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ISSUE 10 APRIL 2013MAGAZINE14Re-openingof theRijksmuseum06ICOMAM ConferenceOman10United NationsArms Trade Treaty25The Irish and FranceDublin


06 26 35WelcomeWelcomeWe hope you enjoy this edition ofICOMAM’s Magazine which is fullof news, events and articles. Don’tforget about our upcomingconference in Rio de Janeiro –details can be found on ourwebsite athttp://icomam.icom.museum.Robert Douglas SmithRuth Rhynas BrownEDITORSContentsNews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0404 Foreword ICOMAM Chairman05 ICOMAM News06 Conference Oman 201310 Arms Trade Treaty at UnitedNations14 Re-opening of the Rijksmuseum18 “Défi à l’oubli” - Luxembourg20 Lest we forget - Luxembourg21 Stuart W. Pyhrr MetropolitanMuseum of ArtExhibitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2323 National Army Museum25 The Irish and France, DublinArticles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2626 KOISO Ryohei and other Japanesepainters’ war record pictures in theNetherlands East Indies32 An Anglo-Portuguese souvenir35 Gunpowder making in MaltaISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 3


NewsICOMAM NEWSChers membres etsympathisants de l’ICOMAM,Comme vous pourrez le lire plus en détail plus loin dansce nouveau numéro de notre Magazine, nous pouvonsenfin annoncer une avancée positive en ce qui concerne lenouveau traité sur le commerce des armes (Arms TradeTreaty ATT). Les conséquences du traité pour le mondemuséal ont été fixées. En mars dernier, des négociationsinternationales ont eu lieu dans les bâtiments des NationsUnies à New York pendant une dizaine de jours. Lesnégociations avaient été interrompues de façon assezmalheureuse dans le courant de l’été 2012. Ce qui étaitalors proposé nous paraissait tout à fait insuffisant. Il étaitfort possible que le transfert international d’armeshistoriques (p.e. dans le cadre d’une exposition, dereconstitutions, d’achats, d’échanges scientifiques) soitsoumis à de très sévères obligations administratives et delourdes charges financières. Nous pouvons à présent direque l’ICOMAM a exercé un important lobbying internationalqui a porté ses fruits. Nemo, l’organisation des muséeseuropéens, avait été alarmée et son petit article d’octobre2012 a été entendu. Les associations muséales nationales,la British Museum Association en tête, ont réussi à attirerl’attention de différents représentants diplomatiques surl’importance d’un accord réfléchi, permettant le libre traficd’armes muséales et patrimoniales. Nous avons égalementréussi à convaincre le directeur général et le président del’ICOM de se mêler au débat, car un mauvais accord netoucherait pas uniquement les musées « d’armes », maisaussi les musées possédant des collections d’armescomme le MET, le Rijksmuseum, etc. Nous avonségalement contacté l’UNESCO pour sensibiliser cetteorganisation à notre point de vue. Lors de la réunion denotre Comité en février dernier (réunion qui avait pour butde préciser notre point de vue par rapport à l’ATT), nousavions invité M Fabio della Piazza, Chair of Council WorkingGroup on Conventional Arms Export (COARM) - EuropeanExternal Action Service et co-négociateur pour l’UE. Grâce àson intervention claire et précise, nous avons pu nousformer une meilleure idée des moyens de pression à notredisposition et des règles du jeu diplomatiques en vigueurlors d’un tel traité international. Nous avons envoyé uncourrier au nouveau président de la commission denégociations de l’ATT, l’ambassadeur Peter Woolcott(siégeant à Genève) pour le convaincre de l’importanceinternationale du patrimoine armurier dans les collectionsmuséales. Nous lui proposions quelques pistes deréflexions visant à améliorer le texte existant. En outre,Kenneth Smith-Christmas, membre du Comité exécutif, etTom Mason, un juriste américain qui avait obtenu que nouspuissions nous faire entendre en tant qu’ONG et expert enmatière de lois sur l’armement, avaient, en étroitecollaboration avec quelques membres du comité exécutif del’ICOMAM, rédigé une motion motivée en soutien à notrecause. Cette motion fut présentée par Kenneth Smith-Christmas lors de la session de la commission en marsdernier à New York et diffusée auprès de centaines departicipants. En plus, lui et Tom Mason ont pu établir decontacts nécessaires dans la marge de la réunion. Lerésultat de cet énorme travail de lobby : les armes reprisesdans les collections reconnues par les autorités (lescollections privées ne sont donc pas concernées) font l’objetd’une réglementation beaucoup moins sévère. Nous avonsmême obtenu plus que ce que nous visions, car laréglementation ne vaut pas uniquement pour les armesdites historiques (d’avant 1899), mais pour toutes les armesconventionnelles en milieu muséal. Il s’agit donc d’unevictoire pour l’entièreté du secteur muséal. Le résultatobtenu indique aussi l’importance de notre association qui aréussi à exercer une pression internationale et à être leporte-voix de tout un secteur, ce que chaque muséeindividuel n’aurait jamais réussi à faire. À tous et en premierlieu à Kenneth Smith-Christmas, Guy Wilson, David Penn,Janice Murray et Tom Mason : nos remerciements les plussincères. Vous trouverez de plus amples informations à cesujet plus loin dans ce numéro.Je voudrais terminer en lançant un nouvel appel pourvotre participation active à notre prochain congrès à Rio deJaneiro en août prochain. Les inscriptions se font attendreet nous ne pouvons pas encore parler de succès. Notreprogramme (voir notre site Internet) et le thème laissentpourtant entrevoir de nombreux débats intéressants. Des4 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


