Number 4, September - Society for American Archaeology

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Number 4, September - Society for American Archaeology

theSAA archaeologicalrecordSEPTEMBER 2007 • VOLUME 7 • NUMBER 4S O C I E T Y F O R A M E R I C A N A R C H A E O L O G Y


theSAA archaeologicalrecordThe Magazine of the Society for American ArchaeologyVolume 7, No. 4September 2007Editor’s CornerLetters to the EditorFrom the PresidentIn BriefArchaeopoliticsVancouver in 2008RPA: The Issue of Commercialism: Proposed Changesto the Register’s Code of ConductArchaeology’s High Society Blues: Reply to McGimseyAmerind-SAA Seminars: A Progress ReportEmail X and the Quito Airport ArchaeologyControversy: A Cautionary Tale for Scholarsin the Age of Rapid Information FlowIdentifying the Geographic Locationsin Need of More CRM TrainingCan the Dissertation Be All Things to All People?Networks: Historic Preservation Learning Portal:A Performance Support Project forCultural Resource ManagersInterfaces: 12VHeritage PlanningIn Memoriam: Jaime Litvak KingCalls for Awards Nominationspositions opennews and notescalendar2 Andrew Duff36 Dean R. Snow7 Tobi A. Brimsek8 Dan Sandweissand David Lindsay9 Dana Lepofsky, Sue Rowley,Andrew Martindale,and Alan McMillan10 Jeffrey H. Altschul11 Lawrence E. Moore15 John A. Ware20 Douglas C. Comer24 German Loffler29 John D. Rissetto33 Richard C. Waldbauer, Constance Werner Ramirez,and Dan Buan35 Harold L. Dibble, Shannon J.P. McPherron,and Thomas McPherron42 Yun Shun Susie Chung47 Emily McClung de Tapia and Paul Schmidt48525456Probing during cemeterydelineation in CowetaCounty, Georgia.Photo by Ron Hobgood.


theSAA archaeologicalrecordThe Magazine of the Society forAmerican ArchaeologyVolume 7, No. 4September 2007EDITOR’S CORNEREDITOR’S CORNERThe SAA Archaeological Record (ISSN1532-7299) is published five times a yearand is edited by Andrew Duff.Deadlines for submissions are: December1 (January), February 1 (March),April 1 (May), August 1 (September),and October 1 (November); send toAndrew Duff, The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord, Andrew Duff, Department ofAnthropology, Washington State University,Pullman, WA 99164-4910, (509)335-7828, or email duff@wsu.edu. Manuscriptsubmission via email or by diskis encouraged. Advertising and placementads should be sent to SAA headquarters,900 Second St., NE #12, Washington,DC 20002, (202) 789-8200.Associate editors include:Gabriela Uruñuela [Exchanges, Mexico& Central America]email: gabriela@mail.udlap.mxJose Luis Lanata [Exchanges, SouthernCone]email: jllanata@filo.uba.arAnne Vawser [Government]email: Anne_Vawser@nps.govAndrew Duff [Insights]email: duff@wsu.eduMark Aldenderfer [Interface]email: aldenderfer@anth.ucsb.eduJohn Hoopes [Networks]email: hoopes@ku.eduTeresa Pinter [Public Education]email: tpinter@acstempe.comJamie Brandon [Recent Past]email: jbrando@uark.eduKurt Dongoske [Working Together]email: kdongoske@cableone.netInquiries and submissions should beaddressed directly to them. The SAAArchaeological Record is provided free tomembers and institutional subscribers toAmerican Antiquity and Latin AmericanAntiquity worldwide. The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord can be found on the Web in PDFformat atwww.saa.org/publications/thesaaarchrec/index.html.Past issues of the SAA Bulletin can befound atwww.saa.org/publications/saabulletin/index.html.Copyright © 2007 by theSociety for American Archaeology.All Rights ReservedManager, Publications:John NeikirkDesign: Victoria RussellPapertiger Studio •Washington, DCProduction: Peter LindemanOakland Street Publishing • Arlington, VAAndrew DuffAndrew Duff is an Associate Professor of anthropology at Washington State University.Iam grateful for the opportunity to serve as editor of The SAA Archaeological Record,a publication that I find has become increasingly useful as a forum for the communicationof ideas and issues important to the discipline, its practitioners, and thelarger public. As I prepared to compile my first issue, I took the opportunity to reviewmy collection of past issues of its predecessor, the SAA Bulletin, and The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord. My collection begins in 1991 and the first thing that struck me was howthis publication has grown—in size, but especially in content. My predecessors, JohnKantner and Mark Aldenderfer, with the help of their assistants and Associate Editors,have done a remarkable job in building this from a publication that largely communicatedcommittee reports and other Society business to a vibrant forum for debate, newideas, practical advice, and research, while still conveying necessary and timely Societybusiness. The most significant developments seem to me to be the several regularcolumns established by Mark Aldenderfer in the mid-1990s and the regular thematicissues John Kantner initiated soon after the Bulletin became The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord. I see no need for dramatic changes and plan to build on the strong foundationthese two have provided.One change I have decided to make is to develop a new regular column titled “RecentPast.” Its intent is to provide a regular forum for research, concerns, and discussions relatedto historical archaeology, and to encourage greater dialogue with, and inclusion of, historicalarchaeology. Jamie Brandon, research station archaeologist with the ArkansasArchaeological Survey and assistant professor of anthropology at Southern Arkansas University,will serve as the column’s Associate Editor. Related to this, I plan to continue producingthematic issues and welcome ideas for future issues. Jamie and I would like tobegin by soliciting contributions for the January issue organized around the theme ofArchaeology and Historical Memory. If you have a contribution, please send it to me orJamie by December 1. Watch this column for future thematic issue topics.Most of the Associate Editors have agreed to continue, for which I am grateful. CoryBreternitz, who has served as Associate Editor of the Insights column since 2002, hasstepped down. I’d like to thank him for his work over the past several years and I amworking to find his replacement. My thoughts are to identify two people to serve asAssociate Editors for this column. If you have a contribution or an idea that you thinkwould fit with one of the regular columns, please contact or submit materials directlyto the relevant Associate Editor. You can always send material directly to me. Contactinformation for all of us appears in the column adjacent to this. At present, the AssociateEditors are:ExchangesGovernmentGabriela Uruñuela Ladron de GuevaraJosé Luis LanataAnne Vawser>EDITORS CORNER, continued on page 92 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


LETTERS TO THE EDITORNatural HistoryI was disappointed to read the “undersigned”letter recently submitted to TheSAA Archaeological Record by archaeologistsaffiliated with the American Museumof Natural History. I understand thatthey are upset with Natural History magazinefor its publication of a story byCraig Childs in March of this year.Unfortunately, the undersigned partychose to level most of their criticism atMr. Childs, a decision that seems unfairand ungracious, particularly if theychose not to communicate with himfirst.Childs’s article was excerpted from hisrecently published book, House of Rain.Had the undersigned taken the troubleto read House of Rain, or even justchunks of it, they probably would nothave tried to paint Craig Childs as “disrespectful”and “dishonest.” Instead, Ihope that they would have seen hisefforts as a service to archaeologists andthe ancient societies that we study.Childs worked with many archaeologiststo inform his understanding of the currentarchaeological debate surroundingthe movements and histories of pre-Hispanic peoples in the Southwest. Hissummary of this debate covers a lot oftheoretical ground, but his book alsoreveals the human side of the archaeologistsdoing the work. He paints us as arespectful and sincere bunch, but alsoallows that most of us are not puritans.A recent review of House of Rain in alocal Four Corners newspaper illustrateswhat the undersigned have missed orignored in Craig Childs. The reviewer,who is not an archaeologist, states, “Thisis no boring textbook of Southwestarchaeology that proves impossible toplow through. Instead, Childs’ writinggives factual knowledge made lively byhis own treks through desert wildernessin pursuit of a people who made thesame moves 800 years ago.” One of themost important points of the book, thereviewer notes, is “that the Anasazinever mysteriously disappeared as popularopinion declares, but insteadmigrated en masse over hundreds ofmiles and centuries of time” (quotesexcerpted from Marilyn Boynton’s“‘House of Rain’ Makes the Past ComeAlive” in Four Corners Free Press, Vol. 4,No. 10, pp. 18—19. Cortez, Colorado).And, yes, House of Rain grapples withthe term “Anasazi.” It strikes me asabsurd that we should expect the generalpublic to, overnight, abandon a termthat archaeologists themselves used fordecades. Further, it is silly to think thatwe’ve found a flawless, politically correctterm in “Ancestral Pueblo.” I challengeany of the undersigned to use that termcomfortably with the archaeologists, historians,or politicians of the NavajoNation.As a profession, we do a poor job of representingourselves to the public. Weneed the voices of people like CraigChilds, voices that awaken not just themind, but the soul.Jonathan TillArchaeologist, Colorado PlateauThe Emergence of Geoarchaeologyin Research and Cultural ResourceManagement: Response toDickinson and GreenI was pleased to read the comments ofDickinson and Green (The SAA ArchaeologicalRecord 7:3[3-4]) to my two-partarticle on Geoarchaeology. Both areesteemed academicians whose longterminterdisciplinary contributionsonly underscore the growing influenceof our specialty. Their commentaryattempted to expand and refine thedomain of what we have called geoarchaeologyand, perhaps more importantly,to caution against blurring themethodological lines that bring workersin both disciplines together. My commentsare directed to these two issuesbecause they highlight the contexts inwhich we work (what is geoarchaeology?)and the changing environment in whichgeoarchaeology finds its niche.The authors claim that “[g]eoarchaeologyis archaeology pursued with a geologicalbent using geological methods,while archaeological geology is geologypursued with archaeological problemsin mind but NOT using archaeologicalmethods” (emphasis added). I find thisdistinction logically puzzling and theirrecommendation that yet a third subdiscipline,“geological archaeology,” beintroduced confounds the issue still further.My original premise that geoarchaeologysimply marks the interfacebetween geology and archaeologyimplicitly expands the scope of both disciplines.We cull and integrate methodsfrom each based on the specific questionsposed at sites and landscapeswhere natural and cultural inputs contributeto the archaeological record. Professionalsallied with both fields haveweighed in on the argument, but thegrowth and maturation of a unique subfieldhas resulted in the following claim(P. Goldberg and R. MacPhail, Practicaland Theoretical Geoarchaeology, Blackwell, Oxford 2006:2):Does it really matter how wecategorize research that isaimed at studying postdepositionaldissolution of bones at asite? . . . this research wouldfall into both camps, but doesit help us to know if we aredoing geoarchaeology or geologicalarchaeology or archaeologicalgeology? For the sake ofbrevity, we employ the simpleterm Geoarchaeology.The point is that exponential methodologicaladvances in archaeology andgeology are blurring the distinctionsbetween them, to the point where geoarchaeology,irrespective of modifier andnoun, is approaching a level of matura-September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record3


LETTERS TO THE EDITORtion reflected in its unique and growingutility. Again, turning to the Goldbergand MacPhail volume, I would note thatone of its most ubiquitous contributionsis Part II, entitled Non-traditional geoarchaeologicalapproaches, that concentrateson “archaeological sediments,”sensu latto, or deposits that are the productof human activity. It can be arguedthat weathered human debris requires,in equal measure, knowledge of humanactivity (accounting for its deposition;“archaeological question”) and the physical,chemical, and biological processes ofdisaggregation (“geological question”).Reconstituting site formation drawsupon a hybridized knowledge base spanningarchaeological and geological techniquesand methods. It follows that,depending on project objectives, eitherthe project geologist or archaeologist cantake the lead in analysis, interpretation,and report preparation.A final point on the geoarchaeology vs.archaeological geology polemic concernsthe question of a practitioner’s disciplinaryidentification. I would take issuewith Dickinson and Green’s claim thatnone of the members of the ArchaeologicalGeology Division of the GeologicalSociety of America would own up tobeing archaeologists. Without benefit ofmembership numbers I am aware of atleast a dozen who have completed aPh.D. in anthropology and anotherdozen who have the geology doctorate.Many others have M.A.s or M.S.s in onefield and pursued a second degree in theother. In sum, the disciplinary distinctionsbetween geology and archaeologyare muted for geoarchaeologists andtheir training will generally predisposethem to the types of projects for whichthey will assume principal roles. My callfor standards in the training of geoarchaeologistssimply emphasizes that in achanging archaeological environment,the traditional pathways for academictraining are approaching obsolescence ata time when interdisciplinary goals arethe raison d’être of a project. To emphasizethe point, the classic anthropologicalorientation underpinning archaeologicalpractice in North America is eitherreduced or absent from training modelselsewhere in the world. Increased globalizationcoupled with a shifting balancefrom research archaeology to (applied)cultural resource management onlyunderscores the parochialism of theNorth American model and renders iteven less applicable.In my presentation I enumerated therange of earth science–related disciplinesthat contribute to productivegeoarchaeological ventures. The NewYork City example (Figures 5 and 6) isthe most striking. In that study, I utilizedhistorical cartography, stratigraphicobservations, eighteenth- to twentiethcenturyliterary accounts, and archaeologicalnotes and records to formulate amodel of dynamic landscape change andhuman ecology. Perhaps the most singularcontributions were the pristine(pre-urban) landscape descriptionsrecounted by the Dutch, British, andearly Colonial diarists that were readilyreconciled with the limited stratigraphicexposures made available in confinedtrench boxes. The orientation derivesfrom my own training in physical geographyand archaeology at the Universityof Chicago under Karl Butzer. A moreconventional interdisciplinary approachmight have brought together a Late Quaternarygeologist and a historical archaeologist.While this combination wouldhave been eminently appropriate for thetask, my guess is that the analytic andinterpretive parameters would have variedsignificantly.While I am not necessarily championingthe reconfiguration of traditionalgraduate training programs, I cannotemphasize more strongly the need formore, rather than less, rigorous training,across if not within both fields.More critically, the divide separatinggeology and archaeology needs to bedeemphasized, and a program of geoarchaeology,sensu stricto, could allow forthe proper training of professionalswho can serve as Principal Investigatorson projects that breach the disciplinarygap. It is unfortunate that Dickinsonand Green doubt “whether specially formulatedacademic programs combiningthe two will in fact eventuate, evenincrementally as realistic mainstreamoptions.” I would argue that mainstreamgeoarchaeology is currently drivenNOT by pure academic pursuits, bethey geological or archaeological. Theyare increasingly mandated by thepreservation ethic that sustains culturalresource management (in the UnitedStates) and cultural heritage protocols(in most other countries of the world).If this were not the case, I would agreewith Dickinson’s and Green’s claim that“both fields are large and complexenough in themselves” to mitigateagainst the crossover of disciplinaryexpertise. However, the direction of ourprofession in the future is unmistakable.The performance of geoarchaeologywill increasingly be undertaken byfiat and not by design. Whether we likeit or not, the prevalence of long-termvenues with large teams of researchspecialists is a thing of the past. In thiscontext, the term “researchers” shouldprobably be replaced by the term “practitioners.”This is not to disparage theneed for maintaining the highest levelsof scientific sophistication irrespectiveof objectives. However, the researchuniverse will increasingly be imposedfrom the outside rather than selected bypractitioners. Flexibility and versatilityare replacing specialization as the callingcard for our field as in others. Theneed is growing for up and cominggeoarchaeologists to master as manydiverse methodologies as they can in aworld that demands more skills and willaccommodate fewer specialists for venturesthat require mitigation rather thanknowledge for knowledge’s sake. Thesooner we learn this, the betterequipped we will be to train and producegeoarchaeologists for the chal-4 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


LETTERS TO THE EDITORlenges that face them in the twenty-firstcentury and beyond.Joe SchuldenreinPrincipal and PresidentGeoarchaeology Research AssociatesAn Open Letter to theArchaeological andAnthropological CommunitiesDuring the past few weeks we havereceived several concerned emails andtelephone calls regarding the cover ofour recently published Archaeology andAnthropology Toolbook.Regrettably the cover image does,indeed, depict human remains. Accordingto the information that we’ve beenable to compile from the photographer,the image was taken in the summer of2000 and is from an ancient Iron Ageexcavation in Auvergne, France. Our sincereintention was to utilize a recognizableimage that could directly identify thetype of professionals that this brochureand the products therein would relate to.By no means, and in no manner, wouldForestry Suppliers intentionally disrespectthese or any remains, nor wouldwe intentionally offend you, the professionals,whom we intended to petition.Forestry Suppliers has a long history ofservice to the Archaeological andAnthropological communities and wesincerely regret any offense or perceptionsof insensitivity that our coverimage selection may have inadvertentlycaused. Furthermore, Forestry Supplierssincerely apologizes if we have in anyfashion caused any anguish or impedimentto archaeologists, anthropologists,or the people and cultures that youserve.We truly appreciate the comments andcriticism that has been offered, and wewill certainly adhere to the suggestionsprovided by solemnly pledging that allfuture cover designations will be thoroughlyreviewed by a professional focusgroup to ensure that no semblance ofimpropriety exists.Lastly, it is our genuine hope and desirethat you will forgive our indiscretion,and allow us the privilege of serving youin the future.Forestry Suppliers, IncSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record5


FROM THE PRESIDENTFROM THE PRESIDENTDean R. SnowDean R. Snow is President of the Society for American Archaeology.Dear Colleagues:The annual SAA election gives SAA members theopportunity to actively participate in SAA governance.In an effort to facilitate the election process,the Board of Directors has approved the move to anelection conducted via the web by a third-partyprovider who specializes in web-based elections. Thischange will benefit both the Society in its cost effectivenessand benefit its members in its ease of use.You no longer need to wait to receive candidates’statements and ballots in the mail, pay for returnpostage, or make a trip to the mailbox. The Society will also realizetremendous cost savings on printing and postage, not tomention the time spent counting the paper ballots. Theseadministrative dollars can be shifted to the Society’s substantiveprograms. Additionally, the election will also be conducted in amore compressed time frame. The Board specifically approvedthe following motion in April 2007:Motion 118-27.1 – The Board approves the conversion toa solely web-based election, beginning with the 2008 election.In order to accommodate a member requiring apaper ballot, SAA staff will send a paper ballot andpaper copy of the candidate statements to any member ingood standing who telephones or faxes (not emails) theSociety requesting that accommodation.Voting via the web is quick, easy, and secure. TheSociety has utilized this web-based election option aspart of the hybrid election system for the past twoyears, and it has generated a significant amount ofpositive feedback from our members. In early January2008, all SAA voting members will receive anemail that contains a link to the candidates’ statements,as well as a link to the official ballot site. If theSociety does not have your valid email address, or ifthe email to you bounces back, a postcard withdetailed information on how to access the candidates’statements and vote via the web will be mailedto you via the postal service. The key to maximizing the efficiencyof this process is the accuracy of your email address. Wewould appreciate it if you would take a moment to update youremail information in the Members’ Section of the SAAweb(www.saa.org). The SAA staff is also happy to assist you withthis. Please email them with your updated/current emailaddress at membership@saa.org. Thank you for being an activeparticipant in the Society for American Archaeology.Dean R. SnowPresidentU.S. CITIZENS TRAVELING TO CANADAU.S. citizens traveling between the U.S. and Canada must have a valid passport. This is a result of the Western HemisphereTravel Initiative. For specifics on this initiative, see the website from the Department of Homeland Security:http://www.dhs.gov.xtrvlsec/crossingborders.If you do not have a passport and need to apply for one, you may wish to note that passport processing times havedramatically increased due to the volume of requests. If you need a passport, you may wish to consult the website from theDepartment of State: http://travel.state.gov/passport for instructions.6 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


IN BRIEFIN BRIEFTobi A. BrimsekTobi A. Brimsek is executive director of the Society for American Archaeology.Earlier Than Usual—SAA’s 2008 Annual Meeting!The 73rd Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeologywill be held March 26–30, 2008 in Vancouver, BC, Canada.Because the meeting falls in late March, the deadline foradvance registration is Friday, February 22, 2008. Please markyour calendars! The Preliminary Program will be posted on theweb in mid-December and will be mailed in late December. Wehope to see you there!Please remember passport requirements for Canada. If you don’thave one, don’t delay!More on SAA’s 2008 Annual Meeting in Vancouver, BCThe headquarters hotel for the 73 rd Annual Meeting in Vancouverwill be the Hyatt Regency Vancouver with two overflowproperties, the Renaissance Vancouver Harbourside and theMarriott Vancouver Pinnacle Downtown. In addition, there aretwo properties exclusively for students, the Days Inn VancouverDowntown and the Ramada Limited Downtown Vancouver.Both of the student properties include a continental breakfastwith the rate. Complete reservation information for all of theSAA properties is available on SAAweb, and of course, will beincluded in the Preliminary Program available in December.Click on the “2008 Meeting Hotel Information” button on SAA’shomepage (http://www.saa.org) to see this information now.Please pay particular attention to the different cut-off dates forthe various properties! Updated information on hotel availabilitywill always be posted here on SAAweb.A Chance for a Free One-year Membership in SAARegister for a room at any of the meeting hotels for the SAAmeeting by January 7, 2008, and your name will be entered intoan SAA drawing for an incomparable prize—a one-year membershipin SAA! Make your room reservation today! There willbe a drawing for each of the five SAA hotels.An Invitation to Nonmember Canadian ArchaeologistsAs Canada is the host country to SAA’s 73 rd Annual Meeting,March 26–30, 2008, the Society for American Archaeologywould like to invite all nonmember Canadians (including students)to register at special discounted rates for this meeting.Details are included in the Preliminary Program. Please checkit out!Staff TransitionAt the end of July, staff said farewell to Tom Weber, coordinator,Financial and Administrative Services, and welcomed MeghanA. Tyler as his replacement on July 16. The overlap betweenTom and Meghan provided for a smooth and effortless transition.Meghan is a recent graduate of James Madison Universitywith a BBA.Did You Know.....That 91.33% of the current SAA membership have providedtheir email address to the Society? That is 6,589 members of7,214 members (as of July 31, 2007). A good thing, too, as it isthe most cost-effective and efficient way to communicate. Didyou also know that SAA has a policy that prohibits using emailto market to SAA members? Emails are used solely for communications,never distributed outside the Society, and startingin January, to provide the link to SAA’s web-based election.Please check out the letter from SAA’s President, Dean Snow inthis issue that details the new election process. Please ensurethat SAA has a current email address in your record. It willnever be used for any purpose other than communication. Youcan do it yourself or simply email SAA at membership@saa.orgto let staff do that for you. Help us help you stay connected!September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record7


