Combined Heat and Power for the Home
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Combined Heat and Power for the Home

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeCombined Heat and Power for the HomePresented by:Mark MacaulayDirector, Mechanical EngineeringClimate Energy, LLCAPPA – Engineering & Operations ConferenceAtlanta, GA – April 18, 2007

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeWhat is Micro-CHP?•Combined Heat and Power• Small Scale Cogeneration• Fuel Heat + Electricity• Micro-CHP 1 to 10 kWe– Sized for Residential UseMake Electricity While Heating Your Home!

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeCentral Power GenerationUtilizes Only 35% of FuelEnergyClimate Energy FreewattUtilizes 83-93% of Fuel EnergyPower Plant61% asWaste Heat35% Delivered asUseful Power100% FuelEnergy (HHV)4% TransmissionLossesFuelStandardFurnaceSurplusPower to Grid100% Fuel toHeatingSystem (HHV)Engine Generator83-90%OverallEfficiency1.2 kWeFurnace93%HeatingEfficiency

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeMicro-CHP Technology Benefits• Energy conservation– Less use of precious natural resources– Lower electric bills• Reduced emissions• Increase generating capacity without building morepower plants• Distributed generation enhances reliability• Relieve transmission and distribution congestion• Provide some backup power during grid outages• Support the grid in peak demand times

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeMicro-CHP:Next Big Thing in Residential Energy?INSULATIONBETTERLIGHTINGMICRO-CHP1970’s1980’s1990’s2000’s2010’sIMPROVEDWINDOWSHIGH-EFFICENCYFURNACES and A/CSOLAR ???SynGas ???Ethanol??Continuing Niche Players: Wood, Solid Biomass, Geothermal

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeFUEL CONSUMPTIONPower Generation for the HomeHome HeatingAutomobileAll Comparable in Magnitude!

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeOver the last 10 years the USspace heating applianceindustry produced about1,000,000 Megawatts of ThermalCapacityTotal USA Installed ElectricCapacity ~ 700,000 Megawatts

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeWho Agrees about CHP:United States Department of EnergyUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyHouse and SenateThe PresidentKyoto

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeOutlook for Micro-CHPEurope : GoodJapan: GoodNorth America : ExcellentNorth America – Excellent, Why?1) Bigger Homes, More Power Consumption2) Colder Climate3) More Favorable Regulatory Treatment4) Grid Reliability Issues At Play

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeTechnology Options for Micro-CHP 1 to 5 kWeInternal CombustionEnginesStirling EnginesRankine CycleEngineThermoelectrics/ThermophotovoltaicsFuel Cells

Combined Heat and Power for the Home+Way Out in FrontSizePerformanceEmissionsNoiseCostQualityManufacturing

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeHonda MCHP Technology• 10+ year Development Program• Specialized Development Team• Brand New Manufacturing Plant• Over 50,000 MCHP units installed in Japan• MCHP Technology – Corporate Strategy• North American Market• Second Generation MCHP Product• It’s a “Honda”

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeHonda MCHPEngine-GeneratorUnits• Natural Gas or Propane• Grid-Tied Inverter:UL 1741 Certified• Clean Combustion withCatalytic Converter• PVC Venting• Weight: 160 lbs• Remote Monitoring:Internet Connected

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeMCHP Engine GeneratorThermal & Electrical Efficiency90+% Overall Efficiency!(YM2A Production Model - Indoor Installation)Energy Input (Firing Rate)[Btu/Hr]18,307[Watts]5,365[% of Total]100.0Electric Power Output4,0951,20022.4Thermal Output (Engine Coolant)11,9703,50865.4Cabinet Ventilation Heat Output5691673.1Cabinet Surface Heat Output126370.7Stack Loss (Exhaust)1,5194458.3

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeTypical Power Generation Thermal EfficienciesClimate Energy Freewatt90% 3,800 Btu/kWhConventional Coal Boiler34% 10,000 Btu/kWhConventional Gas Boiler31% 11,000 Btu/kWhGas Turbine Combined Cycle 50% 6,800 Btu/kWhEmissionsSummaryCoalNatural GasCO 2Emissions per Fuel Input200 pounds/million Btu120 pounds/million BtuNOx Emissions22 ppmCO 2Emissions per Electric Power OutputClimate Energy Freewatt0.46 pounds/kWhConventional Coal Boiler2.1 pounds/kWhConventional Gas Boiler1.3 pounds/kWhGas Turbine Combined Cycle 0.82 pounds/kWhCO Emissions10 ppm

SystemControllerCombined Heat and Power for the HomeClimate Energy Warm Air Freewatt SystemHeat Led Two Stage Heating SystemHybridIntegrationModule93% AFUEHigh EfficiencyCondensing Furnacew/ ECM BlowerSecond Stage HeatFull LoadCoolant Lines83-90% EfficientHonda EngineGeneratorModuleStage One Heat12 MBHElectric1.2 kW“As an Energy Star partner, Climate Energy has determined that the furnace includedas part of the freewatt system meets Energy Star guidelines for energy efficiency.”