NewsOMAN 2013In October ICOMAM held its annual conference in Oman atthe University of Nizwa. It proved to be a memorable fivedays with many visits and 18 excellent and varied papers.Oman is a country of contrasts, colour and castles,welcoming, warm (well often very hot) and wild. Those whoattended will never forget the experience. Here is a phototasteThe opening ceremony reflected the continuing and vibrant tribalculture of the countryThe warmth the welcome almost overwhelmed our PresidentThe castle of Bait ar Rudayah where our host Christopher Roadshas installed innovative displaysincluding bullet showcases below a chamber roof that wereadmired by our President6 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


NewsCastles everywhere! This one is one of those protecting the Al-Alam Royal PalaceEx-President Claude Gaier masters the Martini-HenryDavid Edge puts up a smoke screenNot all the castles were in such good condition. Here Chris Roadsintroduces the ruined Jemma CastleThe German and Austrian table added a much-needed touch ofclass8 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


NewsBut the end was not the end. After the conference was the tour - 3days of travelling and sight seeing in this extraordinarily barrenbut beautiful country. Here we arrive at the walled village of Haratal SufalaBut then it was time to relax on a boat trip from Sawadi BeachresortBut there was a sting in the tail - snorkeling and swimming fromthe boat - but our President took the leadand meet a local inhabitantand the Admiral soon followedNow how many expect all that on an ICOMAM conference?ISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 9


NewsUN ATT Gen AssmblyICOMAM gains exemptions from the Arms TradeTreaty for some museumsKenneth L. Smith-Christmas ICOMAM Executive Board MemberThrough intense lobbying efforts at the United Nations,ICOMAM has been able to gain exemptions from therequirements of the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) for nationallevelmuseums, and for museums, collections, and historicsites that are sponsoring events or conducting loans onbehalf of a nation. This success has been the result of manyyears of activity on the part of several ICOMAM members,including its past chairman, Mr. Guy Wilson, at firearmsregulations conferences all over the world. When this effortwas re-energized in 2011, it gained new momentum by early2012, at which time an appeal to exempt ‘antique’ arms wassent to the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) PreparatoryCommittee’s (PrepComm) chairman, and ICOMAM’s positionstatement was read during the ATT PrepComm’s February2012 meeting in New York City.After the unexpected dissolution of the ATT conferenceat the United Nations’ Headquarters in July 2012, ICOMAMplanned once again to write a letter to the new chairman ofthe ATT conference that was scheduled to occur in mid-March, 2013. Although ICOMAM’s position paper had beenpresented to the PrepComm at the conference in July, itapparently had no effect, even though national-level militarymuseums in Sweden, Austria, and Belgium had, on veryshort notice, promptly contacted their national ATTdelegates in support of ICOMAM. While waiting for theannouncement of the new ATT chairman, ICOMAM drafted aletter to Dr. Hans-Martin Hinz, president of ICOM, andrequested ICOM’s support in this endeavor. Shortlythereafter, Mr. Piet de Gryse, ICOMAM’s chairman, sent aletter to His Excellency Mr. Peter Woolcott, the new ATTchairman, and Australian ambassador to the UN in Geneva.In early October 2012, the First Assembly (FA) of the UNissued a statement that endorsed the verbiage of the Julydraft (again not including any exemptions for ‘antique’ arms)and set the stage for the March 2013 conference. The FAwas scheduled to meet at the end of October and would10 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


NewsUN ATT DelegatesUN ATT NGOsagain allow brief statements from non-governmentalorganizations (NGOs). Accordingly, yet another briefstatement was prepared for delivery on Monday, 29 October.However, in anticipation of the chaos that was certain toensue during the forecasted hurricane, all arrangementswere cancelled on 26 October, and Hurricane Sandy roaredashore two days later, shutting down New York City for days.Meanwhile, through the energetic efforts of Dr. JaniceMurray (Director of the National Army Museum in London)and Mr. Mark Murray-Flutter of the Royal Armouries inLeeds, England, the British Museums Association wasapprised of the dangers inherent to museums in the ATT,and an article soon appeared in that organization’snewsletter supporting ICOMAM’s position. Mr. David Penn(retired arms curator at the Imperial War Museum inLondon) was also actively working with important contactsin the British Foreign & Commonwealth Office. ICOMAM’schairman, Mr. Piet de Gryse, authored an appeal tomuseums worldwide and it began circulating, with theNetwork of European Museums sending out a ‘shotgun’email notification to its members, based on this appeal.UNESCO’s support was also requested, and, in anUN ATT CelebrationISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 11