ARCHAEOPOLITICSSTEADY PROGRESS IN BUILDINGPROTECTIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL ANTIQUITIESDan Sandweiss and David LindsayDan Sandweiss is the chair of the SAA Committee on the Americas. David Lindsay is manager, Government Affairs for the Society for American Archaeology.The antiquities trade has long threatened archaeologicalsites and the critical information they contain abouthumanity’s past. The roots of the problem are deep andcomplex, mired at least partly in the extreme poverty of the looters,who are often the direct descendants of the people whomade the ancient artifacts now traded on the world market.Only in the twentieth century did such trade become illicit;although some nations such as Peru passed legislation prohibitingthe export of their antiquities in the first half of thatcentury, international agreements are even more recent. It hasbeen only 37 years since the UNESCO Convention on theMeans of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export,and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property, and twentyfouryears since the U.S. began formal participation in the Conventionwith the passage of the Cultural Property ImplementationAct. The latter allows the U.S., as part of bilateral agreementswith nations experiencing looting, to impose importrestrictions on specific categories of materials from those lands.The agreements must be reviewed for effectiveness, andrenewed periodically.Over the years, the U.S. has slowly constructed a “network” forthe protection of antiquities and other threatened cultural artifactsby entering into agreements with a number of nations.1987 marked the beginning of the process, with the impositionof an emergency ban on pre-Columbian materials from theCara Sucia region of El Salvador. As more nations sufferedextensive looting of their cultural patrimony, further importrestrictions were added to the list: Bolivia in 1989; Peru in 1990;Guatemala in 1991; Mali in 1993; Canada in 1997; Cambodiaand Cyprus in 1999; Nicaragua in 2000; Italy in 2001; Hondurasin 2004; and Columbia in 2006. Over the years, many ofthese agreements were broadened to include additional categoriesof materials, and all but one—with Canada—has beenrenewed.The scale of the looting problem often seems to dwarf theresponse. But these agreements are about much more than justimport restrictions. In many ways, they are an integral part ofthe United States’ efforts to preserve and protect internationalcultural heritage, and increase the world’s knowledge about thepast. Depending upon the specific situation each nation is facing,the documents lay out steps for increasing the protectionsfor, and scientific examination of, cultural resources in thenations experiencing looting. Further, they provide a vitalmeans of establishing relationships for knowledge-sharing andcultural exchange by ensuring international scientific access tothe affected resources.SAA stands strongly against commercialization of the archaeologicalrecord, and recognizes the critical role that the bilateralagreements play in the fight against looting. They are a vital tooland represent the “front line” in the struggle against internationalsmuggling. When the State Department’s Cultural PropertyAdvisory Committee meets to discuss proposed agreementsand review existing, SAA and other archaeological organizationsensure that expert witnesses are available to inform thepanel about the need for the agreements and their effectiveness.In recent years, witnesses have appeared or submitted testimonyon behalf of SAA during consideration of the agreementswith Colombia, Nicaragua, Peru, and other nations.SAA will continue to work to preserve these vital agreements,and support requests for the creation of new ones, so that thiseffective combination of deterrence and scientific discovery canbe employed in other nations suffering from looting.8 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


73RD ANNUAL MEETINGVANCOUVER IN 2008Dana Lepofsky, Sue Rowley, Andrew Martindale, and Alan McMillanPHOTO CREDIT:TOURISM VANCOUVER/JOHN SINALDana Lepofsky, Sue Rowley, Andrew Martindale, and Alan McMillan are the members of the 2008 Local Advisory Committee.Reading over past articles from the SAA Local AdvisoryCommittee, it struck us that many of the articles sharethe same message: “Come to our beautiful city wherethere is great scenery, wonderful food, a variety of musical andart experiences, etc., etc.” Anyone who knows Vancouver knowsthat all this applies in spades to our city. However, Vancouverhas something to offer archaeologists that they cannot get whenvisiting many other cities: the chance to be introduced to FirstNations with a direct, unbroken connection to the local archaeology.list). We have arranged for SAA participants to get a discount ontheir admission to the Museum. Vancouver has an excellent bussystem, so it’s easy to get around the city to see all these things.It’s not too early to start thinking about traveling to Vancouverfor the SAA annual meeting next spring and perhaps even planningyour family holiday around the trip. And by the way, did wemention that Vancouver is a beautiful city with great scenery,wonderful food, a variety of musical and art experiences?In true Canadian style, this year’s Local Advisory Committee ismade up of four people who have participated equally in allaspects of the committee. Each of us is a long-time resident ofthe region and has worked in various parts of British Columbia.A fundamental component of our work is that we collaboratewith the First Nations communities whose past we are studying.The organizing we have done for the 2008 meetings in Vancouverreflects our experience and our passionate belief in theimportance of working closely with Indigenous communities.Meeting participants can look forward to three tours that highlightFirst Nations views of and involvement in local archaeologyand heritage more broadly. We’ll provide more details aboutthese in the next issue, so stay tuned.In addition to the tours, you’ll have other opportunities to get aglimpse at local First Nations culture. If you are arriving to Vancouverby air, your introduction to First Nations heritage and artbegins at the airport, particularly if you are coming throughinternational arrivals. In the Custom’s Hall you will find thework of Susan Point, Debra Sparrow, Robin Sparrow, and otherMusqueam artists and weavers. This area recognizes the factthat the Airport is on the traditional land of the Musqueam IndianBand. Make sure you locate Bill Reid’s Haida masterpiece inbronze, “The Spirit of Haida Gwaii,” before you leave the airport.Once in Vancouver, you’ll be able to visit the Museum ofAnthropology at University of British Columbia or one of theseveral galleries which feature First Nations’ art (we’ll provide aEDITORS CORNER, from page 2


THE ISSUE OF COMMERCIALISMPROPOSED CHANGES TO THE REGISTER’S CODE OF CONDUCTJeffrey H. AltschulJeffrey H. Altschul is President of the Register of Professional Archaeologists.In the Spring of 2005, the Register of Professional Archaeologists’(Register) Board of Directors took up a request fromCharles Cleland and the Society for Historical Archaeologyto amend the Register’s code of conduct to comply with theUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The requeststemmed from long-standing concerns from members of theunderwater archaeology professional community that the Register’scode of conduct did not adequately address underwaterarchaeology, particularly the ethics surrounding professionalarchaeologists working with or for salvagers.Then Register President, Chuck Niquette, asked William Lees,former Register President and an underwater archaeologist, tostudy the issue and report back to the board. Lees, working withthe Advisory Council on Underwater Archaeology, reported tothe Board in 2006. He strongly suggested that the Registeramend the code of conduct and disciplinary procedures to conformwith ethical statements and principles of the Register’ssponsoring organizations (AAA, SHA, SAA, and AIA) as well asthe International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)Charter of the Protection and Management of Underwater CulturalHeritage (1966) and the UNESCO Convention on the Protectionof the Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001). The Boardof Directors, while sympathetic and impressed by Lees’ report,voiced two major concerns. First, the proposed amendmentshad not been vetted by past or present Grievance Coordinators.The lack of advice from those who had firsthand knowledge ofcases involving underwater archaeology gave the board pause inmaking changes for which they could not foresee the consequences.Second, the Board felt that the issue of commercialismextended well beyond the confines of underwater archaeology.The selling of antiquities from sites that are actively being lootedis a major business. The Board saw no reason to differentiatethe ethics of professional archaeologists working for commercialventures, be they on land or underwater.Lees, along with Della Scott-Ireton of Florida Public ArchaeologyNetwork, graciously agreed to spearhead the effort to rewritethe proposed amendments. At the Register’s Spring 2007 Boardof Directors meeting in Austin, Texas, the Board passed amotion, stating our intent to change Section 1 (The Archaeologist’sResponsibility to the Public) of the code of conduct. Preliminarylanguage for the change reads:[An archaeologist shall not] be involved in the recovery,buying or selling of archaeological artifacts forsale or other commercial activity; or be employed byor contract with a company whose stated purpose isto recover archaeological artifacts for sale or othercommercial purpose.The motion was passed pending discussions with the Register’sattorney, Nicholas Sacks, and with Patty Gerstenblish, Presidentof the Lawyers’ Committee for Cultural Heritage Preservation.Our intent is not put at risk those that work in museums orother institutions that charge entrance fees or similar situations.Instead, we want to restrict the amendment to archaeologistswho knowingly work for companies or other commercialendeavors whose intent is to profit by the sale of illicit antiquitiesor archaeological objects. Discussions on final language arestill ongoing. Our plan is to pass a motion to amend the code ofconduct at the Fall meeting of the Register’s Board of Directors.I recognize that the issues embedded in this amendment arecomplex and controversial. Underwater archaeologists havelong been divided on the ethics of working for those who intendto sell some or all of the objects recovered in the course of a salvageproject. Some archaeologists, particularly classical archaeologists,work on texts and objects whose provenience is questionable.Many feel strongly that it is ethical to study objects ofquestionable provenience that will be lost to scientific studyprior to sale. Of course, other archaeologists hold equally strongviews to the contrary. That ethical issues are difficult comes asno surprise. But difficulty does not absolve us of responsibility.We have worked on this issue for three years. Our silence istelling, and it is now time to act.If you have comments about our proposed course of action orwould like to comment on any other Register matter, please contactme at jhaltschul@sricrm.com.10 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLEARCHAEOLOGY’S HIGH SOCIETY BLUESREPLY TO McGIMSEYLawrence E. MooreLarry Moore is an archaeologist at Fort Hunter Liggett in California.Recently, I suggested changes to American archaeologythat could make our work more interesting to the public(Moore 2006). McGimsey (2006) replied. My suggestionswere based on the observation that since archaeology is embeddedwithin and supported by American society, the former mirrorstrends in the latter. Over the last forty years an ideologicaltransformation has changed America with a new dominant ideologyemerging (Table 1). This change has been a typical Awakening,the concept that describes ideological transformations(McLoughlin 1978). Many archaeologists are already immersedin this new ideology; many more will follow. As there is no simpleanswer to McGimsey, I can only describe in broad termsthis transformation and its impact on archaeology.Romanticism Alternates with EnlightenmentI had argued that more fieldwork is needed, and that projectsshould be designed and marketed such that they attract thepublic (Moore 2006). To this, McGimsey (2006:4) replied:But if this increased involvement by the public wereto follow along the lines that Moore seems to envision,it would be a travesty. The public’s attraction toarchaeology must not be pandered to, but rathermust be channeled so they can contribute to theongoing effort to gain greater understanding of thehuman past. . . . [T]he only legitimate justification fordigging is the need to recover, interpret, and preservevaluable scientific data.His statement assumes that archaeologists unilaterally controlarchaeology, and that they can influence the public into servingarchaeological goals. Such assumptions are nostalgic forthe scientific high of American archaeology, years 1945–1980,when archaeologists did have more control over when, where,and why archaeology got done. In those Good Old Daysarchaeology served its internal needs and was part of the dominantnational ideological consensus known as Liberal Protestantismthat held sway in America circa 1890–1990 (McLoughlin1978; Pyle and Koch 2001). This rationalistic ideology privilegeshigher education, science, and evolutionary theorythrough an open minded theology. It is liberal in that it contrastswith (Protestant) Christian fundamentalism. LiberalProtestantism is allied with secular humanism, the ideology ofnonreligious Western scientists, because it does not supportthe inerrancy of the Bible as fundamentalism does. LiberalProtestantism is the ideology of the now dethroned ProtestantEstablishment (Presbyterians, Episcopalians, and Congregationalists),which was the centerpiece of the broader hegemonyknown as White Anglo Saxon Protestant (WASP) America.Based upon rationality, the Liberal Protestant era was similarto the eighteenth-century American Enlightenment with its climaxin Federalism and Jeffersonian democracy whereinlearned social elites controlled society. Forming early in theThird Awakening and gaining power throughout that era, LiberalProtestantism then became the driving force that createdthe twentieth-century political-military-industrial complex andthe welfare state. Some of its core beliefs have been socialprogress, modernism, and the scientific management of society.This ideology was successful for about 70 years; it developednuclear energy and put men on the moon. Beginningabout 1960 and intensifying through the Vietnam War debacle,the Protestant Establishment and its ideological consensusbroke down into a minority status (Kaufman 2004; Pyle andKoch 2001) because Americans became disillusioned with itsleadership and distrustful of scientists managing society, especiallyafter the Challenger disaster of 1986. Simply, the ProtestantEstablishment had lost its moral authority. Postmodernismrefers to the diversity of romantic egalitarian valuesand ideas that have vied for control due to Liberal Protestantdisestablishment. The culture wars of the 1980s and 1990sended the Liberal Protestant Establishment and fragmentedthe entire WASP hold on America as Catholics, Jews, andmany other non-Protestants gained social and political power.America is now a Post-Protestant society (Porterfield 2001) thatdoes not have an organized core.The new dominant ideology that has emerged since the rightsSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record11


ARTICLETable 1: The alternation between rational and intuitive eras in American history.Era Rational Ideological transformation Intuitive CircaPuritan Awakening X 1610–1640Puritan Age of FaithXFirst Awakening X 1730–1760Enlightenment age of reasonXSecond Awakening X 1800–1830National RomanticismXThird Awakening X 1890–1920Liberal Protestant age of scienceXFourth Awakening X 1960–1990Romantic EgalitarianismXSources: Adapted from Alsen (1996), Fogel (2002), and McLoughlin (1978).conscientiousness of the 1960s is based in another old Americanconcept, egalitarianism (Fogel 2000). This new egalitarianismis tolerant toward religion, atheism, science, mysticism,politics, and apolitical behaviors; it privileges none and concedesvalue to all. It is also a new form of laissez faire individualism,which gives it the unorganized character. The oldWASP myth of Anglo Saxon monoculturalism has beenreplaced with numerous myths about a multicultural (meaningPost-Protestant) society. This new ideology is also romantic,motivated by intuition, imagery, emotion, and participatorybehaviors. Literary critics and marketing professionals first recognizedromanticism’s broad based re-emergence in Americansociety (Alsen 1996; Campbell 1987). Romanticism is the usualreaction to excessive rationality. Right brain and left brain culturalprocesses alternate in dominance. Once again in America,John Locke has been replaced by Ralph Waldo Emerson,Jeffersonian democracy by Jacksonian. Comparisons betweenthis new romantic egalitarianism and the American RomanticNationalism era with its Manifest Destiny and Gilded Age areappropriate.With the return of romantic egalitarianism archaeologists havebeen losing control of a large portion of their profession, and,the reasons for doing archaeology have expanded beyond thepursuit of science into romanticism (Wallace 2004). In CRMarchaeologists do not control when, where, or why archaeologygets done. They have input about these issues but nonarchaeologist-senior-managersare the ones who actually controlfunding and choose the development projects that getimplemented, thereby controlling the amount of archaeologicalwork. Likewise, since the passage of NAGPRA in 1990,Native Americans are participating more in the managementof archaeology; their motivations for doing fieldwork likelysupport tribal concerns not scientific ones. Additionally, studiesabout archaeology as popular culture (Holtorf 2005, 2007;Lovata 2006) highlight that archaeologists do not seriouslyinfluence the public’s engagement with archaeology; they do,however, describe the romanticism of popular archaeology.Archaeologists now share their profession with many nonarchaeologistsand these others are becoming more aggressivewith their claims to interpret the past. As there are severalinterest groups appropriating archaeology, archaeology is multilateralnot unilateral.Romantic egalitarianism is a form of American democracy thatprofessional archaeologists have never experienced because thelast time it held sway in America there was no profession ofarchaeology. Rationalists tend to believe in ascribed authorityand orderly rule driven systematic society; they give exclusivemoral authority to specialists, such as scientists. Under egalitarianism(equality of opportunity), exclusive privileges are notnecessarily given to any group; moral authority is viewed asinclusive, offered to everyman. Egalitarianism creates an eclecticnonsystematic free-for-all type of society in which mosteverything, including archaeology, is up for grabs. Social equalityis not an outcome of egalitarianism because success is idiosyncratic.Likewise, romanticism indicates that mainstreamsociety is moved more by the heart than the mind, that storytellingis more effective than lecturing. Romanticism does notprivilege rationality but considers it as just another emotion.For those who prefer being rational intellectuals, this is a conflictedenvironment.Egalitarian Social StructuresLike the above issue, the next one also has deep roots in Americanhistory and culture. McGimsey (2006:4) made the followingcomment (the schism he refers to occurred between traditionalistsdefending Salvage Archaeology and progressives pursuingCRM during the 1970s and 1980s):Should all aspects of Moore’s vision of the practice ofarchaeology attract a following, I can foresee justsuch a schism developing again. This time it wouldbe Moore’s populists vs. the scientists.Here McGimsey is casting the discussion in terms of moral12 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLEtaxonomies, social categories derived from diverging values.He contrasts scientists versus populists with the insinuationthat science is more worthy than populism. This is anotherversion of so-called “high class” intellectualism versus commoneranti-intellectualism. Holtorf (2007:113) also identifiedthis distinction.American society currently has four moral classes (intellectuals,middle class, anti-intellectuals, and unacceptable). The firstcontrast is harsh, acceptable/unacceptable. Acceptable peopleare about 90 percent of the population; the other 10 percentare the unacceptable ones who are separated from mainstreamsociety for some reason (criminals, mentally ill, etc.). Modernmorals compel the belief that unacceptables can be reintegratedinto society. The three acceptable classes still retain some oftheir eighteenth-century stereotypes about social stratificationbased on wealth, birthright, and education. During theEnlightenment rank in America was identified through thosequalities and the upper class had them. The commoners wereunsophisticated and uncouth. It was high class versus lowclass with an emerging middle class in between. Over timethis switched from being a vertical ranking into a horizontalspectrum. That change occurred during the Second Awakeningas the romantic egalitarian values of Jacksonian democracyemerged in America (Wilentz 2005). Later, during the ThirdAwakening, the high class/low class (this time referred to ashigh culture/low culture) conception was stair-stepped again(Levine 1988) as Liberal Protestant elites began placing“experts” in selected positions of authority. But, they could notre-create an aristocracy because many anti-intellectuals andmiddle-class members retained some power. In the ThirdAwakening the high arts and science became revered, sacralized,while popular culture was demoted. During the FourthAwakening rising egalitarianism once again leveled highbrowsociety, raised popular culture, and demoted science. Televisionshows such as Marcus Welby, MD (1969–1976) used toportray infallible scientists living model family lives. Today, ER(1994–present) depicts the messy lives of fallible doctors. Scientistsare now just average people because science has beendesacralized. Highly educated professionals are no longer therole models of society; instead, college drop-outs such as BillGates are.The two ends of this new egalitarian spectrum are welldefined. On one end are those who view America as a meritocracywith education and intellectual prowess as markers of status.Intellectuals are about 10 percent of the population. Thesefolks tend to view themselves as better than everyone elsebecause they have impressive credentials or artistic talent.Most everyone else views them as snobs. When not promotingthemselves they promote social agendas to make the world abetter place, as they define it. On the other end are the antiintellectuals,comprising about 30 percent of society. Thisgroup includes most of the super rich, and it includes thenumerous populists who challenge the intellectual authority ofthe other end (hence the term anti-intellectual). Many populistsare self-ascribed rednecks seeking power and materialaccumulation, or they are perfecting the art of “just gettingby.” Populists are always reminding others that no one is betterthan them. While they openly demand equality they arealways seeking an unequal advantage on life. In between theends is the lump-all middle class, comprising the remainder ofsociety. Here, people with all levels of education and wealthrub elbows. This heterogeneous group is generally unconcernedor ambivalent about intellectualism or sophistication.They recognize the values of education, talent, and equality;when asked to prioritize these values its members usuallybecome conflicted because they also don’t want to be seen asunfair to anyone. Fairness is a great concern of the middleclass; members of the other two acceptable classes don’t worryabout it unless it affects them personally.Under Liberal Protestantism archaeologists enjoyed an elevatedstatus in society. Having a Ph.D. was the key to a privilegedcareer path. Inversions of meritocracy were rare. Now, thereare many paths to success and prestige in archaeology. Onlyuniversities maintain archaeological meritocracies, and eventhere Ph.D.s can be abused. In today’s CRM, inversions ofmeritocracy occur frequently. M.A.s with much experienceoften have higher pay and more responsibility than Ph.D.swith less experience. Similarly, there are often situations werea B.A. with much experience might supervise someone with agraduate degree. CRM certainly started out as a highbrowendeavor aimed at protecting the most select of resources, asdefined by experts. Today, egalitarian CRMers vacillate betweeneverything is significant, nothing is significant, and avoidingsignificance determinations as much as possible. The egalitariantransformation made archaeology a conflicted middle classprofession.As the egalitarian transformation has not yet been recognizedeverywhere, many Americans, including archeologists, continueto stereotype “academic” endeavors as “high status” ones,instead of identifying them as middle class ones. This is anunnecessary holdover from the Liberal Protestant decades. Theculture wars that continue are predictable. When archaeologistsargue among themselves (e.g., the old schism), the disputepolarizes within pro-intellectual values, such as one sideaccusing the other of not being scientific enough, or it dividesinto science versus humanism. When archaeologists get intoconflict with non-archaeologists, the dispute usually polarizesacross the intellectualism spectrum, just as McGimsey warns.The oldest dispute that archaeologists have is with relichunters (a blend of middle class and populist folks). Archaeologistsand relic hunters don’t mix because they polarize quickly,the intellectuals versus everyman, the cultured versus theSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record13


