradoc_146207.pdfCommunication on the EU 2020 Flagship Initiative Innovation Union:http://ec.europa.eu/research/innovation-union/pdf/innovation-union-communication_en.pdfMining waste directive:http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/Mining/index.htmBREF (Best available techniques):http://eippcb.jrc.es/pages/FActivities.htmEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |37


Key component technology• Developing new innovative technologies andsolutions for sustainable raw materials supply►Innovative technologies along the entire value chain forcost effective, safe and environmentally and socially soundraw materials exploration, extraction (including mining),processing, recovering and recycling of primary andsecondary raw materials.• Developing new innovative materials by designtechnologies and solutions for the substitution ofcritical materials.►Solutions to reduce the resource usage, incl. finding ofsubstitutes of critical, scare or hazardous materials.European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |38


Non-technolgy areas• Improving Europe's raw materials regulatory framework,knowledge and infrastructure base.►►building an innovative knowledge base of European resources, incl.exploration of primary and secondary raw materials (on land and in themarine environment) and estimations of the resource including urbanmines (land fills and mining waste)exchange of best practice in defining a minerals policy in the MemberStates based on principles of sustainable development;• setting up a policy for land-use planning for minerals in the Member States,• clear process for authorisation of minerals exploration and extraction in the MemberStates• using and improving, on the basis of proper analysis, the knowledge base which isneeded for an efficient raw materials strategy►higher education and skills;►standardisation of geological data in particular for low value rawmaterials and coherence on the relevant terminology.European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |39


Non-technolgy areas• Improving the regulatory framework via promotion ofexcellence and promoting recycling through publicprocurement and private initiatives.►►►Resource efficiency along the entire value chain including materialsflows, collecting, sorting and re-delivering raw materials to increase therecycling and by-product rate of raw materials also while in traceamounts and the overall recycling rate;Recycling of critical materials and hazardous substances from WEEE;implementation notably for what concerns collection/recycling rates ofthe MS but also control on illegal export of waste.European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |40


41 raw materials analysedAluminum Antimony Barytes BauxiteBentonite Beryllium Borates ChromiumClays (incl. kaolin) Cobalt Copper DiatomiteFeldspar Fluorspar Gallium GermaniumGraphite Gypsum Indium Iron oreLimestone Lithium Magnesite MagnesiumManganese Molybdenum Nickel NiobiumPerlitePlatinum Group Metals (PGMs)Rare earths (REE) Rhenium Silica sandSilver Talc TantalumTelluriumTungstenZincTitaniumVanadiumEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |41


Economic importanceImportance for economic value chain andemerging (key) technologies• Renewable energy:solar cells, wind turbines• Energy efficiency:hybrid and electric cars, LED lighting,batteries• Electronics:flat screens, mobile phones• Aerospace:light weight alloysEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |42


Emerging technologiesRaw materialProduction2006 [t]Demandemergingtech. 2006 [t]Demandemergingtech. 2030 [t]Demand/prod. 2006Demand/prod. 2030FactorGallium 152 28 603 0.18 3.97 22Indium 581 234 1.911 0.40 3.29 8.2Germanium 100 28 220 0.28 2.20 7.9Neodymium 16.800 4.000 27.900 0.23 1.66 7.2Platinum 255 very small 345 0 1.35Tantalum 1.384 551 1.410 0.40 1.02 2.5Silver 19.051 5.342 15.823 0.28 0.83 2.9Cobalt 62.279 12.820 26.860 0.21 0.43 2.1Palladium 267 23 77 0.09 0.29 3.2Titanium 7.211.000 15.397 58.148 0.08 0.29 3.6Copper 15.093.000 1.410.000 3.696.070 0.09 0.24 2.7European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |43


Emerging technologies (2)Raw materialAntimonyCobaltGalliumGermaniumIndiumPlatinum (PGM)Palladium (PGM)NiobiumNeodymium (REE)TantalumEmerging technologiesAntimony-Tin-Oxide (~ In-Sn-O), micro capacitorsLi-ion batteries, synthetic fuelsSemi-conductors, thin layer photovoltaics, IC,WLEDFibre optic cable, IR optical technologyDisplays, thin layer photovoltaicsFuel cells, catalystsCatalysts, seawater desalinationMicro capacitors, ferroalloysPermanent magnets, laser technologyMicro capacitors, medical technologyEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |44


Policy-oriented (2)• Recycling► Improve collection► Prevent illegal exports of End-of-Life products► Promote research• Substitution► Promote research• Material Efficiency► Minimise the raw material used► Minimise raw material lossesEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |45


Category A Other waste Inert(not cat A, not inert) (unpolluted soils)BAT Application Yes Yes YesWaste Man. Plan Yes Yes YesPrevention water, soiland air deteriorationConstruction andmanagementPermitting, publicparticipation,transboundary impactsFinancial guarantee,closure proceduresMajor accidentprevention policyYes Yes Yes (except forcyanide)Yes Yes PartlyYes Yes NoYes Yes NoYes except«Seveso»NoNoEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |46


Permitting and Public Participation‣ No permit – no waste facility, single permit possible‣ BREF’s to be used as reference‣ Public to be informed on: application for a permit nature of possible decision arrangements for public participation main reports and advices transmitted to the authorities content of the decisions and its justificationComments and opinions to be expressed before decisionEuropean CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |47


Prevention of water, air, soilpollution‣ Competent authority has to check whether the operators havetaken adequate measures to limit and control possiblepollution (dust, gas, water contamination,..)‣ Pond with cyanide: concentration to be reduced to the lowestpossible level‣ Limit values:10 ppm for new installations 50 ppm, 25 ppm by 2013, 10 ppm by 2018European CommissionEnterprise and Industry A. Wittenberg | 09.03.2011 |48

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