NewsUN ATT Feb Prep Commexchange of e-mails, Mr. Francesco Bandarin, the AssistantDirector General for Culture at UNESCO, advised ICOMAMto have national museums organizations contact theirnational representatives with their concerns. However, itsoon became clear that many interested parties, for somereason, continued to maintain that museums were in nodanger, although the framers of the ATT still steadfastlyrefused to exempt ‘antique’ arms from the scope of thetreaty.At this same time, ICOMAM’s stance was slightlymodified to include museum ‘curiosities’ and ‘relic’firearms, as well as ‘antiques’. It also became apparent thatthe ATT was directed not only at Small Arms and LightWeapons (SALW), but also at military aircraft and combatvehicles, regardless of their age. Hence, a WWI Spad aircraftand a WWII half-track would also fall under the draconianrestrictions of the ATT. A modified version of ICOMAM’sworldwide appeal, advising organizations in the UnitedStates to contact their US State Department representative,was also sent out to a number of American privatecollectors’ organizations and museum organizations thathad a stake in the outcome of the ATT. However, none ofthese groups responded to the emails. Sadly, severalnational level military museums and museum networks incountries worldwide also either declined to becomeinvolved, or simply stopped corresponding with ICOMAM.In mid-December 2012, the Chief of the History Office ofthe US Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) sent amessage to all of the chiefs of the historical offices in theUS Department of Defense, notifying them of the situation(with ICOMAM’s documents attached) and advised themthat, if they sent a letter in support of ICOMAM’s position,OSD would favorably endorse their letters and forward themon to the US Department of State. Very disappointingly, thisopportunity for action was also ignored.Meanwhile, Dr. Hinz and Mr. Julian Anfruns, SecretaryGeneral of ICOM, had contacted Mr. Woolcott on ICOMAM’sbehalf, and they had received a very cordial and encouragingreply from him. This, in turn, prompted another letter fromICOMAM to Mr. Woolcott, voicing concerns that severalnational ATT delegates had admitted that, in order to assurepassage of the ATT, no exemptions whatsoever were actuallygoing to be considered at the March conference, althoughthe ATT would again allow NGOs to address the nationaldelegates in a one hour time period at the close of one ofthe daily sessions. Concurrently, Mr. Fabio Della Piazza,chairman of the Council of Europe’s Working Group onConventional Arms Export (COARM), made a presentation tothe ICOMAM Executive Board in February. As a result of hisearnest appeal, and a subsequent discussion of the subjectamong the Executive Board, ICOMAM wrote another letter toMr. Woolcott, further modifying ICOMAM’s position.Although ICOMAM still maintained that an exemption forcertain classes of weaponry would be the best possiblesolution for museums, it gave the ATT the latitude to findanother way to solve the problem.Mr. Tom Mason, ICOMAM’s mentor in the ATT arena,once again drafted a letter authorizing the ICOMAMrepresentative to deliver a very brief address at the ATTconference at the UN HQ in March 2013, and he then tookcare of coordinating all of the necessary securityarrangements. Through his tireless efforts, ICOMAM wasnot only assured a place among the NGO presenters, butwas also afforded the opportunity to meet with keymembers of the British delegation during the conferenceover a dinner that Mr. Mason hosted at New York’sMetropolitan Club, during which ICOMAM’s concerns werepresented.Two days later, along with six other NGO presenters,ICOMAM again made its appeal to exempt antique, curio,and relic firearms, as well as vintage military aircraft andvehicles, from the scope of the ATT. The presentationrequired 420 copies for distribution among the internationaldelegates. Curiously, those seven NGOs voicing concernsabout the inadvertent adverse effects of the treaty werelimited to one-page presentations, while those five NGO’sspeaking in favor of the restrictions in the treaty, andappealing for its passage, were allowed four- to five-pagespeeches. Due to the scheduling, ICOMAM was part of the20-minute time block afforded to the seven NGOs, after the‘pro-Treaty’ group had used up the previous 40 minutes ofthe hour.On the following day, very gratifyingly, and verysurprisingly, the new wording in the treaty’s languageallowed a ‘state’ (nation) an exemption for any ‘conventionalarms’ for the state’s ‘use’ during a ‘transfer’, as long as thearms remained the property of the state. This loneexemption had formerly been confined to military or lawenforcement personnel. Moreover, the new language alsoincluded functions being performed ‘on behalf of a state’,again providing that the arms did not change hands. The12 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


NewsUS Marines with Krag RiflesCamel USAA Museumdrafters of the ATT had, indeed, found another way toaddress ICOMAM’s concerns, at least for national-levelmuseums. When several hypothetical situations were posedto the framers of the treaty on Mr. Woolcott’s staff, they werefound to be valid. These were:1. If the Norwegian Army Museum requests a US Kragrifle from the USMC Museum for permanent exhibit, it canbe loaned (without going through the ATT process) on an‘indefinite’ loan basis, since the firearm will not changeownership.2. If an American re-enactor is invited to a re-enactmentof the Battle of Ridgeway that is being sponsored by ParksCanada (the Canadian version of the US National ParkService), he can cross over the border at Niagara with hisreplica rifle-musket without going through the ATT process.3. If the Royal Armouries at Leeds, England, requests aloan of a Griswold & Gunnison Confederate revolver fromthe US Department of Defense museums and theSmithsonian, but finds that neither of them have oneavailable for loan, the Royal Armouries can still borrow onefrom the Augusta (Georgia) City Museum or from a privatecollection in Georgia, without going through the ATTprocess, as long as the revolver returns to Georgia.Additionally, since the European Union apparently isconsidered to be a ‘state’ under the ATT, any transfers withinthe confines of the EU are exempt.In the end, ICOMAM got more than what it had beenasking for, at least for national level museums, ormuseums, historic sites, and organizations that are able togarner national-level support for their programs or events.The exemption is not limited to antique, curio, or relicfirearms, and vintage military aircraft and vehicles, but nowcovers all ‘conventional arms.’ ‘Conventional arms’ alsoincludes civilian firearms, as well as modern military smallarms and weaponry of all types. However, it truly is a pitythat, for private collectors and non-national level museumsworld-wide, a matchlock musket is now considered to be onthe same level of lethality as an AK-47 assault rifle, a WorldWar I-era French FT-17 tank is as fearsome as a currentM1A1 Abrams battle tank, and a Fokker D-7 biplane is equalto an F-22 fighter aircraft, as far as the ‘transfer’restrictions in the UN’s Arms Trade Treaty are concerned.Valentine tankAmerican re-enactors at the Battle of RidgewayISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 13