ARTICLEuncouth. When the dispute gets heated, it rises to the nextmoral level. Archaeologists claim that relic hunters are unacceptable,like criminals; in response, the other side holds thecenter and claims that the snobs are being unfair.During the era of Liberal Protestantism rational argument wasoften the winning technique for dispute resolution. Scienceusually trumped populism because of status differences.Today, rationalism is no longer a successful strategy becauseintuitive thought processes dominate society. Populism nowgenerally trumps science. To survive in an egalitarian society,and to avoid future schism within the profession, archaeologistsneed to learn how to argue and debate from within thecenter of the middle class. During conflict archaeologists mustseek fairness not rationality. Holtorf (2007:119–123) provides aDemocratic Model that is an excellent approach.Archaeology as the Affirmation of DemocracyI realize these ideas may bother some archaeologists. Balancingscientific ideals with fairness may seem like the “dumbingdown” of archaeology; likewise, enabling the “unwashed” moreaccess to the domain of archaeology will certainly be seen bysome as a “travesty.” However, archaeologists no longer have aprivileged domain protected by a dominant rational ideology.Egalitarianism has once again leveled the playing field, and,romanticism has shifted dominant ideological perspectivesfrom intellectualism to anti-intellectualism, from rationality tointuition. These changes are subtle and well advanced inAmerican society; Al Gore’s (2007) complaints about it are 30years too late. Archaeologists are actually adapting. They havebeen calling themselves “storytellers” for more than a decade(Praetzellis and Praetzellis 1998) and the phrase “democraticarchaeology” is gaining currency (McDavid 2004; Wood 2002).These are signs that romantic egalitarian values are waxingwithin the profession and that values supporting “elitistarchaeology” are waning.Archaeologists have shifted moral categories, from stereotypicalhigh-status experts to middle class “diplomats” (Latour2004) negotiating the when, where, why, and who of archaeology.We are not alone. All of science has fallen off the LiberalProtestant pedestal. The respect and reverence that was oncereadily ascribed to scientists must now be hard fought as publicskepticism of scientific moral authority remains high. Recognizingthat something had gone awry, Horgan (1996)declared that science was dead, that there is nothing new todiscover about life. We know he is wrong; there will be newtruths discovered. Science will continue as a recessive trait insociety until the next Awakening, maybe 40 years hence, whenrationality will have a chance to rebound into dominance.Meanwhile, scientists will continue to provide what nonscientistsreally want—their lives enhanced, to live longer, theirgasoline to be cheaper, and to be entertained in new ways. Tobe successful in this new Gilded Age, the products of scienceneed to be marketed and packaged in ways that satisfies themiddle class. For archaeologists, that packaging should bemultilateral, conflicted public archaeology.ReferencesAlsen, Eberhard1996 Romantic Postmodernism in American Fiction. Rodopi, Atlanta.Campbell, Colin1987 The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism.Blackwell Publishing, New York.Fogel, Robert William2000 The Fourth Great Awakening and the Future of Egalitarianism.University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Gore, Al2007 The Assault on Reason. The Penguin Press, New York.Holtorf, Cornelius2005 From Stonehenge to Las Vegas: Archaeology as Popular Culture.AltaMira Press, Lanham, Maryland.2007 Archaeology is a Brand! The Meaning of Archaeology in ContemporaryPopular Culture. Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, California.Horgan, John1996 The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilightof the Scientific Age. Addison Wesley Publishing Company,Boston.Kaufman, Eric P.2004 The Rise and fall of Anglo-America. Harvard University Press,Boston.Latour, Bruno2004 Politics of Nature: How to Bring the Sciences into Democracy.Harvard University Press, Boston.Levine, Lawrence1988 Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy inAmerica. Harvard University Press, Boston.Lovata, Troy2006 Inauthentic Archaeologies: Public Uses and Abuses of the Past.Left Coast Press, Walnut Creek, California.McDavid, Carol2004 Towards a More Democratic Archaeology? The Internet andPublic Archaeological Practice. In Public Archaeology, editedby Nick Merriman, pp.159–188. Routledge, London.McGimsey, Charles R.2006 Letter to the Editor. The SAA Archaeological Record 6(4):4.McLoughlin, William G.1978 Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion andSocial Change in America, 1607–1977. University of ChicagoPress, Chicago.Moore, Lawrence E.2006 Going Public: Customization and American Archaeology. TheSAA Archaeological Record 6(3): 16–19.>MOORE, continued on page 3214 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLEAMERIND-SAA SEMINARSA PROGRESS REPORTJohn A. WareJohn Ware is the Executive Director of the Amerind Foundation, Inc.At the 2002 SAA meetings in Denver, Barbara Mills and Isat down with SAA President Bob Kelly to discuss a problemthat I suspect has been experienced by many of oursociety members. How many times have you participated insymposia and presented papers at the annual meetings andwere frustrated by the lack of opportunity at the meetings to discussand debate important issues and exchange ideas of mutualconcern with other panelists? Time constraints for sessions atthe SAAs simply do not allow the kind of sustained interactionthat occurs in a seminar over several days, and very few SAAsymposia papers are assembled and edited for publication afterthe meetings.Barbara and I had a partial solution to propose: The AmerindFoundation would assemble a panel of senior SAA members toselect an outstanding symposium at the annual meeting of theSAA. We would then bring the participants to the AmerindFoundation in Arizona the fall following the meetings to participatein an intensive four-five day seminar where the kinds ofintensive discussions that are so elusive at the annual meetingcould take place. The Amerind would coordinate the work of theindependent panel, pay for all seminar expenses, and then compilethe papers at the end of the seminar so that they could bepublished by a major academic press. The SAA would assist bycosponsoring the program and the SAA’s Washington officewould provide advance copies of seminar proposals in the fall sothat our panel could select a short list of symposia for the annualmeeting.Bob Kelly saw immediately that the proposal would be a winwinfor both the SAA and the Amerind. The quality of SAA seminarswould be enhanced by competition for an Amerind grantand the results of important SAA symposia would be synthesizedand made available to a much larger audience. TheAmerind would be assured of high-quality advancedseminars—an important part of our recently expanded scholarlyprograms—as well as a steady stream of quality publicationsthat would benefit both the Amerind and the profession.Over the next two years the SAA board approved the concept ofa competitive seminar program and the Amerind Foundationassembled a panel of six senior SAA members who would servethree-year staggered rotations on the panel. Panel memberswere selected for their professional standing as well as topicaland geographical areas of expertise. Barbara Mills served as thepanel’s first chair and our first meeting was in the fall of 2003 toselect five finalist symposia for the Montreal SAA meetings.Applying for an Amerind Seminar grant couldn’t be easier, sinceformal proposals are not necessary. All you have to do is checkthe appropriate box on the Session Abstract form (Form E)when application for a symposium is made in September. Sessionproposals are then forwarded to Amerind’s panel whichconvenes in the fall to review proposals and select five finalistsymposia to be evaluated at the spring meeting. Symposia proposalsare each reviewed, discussed, and finally ranked, andthen five finalists are selected on the basis of the significanceand timeliness of the symposium theme, the quality of individualcontributions, how well individual contributions address thecore theme, and in the judgment of the panel, to what extent thesymposium would benefit from the sustained interaction of anAmerind symposium.At the annual meeting in the spring each finalist symposium isattended by at least two panel members who report theirimpressions back to the full panel on the last day of the meetings.The panel normally meets over breakfast and deliberationsoften go on for several hours as panel members discuss anddefend their favorite symposia. The goal is to reach a unanimousdecision on a winning symposium before the coffee runsout or the manager of the restaurant asks us to leave, whichevercomes first.Shortly after the meetings the organizers of the winning symposiaare notified of their selection and asked for a formal writtenproposal that addresses seminar themes, organization, anda final participant list and paper titles. During this process thepanel often takes a rather hands-on approach and may recommendthat specific papers be amended or dropped, or that theSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record15


ARTICLEAmerind Museum complex.symposium organizers address additional related themes thatwere not part of the original program. The goal in all this, ofcourse, is to ensure the highest quality seminar and publication.On the appointed date in the fall, seminar participants are flownto the Amerind for an intensive four- to five-day symposiumwhere revised papers are presented and discussed and, it ishoped, important synthesis occurs (no failures to report in thisarea so far). After the symposium, authors and discussants havea couple of months to finalize their papers and synthetic chaptersbefore a final manuscript is assembled and submitted to theUniversity of Arizona Press for publication in a new series entitledAmerind Studies in Archaeology. The Amerind Foundationunderwrites participant travel, food, and lodging costs, and subsidizessubsequent publication costs.We feel that the Amerind Foundation is an ideal venue for seminarsin anthropological archaeology. Founded in 1937, theAmerind is a private, nonprofit anthropology museum andresearch center located 60 miles east of Tucson in the Little DragoonMountains of southeastern Arizona. Situated in the spectacularrock formations of Texas Canyon, Amerind’s 1600 acrecampus is home to a museum, fine art gallery, research library,visiting scholar residences, and a seminar house—the original1930s home of Amerind’s founder William Shirley Fulton—thatcan accommodate up to 15 scholars. One of the advantages ofthe Amerind is its physical isolation. The nearest town of anysize is 20 minutes driving distance away, so the only distractionsscholars are likely to find at the Amerind is the physical beautyof the foundation’s remote high desert setting. Some of themost productive interactions at the Amerind occur during walksover our 10 miles of back roads where discussions are sometimesinterrupted by deer, peccary, and coati sightings! (Forthese same reasons the Amerind is an outstanding short-termvisiting scholar destination—please contact me if you’d likemore information on our residencies).The inaugural Amerind-SAA symposium was selected at theMontreal SAAs and convened at the Amerind in the fall of 2004.The symposium, entitled War in Cultural Context: Practice,Agency and the Archaeology of Conflict, was chaired by Axel Nielsonand Bill Walker and brought together 13 scholars to explorethe cross-cultural study of conflict by analyzing war as a form of16 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLEPatio of Fulton Seminar House.practice. Our 2005 symposium, selected from the Salt Lake Citymeetings and organized by Stephen Silliman, looked at NativeAmerican and archaeological collaborations in research andeducation across North America. Entitled Indigenous Archaeologyat the Trowel’s Edge: Exploring Methods of Collaboration andEducation, the symposium brought together case studies ofarchaeological collaborations with Native communities thatmight well serve as models of indigenous archaeology in thefuture. Last year’s Amerind SAA seminar, from the annualmeetings in San Juan, Puerto Rico, was a comparative look atthe transition to early village lifeways on four continents. Thesymposium, entitled Early Village Society in Global Perspective,was organized and chaired by Matthew Bandy and Jake Fox. Inlate October 2007, we will be hosting an outstanding seminarfrom the Austin SAA meetings, Across the Great Divide: Continuityand Change in Native North American Societies, A.D. 1400-1900. Chaired by Laura Scheiber and Mark Mitchell, the symposiumwill examine colonial interactions between Europeansand Native North that we think may change the way we viewcolonial archaeology in the Americas.Notice from the titles of these symposia that topical and geographicalareas are not limited to the Southwest or northernMexico where most of Amerind’s research has historicallyfocused. Contrary to some early expectations, the Amerindpanel has actually shied away from seminars with limited geographicalor topical scope. As membership in the panel changesthrough time, these predilections are likely to change as well,but we do not want to discourage any proposals from seeking anAmerind grant. And since the application process involves nothingmore than checking a box on the annual meeting application,I can think of few reasons not to apply.Proceedings from the first three Amerind-SAA symposia arecurrently in press and we hope to see our first volume publishedin 2008. The books in each case are substantially more than collectionsof edited papers because all the papers are rewrittenafter the symposium to reflect insights that emerged fromintensive discussions at the Amerind, and very often new syntheticchapters are added to clarify emergent themes as well.The proof will no doubt be in the pudding, but I suspect thatpublications coming out of the Amerind-SAA series will allmake important contributions to anthropological archaeology.The Amerind Foundation currently has funds to fully supportonly one SAA seminar a year, but as the program expands andSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record17


ARTICLEParticipants at Amerind’s most recent SAA symposium, “Early Village Society in Global Perspective.”as additional funds are raised, we hope to expand our support ofthe SAA as well. Later this year and early next the Amerind willhost two additional symposia from past SAA meetings thatcaught the eyes of panel members and were able to provide theirown travel funds to and from the Amerind. This coming fall weare also hosting our first seminar from an American AnthropologicalAssociation symposium in 2006 entitled Choices andFates of Human Societies: An Anthropological and EnvironmentalReader. This symposium, organized and chaired by PatriciaMcAnany and Norman Yoffee, will assemble scholars includingarchaeologists, social anthropologists, and environmental historiansto examine and challenge some recent theories of societalgrowth and collapse such as those popularized by Jared Diamondand other writers. We hope this will be the first of manyAAA symposia at the Amerind. The Amerind is also developingplans to launch a new seminar series dedicated to the synthesisof applied archaeology projects in North America. Stay tuned formore information on this exciting initiative (and please contactme if you have interesting ideas to share or projects to propose).18 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record19


ARTICLEEMAIL X AND THE QUITO AIRPORTARCHAEOLOGY CONTROVERSYA CAUTIONARY TALE FOR SCHOLARS IN THEAGE OF RAPID INFORMATION FLOWDouglas C. ComerDouglas Comer is Vice-President for North America of The International Committee on Archaeological Heritage Management,and Principal of Cultural Site Research and Management, Inc. of Baltimore.In March of 2006, many archaeologists and preservationistsaround the world received a flurry of troubling emails. Ifthe recipient were diligent and burrowed beneath layers offorwarding comments, she or he would eventually encounterwhat we will call here “Email X,” which claimed that “Quito’snew airport is beginning to take shape over hundreds oftombs, structures and villages. It is being plowed under, thewhole lost civilization.” The basis for this charge was that thewriter knew a man who “used to dig out in the new airport siteand he has shown me pictures of his digs and findings. Theywould be worthy of any modern museum. How can we protestthe government and stop the construction?” Email X went onto say that free trade talks were going on, and so “we, as Americans,have been warned to stay low profile [sic].”Like iron filings to magnets, these emails found their way tocertain computers, in particular those at which sat people associatedwith international archaeological preservation andresearch organizations, including the International Council onMonuments and Sites (ICOMOS), the ICOMOS InternationalCommittee for Archaeological Heritage Management(ICAHM), the World Archaeological Congress, and the SmithsonianInstitution. Because I am Chair of US/ICAHM and aVice-President for ICAHM, a good number of them reachedme. I forwarded one and saved all of them. Then I began towonder if by the simple act of forwarding I had lent credenceto a charge that might well be unfounded.In looking over the emails more carefully, I saw, eventually,that all were written or forwarded in response to claims ofarchaeological malfeasance made in Email X. When forwardingEmail X, many did so by adding their own cynicallyhumorous comments or expressions of concern. “The usualtrain wreck,” said one. Several asked something along thelines of, “can’t we do something to stop this?” As emailsaccreted, it became easier for subsequent readers, many ofwhom were familiar with instances of insensitivity by governmentsand businesses toward cultural resources, to concludethat this was simply one more. None of the comments,however, offered independent corroboration of the charge.An anomaly was an email by an archaeologist writing fromAustralia who had worked in Quito for many years. Thisarchaeologist said, “I take offense at [X’s] communiqué disparagingthe Ecuadorian government and archaeologists andthe fact that it’s being spread around all over the world.”There were also rebuttals to the charges contained in EmailX by various preservation professionals in Ecuador, includingmembers of ICOMOS Ecuador, and a member of theQuito municipal council. The councilman outlined the needfor the airport and said that archaeological investigationshad been done to prevent damage to resources and to documentthose found. Emails defending the Ecuadorian preservationeffort, however, were outnumbered by those thatinsinuated misconduct.Perhaps even more, the perception of misconduct had takenon a life of its own. Anthropologist and journalist Roger Lewinsuggested that systems as varied as rivers and cultures aredynamical, in that perturbations of flow, be the flow of wateror information, produces currents that further influence flow.Just as a fallen tree produces an eddy in a river, so Email Xgenerated a whirlpool of misinformation in the string of messagesthat followed behind it. The vortex became more powerfulas it moved from computer to computer. A particularlyregrettable outcome of this perturbation took form severalweeks into the controversy: An email was written to the governmentof Ecuador by a number of archaeologists associatedwith a well-established and highly regarded research organization,which expressed dismay about the destruction of importantarchaeological resources, and doubt about the ability ofthe archaeologists working on the Quito airport site to dealwith the materials that were being unearthed. As the basis fortheir alarm they cited Email X, which they said had been writtenby Dr. X.20 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLEIn the interest of finding a constructive way to deal with thefrequent reports of damage to archaeological resources thatcirculate by means of the Internet, I began an exchange ofemails with X. By means of this exchange, I found that hewas neither a Ph.D. nor an archaeologist. Further, he couldnot provide me with the name of an archaeologist with firsthandknowledge of the situation who shared his concerns. Hewas unwilling to provide me with the source of his information,because, he said, he feared reprisals. Why, then, did hisallegations stir such concern on the part of the archaeologicalcommunity? In part this might be attributed to an unfortunatecoincidence: X and an established archaeologist have thesame name.In March of this year, I decided to utilize a family vacation tovisit the Quito airport site. Arrangements were made with theassistance of Gustavo Araoz, the Executive-Director ofUS/ICOMOS, in coordination with ICOMOS Ecuador. Bythese means, I met with Gonzalo Ortiz Crespo, a member ofthe municipal council of Quito, and an advocate for both thecultural patrimony of Ecuador and the new airport. Planningand oversight of the airport development has been delegatedby the central government to the city of Quito, in no small partthrough his efforts. The airport, he said, was needed for welldocumentedsafety reasons, and to place Ecuador, a country inwhich 67 percent of the population lives below the povertyline, in a more favorable economic position among the nationsof the world. The airport project had been initiated 30 yearsago. The existing airport, built 50 years ago in a plot of land ofonly 105 hectares, is at a very high altitude and surrounded byseveral neighborhoods, a combination of factors that had producedmany fatalities. The new airport will be at a lower elevationand located in a plot of land of 1,500 hectares.On the day that we met at his office, he took me on a tour ofseveral nearby preservation projects in Quito that he hadchampioned. Among them was the Metropolitan Cultural Center,hosting the Municipal Library, which contains an importantcollection of the scientific and cultural documents fromthe Colonial period. These run the gamut from maps to scoresfor Baroque music. The task of organizing this material andmaking it available for use by researchers has been an enormousone. Several other buildings in the historic core of Quitohave been restored recently, including La Compañía de Jesús,one of the largest and most beautiful Baroque churches inSouth America.The following day, Mr. Ortiz brought us to the airport site. Thearchaeologist in charge of the archaeological investigationsthere, Dr. María Aguilera, and her field coordinator, StefanBohorquez, provided us with a briefing of what had been doneso far and plans for future research. The location for this briefingwas in the laboratory set up on-site for the archaeologicalinvestigation, and it proceeded while two laboratory staffworked on computers to enter data into an artifact catalogueand create maps utilizing a GIS program. She stressed that allof work had been inspected periodically by the InstitutoNacional de Patrimonio Cultural (INPC), the highest nationalauthority on archeological and cultural sites. Further, no constructionhad taken place at the airport without the prior permissionof Dr. Aguilera and the INPC. The archaeologicalresearch had been initiated as part of the EnvironmentalImpact Statement (EIS) for the project, and had initially beenconducted with funds set aside for this. Because of the complexityand importance of the findings at the site, however, themunicipal corporation responsible for the project, CORPAQ,had taken over support of the research.Archaeological survey of the area was begun in 2002. All of theareas where construction activities will occur were examinedby means of 40 cm by 40 cm shovel test pits excavated to subsoilat intervals of 20 to 40 meters in the areas that were consideredmost likely to contain archaeological sites. Color aerialphotographs had been examined as one strategy used to identifythese areas. Areas that were deemed likely to containarchaeological resources fell into three discreet sectors, whichtogether make up only 1.7 percent of the 1,500 hectares that liewithin the airport project area.No subsurface examination of Sector 1 was done because noconstruction will take place in this area. In Sector 2, Dr. Aguilera’steam found a necropolis with 80 deep shaft tombs. InSector 3, about 120 burials were found, of which 80 percentwere shaft tombs. The deepest shaft tomb was 12 meters indepth. Some shaft tombs were in pairs, and others were ingroups of three. All tombs had ceramic vessels; almost all hadat least one complete ceramic vessel, some had several, andone had 17. All have been excavated. The tombs date tobetween A.D. 570—700.September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record21


ARTICLEYet the potential audience for any email is covert, as it can bemuch larger than that which might be accommodated in anyconference hall. Further, those emails that most perturb theorderly flow of information are those most likely to be propagatedthrough the medium, often with off-the-cuff remarksthat can tacitly support the disruptive comment. At the veryleast, this should alert us to the need to be very careful in whatwe say and how we say it. That is, when email deals with mattersof real consequence to research or preservation, it shouldadhere to same rules of verifiability, authority, and logic thatare expected in scholarly work.THE PRELIMINARY PROGRAM WILLBE MAILED TO ALL SAA MEMBERSON DECEMBER 26!AN ELECTRONIC VERSION WILL BE POSTEDON SAAWEB IN MID-DECEMBER.THE PRELIMINARY PROGRAM INCLUDESTHE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:• EXCURSIONS• ROUNDTABLE LUNCHEONS• TRAVEL INFORMATION• SPECIAL EVENTS• HOTEL INFORMATION• ADVANCE REGISTRATION FORM• WORKSHOPS• LIST OF EXHIBITORS• PRELIMINARY PROGRAMAND MUCH MORE!September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record23


ARTICLEIDENTIFYING THE GEOGRAPHICLOCATIONS IN NEED OFMORE CRM TRAININGGerman LofflerGerman Loffler is a graduate student in the Department of Anthropology at Washington State University.Some analyses forecast that in the near future, American archaeology will “become a leisure industrythat needs to be aggressively developed” (Moore 2005:13, 2006). Implied in these arguments isa growing rift between academically oriented archaeological pursuits and “other” archaeologicalpursuits—cultural resource management (CRM) or public archaeology (Gillespie 2004; Whitley 2004)—although not everyone agrees with this perspective (White et al. 2004). While these issues are not directlyaddressed here, recognizing where “CRM-oriented training” is missing in colleges and universitiescould prove useful in bridging academically oriented archaeology and “other” archaeological pursuits.In this article, two models are used to identify the national distribution of “CRM-oriented training” inthe U.S to illustrate which geographic divisions are in need of more CRM-oriented training. Three stepsaddress this issue: (1) universities offering CRM training and a method to quantify that training areidentified, (2) geographic partitions of the U.S. are used to allocate the CRM-training data, and (3) amodel is developed to gauge whether a particular geographic division is oversaturated or underrepresentedin CRM training.CRM Training in the U.S.Following Vawser (2004), I looked at the anthropology/archaeology web pages of 57 universities thathad online course catalogs. Quantification of CRM training offered at universities can be difficult, sincesome universities offer classes in “units,” while others are in “credits” or “course hours.” In addition,different universities are on different scholastic schedules, such that one “three-unit” course in a programrequiring 36 units to graduate on a semester system can not be easily compared with a “threecredit”course as part of a 50 credit program based on a quarter system. Attempts to derive a single “currency”for comparing programs are further complicated by the fact that not all detail their graduationrequirements on line.From the 57 departments offering specialized programs, degrees, courses, or some emphasis on CRM,I collected the following data: whether the program offers an M.A. or Ph.D. in CRM; how many CRMclasses are offered, identified by “CRM” in course title; the number of classes with “CRM content,”identified as classes with “CRM” in the syllabus course description and/or in the course title; and thenumber of university-offered CRM internships. Quantification of the “CRM training” data was achievedby allocating one point per CRM-focused class, one point per internship, and one-half point per coursewith CRM content. Excluding crossover between “courses with CRM” and “CRM-focused courses,” thispoint system allotted a total of 98.5 “training points” to U.S. programs.Evaluating the Distribution of CRM TrainingI used two sources to assess the distribution of CRM training: the U.S. Census Bureau regional and divisionpartitions (Figure 1; Table 1), and the U.S. Court of Appeals and District Court partitions (Figure 2;Table 2). I modified these by removing Alaska and Hawaii to direct this effort to the lower 48 states.24 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLEThree predictive variables—weighted populationsize in 2005, weighted number of NADB reportsfiled from 2000–2004, and weighted number ofCRM firms in 2006—were evaluated using thesegeographical divisions to suggest which regionsare in more need of CRM-oriented training.First, the “CRM-training points” were allocated toboth the Census and Court District divisions bysumming each of its states’ contributions. Second,each division’s allocated points are comparedto the division’s suggested points based on populationsize, number of NADB reports filed, andnumber of CRM firms. In other words, each geographicdivision had a suggested “CRM pointsvalue” assigned to it based on the weighted valuesof the three predictive variables as calculated bythe summation of each state’s contribution to thatparticular division.Census Bureau DivisionsSuggested CRM point value based on the geographicpartitioning of the U.S. into the censusTable 1. The U.S. Census Bureau Regional and Division Partitions.bureau’s divisions are compared to actual CRMpoint value per division in Figure 3. Based solelyon population, we can see that the actual pointsU.S. Census BureauNew EnglandStatesConnecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhodefor the East North Central, Middle Atlantic, SouthIsland, and VermontMiddle AtlanticNew Jersey, New York, and PennsylvaniaAtlantic, and West South Central divisions fallEast North Central Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsinbelow the predicted CRM training value. Based West North Central Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota,on the number of NADB reports filed in the Eastand South DakotaSouth Central, Middle Atlantic, Mountain, WestNorth Central, and the West South Central divisions,these areas are in need of more CRMorientedSouth AtlanticEast South CentralDelaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland,North and South Carolina, Virginia, and West VirginiaAlabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennesseetraining. Lastly, if we suggest CRM pointWest South Central Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and TexasMountainArizona, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Montana, Utah, Nevada,values on number of CRM firms found in eachand Wyomingdivision, then the New England, South Atlantic, PacificAlaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and WashingtonWest North Central, and the West South Centraldivisions are all lacking in CRM-oriented training.While each weighted variable predicts a different CRM training value for each of the nine divisions,overall it can be seen that the West South Central division is most in need of CRM training. Also in needare the East North Central, Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, and the West North Central divisions.U.S. Court District DivisionsCRM point values predicted by population, quantity of NADB reports filed, and numbers of CRM firmsdistributed by court districts are compared to actual CRM point values per division in Figure 4. Lookingat CRM training value expectations based on population, we notice that the 2nd through 8th and 11thcourt districts could use more CRM-oriented training. Predicted CRM training value based on NADBreports filed per division suggests that the 2nd, 8th, 10th, and 11th distinct could benefit from moreCRM-oriented-training. Lastly, by looking at predicted needs based on the number of CRM firms per district,the emerging picture shows that the 2nd–4th and 6th–8th court district need more CRM-orientedtraining. While each variable suggests a different need, the overall picture indicates that when partitioningthe country by its court districts, that the 2nd, 4th, and 8th court district are in the most need ofFigure 1: The U.S. Census Bureau’s nine divisions.September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record25


