Concrete Filled, Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composite Tubes“ Bridge-in-a-Backpack ”A collaborative innovation together with:

Fiber Composite + Concrete Arch Superstructure“ A Hybrid bridge system combining benefits ofhigh-performance composites with durabilityand cost savings of cast-in-place concrete”Image Credit – NY Times/University of Maine

Innovation.• UMaine AEWC CompositesCenter• 87,000 ft 2 facility• Researching HybridComposite Systems since 1996• Nearly 12 years developmentof Bridge-in-a-BackpackSecretary of Transportation Ray LaHood Speaks aboutBridge-in-a-Backpack at UMaine Press Event

National Recognition for Bridge-in-a-BackpackAASHTO TIG - 2011 Focus Technology2010 Award for Composites ExcellenceMost Creative ApplicationAmerican Society of Civil Engineers2011 Charles Pankow Award forInnovationEngineering Excellence Award RoyalRiver Bridge, Auburn, ME(Along with Maine DOT & Kleinfelder |SEA)Product featured in:Engineering News Record,The NY Times,Concrete International,Popular Science,Popular Mechanics,The Boston Globe

- Develop & patentmanufacturing process- Model development- Structural testing- Model refinement- Material optimization- Demonstration project- System refinement -2001 2005 2008 OngoingManufacturing of 60’ Span ArchArch Structural Testing

• Deflections measured using 3Ddigital image correlation system• FE model predictions comparedwith experimental responseArch Deflected Shape, Experimental and Predicted(Deflections Magnified 15X)30P10DIC Targets-10Location (in)-30-50-70-90PredictedExperimental-110-140 -120 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140Location (in)

1. Stay-in-place form for concreteTemporary Formwork for ArchesConcrete Engineers Handbook,McGraw-Hill, 1918Arches and decking are the onlyformwork needed to stabilize thestructureEliminates need for temporary formwork

Three Functions of the FRP Arch Tube2. “Structural reinforcement” for concrete confinementConfinedUnconfinedThree Components of FRP ReinforcementConfined concrete demonstrates significantductility over unconfinedEliminates need for rebar installation, no steelrebar in superstructureEnhances concrete performance for safety &structural redundancy

3. Environmental protection for concreteSteel rusts and expands causingconcrete spallingSpalling concrete exposes morereinforcementConcrete Corrosion CyclePhoto Credit: “Bridge with Sky” thanks to John Hillman and MoDOTDrastically reduces maintenance requirements

Load-Deflection Response of Concrete-Filled FRP Tubular Arch807060Applied Load (kip)504030HL-93 Design Load Equivalent201000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10Vertical Deflection at Crown (in)Initial Static Test to Failure

Our shared R&D Center atUMAINERussian Engineers fromthe Federation RailwaySystem representing 11other countries as well

Arch Formwork1. Tubes assembled/packaged2. Inflate tubes3. Bend around arch form4. Infuse with resinManufacturing of a 15” diameter48’ span composite archWithin hours, arches can be removedfrom form for installation

• AIT’s arches arrive on siteready for installation• Can be unloaded quicklywith hand laborHEAVY TRUCKS

• Filled with Self Consolidating Concrete (SCC)• Simple procedure, no rodding/vibration required• AIT provides standard specifications for concrete mixPumping concrete into archesFunnel boxes direct flow, prevent overflow

• SCC is a concrete that uses High Range Water Reducers(HRWR), or superplasticizers, to achieve high flowability• In our mix we also include• Hydration Stabilizer (retarder)• Shrinkage Compensating Admixture (SCA)• 3/8” pea stone aggregateAggregates evenly distributedthroughout spreadNo bleed water at leading edgeASTM C1611– Slump Flow

• Proposed AASHTO LRFD GuideSpecifications for Design of Concrete-FilledFRP Tubes for Flexural and Axial Members• Closed-form, simplified method fordesign of Concrete-Filled FRP Tubes(CFFT’s)• Bending (φMn), Axial (φPn) , Shear (φVn)• Combined Axial and Bending (interactiondiagrams)• Connection detailing• Generic in nature – applies to all CFFT’s• Presented to AASHTO’s T-6 (FRP)Committee in May 2011• T-6 plans to put forward for ballot toSCOBS in July 2012

Design Options – Numerous ApplicationsHighly CustomizableGeometriesSpans up to 75’• Single or Multiple Spans• Skewed designs• Standard geometries orcustomized for specific sites• Deep soil cover (45’ andgreater)• Water/stream crossings,Roadwayoverpass/underpass, Railway,Pedestrian, TunnelsInexpensive, Quick Installation,Long-term Reliability

Multiple options to meet the Engineering, Economic, and Aestheticrequirements of the site• FRP Panel Walls• MSE or Through-Tied Configurations• Compatible with skewed bridges• Lightweight, easy to install• Durable, and cost competitive• Concrete – Precast or CIP• MSE, Through-Tied, or Gravity• PC Panel, PCMG Units, Cast-inplace• Versatile design options• More conventional aesthetic

Architectural facades, details, rails,can be incorporated for improvedaesthetic qualitiesImages courtesy of various arch bridge suppliers

Summary and Quick Facts on CFFT Arch BridgesInnovative Product Application• Rapid fabrication• Hybrid composite-concrete systemimproves material performance• Steel free superstructure• Reduced carbon footprintPerformance Tested• Design/tested to exceed AASHTO loadrequirements• Superior redundancy – safe system• Corrosion resistant materials• Field load testing indicates even greaterlevels of safetyCost Effective and Fast Installation• Light weight product– reduces equipmenttransportation needs• Erected with a small crew, no skilled labor• Performs up to 2x lifespan of conventionalmaterials• Accelerated Bridge Construction• Rapid design, fabrication, and deliveryCONCRETE BRIDGES - CONCRETESAVINGS.

• Product• AIT designs & manufactures FRP composite tubes forconstruction• Ability to supply a complete engineered bridge system• Packages: FRP arches + composite decking, modular FRPheadwalls• Structural Design• AIT’s engineers design the composite arch bridge superstructure• Can design the bridge substructure, internally or withconsultants• Optimization to maximize efficiency of structure• Local manufacturing and installation• Carbon Fiber Bridge Superstructures• Safe, Fast, Designed with Redundant Strength CharacteristicsConcrete Bridges Concrete Savings

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