NewsThe Rijksmuseum.Iwan Baan. Image courtesy ofRijksmuseum.Re-opening of the RijksmuseumJourney through time, from the Middle Ages to MondrianThe new presentation of the Rijksmuseum collection is ajourney through Dutch art and history from the MiddleAges and the Renaissance to the 20th century. The story ofthe Netherlands is set in an international context and toldchronologically across four separate floors. Paintings,prints, drawings, photographs, silver, porcelain, delftware,furniture, jewellery, arms, fashion and objects from Dutchhistory will be presented together for the very first time.More than 30 galleries are dedicated to the glory of theGolden Age, when the young mercantile republic led theworld in trade, science, military exploits and the arts. At theheart of the museum will be the magnificently restoredGallery of Honour, presenting world-famous masterpiecesby Vermeer, Rembrandt, Frans Hals and Jan Steen. TheGallery of Honour leads visitors to the dedicated space thatarchitect Cuypers created for Rembrandt’s The Night Watchin the late 19th century, and where this huge masterpiececan once again be admired.New to the presentation are the 20th century galleries.Paintings, furniture, photography, film and an aeroplanepaint a picture of Dutch culture from the last century. TheSpecial Collections are also displayed separately for the firsttime. Here, visitors will be able to discover famous andunexpected objects from the applied arts, science andnational history, such as ship and navy models, musicalinstruments, and an armoury.14 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


NewsThe Night Watch Gallery.Photo credit: Iwan Baan. Imagecourtesy of Rijksmuseum.Rembrandt van Rijn, The NightWatch, 1642. Oil on Canvas,379.5cm x 453.5cm. Imagecourtesy of Rijksmuseum.ISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 15


News17th century gallery. In thisgallery is the ship model WilliamRex and on the left, the armsrack of Admiral Cornelis Tromp.Tromp was given the rack in1680, together with a largenumber of exotic weapons, by anold friend from Batavia (nowJakarta). Some of the weapons,such as the lances, come fromthe Japanese island ofTanegashima. Most have a redlacqueredwooden case. Trompalso hung three pairs of fineDutch pistols on the rack. Photocredit: Iwan Baan. Imagecourtesy of Rijksmuseum.C. Moesman, Model of the 74-gun Dutch battleship WilliamRex, 1698. 410cm x 460cm.Image courtesy of Rijksmuseum.16 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


News19th century gallery showing the Battle of Waterloo with, on theleft, a trophy with arms from the Belgian Revolt in 1830,assembled by Sietze Johannes Roosdorp, 1817–72. The BelgianRevolt of 1830 made such a great impression on thirteen-year-oldSietze Johannes Roosdorp that the Dutch teenager began tocollect souvenirs of the event. These comprised weapons, parts ofuniforms and musical instruments used by both Dutch and Belgiantroops. Later in his life Roosdorp displayed his collection in thewaiting rooms at the Amsterdam train station where he wasstation master. He kept a precise record of who had used what,such as the pocket inkstand once owned by Baron Chassé,commander of the citadel of Antwerp. Photo credit: Erik Smits.Frits Koolhoven, FK 23 Bantam, 1917. British Aerial TransportCompany, London. 762cm (wing span) x 561cm x 206cm.Image courtesy of Rijksmuseum.ISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 17


Newsdéfenseurs de Bastogne. Le MNHM par ailleurs entretientd’excellentes relations avec Bastogne et surtout avec lenouveau musée « Base Bastogne » ancien QG du GénéralMcAuliffe où un chapitre d’histoire mondiale fut écrit enrépondant « Nuts » à la demande de reddition de l’ennemi.La « Base Bastogne » est une branche du Musée Royal del’Armée et d’Histoire Militaire (KLM-MRA) de Bruxelles. Il nefaut pas perdre de vue le fait qu’après la libération deBastogne, la 3e Armée du Général Patton a dû continuer àlibérer village après village en grande partie dans lesArdennes luxembourgeoises et ce par un temps exécrable etdes températures en dessous de zéro jusqu’en janvier 1945.D’autres sections du MNHM illustrent l’histoire del’armée luxembourgeoise www.armee.lu, les soldats ONUdes contingents luxembourgeois en Corée (1950-53), ainsique les Anciens Combattants luxembourgeois en 1940-45.Afin de mieux rapprocher l’histoire vivante et palpableaux visiteurs, le Musée National d’Histoire Militaire peutorganiser des visites de groupes combinées.Afin de mieux planifier une visite à Diekirch auLuxembourg, et de mieux préparer le séjour par uneintroduction à ce chapitre important de l’histoire de la 2eGuerre Mondiale, nous conseillons de parcourir notre pageInternet www.mnhm.lu avec ses informations détaillées surle musée et les randonnées. Les randonnées peuvent aussiêtre préparées en se connectant sur « Bulge trails ». Lavisite de musées similaires dans le nord du Luxembourg eten Belgique est possible suite à la visite du musée deDiekirch et ce en une journée. Des informations à ce sujetsont disponibles sur le site www.amba.lu.Les coordonnées du MuséeNational d’Histoire Militaire.Adresse et heures d’ouverture :Le Musée National d’Histoire Militaire se trouve dans lesvieux bâtiments de « l’Ancienne Brasserie » de Diekirchsitués au :10, BamertalL-9209 DiekirchGrand-Duché de LuxembourgTel: +352 - 808908 ou +352 - 804719FAX: +352 - 804719Adresse Internet: www.mnhm.luAdresse électronique: info@mnhm.luLe musée est ouvert tous les jours de 10 :00 – 18 :00 heuresà l’exception de:01 Janvier25 DécembreDimanche de carnaval (variable – habituellement débutFévrier)N.B. : Dernière entrée à 17:45 heures.Prix des entrées :Adultes : 5€Jeunes 10-18ans : 3€Enfants en dessous de 10 ans : gratuitsEtudiants (en possession de leur carte d’étudiant) : 3€Anciens combattants et vétérans (avec carted’anciencombattant) : gratuitsMilitaires en uniforme : 3€Tarifs de groupe (minimum 10 personnes) : 3€ par personneTarif de groupe pour visite de 2 heures avec guidemultilingue : 5€ par personne(Minimum 10 personnes)Audio-guides (en 5 langues) en option : 2.50€Remarques :Des visites guidées de groupe sont possibles tout au long del’année sur simple réservation par écrit.Pour l’instant, le musée ne peut être que partiellementvisité en chaise roulante.Le stationnement gratuit sur l’enceinte du musée estmomentanément limité.Routes d’accès vers Diekirch:Partant de Luxembourg-ville en voiture :Prendre la direction du nord, route signalée par Mersch,Ettelbruck vers Diekirch. Le musée se trouve à quelques300 mètres de l’église de Diekirch en direction de Clervaux.Le temps de conduite Luxembourg-Diekirch est d’environ 50minutes.Sur une carte routière, Diekirch se trouve au nord-est deLuxembourg-ville.Par train :A partir de la gare de Luxembourg les trains vers Ettelbrückcirculent par intervalles d’une heure.A partir de la gare d’Ettelbrück, les liaisons vers Diekirchsont possibles par train ou bus par intervalles de 30minutes. De la gare de Diekirch jusqu’au musée il fautcompter 10 minutes de marche passant par le centre-ville,l’église en suivant le panneau « Musée Militaire ».Hébergement :Des hôtels et des restaurants sont proposés sur le siteInternet du Syndicat d’Initiative et de tourisme de la Ville deDiekirch sous : www.diekirch.lu, email:tourisme@diekirch.lu ou bien sur le site de l’Office Nationaldu Tourisme sous: www.ont.lu;email: info@ont.luStationnement :Dû à des constructions, le stationnement sur l’enceinte dumusée st actuellement très limité. Une aire destationnement payant pour bus et voitures privées se trouveprès de l’église à environ 300 mètres du musée. Lestationnement gratuit est possible près de la gare. UnISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 19