ARTICLEmore CRM training, followed by the 3rd, 6th, 7th,and 11th court districts, which would also benefitfrom more CRM training offered by its universities.Population Growth ConsiderationsLastly, the fastest growing zones and the fastestgrowing states are considered, for they predictwhich zones will likely need more CRM training inthe future. An increasing population is statisticallycorrelated with increasing number of CRM firms(Figure 5; r 2 = .661, p < .001) and, hypothetically, anincreasing number of filed NADB reports.The growth of each state was computed from the2000 and 2005 population estimates, and partitionedinto both the U.S. Census and U.S. CourtDistrict divisions. The three fastest growing Censusdivisions are the South Atlantic, the Pacific, andWest South Central. The CRM training value basedon the Census Bureau’s nine districts (Figure 3)illustrates that the Pacific is oversaturated withCRM training based on all three variables: population,number of NADB reports filed, and numberof CRM firms. This makes the district wellpositioned in the short term as the Pacific divisionhas the states with the first and ninth fastestgrowing populations in the country—Californiaand Washington, respectively. However, themodel implies that both the South Atlantic andWest South Central district are in much need ofadditional CRM training, a trend that becomesmore evident when considering that theseregions have five of the top 10 growing states:Texas (second), Florida (third), Georgia (fourth),North Carolina (sixth), and Virginia (seventh).The four fastest-growing U.S. Court divisions areDakotathe 9th, 11th, 5th, and 4th districts. By all threeDistrict 9 Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, andWashingtonmeasures, the 9th district is oversaturated withDistrict 10 Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Utah, and WyomingCRM training, which again predicts it should fair District 11 Alabama, Florida, and Georgiawell in the near future. The 4th court district couldstand more training based on the lack of CRMfirms, while the 11th court district lacks CRM training based on the number of NADB reports filed in proportionto the CRM point value their universities offer. The 4th, 5th, and 11th Court Districts are alsounderrepresented as suggested by CRM training values based on weighted population estimates; this isespecially notable since these districts also include five of the top 10 growing states, as indicated above.Discussion and ConclusionsU.S. Court ofAppeals andU.S. DistrictCourtDistrict 1District 2District 3District 4District 5District 6District 7District 8The nature of CRM-training data makes it difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, the dataset developed hereallows for some statements about the distribution of CRM training across the lower 48 states. Thedataset allows for different methods of assessing which geographic divisions are in need of more CRMtraining; the dataset would merit updates every few years.Figure 2: The U.S. Court’s 11 districts.Table 2. U.S. Court of Appeals and U.S. District Court Partitions.StatesMaine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rohde IslandVermont, New York, and ConnecticutPennsylvania, New Jersey, and DelawareDistrict of Columbia, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and South CarolinaLouisiana, Mississippi, and TexasKentucky, Ohio, Michigan, and TennesseeIllinois, Indiana, and WisconsinArkansas, Iowa, Missouri, Minnesota, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South26 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLEFigure 3: “CRM-training-points” distributed on Census Bureau’s nine divisions weighted for population, number of NADBreports filed, and number of CRM firms.Figure 4: “CRM-training-points” distributed on U.S. Court Districts’ 11 divisions weighted for population, numberof NADB reports filed, and number of CRM firms.September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record27


ARTICLEFigure 5: State population vs. number of CRM firms per state.Each variable used to suggest CRM-training value per region is not without shortcomings. The argumentfor using population as a proxy measurement for need of CRM training has its limits. Likewise,the number of NADB reports filed is not without its problems or by any means a complete up-to-datedataset. The number of CRM firms per geographic division is not dependent on that division’s CRMtrainingopportunities—for example, migration of trained CRM specialists to CRM firms in differentstates obviously occurs. The models do not directly address all of the trends worrying observers of CRM,public, and academic archaeology (e.g., Clark 2004; Moore 2005, 2006; Whitley 2004). Nor are the modelspresented here meant to spur any particular university to add more CRM-oriented courses. Rather,the goal was only to identify national trends in CRM training and geographic zones that could benefitfrom more training opportunities.Acknowledgments. For encouragement, ideas, and positive feedback, I’d like to thank Matt Landt. Allmistakes and shortcomings remain my own.References CitedClark, G. A.2004 Status, Context, and History in American Academic Archaeology. The SAA Archaeological Record 4(2):9–12.Gillespie, S. D.2004 Training the Next Generations of Academic Archaeologists. The SAA Archaeological Record 4(2):13–17.Moore, L. E.2005 A Forecast for American Archaeology. The SAA Archaeological Record 5(4):13–16.2006 CRM: Beyond Its Peak. The SAA Archaeological Record 6(1):30–33.Vawser, A. M. W.2004 Teaching Archaeology and Cultural Resource Management. The SAA Archaeological Record 4(2):18–19.White, N. M., B. R. Weisman, R. H. Tykot, E. C. Wells, K. L. Davis-Salazar, J. W. Arthur, and K. Weedman2004 Academic Archaeology is Public Archaeology. The SAA Archaeological Record 4(2):26–29.Whitley, T. G.2004 CRM Training in Academic Archaeology. The SAA Archaeological Record 4(2):20–25.28 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


SAA 75th Anniversary Campaign2007 Annual ReportThe year 2010 will mark the 75th anniversary meeting of the Society for American Archaeology. To celebrate thisachievement, all SAA members have been asked to invest in the SAA’s next 75 years through an endowment gift.The SAA is the primary professional organization for archaeologists throughout the western hemisphere. Its mission isvery broad, and it can achieve that mission more confidently and effectively by developing its endowments. Strongendowment funds will allow the SAA to take actions that aren’t dependent solely on annual membership dues.The 75th Anniversary Campaign to add $500,000 to the SAA endowments began in the fall of 2005. Two years later,we are almost half way to this ambitious goal, with over $240,000 received in gifts and pledges.The SAA Fundraising Committee, Board, and staff would like to thank each of the 442 campaign donors listed hereand on the following pages for their commitment to the SAA’s future.$10,000 & aboveBruce & Sandra RippeteauLeadership Gifts$7,500–$9,999Tobi & John BrimsekHester A. DavisWilliam H. Doelle & Linda L. MayroGeorge H. OdellLynne Sebastian$5,000–$7,499Patricia Gilman & Paul MinnisMichael Glassow & Anabel FordLynne GoldsteinWilliam LipeVergil E. NobleDonald J. WeirRichard B. Woodbury$2,500–$4,999Ken & Jane AmesWendy AshmoreSusan Bender & Richard WilkinsonJefferson ChapmanLinda CordellGeorge L. CowgillJeffrey DeanChristopher DoreRobert L. KellyMartha RolingsonMiriam Stark & Jim BaymanDavid Hurst Thomas & Lorann P. ThomasLeadership Gift donor Bruce Rippeteau (above, left)explains his support of the campaign: “Serious financialgiving to one’s foremost professional society is, I think,one of the several duties of an archaeological career.”Major thanks go to all the Leadership Gift Donors listedhere.CRM Firms LeadershipChallenge Gifts$10,000 and aboveAlpine Archaeological Consultants, Inc.Cultural Resource Analysts, Inc.Desert Archaeology, Inc.Statistical Research, Inc.$5,000–$9,999Commonwealth Cultural Resources Group, Inc.William Self Associates, Inc.$2,500–$4,999EDAWSoil Systems, Inc.


Thanks to all the General Campaign Donors$1,000–$2,499Ray B. & Jean M. AuelGarry J. CantleyEmily McClung De TapiaKaren Hartgen in memory ofCharles FisherThomas F. KingTeresita MajewskiRichard D. MaurerFrancis P. McManamonVivian B. MoralesRichard PailesRowman & Littlefield PublishingGroupSarah H. SchlangerDean R. SnowJoe E. WatkinsLarry J. Zimmerman$500–$999anonymous (1)Dawn A.J. AlexanderDavid G. AndersonJane Eva Baxter & TheoGordonNancy S. BernardAlan P. BrewGreg ClevelandChip Colwell-ChanthaphonhMargaret W. ConkeyCathy Lynne Costin &Mitchell RebackJon & Cathy DriverT. J. FergusonMaria FranklinW. Michael Gear & KathleenO'Neal GearSarah HerrRoberta JewettKeith W. KintighJanet E. LevyAlexander J. Lindsay, Jr.Barbara LittleKatherine M. MooreDan & Phyllis MorseMadonna L. Moss & JonErlandsonSarah & Phil NeusiusTimothy K. PerttulaMary J. PiperBarry A. PriceAlison E. RautmanNan A. RothschildPatricia RubertoneKatharine C. RuhlJeremy SabloffKenneth E. Sassaman, Jr.Julie K. SteinUniversity of Arizona PressPatty Jo WatsonErnest A. WiegandUp to $499anonymous (11)David R. AbbottRichard V. AhlstromJean S. AignerC. Melvin AikensRicardo AlegriaElizabeth AlexanderA goal of the SAA’s education program – to bring archaeologyinto K-12 classrooms.The Public Education Endowment Fund was establishedin 1997 and helps support SAA’s public educationactivities which currently include organizingworkshops that reach out to educators, exhibitingthe Archaeology Education Resource Forum at professionalmeetings, publishing resource materials foreducators, and supporting the Network of State andProvincial Archaeology Education Coordinators. Animmediate goal is to enhance the Society’s role inpublic education by providing funds to convertSAA’s part-time staff position of Manager, Educationand Outreach to full-time allowing the Society toexpand and enrich this crucial program.Carol AmbrusterAmerind FoundationDaniel S. AmickWilliam Andrefsky, Jr.Roger AnyonRisa Diemond ArbolinoTraci ArdrenJeanne E. ArnoldConstance ArzigianMarguerite BadovinacShane A. BakerSuzanne BakerJesse BallengerSherene BaugherElizabeth BenchleyJames BenedictAnna S. BenjaminAnn C. Bennett-RogersAlice BerksonChristopher BevilacquaMarcia BezerraMargaret C. BiornTerje G. BirkedalMichael S. Bisson & MarilynS. SteelyM. James BlackmanBonnie A. B. BlackwellPaul BlomgrenJohn D. BogatkoPaul D. BoydJanet BrashlerGeorge H. BrauerJohn H. BroihahnElizabeth M. BrumfielSusan B. BruningReid A. BrysonAdrian L. BurkeJo Ellen BurkholderMichael S. BurneyWilliam E. ButlerJohn E. ByrdCatherine Cameron &Stephen LeksonMary CamozziSusan Marie CarloKelli CarmeanScott L. CarpenterNicholas ChapinJames P. ChartonCharles D. CheekBeverly A. ChiarulliScarlett ChiuJeffery J. ClarkCharles R. CobbJames W. CogswellAndrew C. CohenSally J. ColeJack C. CollinsDebra CorbettEllen CummingsNicholas DavidLeslie B. DavisSharon S. DebowskiLinda K. DerryMary DidierDena F. DincauzeE. James DixonWalter A. DoddPatricia DouthittElsbeth L. DowdAlan S. DownerElinor F. DownsDavid E. DoyelAndrew I. Duff


Nicholas P. DunningPatricia A. DunningTabitha F. EagleWilliam P. EckerleRichard EdgingCynthia J. EischenLeslie E. EisenbergMelissa Goodman ElgarDavid V. EllisErnestine S. ElsterPhoebe EskenaziHelen FairleyCarl R. FalkElizabeth A. FanjoyGrayal E. FarrTerence FifieldAgapi FiliniDaniel FinamorePaul R. FishBen FitzhughAntonia E. FoiasPam FordMarion ForsythDon FowlerEdward FriedmanVeronica H. FrostRobert E. FryDavid N. FuerstSherwood GaglianoLynn H. GambleErvan G. GarrisonLee S. GeeD. Gifford-GonzalezDaniel M. GilmourDennis GilpinJeffrey B. GloverA. S. GoldsmithAndrew "JR" GomolakKurt E. GongoskeJames H. GordonMartha GrahamRoger C. GreenRobert E. GreengoT. Weber GreiserLinda GrimmPhredd GrovesBarbara J. GundyKarl GurckeJudith A. Habicht-MaucheBarbara Ann HallReed J. HallockJulia E. HammettDonald L. HardestyJohn Harris, Jr.Peter D. HarrisonFrancis B. Harrold, Jr.Karen G. HarryRebecca HawkinsKelley A. Hays-GilpinSteve HeipelJoseph M. HerbertFred HiebertWilliam R. HildebrandtMary R. HopkinsSarah E. HorgenMargaret HowardCharlene D. HutchesonJohna HutiraSherry HuttStephen S. IsraelBrantley JacksonKaitlyn N. JeffreyAmber L. JohnsonL. Lewis JohnsonA. Trinkle JonesArthur A. JoyceKathryn KampKimberly KasperKathleen L. KaweluEdward KeenanMarilyn Kelly-BuccellatiNancy KenmotsuW. Gregory KettemanMaureen KickA.M. U. KlymyshynPatricia J. KnoblochShannon D. KoernerRobert D. KuhnSusan M. KusMary L. KwasSteven LakatosJeffrey LalandePatricia M. LambertJacqueline A. LandryJoanne LeaPaul D. Lemaster, IIShereen LernerRicky LightfootMarlene S. LinvilleDorothy T. LippertRonald D. LippiLonnie C. LudemanSheryl Luzzadder-BeachMargaret M. LyneisJoanne MacGregor-HanifanJoanne MackJoanne MagalisAnn L. MagennisMichael MagnerAline MagnoniJohn J. MahoneyRobin Elise MainsLinda R. ManzanillaRobert MarkWilliam H. MarquardtRoger D. MasonW. Bruce MassePatricia A. McAnanyJoy McCorristonSteven R. McDougalJeanette A. McKennaPeter J. McKennaThe Native American Scholarships Fund wasestablished in 1988 to foster a sense of shared purposeand positive interaction between the archaeologicaland Native communities. The Fund hasgrown thanks to donations of book royalties, contributionsfrom individuals and organizations, andthe proceeds from silent auctions. In 1998, SAAbegan awarding an annual Arthur C. ParkerScholarship, which supports training in archaeologicalmethods and theory for Native peoplesfrom the United States and Canada who are studentsor employees of tribal cultural preservationprograms. The scholarship is named for SAA’sfirst president, who was of Seneca descent.CRM projects play a major role in American archaeologytoday, and CRM firms are providing a big boost to the campaign.R. Bruce McMillanLawrence MeierLewis C. Messenger, Jr.Phyllis E. MessengerJack MeyerElizabeth J. MiksaGlenda F. MillerBarbara J. MillsTom MinichilloMark D. MitchellJeffrey M. MitchemJeanne M. MoeHattula Moholy-NagyAnntoinette MoorePalmyra A. MooreMichael J. MorattoE. MorenonVera E. MorganRaymond G. MuellerMickie M. MurinCarole L. NashBen A. NelsonMargaret C. NelsonAnna Neuzil in honor ofGrace DoschkaMichael NowakBarbara H. O'ConnellHilkka I. OksalaMaxine H. OlandAstrida Blukis OnatJoel PalkaJeff ParsonsPaul N. ParsonsB. Gregory PaulusAnn PhillipsLinda J. PierceAnne Pike-TayTodd A. PitezelVirginia S. PopperAlice W. Portnoy


Stephen PostWilliam PuppaBurton L. PurringtonK. Anne PyburnTeresa P. RaczekJanet RaffertyGerry R. RaymondBruce ReamJennifer R. RichmanNiels R. RinehartVictoria RobertsonThomas R. RocekJames RockMatthew J. RootLeah RosenmeierDavid W. RuppNerissa RussellPhyllis SaarinenDaniel H. SandweissRobert F. SassoAndrew H. SawyerSteven SchmichJohn W. SchoenfelderSissel SchroederJames SchumacherPaddy SchwartzDonna J. SeifertMichael SelleAnthony Frank ServelloRichard Starr ShepardRita ShepardSarah C. SherwoodJuliana ShortellKanalei ShunE.A. SilvaShari M. SilvermanAlan SimmonsScott E. SimmonsArleyn SimonCarla M. SinopoliS. Alan SkinnerKarolyn E. SmardzBurton T. SmithGeorge S. SmithMonica L. SmithPhyllis E. SmithShelley J. SmithKimberly SpurrRichard B. StampsJames J. StapletonDarby C. StappAndrew M. StewartRobert StokesKaren E. StothertBonnie W. StylesNina SwidlerDavid TarlerW. R. TeegenDiane L. TeemanLee TerzisMary Stevenson ThiemeRaymond H. ThompsonDr. V. Ann TippittSilvia TomaskovaPeter ToppingD Ann TrieuTiffany A. TungTom D. TurnerUniversity of PennsylvaniaPressUniversity Press of FloridaPatricia A. UrbanJeff Van PeltChristine S. Van PoolCarla R. Van WestAnne Wolley VawserThe SAA Endowment Fund was established in1985 and helps insure the future of the SAA.Income from this general endowment provideslong-term financial security, keeps dues moreaffordable, and helps the SAA fulfill its missionthrough the Annual Meeting; quality publicationssuch as American Antiquity, Latin American Antiquity,and The SAA Archaeological Record; andprograms in governmental affairs, public relations,and professional development.Karen D. VitelliHenry WallaceLuAnn WandsniderAlvin D. WanzerJohn A. WareJenny A. WatersMalcolm C. WebbLaurie WebsterPaul D. WelchAlice WellmanE. Christian WellsBarbara WhiteRobert WhitlamCatrina WhitleyPeter WhitridgeJerry D. WilliamRay WilliamsonElizabeth WilmerdingKathryn WinthropRenata B. WolynecGail K. WrightJames C. WrightVirginia A. WulfkuhleAlison WylieJason YaegerTakeshi YanagisawaLisa C. YoungPei-Lin YuJacqueline ZakMichael S. ZatchokJudith ZeitlinKari A. ZoblerIt’s not too late to join the campaignto celebrate the SAA’s 75th!Make your donation or pledge on-line at www.saa.org, oruse the form on the back inside cover. If you have anyquestions, please contact Tobi Brimsek at +1 202-789-8200.Thank you!This donor list is currentthrough June 23, 2007 andincludes gifts of publicationroyalties.Kristin Baker of Howard University served an internship inthe SAA’s Washington, D.C. office. The internship was fundedfrom the SAA General Endowment’s earnings. Kristin isshown here assisting at the Annual Meeting in Austin, Texas.


ARTICLECAN THE DISSERTATION BEALL THINGS TO ALL PEOPLE?John D. RissettoJohn Rissetto is a graduate student in the Department of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico.The career trajectories of today’s archaeology graduate studentsare changing. Many students no longer enter graduateschool with the intent of pursuing an academic position,but now frequently seek alternative nonacademic opportunitiesto apply their archaeological training. To adjust to thisreality, students and departments are adapting and modifyingtheir academic curricula to include classes and projects relevantto the application of archaeology in the public, private, and governmentsectors. A critical piece of the academic curriculum isthe doctoral dissertation. Traditionally, the dissertation has beena chapter-based, book-length monograph designed to demonstratea student’s ability to thoroughly carry out an original,single-topic research project from start to finish. Unfortunately,this form of dissertation is frequently interpreted by students asa final rite of passage that must be endured irrespective of itsimmediate relevance to their nontraditional professional goals.If the reality of today’s archaeology is changing, shouldn’t theapproach to the dissertation change with it?This article addresses the question of whether there is room inthe archaeology curriculum for an alternative format to the traditionaldoctoral dissertation. This alternative format would notchange the function of the dissertation, but would provide studentswith another way to present their research. Instead of creatinga single topic, chapter-based, book-like traditional dissertation,students would produce a dissertation consisting of individual,thematically organized, publishable articles, prefaced byan introduction and summarized in a conclusion. The articlebasedformat would not only offer students an alternativemethod for presenting their dissertation research at the end oftheir graduate career, but it could also serve as a roadmap to befollowed during their academic careers. This paper highlightsfour ways a student, whose research is appropriate, will benefitfrom the alterative format dissertation: (1) the duration of timeneeded to complete the graduate program, (2) scholastic development,(3) career direction, and (4) research disseminationand publication. The goal is to foster a dialogue between archaeologygraduate students and university faculty about how thearticle-based dissertation format can help prepare graduate studentsto be active participants in today’s expanding job marketin archaeology.To investigate this question, I interviewed 18 anthropology facultymembers and 16 members of the graduate student bodyfrom all four subfields (archaeology, biological anthropology,ethnology/linguistics, and human evolutionary ecology [HEE])at the University of New Mexico (UNM). The interviews includednine of the ten active members of the archaeology faculty.Names of students and faculty are not reported in this paper.The interviews were not intended to directly reflect the specificviews and practices of the UNM Department of Anthropology,but purely as a gauge for the general opinions of a very smallsample of students and faculty directly associated with the widerworld of anthropology.The interviews with students and faculty explored two mainissues. First, participants were asked if they were aware that anarticle-based dissertation option is available within the department.Second, they were asked if they would consider thisoption, based on how it would influence a student’s time in theprogram, professional development, career path, and disseminationof dissertation-related research. From my interviews, Ifound that the knowledge and opinions of both students andfaculty about these two issues were primarily dependent ontheir subfield.In 2002, the faculty of UNM’s Department of Anthropology, atthe behest of the biological anthropology and HEE subfields,instituted the option of an article-based dissertation format forall anthropology subfields. The anthropology format was modifiedfrom the article-based dissertation design originally createdby the UNM’s Department of Biology.Dissertation FormatsBased on my interviews with anthropology faculty, there was aconsensus about the overall purpose, direction, and goal of thedoctoral dissertation. It is intended to demonstrate a graduatestudent’s ability to create an original research project that incorporatesnew or existing data to advance the current state ofSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record29


