Unit 8Global ProblemsPart 2Effects of ClimateChange
EFFECTS OF GLOBALWARMING‣Global warming will lead toprolonged heat waves and droughtsin some areas and prolonged heavyrains and increased flooding in otherareas.
EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING‣ In a warmer world, agricultural productivitymay increase in some areas and decrease inothers.‣ Crop and fish production in some areas couldbe reduced by rising sea levels that wouldflood river deltas.‣ Global warming will increase deaths from:• Heat and disruption of food supply.• Spread of tropical diseases to temperate regions.• Increase the number of environmental refugees.
DEALING WITH GLOBAL WARMING‣ Climate change is such a difficult problem todeal with because:• The problem is global.• The effects will last a long time.• The problem is a long-term political issue.• The harmful and beneficial impacts of climatechange are not spread evenly.• Many actions that might reduce the threat arecontroversial because they can impacteconomies and lifestyles.
DEALING WITH GLOBAL WARMING‣ Two ways to deal with global warming:• Mitigation that reduces greenhouse gasemissions.• Adaptation, where we recognize that somewarming is unavoidable and devise strategies toreduce its harmful effects.
SolutionsGlobal WarmingCut fossil fuel use (especiallycoal)Shift from coal tonatural gasImprove energy efficiencyShift to renewable energyresourcesTransfer energy efficiency andrenewable energy technologiesto developing countriesReduce deforestationUse more sustainableagriculture and forestryLimit urban sprawlReduce povertySlow population growthPreventionCleanupRemove CO 2 from smoke stackand vehicle emissionsStore (sequester)CO2 by planting treesSequester CO 2 deep undergroundSequester CO 2 in soil by usingno-till cultivationand taking cropland outof productionSequester CO 2 in the deep oceanRepair leaky natural gas pipelinesand facilitiesUse animal feeds that reduce CH 4emissions by belching cowsFig. 20-14, p. 481
Solutions: Reducing the Threat‣ We can improve energy efficiency, rely moreon carbon-free renewable energy resources,and find ways to keep much of the CO 2 weproduce out of the troposphere.
Removing and Storing CO 2‣ Methods forremoving CO 2from theatmosphere orfromsmokestacks andstoring(sequestering) it.Figure 20-15
Spent oil reservoir isused for Crop fieldOil rigTanker deliversCO2 from plantto rigCoalpowerplantTree plantationCO2 is pumpeddown from rigfor deep oceandisposalAbandonedoil fieldSpent oil reservoir isused for CO 2 depositSwitchgrassCrop fieldCO 2 deposit CO2 ispumped down toreservoir throughabandoned oil field= CO2 pumping= CO2 deposit
WHAT IS BEING DONE TO REDUCEGREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS?‣ Getting countries to agree on reducing theirgreenhouse emissions is difficult.‣ A 2006 poll showed that 83% of Americanswant more leadership from federalgovernment on dealing with global warming.
International Climate Negotiations:The Kyoto Protocol• Treaty on global warming which first phase wentinto effect January, 2005 with 189 countriesparticipating.• It requires 38 participating developed countries tocut their emissions of CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O to5.2% below their 1990 levels by 2012.• Developing countries were excluded.• The U.S. did not sign, but California and Maine areparticipating.
Moving Beyond the Kyoto Protocol‣ Countries could work together to develop anew international approach to slowing globalwarming.• The Kyoto Protocol will have little effect on futureglobal warming without support and action by theU.S., China, and India.
Actions by Some Countries, States,and Businesses‣ California has adopted a goal of reducing itsgreenhouse gas emission to 1990 levels by2020, and 80% below by 2050.‣ Global companies (BP, IBM, Toyota) haveestablished targets to reduce theirgreenhouse emissions 10-65% to 1990 levelsby 2010.
Reducing CO 2 Emissions• Drive a fuel-efficient car, walk, bike, carpool,and use mass transit• Use energy-efficient windows• Use energy-efficient appliances and lights• Heavily insulate your house and seal all drafts• Reduce garbage by recycling and reuse• Insulate your hot water heater• Use compact fluorescent bulbs• Plant trees to shade your house during summer• Set water heater no higher than 49°C (120°F)• Wash laundry in warm or cold water• Use low-flow shower headWhat Can You Do?• Buy products from companies that are trying to reducetheir impact on climate• Demand that the government make climatechange an urgent priority
Develop crops thatneed less waterConnect wildlifereserves with corridorsWaste less waterMove people awayfrom low-lyingcoastal areasMove hazardous materialstorage tanks awayfrom coastStockpile 1- to 5-yearsupply of key foodsProhibit new constructionon low-lying coastal areasor build houses on stiltsExpand existingwildlife reservestoward polesFig. 20-17, p. 485