Newsis a branch of the KLM-MRA (Royal Army and MilitaryHistory Museum, Brussels). In addition, the Third Army,commanded by General George S. Patton, jr. (who is buriedin Luxembourg) had to continue to liberate town after town,village after village in Luxembourg in January 1945, wayafter Bastogne had been retaken.Further sections of the museum portray the history ofthe Luxembourg army (www.armee.lu), Luxembourg UNsoldiers in Korea 1950–3 and the Luxembourg alliedsoldiers 1940–5. A special exhibit on the Luxembourgvolunteers in the armies of the ‘Entente’ in WWI is plannedfor 2014.To familiarize interested visitors with history that can be‘felt and walked’, the National Museum of Military Historycan set up guided tours and/or combination visits (availablein several languages) for tour groups.We encourage you to consult our website for a moredetailed description of our museum and ‘terrain walk’ toallow you to plan your visit and familiarize yourself with animportant chapter of WWII history.The website is www.mnhm.lu and the terrain walk canbe found by clicking on ‘Bulge trails’. Visits to similarmuseums in northern Luxembourg and Belgium are alsofeasible during one day after touring the National Museumof Military History. Information about other museums can befound under www.amba.luFurther details:The National Museum of Military History is located in thecomplex of the Diekirch ‘old brewery’ at:10, BamertalL-9209 DiekirchGrand Duchy of LuxembourgTel: (352) 808908FAX: (352) 808908-99website: www.mnhm.luemail: "mailto:info@mnhm.lu"The Museum is open as follows:Daily from 10:00 – 18:00 (last ticket sold at 17:15Admission:Adults: 5€Children (10-18): 3€Children under 10: FreeStudents (with valid student card): 3€WWII Veterans (with veteran association affiliation card): FreeMilitary personnel in uniform: 3€Group rates (minimum 10 persons): 3€ per personGroup rates for guided tours (minimum 10 persons):5€ per person.Optional audio-guides in 5 languages are available for 2.5€Guided tours are possible throughout the year on writtenrequestThe museum is currently only partially accessible towheelchairsLimited, free, (bus) parking is available on the museumcompoundThe National Museum of Military History is a foundingmember of AMBA, the Belgian-Luxembourg Association ofthe Museums of the Battle of the Ardennes (www.amba.lu)and a proud European partner of the National World War IIMuseum in New Orleans, USA(www.nationalww2museum.org/) and the National WarMemorial and Museum of Korea, Seoul, Republic of SouthKorea and the KLM-MRA Museum in Brussels/BelgiumWe look forward to your visit!Stuart W. Pyhrr to BecomeDistinguished Research Curatorafter 25 Years LeadingMetropolitan Museum’s Armsand Armor DepartmentPierre Terjanian Named Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Curator inCharge of the DepartmentThomas P. Campbell, Director of The MetropolitanMuseum of Art, today, 12 March 2013, announced twonew appointments within its Department of Arms andArmor. Stuart W. Pyhrr, the current Arthur Ochs SulzbergerCurator in Charge, will assume the newly created position ofDistinguished Research Curator, and Pierre Terjanian,currently a Curator in the department, will become theArthur Ochs Sulzberger Curator in Charge. These changeswill go into effect on 1 July.Mr. Campbell stated: ‘I am pleased to announce that,after 25 years of extraordinary accomplishments as head ofthe Museum’s Department of Arms and Armor, Stuart Pyhrrwill transition to a new position as Distinguished ResearchCurator. Stuart is a devoted scholar who has enhanced thecollections and galleries of one of the most treasured areasof the Met. His future research will continue to build on thedepartment’s remarkable 100-year history. I am alsodelighted to appoint Pierre Terjanian as his successor andlook forward to working together with him to continuedeveloping the role of arms and armor at the Museum.’ISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 21