ARTICLEknowledge on a specific subject. They believe a dissertationshould require the student to:1. formulate an original research topic or question2. secure funding to conduct research (preferably from outsidetheir college or university)3. carry out research4. analyze data5. write up the resultsThe 2006—2007 UNM Catalog (http://www.unm.edu/%7Eunmreg/catalog.htm)defines the traditional dissertation as a “singlewritten document, authored solely by the student, presentingoriginal scholarship.” It should address a single researchtopic organized through a unified set of individual chapters(e.g., introduction, theory, literature review, methodology, analysis,results, discussion and conclusion). The article-based dissertationformat (p. 83) is “defined by the graduate unit, [and]consists of a collection of related articles prepared and/or submittedfor publication or already published.” The written formatfor the article-based dissertation for all anthropology subfields isexplicitly stated in the UNM Department of Anthropology graduatestudent handbook (pp. 26—27, http://www.unm.edu/%7eanthro/students/gradhandbook.pdf). This format includes:a. a general introductionb. articles or manuscripts should be arranged as chapters inlogical sequence, separated by transition material that establishesthe connection between the various articlesc. a synthetic conclusion that provides a cumulative overviewfor all presented articlesd. a complete bibliography from all articlese. any additional materials suitable for an appendices notpresented in the published articlesGiven that the first four dissertation requirements remain thesame for both the traditional and article-based dissertation formats,should it then be left to the graduate student and theircommittee to decide which format best prepares the student fora career in academic or nonacademic archaeology?Divisions between SubfieldsEach interviewed faculty member, regardless of subfield, wasaware that the article-based dissertation format option was availableto all anthropology graduate students. However, the students’knowledge varied depending on their subfield and/or personalassociations between subfields. In general, faculty and studentsfrom biological anthropology and HEE were quick to adoptthe article-based option. In contrast, faculty and students fromarchaeology and ethnology/linguistics have been reluctant toincorporate this format into their curricula. Based on the interviewresponses, this may be due to a philosophical division thatexists between the humanistic (ethnology and linguistic) and scientific(biological anthropology and human evolutionary ecology)sides of anthropology. Depending on academic institution,this division has left archaeology somewhere in the middle.Interviewed ethnology/linguistic faculty and students were ofthe opinion that the article-based dissertation was not immediatelyapplicable within their subfield. Their explanation centeredon the humanistic nature of their research, which requiresthe length and breadth of a single monograph to clearly addressmethodological and theoretical issues. Students saw the usefulnessof the traditional dissertation as mainly a primary referencefor future publishable articles. The faculty believed it is anecessary exercise to prepare students to write single-authorbooks. This form of presenting research was described as one ofthe most important skills for future success in predominatelyacademic positions. It also represents the often individualizedstyle of research, analysis, and write-up that frequently does notinvolve cross-disciplinary collaboration. Both faculty and studentsexplicitly acknowledged the need for a student to have anestablished publication record before they graduate. However, itwas implicit that students were responsible for finding the timeor training to accomplish this, because their immediate energiesshould be focused on the dissertation.The biological anthropology and HEE faculty and studentsreported that they had already fully incorporated the articlebaseddissertations format into their curriculum and were verysatisfied with the results. The rationale for this transition wasbased in part on the nature of their disciplines that are rooted inthe empirical sciences of biology and ecology. Their focus on thequantification of the physical and social aspects of the human(ancestral and present) experience lends itself to the directinvestigation and summary of specific research questions. Thelogistical organization of this research model often necessitatesthe collaborative efforts of multiple researchers who work eitherdirectly or indirectly on student projects. Neither subfieldemphasizes the importance of a single-authored book over peerreviewedarticles. This is partly due to the prevalence of journalspublishing research in these fields, as well as to the importanceplaced on a job applicant’s ability to quickly publish researchresults and secure grants.From my interviews with archaeology faculty, 70 percent saidthey would be willing to encourage their graduate students topursue an article-based dissertation if it was appropriate to theirproject. The remaining 30 percent said that the learning experienceassociated with creating a complete book-length treatmentof their research in a traditional dissertation format is moreimportant to the professional development of the graduate studentthan a compilation of articles. They also mentioned thepossibility for potential bias against a student who produced anarticle-based dissertation over a student with a traditional dissertationand publications in this competitive job market. In thefour years since the inclusion of the article-based format to theanthropology handbook, no archaeology faculty member could30 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLErecall an archaeology graduate student who completed this typeof dissertation whose research did not incorporate biologicalanthropology or HEE. Of the students interviewed, 80 percenthad heard about the article-based option and 20 percent had not.Even though most of the students were aware of the option,none had seriously considered it or were interested in discussingit with their committee members. Many thought that ifthe option was realistically available, then members of theircommittee would have suggested it to them.Implications for ArchaeologyArchaeology has historically incorporated various aspects ofboth the humanistic and scientific sides of anthropology. Thishas resulted in a struggle to strike a balance between these twosides, as evidenced by the polarity of its various theoretical perspectives.As a result, the archaeological process has had somewhatof an identity crisis: it is collaborative yet individual, bookbasedyet article-driven, rooted in academics yet dominated bycontract archaeology in the private sector. This combination offactors underlies the influence the dissertation format has onallowing graduate students to efficiently position themselves forfuture career opportunities.TimeAll nine of the archaeology faculty interviewed were in relativeagreement that a student would probably spend roughly thesame amount of time working on an article-based dissertation asa traditional dissertation. Both alternatives require preparation,editing, submission, and resubmitting of text to their committeebe they chapters or article manuscripts. However, the absence ofarchaeology graduate students at UNM undertaking the articledissertation process precludes testing this assumption.Student DevelopmentPublishing and writing grants are among two of the mostimportant skills a graduate student should develop in graduateschool. A student’s proficiency in both of these endeavors willdramatically influence his/her future success in either an academicor nonacademic career. At UNM, students are requiredto take a grant writing class that teaches them how to prepare,organize, and write a research grant proposal. However, Iassume most programs do not offer a course on how to write apublishable article. The article-based option will give the committeethe opportunity to teach the student how to construct apublishable article. Also, the article-writing alternative wouldtrain students to become better grant writers as they gothrough the process of condensing large amounts of informationinto a concise, organized, and persuasive document. Incontrast, traditional dissertations often do not require a studentto be as precise in shaping, explaining, and supporting theirinformation.Professional DirectionToday, not all incoming archaeology graduate students want topursue academic careers. Many students enter graduate schoolwith the intention of applying their archaeological training topositions associated with public, private, or governmental agencies.While a completed dissertation may be necessary toachieve this goal, a book-length monograph may not be themost efficient way to prepare students for non-academic positions.In addition, students who want to investigate nontraditionalaspects of archaeology, such as pedagogy, public education,or the application of technology may be better served byseparating their research into individual articles that developseveral specific topics. The article-based format provides vettingby anonymous referees in peer-reviewed journals that can objectivelycontribute to validating the contributions these nontraditionalprojects have to the discipline.DisseminationThe most important aspect of the article-based dissertation isthe immediacy in which research is disseminated. As part of therequirement for completing the article-based dissertation, studentsmust have their manuscripts ready to submit to scholarlyjournals or they must have already been submitted for review.While this does not guarantee their publication, it does guaranteetheir research will be reviewed by members of the academiccommunity outside the student’s university. If a graduate studentdecides not to pursue archaeology as a career after completingonly a traditional dissertation, and has produced no subsequentpublications, his/her research information may be difficultto retrieve, or to even identify. At UNM each graduate studentis responsible for providing a copy of the dissertation toProQuest (formerly UMI), where he/she pays a fee to make itavailable to the public. If they decide not to do this, a great dealof time, energy, and resources have been exhausted with noappreciable benefit to the discipline. With the article-based dissertation,the student, department, and discipline will immediatelybenefit through the submission of single or multiple articles,and will thus raise awareness among a large, multidisciplinaryprofessional and public audience about the methods, theories,and issues presented in these articles.SummaryThis is intended to stimulate a dialogue between archaeologystudents and faculty about an alternative format for the doctoraldissertation. This format will not change the structure inwhich dissertation research and analysis are conducted, but willoffer an alternative method to navigate the dissertation process.While the article-based dissertation option may not be the optimalformat for all fields of graduate student research, the advantagesit can provide the appropriate students should encouragefurther discussion within departments. With the future ofSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record31


ARTICLEMOORE, from page 14


NETWORKSHISTORIC PRESERVATION LEARNING PORTALA PERFORMANCE SUPPORT PROJECT FOR CULTURAL RESOURCE MANAGERSRichard C. Waldbauer, Constance Werner Ramirez, and Dan BuanRichard C. Waldbauer is Assistant Director, Federal Preservation Institute, National Park Service. Constance Werner Ramirez is Director, Federal PreservationInstitute, National Park Service. Dan Buan is Chief Executive Officer, Buan Consulting, Inc., and Project Manager for the Historic Preservation Learning Portal.In 2003, the Historic Preservation Learning Portal (HPLP,http://www.historicpreservation.gov/) was launched by theNational Park Service’s Federal Preservation Institute incooperation with 22 federal agencies and offices. The HPLP isan information-discovery and knowledge-management enginethat operates on the most powerful concept-matching softwarein the industry. Its search function is publicly available. TheHPLP provides access to both structured and unstructured webbaseddata through plain-language queries. It is not limited bydata formats, jargon, keywords, or metadata tags. It facilitatesthe discovery of information, particularly by nonprofessionalswho are unfamiliar with the subject matter.The HPLP currently indexes the entire contents of nearly 1,000websites weekly, and the software is sufficiently powerful thatmany thousands more websites are accessed effectively because ofits abilities to locate query answers and mine data. The HPLPinterface has six additional functions that allow registered users tosave and edit their searches (thereby creating personal virtualresearch libraries instantaneously), find others working on similarissues, identify experts, communicate on specific topics, receivenotices about updated or new web resources of interest (the HPLPindexing frequency means that users never have to re-check websitesfor changes), and participate in forums on particular topics.Project Origins and DevelopmentThe HPLP project began through consultation and cooperationamong Federal Preservation Officers who identified the needfor a clearinghouse of historic preservation information thatwould help them meet their responsibilities under the NationalHistoric Preservation Act and 40 related public laws and federalregulations. The principal objective for the new project was toprovide the greatest number of federal employees and othersworking with federal historic preservation laws with informationthey need when they need it. The National Park Service(NPS) is the host agency for the HPLP because it has statutoryresponsibility to help improve information and training on historicpreservation to all agencies of the federal government.In all agencies, cultural resources management responsibilitiesare dispersed from the headquarters through the regional orstate offices to field offices. Relatively few people on these staffshave direct education and experience in historic preservation.Most of them who make preservation decisions annually—perhaps as many as 200,000—gain their knowledge on the joband through practical experiences from specific projects. As aresult, few of them gain sufficient professional background inthe allied preservation disciplines to be able to work with fullcompetence. It is problematic for them to find needed informationthat is available on the Internet because virtually all searchengines are based upon topical discovery, not problem-solving.Keyword searches, which rely on jargon and therefore tend toexclude the uninitiated, are not satisfactory.Software SelectionThe HPLP is an application of the Portal-In-A-Box productdeveloped by the Autonomy Corporation. This software makesthe HPLP a single point of access to the historic preservationresources on thousands of websites. With concept-matchingsoftware, users can query in full sentences and find relevantinformation. There is no data storage or maintenance requiredby the user. The software is “commercial off-the-shelf” and fullyXML compliant. The NPS contracted with Buan Consulting, arecognized expert in knowledge management and portal solutionslocated in Annapolis, Maryland, to develop the application.The HPLP applies advanced technology to perform innovativefunctions. Through the use of mathematical algorithms basedupon Bayesian inference and Shannon’s information theory, thesoftware technology makes it easy for users to find relevantinformation by entering queries in plain-language sentences.Bayesian inference involves collecting data that are meant to beconsistent with a given hypothesis. Algorithms produced in aHPLP query create a numerical estimate of the degree of beliefin a hypothesis before evidence has been observed, which isthen revised as evidence is collected, providing an objectivemethod of induction. Shannon’s information theory is basedSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record33


NETWORKSupon the mathematical idea that messages constructed oflonger records will appear with different frequencies andaccording to patterns that algorithms in the HPLP software canmeasure. The HPLP can index websites in any languagebecause Shannon’s information theory addresses linguistic patternsindependently from any particular kind of linguistic analyticmethodology.Descriptions of concepts or questions oriented toward problemsolvingare now possible. HPLP is not limited to the simpleidentification of topical locations based upon keywords orBoolean expressions, which drive virtually all other electronicsearch engines. The HPLP also is based upon “vertical search,”which helps to eliminate irrelevant hits that are typical in aGoogle-like search. It restricts results to domain-specific knowledgebut seeks information from both internal and externalsources. Most importantly, the HPLP uses its iterative processfor collecting unstructured data from public sources. In effect,the HPLP is not concerned about data formats or whether websiteinformation has been “keyworded” or “meta-data tagged.”This method gives the user a more natural way of finding information.Knowledge created by experts can be reused or expandedupon to further enhance research and education in the historicpreservation community. We now are able to identifyknowledge workers who have similar interests or are experts ina given field by saving searches and comparing these savedsearches with other users’ saved searches. This is a major innovationin the use of the technology. Since the HPLP softwareregularly indexes website contents, changes and additions areconstantly examined to ensure that users obtain the most currentinformation available. One of the advanced functions providesusers with notifications about updated information newlyavailable from the websites they have been reviewing. It is thiscapability that makes the HPLP the most valuable source forcurrent thinking on any issue in historic preservation. Lastly,the HPLP does not violate any security measures or accessrestrictions associated with websites or the electronic addressesof users.HPLP PartnersThe HPLP is the largest historic preservation partnership in thefederal government, in terms of both dollar value and the numberof participating agencies. It was reviewed formally andaccepted in 2005 by the U.S. Office of Management and Budgetas a major information technology asset for the NPS. The Portalfunding, operations, and strategic planning are overseen bythe Governing Team, made up of representatives from each ofthe funding agencies. The cooperating federal agencies recognizethe efficiency of having one source of historic preservationinformation needed by all levels of government concerned withnational historic preservation. No single federal agency has anInternet site capable of providing all the information needed bythe agency or by the legally required participating state, tribal,and local agencies and private citizens. The vast amount of historicpreservation information that is available electronicallynow is accessible directly through the HPLP based on its content,not because of its format.BenefitsThe HPLP is designed to improve effectiveness and efficiency inhistoric preservation compliance activities that currently dependon multiple Internet sites, hard-to-find electronic documents,and accidental information. Quicker and more immediateaccess to critical information will significantly impact the public’sabilities to perform successful historic preservation activitiesby allowing them to find out about similar projects, understandlessons learned, implement preservation best practices,and conduct meaningful project planning.One of the most valuable lessons of the HPLP is that federalagencies do not have to create Internet sites with significantamounts of redundant internal content, which often comes atthe sacrifice of developing new content. Just use the HPLP. It’sthe best way to read and index the existing sites and betterorganize the information already available.34 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


INTERFACES12VHarold L. Dibble, Shannon J.P. McPherron, and Thomas McPherronHarold Dibble is a Professor in the Department of Anthropology at University of Pennsylvania. Shannon McPherron is an archaeologist with theDepartment of Evolutionary Anthropology at the Max Planck Institute. Thomas McPherron is a retired electrical engineer living in St. Louis.In the context of our fieldwork in the Egyptian desert, we previouslydiscussed some of the problems that can affect electronicdevices in a particularly harsh setting (McPherron andDibble 2003). A related issue, and one that is just as important,is how to supply power to those devices when the nearest electricoutlet is miles away. Our solution to this problem has beento develop a system that works off of regular car batteries. Thereare many advantages to batteries: they are relatively inexpensive,they store a lot of power, they are relatively portable, and bothbatteries and chargers are available all over the world. Moreover,with the recent rise in popularity of recreational vehicles andboating, a lot of products have been developed for use with thekind of power—12 volt DC—that car batteries supply. Here wewill present some basics of how to use them in the field.Understanding Electrical PowerOne concept that is fundamental to understanding how to providepower to electronic devices is the direction of the current,which is either one-way (direct current, or DC, which has bothnegative and positive poles) or two-way (alternating current, orAC). For our purposes, we can say that DC current is the typeprovided by batteries, while AC current is what you find in commonwall electrical receptacles. Most devices that consume a relativelygreater amount of power, such as computers, printers,and so forth, work with AC; smaller devices often expect DCcurrent. Also, with AC current, each change from one directionto the other and back again is called a cycle. Most alternatingcurrent is generated at 50 or 60 cycles per second, or hertz (Hz).When connecting devices to DC current, it is important to makesure that the polarity (negative or positive) is correct, just as youdo when putting new batteries into an electronic device. Polaritywith AC current is more complicated depending on whetherit is 2-wire or whether there is an additional ground wire. As ageneral rule you should be consistent and not flip the two leadwires, but the consequences are typically less severe than in DCwhere it can easily result in damaged equipment.There are three other important concepts that you should alsounderstand, namely volts, amperes (amps), and watts, whichwork together. It is really very simple to understand them if youthink of electricity as water running through a hose. With thisanalogy, the wire is represented by the hose itself, volts representthe force or pressure causing the water to flow, amps representthe speed or rate (current) of the flow, and watts representhow much water is used per unit of time, or the actual rateof power consumption. In this analogy, a battery is a water reservoir.The size of this reservoir equals the capacity of the battery.Volts, amps, and watts are all directly related to each other. In aDC system, multiplying amps by volts equals the number ofwatts. Thus, a device that uses 10 amps and runs on 115 voltsconsumes 1150 watts.Electrical devices expect current with a specific voltage, and it isimportant to make sure that the power you supply conforms tothe device’s expectations. When using AC current in the US, thetypical voltage is 110–120, running at 60 Hz. Many other countriesuse 220–240 VAC (volts AC), at 50 Hz. Different voltagesare also common among DC appliances, with typical standardsbeing 6, 12, or 24 VDC. Car batteries are usually 12 VDC,though some similar looking batteries, such as for motorcyclesor golf carts, can be 6 VDC. For our purposes here we willassume a 12 VDC configuration.Basics of Car BatteriesTo some extent, all car batteries look and act the same. Becausethey are DC, they all have two connectors, usually at each end,with one of them marked Positive (+, and often color-coded inred) and the other Negative (–, often color-coded in black).When fully charged they will output between 13–14V, and whenfully discharged the voltage will drop to about 11V, so the 12Vcan basically be understood as an average. There are some significantdifferences among different batteries, however, besidestheir voltages.The first of these is their capacity, or how much energy theyhold. Since there is a specified voltage, battery capacity is meas-September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record35


INTERFACESFigure 1. A. Three batteries wired in series, which results in 36 volt output, but with a total capacity of 75 amp-hours. B. Three batteries wired in parallel, whichresults in 12V output and a total capacity of 225 amp-hours.ured in amp-hours; with a 100 amp-hour battery, you can ideallydraw 1 amp over a period of 100 hours, or 10 amps over a periodof 10 hours. Multiplying the number of amps by 12 (thenumber of volts) will give you the total number of watts a batterycan provide. Batteries vary considerably in the capacities,but in general, the larger the capacity, the larger the battery.The second consideration is whether they are sealed orunsealed, which refers to the presence or absence of smallremovable caps over the individual cells of the battery. If the batteryis to be moved frequently, a sealed one might be an importantconsideration because the liquid sulphuric acid, which cancause severe burns, is less likely to leak. Dry-cell batteries,which are not typical for car batteries, are perhaps the best solution,though they are considerably more expensive than standardwet cell batteries, and, depending on where you are working,may not be easy to obtain locally.There are many other considerations that could be taken intoaccount when buying batteries, but they are not of major significanceto archaeological uses. Most of them have to do with theuseful life of the battery, since factors such as temperature,length of storage, total number of charge/discharge cycles, anddegree of discharge all adversely affect how much use you willget. But in our experience, especially if they are used in fieldworksituations that take place over a limited number of weeksper year, it is often better just to assume that the batteries willfunction for only one or two seasons (it’s the downtime duringthe off-season that does them the most harm), and therefore youmay want to buy the cheapest possible.It is possible to wire several batteries together and therebychange their characteristics. There are two simple methods:series and parallel (see Figure 1). Wiring two or more batteriesin series, meaning that the positive pole of one is connected to36 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


INTERFACESthe negative pole of the other, adds up the individual voltages ofeach battery, but keeps the total capacity equivalent to only oneof the individual batteries. So, for example, wiring three 12 V, 75amp-hour batteries in series creates a more powerful battery(36V), but it still provides this power at the same rate as a singlebattery (75 amp-hours). Parallel wiring, or connecting the batteriesnegative to negative and positive to positive, will keep thetotal voltage the same, but the total capacity will be equal to thesum of the capacities of the individual batteries. So, the samethree 12 V, 75 amp-hour batteries wired in parallel would producea power source that still outputs 12V but can provide thispower at a much greater rate (225 amp-hours). Note that in eachcase the watts stay the same (2700 watts). Parallel wiring is animportant way of getting the total capacity that you need whilestill keeping the sizes of your individual batteries within transportlimits. Keep in mind that when connecting batteries youshould use virtually identical batteries of the same age.Charging Car BatteriesOf course, depending on how much current you are using, batterieswill only last so long and so you have to consider how theywill be charged in the field. Basically, charging a battery involvesconnecting it to a charger that produces more voltage than is inthe battery itself, which then allows power to move from thecharger to the battery. Thus, a charger might output 15 V tocharge a 12 V battery; increasing the charger’s output voltageresults in a faster charge (though this is more harmful to thebattery and can be very dangerous), while lower output voltagestake longer to charge the battery and are generally better for thebattery. To maximize your battery life, and to take the guessworkout of charging, one option is to get a multiphase charger thatautomatically decreases the output voltage as the battery getscloser to its maximum charge.Charging is more complicated if multiple batteries are wired inseries or parallel. In general, you still want to roughly match thevoltage. So, if three 12V batteries are in series, you can chargethem with 36V or just over, but if they are in parallel you shouldtreat them as a single 12V battery. However, if you plan oncharging multiple batteries, you should purchase a batterycharger specially designed to do so as it will have extra optionsthat allow it to be properly configured for different charging situations.As stated above, be sure to read the manual and takecare to both set the charger correctly and attach the charger tothe batteries correctly depending on their arrangement.It is possible both to overly discharge and overly charge a battery,and you should take care to avoid either. To increase batterylife, try to avoid discharging to a point less than 40 percent ofthe rated capacity. To see when you have reached that point youcan measure the amount of voltage in your batteries using avoltmeter. Voltmeters with digital readouts accurate to at least atenth of a volt are the best, and will give you a much better readingthan ones with a needle gauge. A fully charged battery (withthe measurement taken after disconnecting the charger and lettingthe battery discharge a bit) should produce about 12.7 V,and a battery that is discharged to 40 percent capacity shouldproduce about 11.9 V.Assuming that you do not have access to standard AC current,there are three alternatives for charging a battery: a generator,solar panels, or wind turbines. Generators are relatively inexpensive,can be purchased in any country, and run on locallyavailable fuel, thus making them a good choice. Solar and windare more expensive options and, of course, require environmentalconditions suitable for their use. You do have to be sure thatthe power output by the power generator is greater than whatyou will be using, and so compare the total output wattage of thegenerator to the total wattage you will consume (see below).What Can be Connected to a Car Battery?The answer to this question is: virtually everything. Of course,the more power you consume, the more power you need to generateand store, so the goal should be to have enough power onhand to allow you to accomplish only what you really need.Remember too that some things are exceptional power consumers,while other items cost very little to run. And it is veryimportant to maximize efficiency wherever possible.Surprisingly, even though most electronic devices plug intostandard AC outlets, many will also work on 12VDC. Amongthese is anything that can get power through the cigarettelighter plug in a car, including many different kinds of batterychargers for portable devices (such as cell phones, GPS units,and the like), computers that have cigarette lighter poweradapters, and even portable electric coolers. To connect these toa car battery only requires that you purchase a 12V “female” cigarettelighter outlet that clamps onto the terminals of the battery,and then insert the “male” plug of the device into it. Youcan also buy 12V “power strips,” which have one male plug andthree or more female outlets, thus allowing you to connect severaldevices at once.For devices that require AC current, the best option is to purchasea power inverter, which changes the 12VDC current fromthe battery to 120 (or 240) VAC, and which includes a standard2 or 3 pin outlet exactly like the ones in your home. This is aneasy solution, though not as efficient as a direct 12V connection,since the inverter wastes about 10-15 percent of the power comingthrough it. You also have to make sure that the inverter producesenough power to operate the maximum draw on it at anyone time.September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record37