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeEstimated Annual PerformanceReplacedHeatingSystemEfficiencyTestSiteLivingSpace[Sq. Ft.]EnergyCostSavingsPrimaryFuelSavings[Therms]ElectricityGenerated[kWh]CO 2Savings[Lbs.]78%72,500$1,224.8529%723.705,1678,46978%6971$735.2336%423.323,5374,96080%121,398$883.7133%505.524,7065,92580%111,195$584.9929%340.823,6823,99191%91,672$686.4625%374.644,8784,40294%82,576$507.3526%272.203,6843,201

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeDEED ProjectWarm Air Micro-CHP• Sponsored by Braintree Electric LightDepartment (BELD): Braintree, MA• Five (5) Systems Commissioned in March, 2006• Installed by KeySpan Home Energy Services• Replaced Existing Furnaces• ~19,000 kW-hrs, Annual Estimated PowerGeneration for 5 Systems• Power Generation: September through May

Combined Heat and Power for the Home

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeClimate Energy MissionDevelop grid-connected, professionally-installedspace and water heating appliances that:1) generate significant electric power as a byproduct ofnormal heating operation+2) provide self-powering and residual backup powerduring grid outages, and offer grid support capabilityResidential and Light Commercial

Combined Heat and Power for the HomePlanned Product Delivery PathECRInternationalProduct, Trainingand PartsClimateEnergyProduct, Trainingand PartsInstallationTeamAmericanHondaCertifiedHome EnergyServicesPartnersInstalls Majorityof SystemsTraining PlatformBuildingOwnerFirst-of-Kind, High-Visibility, Other SpecialInstallations

Combined Heat and Power for the HomefreewattProduct Development PlanModelDesignField TestFirst SaleWarm-Air:Standard MCHP2004-20052005 -2007Early 2007Hydronic:20062007Fall of 2007Standard MCHPWarm-Air & Hyd.2006-20072008Late 2008Deluxe MCHPWarm-Air & Hyd.200720082009Deluxe + Solar

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeClimate Energy freewatt vs. Solar PVNortheast Residential ApplicationDesign Basis: 4,000 kW-hrs Annual Power Production, Reduce Grid Power Use by 50%UtilizationSolar PV:4 kW capacity10%CE freewatt1.2 kW capacity50%Conclusion:ApplicabilityIncremental Cap.CostCO2 Reductionfor ElectricGenerationNOx ReductionPrimary EnergySavingsBonus Featurefor Customer< 25%$35,000~ 50%50%~50%Ugly RoofNear 100%$7,500~33%>40%~30%ComfortSecurityfreewattprovides about80% of theenvironmentalbenefit of SolarPV for about20% of thecost.

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeBenefits to the Heating Contractor andService Provider• Higher $ product with good value in today’smarket• Additional product features• Better customer contact• Product differentiation“This is a truly exciting technology and has the makings of a real homerun for all involved. Thank you for the opportunity to be part of it.”Fran Coleman - President, KeySpan Home Energy Services – Feb. 14, 2006

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeBasis for Gas Utility Interestin Micro-CHP• Increased Gas Sales• Oil to Gas Conversion• Revenue from Equipment Sales/Leasing• Differentiation in Deregulated Market• Customer Loyalty/Lock-in• Public Relations, Green Program

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeElectric Utility Interest in Micro-CHP• Increase Generating Capacity Without Building MorePower Plants• Enhancement of Electric Service Reliability• Satisfy Public Utility Commission Requirements forEnergy Conservation Programs• Emissions Trading• Revenue from Equipment Sales/Leasing• Differentiation in Deregulated Market• Customer Loyalty/Lock-in• Public Relations, Green Program• Demand Side Management

Combined Heat and Power for the HomePower Generation Profile Grid-Connected Home with Micro-CHP2 kWPower Produced While Heating Home~3- 4,000 hours per year, controlledby home thermostatPower Produced During SummerPeaks ~ 50 hours per year,controlled by aggregator1 kWWinter SpringSummer Fall

Combined Heat and Power for the HomePossible Homeowner Incentives for Micro-CHP• “Net Metering”• Simplified Grid-Interconnect [Small Inverter-BasedGeneration]• Tax Credits [Federal & State]• State “System Benefit Program” Rebates• Gas Company Conservation and Sales Programs• Electric Utility Conservation & Demand ResponsePrograms• Environmental Mandates [Clean Energy Alternative]• Preferred CHP Gas Rates and “Clean Energy”Generation Credits

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeFreewatt System Features ReviewRelative to Other Ventures in theClean-Renewable-Alternative Energy Sector• ECR International and Honda Experience• Component Technologies are Mature and Available Today• Practical Route to Market• Affordable• Simple Installation, Low Maintenance• Power Generation and Energy Savings• Reduced Greenhouse Gas and NOx Emissions• The Right Size, 1.2 kWe and Full Load Thermal• Enhanced Comfort, Continuous Heat, Improved IAQ• Quiet Operation, only 46 dBA at 3 Feet• UL Listed, Simplified Interconnection for Inverter Based DG

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeCurrent Headlines• Popular Mechanics“2006 Breakthrough TechnologyAward for Home Energy”• Popular Science“House of the Future”• Channel 5 Concept Home• PATH: Micro-CHP -Top Ten Technology for 2007

Combined Heat and Power for the HomeThank You!Contact InformationMark MacaulayDirector, Mechanical EngineeringClimate Energy, LLC93 West St.Medfield, MA 02052Phone: 508-359-4500Fax: 508-359-9755E-mail: macaulay@yankeescientific.comWebsite:

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