NewsStuart W. PyhrrStuart W. Pyhrr began his career with the MetropolitanMuseum in 1971 as a fellow and research assistant inthe Arms and Armor Department, while pursuing hisgraduate studies at the Institute of Fine Arts, New YorkUniversity. He became Assistant Curator of Arms and Armorin 1977, Associate Curator in 1982, Curator and departmenthead in 1988, and the Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Curator inCharge in 1997.He lectures and publishes extensively in the field ofEuropean armor, and has organized or coordinated severalmajor exhibitions including The Art of Chivalry: EuropeanArms and Armor from The Metropolitan Museum of Art(traveled 1982-84); Liechtenstein: The Princely Collections(1985-86); and Heroic Armor of the Italian Renaissance:Filippo Negroli and his Contemporaries (1998-99), whichwas named ‘Exhibition of the Year’ by Apollo magazine.From 1989 to 1991, Mr. Pyhrr supervised the renovation,redesign, and reinstallation of the Metropolitan Museum’sArms and Armor Galleries—a space of 10,000 square feet inwhich 1,200 objects are currently displayed—including thecreation of two galleries of Japanese arms and armor.During his tenure, the department also organized andpresented such major international exhibitions as Warriorsof the Himalayas: Rediscovering the Arms and Armor ofTibet (2006) and Art of the Samurai: Japanese Arms andArmor, 1156–1868 (2009-2010). Mr. Pyhrr oversaw thecreation in 1996 of a new gallery for rotating exhibitions, TheArthur Ochs Sulzberger Gallery, which hosts a series ofexhibitions drawn from department’s holdings.The Arms and Armor Department’s collection grew bymore than 400 pieces under his leadership. Notable amongthe gifts and purchases is the diminutive armor made inParis in 1712 for Prince Luis, the five-year-old heir to theSpanish throne; a gold-encrusted and jeweled Turkishsword (yatagan), ca. 1530, from the court of Suleyman theMagnificent; a number of richly embellished Europeanfirearms, including the silver-inlaid flintlock sporting gun ofEmpress Margarita Teresa of Austria, a Viennese work of ca.1670 made in the fashionable French taste; and asignificantly enhanced series of American arms, amongthem a gold-inlaid Colt revolver reputedly given to theSultan of Turkey in 1854, the gold-mounted sword presentedby Congress to General John E. Wool in 1854 for his exploitsin the Mexican War, and a group of Smith & Wessonrevolvers decorated in a variety of silversmithing techniquesby Tiffany and Company at the end of the 19th century.In 2012 the Department of Arms and Armor celebratedits centennial with a thorough refurbishment of the Armsand Armor Galleries, introducing 60 more objects, 1,000updated labels, and improved lighting, and organizing theexhibition Bashford Dean and the Creation of the Arms andArmor Department. For the centennial, Mr. Pyhrr authoredthe Museum’s Summer Bulletin on the history of the Armsand Armor Department and an article in the MetropolitanMuseum Journal on the Museum’s first major acquisition ofarms and armor.Mr. Pyhrr is currently overseeing the preparation of twomajor catalogues—one on the department’s outstandingcollection of 16th-century English armors made in the RoyalWorkshops at Greenwich, and the other on highlights of theMuseum’s extensive holdings of Islamic arms and armor—both of which are scheduled for publication in 2014-15.Pierre TerjanianPierre Terjanian has been a Curator in the MetropolitanMuseum’s Department of Arms and Armor sinceOctober 2012. Prior to that, he worked at the PhiladelphiaMuseum of Art since 1997, first as an Andrew W. MellonCuratorial Fellow of Arms and Armor (1997-2000), and thenas Adjunct Associate Curator (2000-2003), Associate Curator(2004-2006), and the J. J. Medveckis Associate Curator(2006-2012), all in the Department of European DecorativeArts and Sculpture before 1700. In his latter role as J. J.Medveckis Associate Curator, he oversaw the museum’sKretzschmar von Kienbusch Collection of more than 1,200outstanding examples of late medieval and RenaissanceEuropean arms and armor and related objects. From 2005to 2012, he was also Acting Head of the Department ofEuropean Decorative Arts and Sculpture before 1700,administering the department and overseeing its collection.Among his many activities at the museum, he researchedand re-catalogued extensive portions of the arms and armorcollection; rediscovered unique, long-lost 16th-centuryalbums of drawings illustrating the works of leadingGerman armorers; reinstalled four permanent galleries forarms and armor; acquired works including rare 16thcenturyarmors for man and horse; prepared acomprehensive, richly illustrated catalogue of 100 highlightsof the arms and armor collection that is scheduled forpublication in 2014; and lectured widely. A native ofStrasbourg, France, he obtained a masters degree in lawfrom Université Paris II Panthéon-Assas, a master ofscience degree in management from HEC Paris, and adoctoral degree in history from Université de Metz, and hasalso done graduate study in history at the University ofCalifornia, Berkeley.22 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