INTERFACESFigure 2. Power station for the ASPS project (Abydos, Egypt). To the right is a 12v battery charger that can be configured to charge up to five car batteries. Tothe left are a set of car batteries wired in parallel. A power inverter (the circular object in the upper left) is used to generate 220v for the power strips seen in thephoto. The remaining items (IPaq computers, walkie-talkies, and rechargeable AA batteries) are charged directly from 12V.Many devices, such as lights and pumps, can be wired directlyto the battery. You need to use two wires—one for the negativeand one for the positive—and for each of these wires connectone end to the proper pole of the device and connect the otherend to an alligator clip that can clip onto the respective terminalof the battery. When joining two wires, remove a 1/4” of insulationon the each of the ends, and then connect them using awire nut.In all cases, you do not want to run excessive lengths of wire.Think back to the water in a hose analogy that was describedearlier, though imagine that the hose has a number of smallleaks in it. These leaks represent the natural resistance in thewire, which means that you lose more power with longer wires.However, how much you lose is also affected by how thick yourwire is (thicker wire loses less power per foot than does thinnerwire), and the percent of loss goes up exponentially with theamount of power going through the wire. Typically, if you usewire that is 14 AWG (approx. 1.5 mm in diameter, not countingthe insulation), and you are pulling 2 amps, you start to losemore than 2 percent of your current once you exceed 20 feet inlength. This means that you want to be careful in setting upyour field situation so that your batteries are as close as possibleto the devices they are connected to. Keep in mind too that 12Vrequires thicker wire to pass along the same amount of ampsthan would be needed for 120V, so you should use at least 12–14AWG wire for most applications.Adding up Your Power NeedsIt is relatively simple to calculate your total power needs. Almostevery electronic device is documented with how much power itconsumes, and it is usually expressed either by total watts oramps. Keep in mind that if the consumption is given in amps,you must multiply this by the voltage to get the total watts. Ifyou are going to use an inverter to power an AC device, thenmultiply the number of watts by 1.15 to take into account theloss of power in converting from DC to AC. Then multiply thisby the number of hours per day that you will be using thedevice. Totaling these watt-hours for all of your devices will giveyou an overall total of your needs. You should then add an additional20–30 percent because of losses due to overall inefficiencythroughout your system.To calculate your required battery capacity, you will need todecide how long between charging cycles. If it is daily, then38 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


INTERFACESdivide the total watt-hours by .6 (representing a maximum dischargeof 60 percent of capacity), which gives the rated capacityof the battery in watt-hours. Dividing that by 12 (the number ofvolts) gives you the total amp-hour rating. If this total requiredcapacity exceeds the individual capacities of your available batteries,then divide the total amp-hours by the amp-hour ratingof one battery to calculate the total number of batteries that,when wired in parallel, will yield the total required capacity.In Table 1 above, most of the devices can run directly off of 12V,with the exception of the “big” laptop computer, which must besupplied with AC current through an inverter (12V chargers canbe purchased separately for many brands of laptops and this isdefinitely worth investigating in this context). Notice too thatsome of the devices have voltages that are different from 12V—this is because the power supplies for them convert the voltageaccording to the needs of the device. So, when looking at thepower supply to determine the power consumption, you mightsee something like this: OUTPUT: 16V = 2.5A, which computesto a total of 40 watts (16 volts times 2.5 amps).One hidden and potentially complicating issue to the calculationslisted here is that some modern electrical devices, especiallycomputers, include special power sensors designed to protectthem in cases where the power goes too high or low. Whatthis means is that you may not be able to drain your car batteriesto 40 percent of usable capacity before, for instance, a laptoppower supply decides the power is unusable and shuts off.Power inverters are also subject to the same problem. Lightsand electrical motors, on the other hand, are typically much betterat accepting variable power: though too much power maypop a light or burn out a motor, low power typically results onlyin a dimmer light or a slower motor. On a related point, generatorsdo not necessarily produce power that is stable enough forsome equipment (for instance, desktop computers) and smallfluctuations in the output from a generator can trip the powersensors. One solution is to use a power regulator, though thesecan be heavy and expensive. Another approach is to use the carbatteries as the regulator. Thus, if you are having this problemwhen using a generator, connect the sensitive equipment to thecar batteries (even if a power inverter is required) rather thandirectly to the generator.It is easy to see from the table how power consumption adds upquickly, and so it is a good idea to conserve as much power aspossible. Obviously lights and other devices should always beturned off when not in use, but the biggest power consumer willalmost always be your computer. With laptops there are a numberof ways to reduce their power consumption, including dimmingthe brightness of the screen, turning off wireless connectivityif it is not being used, and configuring their power managementoptions to shut down completely the display, harddrive, and CPU when they are not used for a period of time.Simply putting them into standby mode, or shutting them downcompletely, when not in use will also save a considerableamount of power. If possible, it is a good idea to charge yourcomputer directly from the generator when it is running, andthen run it from its own battery power when the generator isshut down. This way you will not unnecessarily drain your mainbatteries.Special Projects1. LIGHTS. Electric lights can be a much safer alternative tokerosene lanterns and can be surprisingly efficient when workingwith 12VDC power. We all know how much power normalSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record39


INTERFACESFigure 3. The shower setup as described in the text.incandescent lights use—a 60 watt light bulb consumes 60watts. This is normally not considered to be a lot of power, butwhen running off of batteries, it can add up quickly. So, if wehave one 100 amp-hour battery, then it has a total capacity of1,200 watts, but remember that only 60 percent of that shouldbe used before recharging. That leaves 720 watts for our light,which means that it can burn for 12 hours before we need torecharge the battery. Compact fluorescent lights are a much betteralternative, since the equivalent amount of light can be producedwith only 15 watts—using this bulb in the place of theincandescent one would allow us to go 48 hours before the batteryshould be recharged. An 18-LED unit may draw less than200 milliamps, using 2.4 watts, allowing for 300 hours of usebefore recharging. We have not tested LEDs in the field yet, butthe technology has been in use for flashlights and headlampsfor several years. While such units are still relatively expensive,LED lights are expected to become even more efficient andmore widely available in the future.Watts refer to the amount of electricity used, but when calculatingyour lighting needs you should compare the amount of totallight output by the bulb, as measured in lumens. An average 60watt incandescent bulb produces 900 lumens of light, or about15 lumens per watt. A 1.2 watt LED bulb, which is much moreefficient (producing over 300 lumens per watt), may only outputa total of 375 lumens, or about the same as a 25 watt incandescent.Thus, the total amount of light output per bulb can varyconsiderably and you will need to make sure you bring along asufficient number (plus backups) for your needs.Most 12V lights (including incandescent, compact fluorescentand LED lights) have “edison” screw-type mounts that can gointo normal (and locally available) light fixtures. Keep in mind,however, that the bulbs themselves are different than normalAC types, even though they have identical mounts.2. CAMP SHOWER. We’ve tried solar showers in the Egyptiandesert where they should be ideally suited, but we came awayless than enthusiastic about them. The main issue is that assoon as the sun sets the heat in the water is quickly lost. Thislast season we tried building our own hot showers. We heatedwater in large (50 liter) aluminum pots on propane burners, andthen used a small electric pump to bring the hot water into theshower through a standard showerhead. All that is needed is a12V submersible pump and a waterproof switch. Mount theswitch inside the shower area, and connect one terminal of theswitch to the positive wire coming from the battery and connecta wire from the other switch terminal to the positive terminal on40 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


INTERFACESthe pump (the negative, or ground wire, can run directly fromthe pump to the negative battery terminal or other suitableground). Then place the pump in the water, flip the switch inthe shower, and enjoy a hot shower in the field. By restrictingshowers to a maximum of 60 seconds of running water (turn onwater for 10 seconds to get wet, turn off water and soap up, thenturn water on again for 50 seconds to rinse), each shower usesabout 4 liters of water and only one-half watt of power.Final CommentsNone of what we have presented here is terribly complicated butthere are lots of small issues that if not addressed can cause seriousproblems. Since most modern excavations are dependenton electrical devices, it is very important to find and solve potentialissues before going into the field. We stress that, to theextent possible, all systems should be fully tested prior to goinginto the field. While this is obvious advice, it is amazingly easyto short cut the testing process, test parts independently of eachother, to assume that new parts will work out of the box, and todiscover in the field that key pieces are missing or do not workquite as predicted.Even with testing, in a complicated system, some parts will likelynot work at all, will not work like you expected them to, or willfail at some point. Again, if the project is dependent on thisequipment working, you need to have backup solutions. Forinstance, even if you think the whole project can be done on12V, bring a few extra power inverters so that if you have to, youcan use standard 110/220 power. If you use multiple examplesof the same piece of equipment (e.g., GPS units, digital cameras,laptops), try to buy exactly the same model so that parts,and particularly power supplies, are interchangeable. Wherepossible, buy equipment that works on standard batteries andnot proprietary ones. For instance, buy digital cameras thatwork on AA batteries, and even if you plan on using rechargeableAAs have a supply of standard AAs just in case. If you haveequipment that works on special batteries, like calipers, takeextras with you. Don’t count on purchasing nonstandard batterieswhere you do your fieldwork.You will also need a good tool box. Stock it with pliers, wire cutters,extra wire, extra plugs, alligator clips, electrical tape, and agood digital volt meter. It is also a good idea to have a solderingiron. While the latter can be purchased to work on 12V, rememberthat you might need it to make your initial 12V system work;in that case, you might want to have one that works on standard110/220V.Finally, we need to note that electricity can be dangerous(though perhaps less dangerous than many other things archaeologistsdo routinely in the field), and it is best to be informedand proceed cautiously. Remember too that assessing the dangercan be complex. The shock you receive after walking acrossa carpet and touching a metal doorknob can involve over 10,000volts but the amperage is very low and the duration quite short.Alternatively, car batteries produce only 12 volts but enoughpower to cause serious injury depending on the context. In theexample given above, the electrical switches in the showers arequite safe (even if the water-proofing fails) because the voltageused by the electrical motors is so low.We also need to stress that working with lead-acid car batteriesis dangerous. Above all, there is the real danger of spilling sulphuricacid on someone or something—in either case, theresults will be bad. Batteries produce hydrogen gas, which canexplode if exposed to a spark or flame, and they can explode ifthey are charged too quickly and gases are not allowed to vent.You can also create a bad spark by shorting the output terminalsof a battery—always attach positive to positive first, then thenegative to negative (and be sure to clearly mark your cables asto which is which), and connect the cables to the battery firstand the device drawing power from them last, so to minimizethe chance of a spark near the batteries. Always put the batteriesin a well-ventilated area, wear safety glasses and protectiveclothing when working with them, and, above all, exercise caution.Finally, care must be exercised before connecting power tomany electrical devices—particularly computer equipment.Many of today’s devices have sophisticated systems to protectthem from bad power (say, for instance, the polarity of the DCsource is reversed) but this is not always the case. Too muchpower (24V when 12V was required) can easily, irreversiblydamage an electrical device. Be sure to always verify and testyour work, preferably with a volt meter, prior to connectingdevices, and never leave wires exposed, even temporarily, asthey can easily come together and produce a short that could beboth dangerous and harmful to the equipment.Acknowledgments. Funding for the Abydos Survey for PrehistoricSites has been provided by the National Science Foundation, theLeakey Foundation, the University of Pennsylvania Museum,and Mr. A. Bruce Mainwaring.Reference CitedMcPherron, Shannon P. and Harold L. Dibble.2003 “Using Computers in Adverse Field Conditions: Tales fromthe Egyptian Desert” The SAA Archaeological Record3(5):28–32.September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record41


ARTICLEHERITAGE PLANNINGYun Shun Susie ChungYun Shun Susie Chung is an Associate Professor in the Museum Studies Program at San Francisco State UniversityHeritage planning is an important process because,before projects or programs are produced in heritageinstitutions, including museums, planning is conductedin order to envision the finished product, define the aims,objectives, and actions required to create that product within aspecified timeframe, allocate resources, and incorporate communityinvolvement. Therefore, the practice of heritage planningshould not be overlooked. The goal of this paper is to contributeto the methodology in heritage planning for the fields ofheritage management and museums by noting some relevantliterature, examining steps in heritage planning, and why is itrelevant to heritage management.Multidisciplinary Literature on Heritage PlanningHeritage management is a multidisciplinary field, and heritageplanning adopts the most appropriate methods from differentfields. This section briefly highlights useful community heritageplanning resources. Allmendinger et al. (2000) introducethe step-by-step processes of planning, a foundation of the generalplanning process. Although they focus on the Britishmodel, it can be applied in different nation-states. Kelly andBecker (2000) incorporate the fundamentals of communityplanning practices to community heritage planning. There isalso a literature that focuses on conservation practices of thenatural environment as a part of planning. This literature isconcerned with planning practices and local ordinances thatrespect wildlife, open spaces, green pockets in cities, parks,trails, and the concern for assessing and monitoring naturalresources. This literature is important as community heritageplanning incorporates nature as heritage; thus heritage is notsolely history or culture, but it is a network of different kinds ofresources (Arendt 2000; Beatley 1997; Flink et al. 2001;Honachefsky 2000).As funding from the government gradually decreased, and heritagemanagement organizations, such as museums, began tosearch for external funding opportunities and began to adoptpractices from business, such as strategic planning (Rea andKerzner 1997). Strategic planning helps the organization tohave a better outlook on internal strengths and opportunities aswell as external weaknesses and threats. Marketing planninghas also been incorporated as a part of the heritage planningprocess as business strategies and practices are no longer tabooin nonprofit organizations but accepted as a handmaiden to theeducational mission (e.g., McLeigh 1995). Heritage tourismplanning is an important and growing phenomenon, where heritageinstitutions are now beginning to find partnerships withinthe tourism field. Heritage tourism planning goes hand in handwith marketing planning and is adopted from the widertourism, special interest tourism, ecotourism, and heritagetourism fields (McCool and Moisey 2001). Budgeting planningis necessary for all organizations to allocate resources for differentdepartments or divisions, projects, and programs (Dropkinand LaTouche 1998). Schaff and Schaff (1999) discuss fundraisingtheories and practices for not-for-profit organizations, animportant source since fundraising has become a crucial functionin the maintenance and survival of heritage managementorganizations.The literature on heritage planning is not as extensive. Ashworthand Howard (1999) discuss the various different stepsinvolved in heritage planning and management. Although thecase studies are from Europe, the methods can be applied insimilar situations worldwide. Other literature includes a volumeedited by Harrison, Manual of Heritage Management (1994),which gives guidance on management issues that can beapplied to planning measures. These two volumes focus onboth cultural and natural heritage resources. Interpretation ofCultural and Natural Resources (Knudsen et al. 1995) presentsdetailed approaches and methods for interpretive planning,especially in the various park systems in the U.S., such as theNational Park Service. Federal Planning and Historic Places (King2000) takes a more cultural resources–oriented approach to heritageplanning. The book, however, is a comprehensive guide tothe U.S. federal planning approach to cultural resources. The42 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLENational Trust for Historic Preservation’s Heritage Tourism PlanningGuide also presents step-by-step approaches and methodsin planning, specifically heritage tourism planning (Baker1995). Look and Spennemann (2001), Roy (2001), and the TexasAssociation of Museum’s Planning for Response & Emergency Preparedness:A Disaster Preparedness/Recovery Resource Manual(Candee and Casagrande 1993) are rudimentary literature ondisaster management and recovery planning. Chung (2005)examines the theoretical and practical applications and conceptson culture and nature in heritage planning. Although the casestudy is Seoul, Korea, many of the heritage planning measurescan be applied elsewhere. Chung discusses the dichotomy ofrelations between cultural and natural resources managementin the different disciplines and fields. Chung (2007) has alsowritten about the practice of planning, examining the communityheritage planning projects conducted by the Museum ofTexas Tech University’s Center for Advanced Study of MuseumScience and Heritage Management. The article addresses thetheory and practice of how and why community heritage planningprojects can connect many different cultures together aswell as reinforce the significance of connecting cultures of thepast, present, and future together.Heritage PlanningThe step-by-step processes that entail heritage planning are similarto the process of planning in general. To plan means to envisionthe future and to produce measures in order to fulfill thosegoals for the future.Visioning and Vision StatementThe first step in heritage planning is to envision what you wantto see accomplished. A vision statement is a result of the visioningprocess and an image of success. It is a guide to implementstrategy of any plan.A community visioning process involves participation from thecommunity. Various public participation techniques are available.The Oregon Model (Ames 1997) describes a four-stepprocess that was successfully adopted in Oregon CommunityPlanning.Step 1. Where are we now? Assess strengths and weaknesses.What are the current issues and concerns? What are the valuesof the organization now?Step 2. Where are we going? This is the direction in which theorganization is headed. You can postulate a probable scenariolooking at where it will be if no changes occur. You can also lookat relevant data such as demographic, economic, environmentaland social trends.Step 3. Where do we want to be? This step represents the core ofthe visioning process. What is the preferred scenario? What doyou want the heritage project to look like? Be realistic.Step 4. How do we get there? Look at strategies to get there; developa micro plan.An example of a vision statement from the Loch Lomond andThe Trossachs National Park Action for Biodiversity in Scotlandis as follows:In the future, Loch Lomond and the Trossachs willbe an area which continues to be renowned as beingof the highest scenic quality, where biodiversity hasbeen increasingly restored and heritage conservationinterests are protected and better managed, whichcan be enjoyed by both visitors and residents, of allages, abilities, and interests and which will supportincreasingly vibrant local communities and businessesas well as more sound and sympathetic land management.Mission StatementThe next step in heritage planning is to incorporate an organizationmission statement. The organization can incorporate anexisting mission statement or create a new one when producingthe heritage plan. The mission statement includes three elements:the purpose of the organization; the “business” that theorganization is in; and the shared values of that organization.For example, the Museum of Texas Tech University’s missionstatement is: “The Museum of Texas Tech University, as an educationresource for a diverse audience, collects, researches, anddisseminates information about the natural and cultural heritageof local and related regions.” The purpose here is: serve adiverse audience. The business is: educational institution. Thevalues are: preservation of heritage of local and related regions.Potential Cultural and Natural ResourcesThe next step in planning is the identification and inventoryingof existing or potential cultural and natural resources. In heritageplanning this involves identification of cultural and naturalresources under categories often listed in local ordinances.An example would be Lubbock, Texas’s ordinance, which liststhe criteria for the designation of historic landmarks and historiclandmark districts. The City of Lubbock’s local ordinancefollows the Texas Historical Commission’s (THC) categories forState Historical Markers, and/or for the National Register ofHistoric Places’. Under THC guidelines, the application of StateHistorical Markers involves different categories. The RecordedTexas Historic Landmarks category can include identification ofbuildings and structures that are at least 50 years old, significantSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record43


ARTICLEto be preserved for the architectural and historical associations.For the Subject Markers category, the significance should focuson educational aspects of local history. Heritage resourcesunder this category are church congregations, schools, communities,businesses, events and individuals. The history of theorganization heritage resource must date back 75 years. Historicevents heritage resources must have a history of at least 30years, and individuals must be deceased for at least 20 years(Chung 2007). For Historic Texas Cemetery designations,cemeteries should be at least 50 years old and significant to bepreserved for its historical association(s). There also are StateArcheological Landmarks that are designated by the THCaccording to the Antiquities Code of Texas, and listing on theNational Register is a prerequisite for a building. For heritageresources already identified and nominated, these are often listedon websites.As for natural resources, existing data is readily available fromTexas Parks and Wildlife or the United States Geological Survey.Professional naturalists can also help identify natural resources.Threatened and endangered species list is available on the TexasParks and Wildlife website (http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/huntwild/wild/species/?c=endangered).For other existing conditions in the environment of the localitysuch as population trends, these can be obtained from censusdata on a local government’s website.In other parts of the world, many governments have set up legislativemeasures in order to classify, protect, and manage bothcultural and natural resources (see Harrison 1994). Dependingon the availability of data and assistance in expertise, identification,classification, and inventorying of the cultural and naturalresources will vary from country to country.Policy MakingPolicy making incorporates the goals, objectives, and prescriptions,actions, or strategies in the planning process. Goals arebroader issues that the heritage institution aims to accomplish.Objectives define a more detailed measure to reach goals. Prescriptions,actions, and strategies lay out the actual step-by-stepapproach to implementing the goals and objectives. Policy makingincludes the involvement of stakeholders of the heritageplanning. Stakeholders can include private citizens or publicagencies and calls for the balance of the voices and opinions inpolicy making (Chung 2005). The community should be consultedas a part of the visioning process or after identificationand inventorying of heritage resources by planning specialists.Several mechanisms can be used to solicit input. Public hearingsare the most formal and traditional method of publicinvolvement, and it is required by law in most states. There usuallyis a presentation followed by public comments. A somewhatless traditional form is a charrette and they are popular in heritagemanagement planning. Charrettes are a gathering of variousgroups of people in a community to resolve common problemswith the assistance of outside experts. The charrette, as apublic policy tool, can be conducted for different results. Forexample, it can be directed toward any problems or needs thatmight be of concern before the planning actually begins or itcan be a public response to regulations or policies already inplace. Overall, a charrette can be directed toward community“brainstorming” on specific questions that need to beaddressed.Stakeholder group meetings consist of directly affected partiessuch as neighborhood associations, environmental organizations,chambers of commerce, different ethnic groups such asNative American tribes, and it is best to plan such meetings inthe beginning of the planning process to discuss different interests.Key-person interviews include leaders of stakeholdergroups such as community leaders or public officials. This kindof interview is conducted to build identification of issues; however,key-person interviews are less representative. Therefore,key-person interviews should not be viewed as a consensus; theyare good for establishing communication and creating constituencyfor the plan. Focus groups involve a group that is representativeof the community in order to assess the overall community’sviews. It is a useful technique for issue identificationand for the development of goals and policy statements. Surveysare the most representative process in involving views of thecommunity. If a community is large, there are sampling methodsto find representation. Simulations and scenario developmentare useful for presentations and alternative scenariosshowing different futures that allow discussion and help visuallyshow what the different futures would look like. The resultsof the stakeholder involvement should be incorporated in thegoals, objectives, and prescriptions, actions, or strategies.Heritage PlansSeveral different types of plans are outlined below, each ofwhich would involve timeframes and budgets for implementation.Visual representations, such as maps, charts, and graphswould also usually be included.Strategic Plan. Strategic planning “can be defined as a formulationof long-term goals followed by assembling and allocatingresources to achieve these goals.” A strategic plan will incorporateresponses to the organization’s environment, which isanticipated to be dynamic and possibly hostile. Within such aplan, the concept of strategy means defining clear objectives andappropriately allocating the organization’s resources within44 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


ARTICLEthose objectives. Tools such as the SWOT analysis and BostonConsulting Group’s Model of the Portfolio Analysis can be usedto analyze the internal and external environment of the organization(Rea and Kerzner 1997).Comprehensive Plan. A comprehensive plan can be tailored formany different situations. The Comprehensive CommunityPlan is required by state law to be used as a guide to policymakingabout the natural and built environments by the County’sBoard of Supervisors, the Planning Commission and theBoard of Zoning Appeals. It includes elements such as the comprehensivesubject matter: general countywide policy on landuse; transportation; housing; the environment; heritageresources; economic development; and public facilities, includingpublic parks, recreation and trails (Kelly and Becker 2000).Regional Plan. Regional planning involves politically boundedplanning and/or naturally bounded planning. In naturallybounded planning, this means that an area is not limited topolitical boundaries. Local governments can join together toproduce a regional plan that helps with heritage management.For example, Tennessee’s law set a deadline by which all localgovernments in the state had to enter into countywide growthplans, designating areas that would develop, areas that would beheld in reserve for future growth, and areas that would remainrural.Land Use Plan. “A land use plan is a long-term, generalizedguide for preservation and future development. It is not aninflexible or rigid pattern for future land use. Designating landsfor future uses requires major public policy decisions-decisionsthat directly affect private land” (Kelly and Becker 2000:133).Subject matter can be similar to the comprehensive communityplan and may involve numerous categories.Master Plan. Master planning is the next level of planning thatprovides more specific detail of the heritage network. It includesa more thorough territory or site analysis that identifies grades,barriers, land ownership, sensitive areas, and other opportunitiesand constraints.Heritage Tourism Plan. A heritage tourism plan includes environmental,cultural, transportation, economic and social issues.Categories of heritage tourism include eco-tourism of natureparks, reserves, agri-tourism, wineries, ranches, performingarts centers, museums, and monuments. Heritage tourism is atool for development, but also a tool for heritage product socialand cultural preservation and dissemination of the importanceof heritage. The plan includes marketing and promotional elementsto the heritage resources (McCool and Moisey 2001).Resources Management Plan. After the identification and evaluationprocess, the scope of the resource will be easier to define.Resources may include archaeological sites, Historic landmarks,atmosphere, climate, soils, watersheds, fisheries, rangelands,farmlands, timber, or wildlife. Whether it is a naturereserve that you are planning for, or a historic house, resourcemanagement planning shares common approaches.Disaster Plan. A disaster plan should examine the differencebetween natural and human-made disasters that might affectyour heritage institution for mitigative and preventive strategies.A disaster recovery plan also should be a part of the disasterplan, stating safety and recovery procedures and identifyinghuman contact resources and recovery priorities (Candee andCasagrande 1993).Operation Plan. An operational plan depends on whether thefacilities are a historic structure, a non-purpose built interpretativecenter, facilities to build a purpose-built interpretive center,or staff facilities. This kind of plan incorporates the day-to-dayfunctions of the heritage institution. These include opening andclosing the institution, security, custodial, grounds maintenance,etc.Interpretive Plan. An interpretive plan focuses on methods ofcommunication to the visitor. This includes identifying themain theme of programs and exhibits, the heritage resources,and techniques for generating the message—whether it isperson-to-person or non-human contact, such as an orientationsystem for the site—and conducting a visitor study to tailorinterpretation for the constituents (Knudson et al 1995).Marketing Plan. A marketing plan is produced to define thegoals and objectives for pricing, promotion, and distribution ofthe heritage institution’s products that direct reflect the needsand expectations of the institution’s constituents. In the heritagemanagement field, these products are mission-oriented in thatthey serve the function of education and preservation, ratherthan in the service of profit. These products include the institution’sprograms and exhibits (McLeigh 1995).Budgeting Plan. A budgeting plan is produced to show the financialposition of the institution for a proposed period of time. Theplan estimates resources, expenses, profits, and incomingmonies that are allocated for a particular purpose (Dropkin andLaTouche 1998).Fundraising Plan. A fundraising plan can be designed to be thesecond part of the budgeting plan. This kind of plan defines theresources and activities for fundraising This includes estimatingfinancial need, identifying sources (governmental entities,private donors, companies, and individuals), and writing grants.September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record45


ARTICLEConclusionHeritage management is a growing field that incorporates planningin all stages. Heritage management should not be a fieldthat is learned solely when one comes into the trade. Museumstudies programs are replacing the practice of apprenticeshiplearning, and students now learn theory and put it into practicein internships before going into a position. The heritage managementfield should be developed in this form. The purpose ofthis paper was to provide information on the types and stages ofplanning in an effort to help develop the literature to facilitatethis process.References CitedAllmendinger, P., A. Prior, and J. Raemakers2000 Introduction to Planning Practice. John Wiley, New York.Ames, S.1997 Community Visioning: Planning for the Future in Oregon’sLocal Communities. Available at http://www.design.asu.edu/apa/proceedings97/ames.html.Arendt, R.2000 Growing Greener: Putting Conservation into Local Plans andOrdinances. Island Press, Washington, D.C.Ashworth, G., and P. Howard1999 European Heritage Planning and Management. Intellect Books,Portland, Oregon.Baker, Priscilla1995 Touring Historic Places: A Manual for Group Tour Operators andManagers of Historic and Cultural Attractions. National Trustfor Historic Preservation and the National Tour Association,Washington, D.C.Beatley, T.1997 The Ecology of Place: Planning for Environment, Economy, andCommunity. Island Press, Washington, D.C.Candee, M.E., and R. Casagrande (editors)1993 Planning for Response & Emergency Preparedness: A Disaster Preparedness/RecoveryResource Manual. Texas Association ofMuseums, Austin.Chung, Y. S. S.2005 Seoul, Korea: Its Concept of Culture and Nature in HeritagePlanning. International Journal of Heritage Studies11(2):95–111.2007 Connecting Cultures through Community Heritage PlanningProjects. Manuscript submitted for review.Dropkin, M., and B. LaTouche1998 The Budget-Building Book for Nonprofits: A Step-by-Step Guidefor Managers and Boards. Jossey-Bass Publishers., San Francisco.Flink, C. A., K. Olka, and R. M. Searns2001 Trails for the Twenty-First Century. Island Press, Washington,D.C.Harrison, R. (editor)1994 Manual of Heritage Management. Butterworth-Heinemann,Oxford.Honachefsky, W. B.2000 Ecologically Based Municipal Land Use Planning. Lewis Publishers,Boca Raton.Kelly, E. D., and B. Becker2000 Community Planning: An Introduction to the ComprehensivePlan. Island Press, Washington, D. C.King, T. F.2000 Federal Planning and Historic Places. AltaMira Press, Washington,D.C.Knudson, D. M., T. T. Cable, and L. Beck.1995 Interpretation of Cultural and Natural Resources. Venture Publishing,State College, Pennsylvania.Look, D. W., and D. H. R. Spennemann.2001 Disaster Preparedness, Planning, and Mitigation. CulturalResource Management 24(8):3–4.McCool, S. F., and R. N. Moisey2001 Tourism, Recreation and Sustainability: Linking Culture andEnvironment. CABI, New York.McLeigh, B. J.1995 Successful Marketing Strategies for Nonprofit Organizations.John Wiley, New York.Rea, P. J., and H. Kerzner1997 Strategic Planning: A Practical Guide. John Wiley, New York.Roy, C.2001 Disaster Recovery: Developing a Plan. Cultural Resource Management24(8):13–15.Schaff, T., and D. Schaff1999 The Fundraising Planner: A Working Model for Raising the DollarsYou Need. Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.46 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


IN MEMORIAMJAIME LITVAK KING1933-2006Jaime Litvak died on October 2, 2006 while sleeping athome in Mexico City, just two days before the Institute thathe nurtured celebrated its 23 rd year as an independentresearch center within the Universidad Nacional Autónomade México (UNAM) system. He had been afflicted by hisheart, cancer, and a stroke over the past 16 years, but recoveredfollowing major lifestyle changes. He was born in MexicoCity on December 10, 1933. He studied economics as anundergraduate at Mexico City College, and later anthropologyat the Escuela Nacional de Antropología e Historia (ENAH),where he received his MA in 1963.His research during the sixtiesfocused on a historical approach toarchaeology in which ethnohistoricaland linguistic sources were fundamentalto the formulation of researchproblems. At the end of the sixties andduring the early seventies he gravitatedtoward quantitative methods andcomputer applications for the analysisof archaeological data. His doctoralthesis (1970) explored the applicationof spatial analysis to archaeology and was the first investigationof its kind presented to a Mexican institution. His principalfieldwork was carried out in central Mexico and Guerrero,especially in Xochicalco, Morelos. In recent years he participatedin industrial archaeological research focused on themining region of the state of Hidalgo.He was coordinator of the laboratories of the Department ofPrehistory, National Institute of Anthropology and History(1965–67), and was instrumental in the establishment of asection for computer technology applied to archaeology in theNational Museum of Anthropology of Mexico, and he servedas its first coordinator (1967–68). He also headed the ArchaeologyDepartment of the ENAH (1968–70). As director of theInstituto de Investigaciones Antropológicas, UNAM between1973–1985, following its separation from the Instituto deInvestigaciones Históricas, he actively promoted the developmentof innovative projects at the forefront of Latin Americanarchaeological research—research laboratories for the analysisof archaeological materials and contexts, the formation ofan outstanding library collection, computer facilities (unheardof in the humanities in Mexico in the mid-eighties), newspapersand newsletters, a cinema club, among many others. Inaddition, he was head of the Anthropology Department of theUniversidad de Las Américas, in Cholula, Puebla from 1986to 1989.Jaime dedicated much of his time in recent years to the disseminationof archaeology, aimed at wider publics. He hosteda weekly radio program for several years in which he intervieweduniversity personnel in diverse fields, interspersedwith excellent musical selections from his incredible recordcollection. He was constantly finding ways to incorporate studentsin research, conducting activitiesoriented toward public outreach,and other services. But, undoubtedly,his most outstanding quality was hisintense concern for people and theirneeds, especially reflected by his participationin volunteer activities suchas the development of a computerizeddatabase to coordinate University rescuebrigades during the 1985 MexicoCity earthquake.He was an active member of the Societyof American Archaeology since 1963, where he served aseditor of Current Research for American Antiquity (1971–76;1984–85), on the Committee for Professional Relations(1987–89), and as President of the Subcommittee for LatinAmerican Archaeology (1987–89). He was the 2002 recipientof the SAA Lifetime Achievement Award. He was also a memberof other professional societies, including the MexicanAcademy of Sciences, Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología,American Anthropological Association, Society for IndustrialArchaeology, and the Society for Archaeological Sciences.– Emily McClung de Tapia and Paul SchmidtEmily McClung de Tapia and Paul Schmidt are with the Institutode Investigaciones Antropológicas, Universidad NacionalAutónoma de MéxicoSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record47


CALLS FOR AWARDS NOMINATIONSThe Society for American Archaeology calls for nominations for its awards to be presented at the 2008 Annual Meeting in Vancouver,British Columbia. SAA’s awards are presented for important contributions in many areas of archaeology. If you wish tonominate someone for one of the awards, please send a letter of nomination to the contact person for the award. The letter ofnomination should describe in detail the contributions of the nominee. In some cases, a curriculum vita of the nominee orcopies of the nominee’s work also are required. Please check the descriptions, requirements, and deadlines for nomination forindividual awards. Award winners will receive a certificate. An award citation will be read by the SAA president during the annualbusiness meeting, and an announcement will be published in The SAA Archaeological Record.Student Research AwardA new award of up to $1000 is offered to support innovativeand original research in archaeology. The topical and geographicarea of the research is unrestricted. To qualify applicantsmust be student members of the SAA, submit a proposalof not more than 1,000 words (excluding the bibliography),and an itemized budget. Proposals will be judged ontheir originality, innovativeness and future potential for success.Special requirements:• All proposals should clearly state how the research isinnovative and original.• An itemized budget.• A curriculum vita, no more than three pages in length.• Two letters of recommendation, including one from thestudent’s academic adviser. These should be sent directlyfrom the recommendors, via e-mail.Deadline for nomination: The proposal, budget, CV, andsupport letters should be sent as email attachments no laterthan January 4, 2008. Contact: Karen Lupo, Department ofAnthropology, P.O. Box 644910, Washington State University,Pullman, WA 99164-4910; email: klupo@mail.wsu.eduAward for Excellence in Archaeological AnalysisThis award recognizes the excellence of an archaeologistwhose innovative and enduring research has made a significantimpact on the discipline. Nominees are evaluated ontheir demonstrated ability to successfully create an interpretivebridge between good ideas, empirical evidence, research,and analysis. This award now subsumes within it threethemes presented on a cyclical basis: (1) an Unrestricted orGeneral category (first awarded in 2001); (2) Lithic Analysis;and (3) Ceramic Analysis. The 2008 award will be presentedfor Excellence in the Lithic Analysis category.Special requirements:• Letter of nomination describing in detail the nature,scope, and significance of the nominee’s research andanalytic contributions.• Curriculum vita.• Any other relevant documents, including letters of support.Deadline for nomination: January 4, 2008. Contact: Jay K.Johnson, Department of Sociology and Anthropology,Leavell Hall, PO Box 1848, University of Mississippi, University,MS 38677-1848; tel: (662) 915-7339; email:sajay@olemiss.eduBook AwardThe Society for American Archaeology annually awards twoprizes to honor recently published books. The first prize isfor a book that has had, or is expected to have, a majorimpact on the direction and character of archaeologicalresearch. The second prize is for a book that is written for thegeneral public and presents the results of archaeologicalresearch to a broader audience. The Book Award committeesolicits your nominations for these prizes, which will beawarded at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the SAA. Books publishedin 2005 or more recently are eligible. Nominatorsmust arrange to have one copy of the nominated book sentto each member of the committee. Please contact the chair ofthe committee, Barbara Mills, for an updated list of the committeemembers.Deadline for nomination: December 1, 2007. Contact: Dr.Barbara Mills, Department of Anthropology, University ofArizona, Haury Building, Tucson, AZ 85721-0030; tel: (520)-621-9671; email: bmills@email.arizona.eduCrabtree AwardPresented to an outstanding avocational archaeologist inremembrance of signal contributions of Don Crabtree. Nomineesshould have made significant contributions to advanceunderstandings of local, regional, or national archaeologiesthrough excavation, research, publication, site preservation,and/or public outreach.Special requirements:• Curriculum vita.• Letter of nomination.• Letters of support.Deadline for nomination: January 4, 2008. Contact: MaryLou Larson, Anthropology, Dept. 3431, 1000 E. UniversityAve., University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071-3431; tel:(307) 766-5566; email: mlarson@uwyo.edu48 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


Award for Excellence in Cultural Resource ManagementPresented to an individual or group to recognize lifetimecontributions and special achievements in the categories ofprogram administration/management, site preservation,and research in cultural resource management on a rotatingbasis. The 2008 award will recognize important contributionsin site preservation in CRM. This category may includeindividuals employed by federal, state, or local governmentagencies. This category is intended to recognize long-term,sustained contributions to the preservation of the archaeologicalrecord.Special requirements:• Curriculum vita.• Any relevant supporting documents.Deadline for nomination: January 4, 2008. Contact: Alan L.Stanfill, Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, 6132 S.Owens Ct., Littleton CO 80127; tel: (303) 275-5467; fax: (303)275-5407; email: astanfill@fs.fed.us.Dissertation AwardMembers (other than student members) of SAA may nominatea recent graduate whose dissertation they consider to beoriginal, well written, and outstanding. A three-year membershipin SAA is given to the recipient.Special requirements:• Nominations must be made by non-student SAA membersand must be in the form of a nomination letter thatmakes a case for the dissertation. Self–nominations cannotbe accepted.• Nomination letters should include a description of thespecial contributions of the dissertation and the nominee’scurrent address. Nominees must have defendedtheir dissertations and received their Ph.D. degree withinthree years prior to September 1, 2007.• Nominees are informed at the time of nomination by thenominator and are asked to submit a copy of the dissertationto the committee by October 15, 2007 (to be mailedto the committee chair, Adria LaViolette).• Nominees do not have to be members of SAA.Deadline for nomination: October 15, 2007. Contact: AdriaLaViolette, SAA Dissertation Award Committee, Departmentof Anthropology, P.O. Box 400120, Charlottesville, VA22904-4120; tel: 434-982-2631; fax: 434-924-1350; email: laviolette@virginia.edu.Fryxell Award for 2009The Fryxell Award is presented in recognition for interdisciplinaryexcellence of a scientist who need not be an archaeologist,but whose research has contributed significantly toAmerican archaeology. The award is made possible throughthe generosity of the family of the late Roald Fryxell, a geologistwhose career exemplified the crucial role of multidisciplinarycooperation in archaeology. Nominees are evaluatedon the breadth and depth of their research and its impact onAmerican archaeology, the nominee’s role in increasingawareness of interdisciplinary studies in archaeology, andthe nominee’s public and professional service to the community.The award cycles through zoological sciences, botanicalsciences, earth sciences, physical sciences, and generalinterdisciplinary studies. The 2009 Fryxell Award will be inthe area of physical sciences. The award will be given at theSAA’s 74th Annual Meeting, 2009, in Atlanta, Georgia. Theaward consists of an engraved medal, a certificate, an awardcitation read by the SAA president during the annual businessmeeting, and a half-day symposium at the AnnualMeeting held in honor of the awardee.Special requirements:• Describe the nature, scope, and significance of the nominee’scontributions to American archaeology.• Curriculum vita.• Support letters from other scholars are helpful. Four tosix are suggested.Deadline for all nomination materials: February 5, 2008.Contact: Dr. Hector Neff, Department of Anthropology, 1250Bellflower Blvd., California State University Long Beach,Long Beach, CA 90840-1003; tel: (562) 985-5171; fax (562)985-4379; email: hneff@csulb.eduThe Dienje Kenyon FellowshipA fellowship in honor of the late Dienje M. E. Kenyon isoffered to support the research of women archaeologists inthe early stages of their graduate training. An award of $500will be made to a student pursuing research in zooarchaeology,which was Kenyon’s specialty. To qualify for the award,applicants must be enrolled in a graduate degree programfocusing on archaeology with the intention of receivingeither the M.A. or Ph.D. on a topic related to zooarchaeology,and must be in the first two years of graduate studies.Strong preference will be given to students working with facultymembers with zooarchaeological expertise.Special requirements:• A statement of proposed research related to zooarchaeology,toward the conduct of which the award would beapplied, of no more than 1,500 words, including a briefstatement indicating how the award would be spent insupport of that research.• A curriculum vita.• Two letters of support from individuals familiar with theapplicant’s work and research potential. These should besent directly from the recommendors. One of these lettersmust be from the student’s primary advisor, andmust indicate the year in which the applicant began graduatestudies.Deadline for nomination: The proposal, budget, CV, andsupport letters should be sent as Microsoft Word emailattachments no later than January 4, 2008. Contact: Dr. ArianeBurke, Département d’anthropologie, Université deMontréal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, QC,Canada, H3C 3J7 ; email: a.burke@umontreal.ca.September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record49


Lifetime Achievement AwardThe Lifetime Achievement Award is presented annually to anarchaeologist for specific accomplishments that are trulyextraordinary, widely recognized as such, and of positive andlasting quality. Recognition can be granted to an archaeologistof any nationality for activities within any theoretical framework,for work in any part of the world, and for a wide rangeof areas relating to archaeology, including but not limited toresearch or service. Given as the Distinguished Service Awardbetween 1975 and 2000, it became the Lifetime AchievementAward and was awarded as such for the first time in 2001.Special requirements:• Curriculum vita.• Letter of nomination, outlining nominee’s lifetimeaccomplishments.• Additional letters may be submitted but are not required.Deadline for all nomination materials: January 4, 2008. Contact:Dr. Wendy Ashmore, Department of Anthropology,1334 Watkins Hall, University of California, Riverside, CA92521-0418; tel: (951) 827-39395; fax: (951) 827-5409; email:wendy.ashmore@ucr.edu.Fred Plog FellowshipAn award of $1,000 is presented in memory of the late FredPlog to support the research of an ABD who is writing a dissertationon the North American Southwest or northern Mexicoor on a topic, such as culture change or regional interactions,on which Fred Plog did research. Applications shouldconsist of a research proposal no more than three pages longand a budget indicating how the funds will be used.Special requirements:• ABD by the time the award is made.• Two letters of support, including one from the dissertationchair that indicates the expected date of completionof the dissertation.• Description of the proposed research and the importanceof its contributions to American archaeology.Deadline for nomination: December 5, 2007. Contact: Dr. JillNeitzel, Anthropology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE19716; tel (302) 831-2802; email: neitzel@udel.edu.Student Poster Award (newly constituted)This award replaces the more general Poster Award, andacknowledges the best student presentation of archaeologicalresearch in poster sessions. Student posters will now beevaluated as electronic submissions made directly to the StudentPoster Award committee. Please note that the deadlinefor online poster submission is January 4, 2008. There will nolonger be poster judging at the SAA meeting itself.Special Requirements:• The author(s) of the poster must be a student.• The poster must be submitted to the Poster Award Committeeas an electronic entry. Please contact committeechair for details.Deadline for Submission: January 4, 2008. Contact: Dr. JohnG. Jones, Dept. of Anthropology, Washington State University,PO Box 644910, Pullman, WA 99164-0001; tel: (509) 335-3348 fax: (509) 335-3999; email: jonesjg@wsu.eduAward for Excellence in Public EducationThis award acknowledges excellence in the sharing ofarchaeological information with the public. The award isconferred on a rotating, 3-year, cycle of categories. The categoryfor 2008 is Media and Information Technology. Eligibleproducts are those that assist in presenting information tothe public about archaeology. Examples include, but are notlimited to, Electronic, Print, Exhibit, & Multimedia formatsinvolving products such as web pages, exhibits and interpretivesignage, documentary film, television programming,printed workbooks, publication series, CD-roms, games, andvideos. Nominations are reviewed by members of the SAAExcellence in Public Education Award Committee who selecta recipient based on the following criteria: public impact,creativity in programming, leadership, and promotion ofarchaeological ethics.Special Requirements:• The nomination form.• A formal letter of nomination that summarizes the productand addresses the four award criteria. Also, theaccomplishment should be contextualized by addressingthe significance and impact of the undertaking: Howdoes it fit within the practice of public education andarchaeology? What is the impact on relevant publicsbeyond the discipline of archaeology (general public, specialinterest groups, precollegiate or non traditional students,others)?• A copy (or samples) of the specific achievement.• Supporting materials that document impact. This materialshould demonstrate (not merely assert) the case beingmade in the nomination letter.• Endorsement from secondary nominators are welcomed(no more than 3)• Prior nomination does not exclude consideration of anominee in subsequent years• Designers of programs or products may nominate theirown work.• Six (6) copies of the nomination package (including supportingmaterials) must be submitted.Deadline for nomination: January 4, 2008. The Chair of thecommittee will work with nominators to ensure a completenomination. Nominators are encouraged to contact the Chairby November 1, 2007 to begin this process. Additional awardnomination information is available on the award web pageat http://www.saa.org/public/news/award_excellence.html.Contact: Linda Derry, Old Cahawba, 719 Tremont St., Selma,AL 36701; tel: (334)875-2529; email: cahawba@bellsouth.net.Gene S. Stuart AwardAn award of $2000 is made to honor outstanding efforts toenhance public understanding of archaeology, in memory of50 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