ExhibitionsNational Army MuseumExhibitionsBritain’s Greatest Battles, 13 January – 2 June 2013What was Britain's Greatest Battle? You decide!Exploring over 400 years of Britain’s battles, fromCulloden and Waterloo to Rorke’s Drift and Musa Qala, thisexhibition examines the key facts, impact and legacies of the20 top British battles chosen by our curators. It targets howtactics, luck and innovations have helped the British Armyscoop victory and where it found its fiercest challenges,opponents and bitterest triumphs.Original artifacts help tell the stories behind thesebattles and the real-life experiences of soldiers on bothsides who fought in them. Encompassing changes inwarfare, politics and culture Britain’s Greatest Battles asksyou to decide which one was the greatest test to Britain’smilitary and biggest success.This exhibition is part of our Britain’s Greatest Battlesonline and event programme. Visit our website to discovermore about these notable struggles and vote for which ofthe top 20 battles become the top five represented at ourall-day speaker event which determines British GreatestBattle.Don’t miss our online poll and exhibitionwww.nam.ac.uk/battlesForthcoming family eventsMay Half-Term Workshops - FREE25 May - 2 June 2013. Weekdays, from 11.00am and 2.00pmSuitable for ages 5-11*Build Your Own...15 - 16 June 2013, from 10.30am to 4.30pm - FREEThis Father’s Day weekend bring along your competitivespirit and take part in our mini- build activities. From tanksto trebuchets, use your engineering skills to createmagnificent machinery in miniature to compete for firstplace!» Be inspired by the history behind your mini-build» Explore the Museum’s Handling Collection» Try your hand at our rifle training range» Tackle the rock-climbing wallSuitable for ages 7+**Children must be accompanied by an adultToy Soldier Weekend27 - 28 July 2013 10.30am - 4.30pm – FREEVisit us this weekend for a chance to see fascinatingcollections of military models. Enjoy recreations of keyevents that the British Army has been involved in and meetour curators to discover the story behind the Museum’s,own and rarely seen model collection.Suitable for ages 7+If the Invader Comes…21 September 2013 10.30am - 4.30pm – FREEThis day of hands-on activities will give you and all thefamily a taster of life in the Home Guard, take part in drill,have a go at putting out fires, learn about unexploded bombsand marvel as the gun and searchlight teams scan the skiesfor danger. Finish it all off with a sing song round the piano!Suitable for all agesBig Blitz Jive21 September 2013 7.30pm – Midnight – FREEGet into the swing as the National Army Museumpresents its annual 1940s themed jive event. Brush up onyour footwork with the professional dance instructors fromthe London Swing Dance Society, enjoy a ’40s stylemakeover and take away a souvenir photograph of theevening.Tickets£15.00 Standard • £12.50 Concessions £7.50 Under 15sGurkha Food Festival23 November 2013 10.30am - 4.30pm – FREEThe cultural and geographic diversities of Nepal providea variety of unique cuisines with flavourful, rich andaromatically spiced dishes. Come along to our Gurkha FoodFestival, in association with Gurkha Fine Foods, and treatyour taste buds to the unmistakable flavours of Nepal.Permanent galleriesKids' ZoneDiscover the Museum’s new soft-play area called Kids’Zone with forest and arctic themed climbing frames for kidsto scale, slide and run through. This colourful children’s playarea explores aspects of army life from camping to clothingand includes a dedicated soft-play space for babies, plusarts and crafts, dressing-up costumes, books, interactiveISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 23


Exhibitionstoys and panels. At the heart of the new Kids’ Zone are thesix key principals of Early Years Foundation Stages, ensuringthat children are learning whilst having fun. There areexciting objects from the Museum’s Collection on displaywith lots of interactive models for children to touch andexplore. This fresh new space offers kids the space to move,interact and create in a bright and safe environment.Space opens daily from 10.10am - 5.15pmAdmission charges apply.More info: www.nam.ac.uk/kidsChanging the World 1784 – 1904This gallery examines the British Army’s role in theexpansion and defence of British trade, political interest,and empire, and its effect on the shape of Britain and theworld today.World Wars, 1905-1945This gallery explores the role of the BritishCommonwealth's civilian armies and their defence ofdemocracy during the First and Second World Wars, the eraof 'Total War'.Action ZonesVictorian Soldier Action ZoneAre you a drummer boy, an infantryman or a cavalryofficer? Find out in the Museum’s interactive VictorianAction Zone. Quizzes, games and hands-on activities helpyou learn about life as a Victorian Soldier and the part theyplayed in the shaping of Britain’s Empire. Admission: FreeLocation: Changing the World galleryThe World’s Army – Empire, Commonwealth and DominionSoldiers 1914- 45 Action ZoneExplore the lives of people from around the worldinvolved in the First and Second World Wars and the greatadvance made in technologies of warfare in our familyinteractive zone.Lunchtime lecturesFree Lunchtime lectures take place every Thursday at12.30pm. Please see website for further detailshttp://www.nam.ac.uk/whats-on/lunchtime-lecturesConflicts of InterestThis major new gallery examines over four decades ofaction on the world stage by the modern British Army.Looking beyond the media headlines, it explores theconflicting interests of enforcing peace through a violentmeans, balancing global security with the needs ofvulnerable communities and the demands of the job on thepersonal lives of our troops.National Service DisplayCovering eight conflicts in 20 years, this new displayexplores the contribution of Britain’s post-war nationalservice conscripts as they moved from civilian to soldier.Personal stories of endless drilling and grueling inspectionsare contrasted with detail on how such a range of difficultcommitments sent these young men to far-flung corners ofthe world.The Making of Britain DisplayFrom foreign invasion to contests for the crown, fromcivil war at home to rebellion in the Colonies, this galleryinvestigates the Army’s role in creating and defending thenation state of Great Britain we know today.Korea 1950 – 53: The Cold War’s Hot WarMarking the 60th Anniversary since the outbreak of theKorean War, this new display examines the role of theBritish Army during the first and only UN war to date. Mixingpersonal objects and artefacts from the Museum’scollection with contemporary media reports, the display willexplore both the personal experience of soldiers and thefar-reaching legacy of the conflict.24 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


ExhibitionsThe Irish and France: ThreeCenturies of MilitaryThe National Museum of Ireland – DecorativeArts & History, Collins Barracks, Dublin 7As part of Ireland’s 2013 EU Presidency CulturalProgramme, the National Museum of Ireland inassociation with the French Embassy in Ireland is delightedto present ‘1689 - 2012, The Irish and France: ThreeCenturies of military relations’, an exhibition produced bythe Musée de l’Armée (Army Museum, Paris). This will bethe first exhibition launched as part of the Culture Connects– Ireland’s EU Cultural Programme 2013.This exhibition shows Irish and French militarycooperation since the 17th century. From the ‘Wild Geese’ tothe ‘First World War to Samuel Beckett’s time in the Frenchresistance, the exhibition retraces the history of the closerelations between the Irish and France.Covering the period 1689 to 2012, including the Irishregiments which fought for France in the 17th, 18th and 19thcenturies, it features material on the Wild Geese, whoserved their adopted country. Indeed, one of theirdescendants, Patrice MacMahon, became President of theThird French Republic in 1873. The exhibition also coversthe role of Irish men and women in World War I and WorldWar II – in particular Samuel Beckett’s involvement in theFrench resistance. The exhibition concludes with a panel onthe most recent cooperation between the French and Irisharmy in the EUFOR mission in Chad.Admission to the National Museum of Ireland is FreeOpen Tuesday – Saturday 10.00am – 5.00pmSunday 2.00pm – 5.00pmFor more information, contact: Maureen Gaule, MarketingDepartment, National Museum of Ireland, CollinsBarracksT: 01 648 6429 | M: 087 9031690| E: mgaule@museum.ieISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 25