Gene S. Stuart, a writer and managing editor of NationalGeographic Society books. The award is given to the mostinteresting and responsible original story or series about anyarchaeological topic published in a newspaper or magazine.Special requirements:Nominators will work with the Chair to assemble a nominationfile that will include:• The nominated article should have been published withinthe calendar year of 2007.• An author/newspaper may submit no more than five storiesor five articles from a series.• Nomination packets may be submitted as PDFs via emailto Renata B. Wolynec at wolynec@edinboro.edu. If submittinghard copies, six copies of each entry must be submittedby the author or an editor of the newspaper.Deadline for nomination: January 11, 2008. Contact: RenataB. Wolynec, Department of History and Anthropology, HendricksHall 143, 235 Scotland Road, Edinboro University ofPennsylvania, Edinboro, PA 16444; tel: (814) 732-2570.2008 Student Paper AwardThis award recognizes original student research as a growingcomponent of the annual meeting, and is a way to highlightoutstanding contributions made by students! All studentmembers of SAA are eligible to participate. The paperswill be evaluated anonymously by committee members onboth the quality of the arguments and data presented, andthe paper’s contribution to our understanding of a particulararea or topic in archaeology. The papers will also be evaluatedon the appropriateness of the length of the paper for a 15-minute presentation. The award winner will receive a citationfrom the SAA president, a piece of official SAA merchandise,and over $1000 worth of books/journals from thefollowing sponsors:University of Alabama PressAlta Mira PressBlackwell Publishers, Inc.The University of California PressUniversity Press of ColoradoUniversity Press of FloridaThe University of New Mexico PressOxford University PressUniversity of Pittsburgh Latin American Archaeology PublicationsUniversity of Texas PressThames & HudsonUniversity of Utah PressElsevierIn addition, Left Coast Press has agreed to contribute a prizeto the second-place paperAll of our sponsors recognize the importance of studentresearch in archaeology and have contributed generously tothis award!!Special requirements:• A student must be the primary author of the paper and bethe presenter at the 2006 Annual Meeting.• Six copies of the conference paper and relevant figuresand tables must be submitted (please submit these copieswithout a name so that they may be reviewed anonymously)• The paper should be double-spaced, with standard margins,and 12-pt font. The submitted paper should includeany relevant figures, tables, and references cited. An average15-minute paper is approximately 10 pages in length(double-spaced, not including references cited, figures,and tables).Deadline for submission: January 7, 2008. Contact: GordonF.M. Rakita, University of North Florida, Department ofSociology & Anthropology, 1 UNF Drive, Jacksonville, FL32224-2659; email: grakita@unf.eduDouglas C. Kellogg Fund forGeoarchaeological ResearchThe Douglas C. Kellogg Award provides support for thesis ordissertation research, with emphasis on the field and/or laboratoryaspects of this research, for graduate students in theearth sciences and archaeology. Recipients of the KelloggAward will be students who have (1) an interest in achievingthe M.S., M.A. or Ph.D. degree in earth sciences or archaeology;(2) an interest in applying earth science methods toarchaeological research and (3) an interest in a career ingeoarchaeology. Under the auspices of the SAA’s GeoarchaeologyInterest Group, family, friends, and close associates ofDouglas C. Kellog formed a memorial in his honor. Theinterest from money donated to the Douglas C. Kellog fundis used for the annual award. Initially the amount to beawarded on an annual basis was $500. The amount of theaward given to the recipient will increase as the fund growsand the amount of the annual interest increases.Special requirements:• A one-page letter that briefly explains the individual’sinterest and how she or he qualifies for the award.• Curriculum vita.• Five (5) copies of a 3-4 page, double spaced description ofthe thesis or dissertation research that clearly documentsthe geoarchaeological orientation and significance of theresearch. One illustration may be included with the proposal.• A letter of recommendation from the thesis or dissertationsupervisor that emphasizes the student’s ability andpotential as a geoarchaeologist.• PDF versions of the application will also be accepted viaemail.Deadline for submission: December 1, 2007. Contact: Dr.Christopher L. Hill, Department of Anthropology, BoiseState University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, Idaho, 83725-1950; email: chill2@boisestate.eduSeptember 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record51


POSITIONS OPENPOSITIONS OPENPosition: Senior-Level ArchaeologistLocation: Cincinnati, OhioBHE Environmental, Inc., an environmentalconsulting and engineeringcompany providing services nationwide,has an opening in our Cincinnati officefor a full-time permanent SeniorArchaeologist, Principal Investigator. Inthis position you would provide leadershipon cultural resource managementprojects for the wind power, pipeline,and transportation industries, as well asfor large and small landowners. Yourability to communicate effectively with alively interdisciplinary group will helpadvance your career. Candidates shouldhave a masters or Ph.D. in Archaeologyor Anthropology with at least five yearsexperience as a Principal Investigator inCultural Resource Management. Thisposition requires good organizationalskills, a solid technical background,familiarity with the Section 106 process,and the ability to develop NRHP assessmentsof archaeological resources.Demonstrated consulting, project management,report-writing, and businessdevelopment experience are a must.Area of expertise is open, though a lithicanalyst would complement current staffskills. For immediate consideration,submit resume, salary history, and referencesto: BHE Environmental, Inc.,Human Resources, Email:cloyd@bheenvironmental.com, Web:www.bheenvironmental.comPosition: Tenure-track AssistantProfessorLocation: Geneseo, New YorkSUNY Geneseo invites applications for atenure-track Assistant Professor inMesoamerica and/or South America forSeptember 2008. The ideal candidatewill be able to make contributions to ourcurricula in archaeology, ethnoarchaeology,ethnohistory, and ethnography. Thesuccessful candidate will be expected tocontribute to Geneseo’s core mission ofexcellent undergraduate teaching whilealso sustaining an active research andpublication agenda and providing university,professional, and communityservice. Qualifications must include evidenceof teaching effectiveness and aPh.D. in Anthropology by December 31,2007. For full ad details and to apply visitGeneseo’s website at http://jobs.geneseo.eduPositions: Two Tenure-Track PositionsLocation: University Park,PennsylvaniaThe Department of Anthropology of ThePennsylvania State University invitesapplications for up to two tenure-trackpositions (rank flexible, effective August2008) for individuals with expertise inthe analysis and visualization of complexspatial data, especially in archaeological,paleoanthropological (includingmorphological), paleodemographic,and/or modern demographic contexts.Individuals from any scholarly field orsubdiscipline are encouraged to apply,but the successful candidate(s) musthave a record of anthropologically relevantresearch and teaching, publicationscommensurate with rank, and a demonstratedability to attract external funding.GIS expertise is required. Specializationin spatial statistics, modeling (includingtraditional spatial analysis, agent-basedor microsimulation techniques, and spatiotemporalapproaches), remote sensing,or image analysis is highly desirable.The successful candidate(s) willdevelop and teach GIS courses and othersthat complement and augment theexisting departmental curriculum,which emphasizes archaeology andbioanthropology on both graduate andundergraduate levels. They will beexpected to provide leadership andvision in expanding the scope andsophistication of GIS and spatial analysiswithin the department and across theCollege, to acquire funding for innovativeGIS applications, to attract graduatestudents, to collaborate with otherdepartment faculty, and to establishlinks with scholars elsewhere in theUniversity and at other institutions.Candidates’ skills and interests shouldbe consistent with the AnthropologyDepartment’s mission, which is stronglyintegrative, scientific, and quantitative,and which has a long tradition of demographic,genetic, evolutionary, and ecologicalresearch both in the field and inthe laboratory. Detailed informationabout the department is available onhttp//:www.anthro.psu.edu. Review ofapplications will begin October 15th,2007, and will continue until the posi-52 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


POSITIONS OPENtion is filled. Interviews will commencein November 2007. Send letter of applications,c.v., and the names of three referencesto: Wendy Fultz, DepartmentStaff Assistant, (wad3@psu.edu),Anthropology Faculty Search Committee,Box SAA, 414 Carpenter Building,The Pennsylvania State University, UniversityPark, PA 16802. Penn State iscommitted to affirmative action, equalopportunity and the diversity of its workforce.Position: Senior PrehistorianLocation: Stone Mountain, GeorgiaNew South Associates is a womenownedsmall business specializing inarchaeology, history, architectural history,and preservation planning. We havean opening for a Senior Archaeologist/PrincipalInvestigator specializingin southeastern prehistory. The positionwill be based in the Stone Mountain,Georgia office. Applicants should possessan M.A. or Ph.D. in Anthropologyor Archaeology and have at least fiveyears experience as a Senior Archaeologist/PrincipalInvestigator. Applicantsshould have strong writing and communicationskills, a commitment to scholarlyresearch in a CRM setting. Thisposition also requires good organizationalskills, demonstrated project managementability, experience with proposalwriting, solid familiarity with the Section106 process, and the applicant mustbe a team player. To apply, please submita letter of interest and qualifications,professional vitae, writing sample, andthree references to Mary Beth Reed,President, New South Associates, 6150East Ponce de Leon Avenue, StoneMountain, GA 30083. New South Associatesis an equal-opportunityemployer—women and minorities areencouraged to apply.Position: Outreach CoordinatorLocation: Cocoa, FloridaBrevard Community College is seekingan Outreach Coordinator for the FloridaPublic Archaeological Network; seedetailed job announcement at:http://www.brevardcc.edu/index.php?mainframe=/hr/content/&subnavframe=/hr/content/sub_nav.htmlPosition: Assistant Professor ofAnthropologyLocation: Portales, New MexicoEastern New Mexico University seeksapplications for a full-time, tenure-trackassistant professor of Anthropologyposition beginning August 2008. Weseek a geoarchaeologist who also canteach lithic analysis. We prefer someonewho specializes in the archaeology of theU.S. Southwest or Plains with an activeresearch agenda. The successful candidatemust be willing to run a summerfield school in alternate summers. Candidatesmust have Ph.D. completed byAugust 2008. Our program has a stronggraduate component, and candidatesmust be willing to help supervise Master’stheses. Applicants should submit aletter of interest outlining qualifications,current curriculum vitae, faculty application,and names of three references to:Office of Human Resources, EasternNew Mexico University, 1500 S. Ave. K,Station #21, Portales, NM, 88130.Review of applicants to begin October29, 2007. ENMU is an AffirmativeAction/Equal Opportunity Employer.Condition of employment: Must pass apre-employment background check.Additional information at:http://www.enmu.edu/services/hr/.Position: Associate or FullProfessorLocation: Carrollton, GeorgiaThe University of West Georgia seeksapplications for a tenure-track positionin archaeology at the rank of Associateor Full Professor. Qualifications mustinclude a Ph.D. in Anthropology with aspecialization in Archaeology, substantialundergraduate teaching experience,demonstrated administrative skills, astrong record of research and publication,and an understanding of the issuesinvolved in the curation and managementof archaeological collections.Expertise in the prehistoric or historicarchaeology of the Southeastern UnitedStates is required. Primary responsibilitiesof this position include teaching a3/2 academic-year load, including foursubfieldIntroduction to Anthropology,other introductory classes, and upperlevelArchaeology classes; serving asDirector of the Antonio J. Waring, Jr.Archaeological Laboratory; directingundergraduate student research; offeringan Archaeological Field School; pursuinggrants and contracts in support ofresearch and laboratory operations; andactive participation in departmental/college/universityservice activities. FullProfessor rank will include designationas endowed Waring Professor. Applicantsshould submit a letter whichdetails qualifications and interests, acurrent vita, and the names and addressesof three references to Search Committee,Department of Anthropology,University of West Georgia, Carrollton,GA 30118. Applications postmarked by1 December 2007 will receive full consideration.Position begins August 2008.The University of West Georgia is anAffirmative Action/Equal OpportunityInstitution.Position: Archaeology FieldTechs/Field DirectorsLocations: Montgomery County,Maryland, with Potential FutureProjects in MD, DE, PA, VA AND NJ.RK&K an ENR Top 200 Design Firm hasan immediate opening for a Field Tech.It is anticipated that the archaeologicalsurvey may encounter Late Archaicthrough Woodland period resourcesattributed to hunting and resource procurementactivities, in addition to eighteenth-centurythrough early twentiethcenturysites associated with agriculturaland domestic occupations. For immediateconsideration please send resumeto Troy Gwin, RK&K Engineers,tgwin@rkk.com or fax 410-728-0832.September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record53


NEWS& NOTESChristopher Fisher Wins the 2007Willey Prize. The ArchaeologyDivision of the American AnthropologicalAssociation (AAA) is pleased toannounce the recipient of the 2007 GordonR. Willey award: Dr. ChristopherFisher, Assistant Professor of Anthropologyat Colorado State University, for hisarticle “Demographic and landscapeChange in the Lake Pátzcuaro Basin,Mexico: Abandoning the Garden” (AmericanAnthropologist 107[1], March 2005).Dr. Fisher was affiliated with Kent StateUniversity at the time the article waspublished. The award, established in1997, recognizes an outstanding contributionto archaeology published inAmerican Anthropologist. The award isnamed for the late Gordon R. Willey,president of the AAA in 1961; the awardrecognizes excellent archaeological writingthat contributes to anthropologicalresearch in general. It is especiallyappropriate to honor this article awardbecause the research is based on aninterdisciplinary survey project thatrecalls Professor Willey’s groundbreakingwork on the Viru Valley surveyproject in the late 1940s and early 1950s.In this article, Dr. Fisher integratesarchaeological, environmental, andgeoarchaeological data collected in aregional survey around the southwesternborder of Lake Pátzcuaro in central Mexico.The multidisciplinary, multiyearresearch was codirected by Dr. Fisherand Professor Helen Pollard of MichiganState University. Fisher analyzes thesedata in the context of investigating thebreakdown of past civilizations. Heexplicitly responds to widespread popularassumptions that suggest that the collapseof complex societies is due tohuman overexploitation of the landscapecaused by overpopulation. Throughdetailed data collection, careful analysis,and very clear writing, Dr. Fisher demonstratesthe counterintuitive conclusionthat environmental degradation in theregion was not caused by overpopulationand overuse. In fact, environmental collapseoccurred after social collapsecaused by Spanish invasion; environmentaldegradation was probably causedby loss of population and resulting lackof maintenance of a humanly createdproductive landscape. The engineeredterraced landscape supported high populationdensities during late Prehispanic,but was subject to degradation due toloss of population and introduction ofEuropean crops and animals followingConquest. This issue of the interconnectionsamong social complexity, populationsize, land use, and ecological degradationhas many implications for modernpolicy decisions. Dr. Fisher’s articleis a contribution to a sophisticated analysisthat recognizes the complexity of theissues and encourages us to avoid a simplisticunderstanding of cause and effect.There are important implications formodern environmental policy that tendsto privilege minimal human interferenceas the solution for soil erosion andother environmental problems. As Dr.Fisher points out, only a long-term historicalperspective, provided by archaeology,can provide an understanding of thecomplexity of human-land interactions.The Willey award carries a $1000 prizeand will be presented at the annual businessmeeting of the Archaeology Divisionof the AAA on the evening ofNovember 30, 2007.Philip L. Kohl to present 2007 AAAArchaeology Division DistinguishedLecture. The ArchaeologyDivision of the American AnthropologicalAssociation (AAA) is pleased toannounce that the 18th annual ArchaeologyDivision Distinguished Lecture willbe presented by Philip L. Kohl, onNovember 30, 2007, at the 106 th AAAMeeting, Washington, D.C. The lecture,entitled “Shared Social Fields: evolutionaryconvergence in prehistory and contemporarypractice,” reviews the hallowedanthropological dichotomybetween evolutionary and historical perspectiveson the past and adopts the con-54 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


NEWS & NOTEScept of “social fields” first articulated byA. Lesser and then utilized by E. Wolf inEurope and the People without History toargue in favor of a macro-historical interpretationof the archaeological record.The relevant unit of analysis is not anarchaeological culture or early civilizationbut social groups inextricably involvedwith other social groups in expandingweb-like interconnections in which technologiesare broadly diffused, adoptedand modified by other social groupscaught up in the same large-scale historicalprocesses. Such interconnections canbest be traced archaeologically by examiningthe spread of basic material technologiesand subsistence practices, suchas the emergence of wheeled vehicles,spread of metallurgy and metal workingactivities, and adoption of specializedherding economies across western Eurasiaduring the Bronze Age. The lectureemphasizes the need for a perspective onthe past that emphasizes its sharednature in which all peoples have contributedand benefited from their continuousinteractions with other neighboringsocial groups. Philip L. Kohl is Professorof Anthropology and the Kathryn W.Davis Professor of Slavic Studies atWellesley College where he has taughtsince 1974. He received his Ph.D. inAnthropology from Harvard Universityin 1974. He is the author of L’Asie Centrale;des origines a l’age du Fer (CentralAsia: Palaeolithic Beginnings to the IronAge) (Paris, 1984) and The Making ofBronze Age Eurasia (Cambridge 2007).His latest book is Selective Remembrances:Archaeology in the Construction, Commemoration,and Consecration of National Pasts(Chicago, in press) with M. Kozelsky andN. Ben-Yehuda. He is the author of morethan 140 articles and reviews on thearchaeology of the Ancient Near East andhas conducted fieldwork in Iran,Afghanistan, Central Asia, Armenia,Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Daghestan,Russia. The 106th Annual AAA Meetingwill be held November 28–December 2,2007 in Washington DC at the MarriottWardman Park Hotel.National Register Listings. Thefollowing archeological propertieswere listed in the NationalRegister of Historic Places during thesecond quarter of 2007. For a full list ofNational Register listings every week,check “Weekly List” athttp://www.cr.nps.gov/ nr/• Arkansas, Newton County. ArcheologicalSite 3NW79. (Rock Art Sites inArkansas TR). Listed 5/23/07.• Arkansas, Pope County. ArcheologicalSite 3PP614. (Rock Art Sites inArkansas TR). Listed 5/23/07.• California, Monterey County.Whalers Cabin. Listed 5/09/07.• Connecticut, Windham County.Hemlock Glen Industrial ArcheologicalDistrict. Listed 6/05/07.• Florida, Monroe County. ChavezShipwreck Site. (1733 Spanish PlateFleet Shipwrecks MPS). AdditionalDocumentation Approved, 5/15/07.• Hawaii, Hawaii County. Puako PetroglyphArcheological District (BoundaryIncrease and Decrease, Additional Documentation).Listed 6/06/07.• Kansas, Shawnee County. HardChief’s Village. Listed 6/22/07.• Puerto Rico, Utuado Municipality.Bateyes de Vivi. Listed 6/21/07.• Massachusetts, Barnstable County.Paul Palmer (Shipwreck andRemains). Listed 4/12/07.• Missouri, Cape Girardeau County.Green’s Ferry. Listed 6/21/07.• Missouri, Ripley County. Indian Ford.(Cherokee Trail of Tears MPS). Listed6/21/07.• Montana, Lewis and Clark County.Alice Creek Historic District. Listed6/06/07.• Nebraska, Sarpy County. PattersonSite. (Archeological Resources of theMetro Omaha Management UnitMPS). Listed 3/22/07.• Virginia, Frederick County. FortColvin. Listed 5/08/07.• Virginia, Stafford County. PublicQuarry at Government Island. Listed5/31/07.• Wisconsin, Forest County.Butternut—Franklin Lakes ArcheologicalDistrict. Listed 5/09/07.• Wyoming, Sublette County. TrappersPoint Site. Listed 5/14/07.Scholarships for Native Peoplesfrom the U.S. and CanadaSAA Arthur C. Parker Scholarship & NSFScholarships for Archaeological Training forNative Americans and Native HawaiiansThe Society for American Archaeology (SAA)is pleased to announce the SAA Arthur C.Parker Scholarship and National ScienceFoundation (NSF) Scholarships for ArchaeologicalTraining for Native Americans andNative Hawaiians for the year 2008. Together,these scholarship programs will provide fourawards of $4,000 each to support training inarchaeological methods, including fieldwork,analytical techniques, and curation.DeadlineThe Application/Nomination Form and allsupporting materials should be submittedtogether in one envelope and must be postmarkedno later than December 15, 2007.The applicant/nominee need not be formallyaccepted into the archaeological methodstraining program at the time the application/nominationmaterials are submitted.However, a scholarship will not be awardeduntil the designated recipient has beenaccepted into the training program.Submission and ContactInformationSend all application/nomination materialsto: Scholarship Applications, Society forAmerican Archaeology, 900 Second StreetNE #12, Washington, DC 20002-3560.If you need an Application/NominationForm or you have questions about thesescholarships or you need help with locatinga field school or other training program,please contact the Society for AmericanArchaeology at the address given above,telephone +1 (202) 789-8200, Fax +1 (202)789-0284, e-mail info@saa.org. Your questionswill be relayed to someone who canassist you.September 2007 • The SAA Archaeological Record55


CALENDAR2007OCTOBER 5–6Gender and Archaeology Conferencewill be held at the University of Nevada,Las Vegas. For more information, emaillisa.frink@unlv.edu or barbara.roth@unlv.edu, or see http://www.unlv.edu/colleges/Liberal_Arts/Anthropology.OCTOBER 8–11The 2008 Great Basin AnthropologicalConference will be held in Portland,Oregon, October 8-11 at Portland StateUniversity. For information contact VirginiaButler, program chair: butlerv@pdx.edu; 503.725.3303; http://gbac.whsites.net/meeting.html.OCTOBER 132007 Three Corners ArchaeologicalConference will be held at the campusof the University of Nevada Las Vegas.For additional information, visit thewebsite at http://nvarch.org, or contactMark C. Slaughter or Laurie Perry at theBureau of Reclamation, LC2600, P.O.Box 61470, Boulder City, NV 89006; tel:(702) 293-8143; email: threecornersconference@yahoo.com.OCTOBER 28–312007 Annual Meeting of the ArchaeologicalGeology Division of the GeologicalSociety of America will include aseries of technical programs and fieldtripsin Denver. Technical program topicsinclude alluvial cycles and humanprehistory, sourcing techniques inarchaeology, sedimentary geology andgeochemistry studies in paleoanthropology,and geoarchaeological investigationsin the Mediterranean-Black Seacorridor. Two single-day field trips willfocus on Paleoindian geoarchaeology inwestern Nebraska and Middle Park,Colorado. For more information, pleasevisit http://www.geosociety.org/meetings/2007/.NOVEMBER 28 –DECEMBER 2The 106th Annual Meeting of theAmerican Anthropological Associationwill be held November 28 – December2, 2007, in Washington DC at the MarriottWardman Park Hotel. This year’stheme is “Difference, (In)Equality &Justice.” Philip L. Kohl will present the18th annual Archaeology Division DistinguishedLecture on Friday evening,Nov. 30, 2007. His talk is entitled“Shared Social Fields: evolutionary convergencein prehistory and contemporarypractice.” For more information,please visit http://www.aaanet.org/mtgs/mtgs.htm and http://www.aaanet.org/ad/index.html.2008MARCH 26–30The 73rd Annual Meeting of theSociety for American Archaeologywill be held in Vancouver, BritishColumbia, Canada. For more information,please visit SAAweb athttp://www.saa.org/meetings/index.html.VOLUNTEERS:SAA NEEDS YOUNEXT MARCH!Would you like the opportunityto meet people interested inarchaeology, have fun, and savemoney? Then apply to be anSAA volunteer!Volunteers are crucial to all onsitemeeting services, and weare currently looking for peopleto assist the SAA staff at the73rd Annual Meeting in Vancouver,British Columbia,Canada, March 26–30, 2008In return for just 12 hours ofyour time, you will receive:• complimentary meeting registration,• a free copy of the Abstracts ofthe 73rd Annual Meeting,• a $5 stipend per shift.For details and a volunteerapplication, please go toSAAweb (www.saa.org) or contactDarren Bishop at SAA (900Second St. NE #12, Washington,DC, 20002-3560, phone[202] 789-8200, fax (202) 789-0284, e-mail darren_bishop@saa.org). Applications areaccepted on a first-come, firstservebasis through February 1,2008, so contact us soon to takeadvantage of this great opportunity.See you in Vancouver!56 The SAA Archaeological Record • September 2007


U.S. CITIZENS TRAVELING TO CANADAU.S. citizens traveling between the U.S. and Canada must have a valid passport. This is a result of theWestern Hemisphere Travel Initiative. For specifics on this initiative, see the website from the Departmentof Homeland Security: http://www.dhs.gov.xtrvlsec/crossingborders.If you do not have a passport and need to apply for one, you may wish to note that passport processingtimes have dramatically increased due to the volume of requests. If you need a passport, you may wishto consult the website from the Department of State: http://travel.state.gov/passport for instructions.Non-profit Org.U.S. PostagePAIDSt. Joseph, MIPermit 38

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