ArticlesKOISO Ryohei andother Japanesepainters’ war recordpictures in theNetherlands EastIndiesIkuma Hirota,Curator of Kobe City MuseumIntroductionTo commemorate the 70thanniversary of the capitulation ofKalijati in the Netherlands East Indies,a remarkable special exhibition isbeing held at Museum Bronbeek inArnhem, The Netherlands. We can seewar iconography of the NetherlandsEast Indies in 1941–42. In particular,six large picture panels of Japanesewar art are exhibited with manyweapons in the gallery. This exhibitiontitled Indie at War in 1942: from Battleto Occupation - In commemoration ofthe 70th year since the Kalijaticapitulation can be seen until 8December 2012. After that, some ofthose will be displayed at the website,and according to the suggestion ofDrs. Pauljac Verhoeven, MuseumBronbeek director, the catalogue willbe issued around the 8 March 2013.Among them, the description ofJapanese attack will be expected.In this essay, I will discussJapanese war painters whose warrecords are displayed in MuseumBronbeek. In particular, KOISO Ryoheithe main Japanese artist of thisgallery will be also major theme here.26 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


ArticlesJapanese war pictures in wartimeand KOISO RyoheiKOISO Ryohei (1903–88), one of themost important western-style paintersin modern Japan, went to thebattlefield four times at the request ofthe Japanese Imperial Army and Navyat the time of the Sino-Japanese Warand Pacific War (1937–45), andproduced many war images like manyother famous Japanese painters. Hisworks related to war were shown tothe public in the Holy War ArtExhibition (Seisen-Bijutsuten) and theGreater East Asia War Art Exhibition(Daitoa-Senso-Bijutsuten). Hispaintings, Combat at Chinese Gate inNanjing and Soldiers and Horses (onindefinite loan to The NationalMuseum of Modern Art, Tokyo) wonthe Asahi Cultural Prize in 1939, andMarching in Niangzi Guan received the1st Imperial Japanese Academy Awardof Art in 1942.Other famous Japanese militaryserviceartists, FOUJITA Tsuguharu(1886–1968), MIYAMOTO Saburo(1905–74), MUKAI Junkichi (1901–95),NAKAMURA Kenichi (1895–1967) arewell known. In particular, FOUJITAstands at their pinnacle. Duringwartime, their impressive warpaintings went on a special touringexhibition (for example, the Holy WarArt Exhibition and the Greater EastAsia War Art Exhibition) in Tokyo,Osaka, Kyoto and other cities includingSeoul in Korea, Taipei in Taiwan,Xinjing in Manchuria, which werecolonies of Japan at the time, and waswell received. Many of them wereaware of the historical paintings ofNapoleonic France. In fact, there weremany outstanding works ofcomposition which depicted the war.However, after the defeat of Japan,the interpretation of the workscompletely changed. The word ‘warcrime’ was feared by these painters. Inaddition, they suffered that theirpictures helped to raise people'sfighting spirit. Therefore, images ofthe Japanese war were taboo. KOISO’sworks of war have been barelyexhibited and published, although hiswar paintings had received high praisein wartime. Especially, KOISO himselfdidn't wish for that, either. Forexample, in 1977, when his war recordpictures' publication was requested,he was quoted in a Japanese artmagazine, In my opinion, the time hasnot come yet. He would not talk abouthis war paintings until his death,except words translated as I have aresponsibility.KOISO’s works of warhave been barelyexhibited and published,although his warpaintings had receivedhigh praise in wartime.MIYAMOTO Saburo Surprise Attack ofNaval Paratroops at MenadoThis case of KOISO Ryohei is alsoapplicable to other painters whofollowed Japanese Imperial Army andNavy. The case of FOUJITA Tsuguharu,who had been condemned due to hiscooperation with the war, was anextremely serious problem. FOUJITAwas embarrassed by the Japanese artworld and he left Japan in 1949. Hebecame a naturalised citizen of Franceand he did not return to his mothercountry again. FOUJITA, who wasforced to change his life due to theJapanese war, died quietly inSwitzerland in 1968. Consequently, noone was designated as a war criminalin the Japanese art world. However,FOUJITA and his wife had both died sohis war paintings have never beenpublished. Those who want to publishthem are waiting for the expiration ofcopyright. In addition, since drawingmany war record paintings, MIYAMOTOSaburo said My alibi does not holdanymore after the war. I think that hehad resigned himself to be judged as awar criminal. In this way, corporationwith the Japanese Military (but it wasthe emperor’s function in war time)damaged their conscience after thewar. In that sense, the real end of thewar has not yet come for them.ISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 27


ArticlesThe discovery of wartime letters ofKOISO RyoheiIn the summer of 2007, interestinghistorical materials related to warpaintings were found. They were thewartime letters of KOISO Ryohei. Hewrote them to his painter friendUCHIDA Iwao (1900–53) who heldliberal views and who had refused therequest of military service due to hispoor physical health. KOISO andUCHIDA were graduates of Tokyo FineArts School and they had been friendssince school days. During World WarII, KOISO, who was one of the centralfigures of the art world through theproduction of Japanese war paintings,lived in the international port city,Kobe. On the other hand, UCHIDA,who didn’t have a good reputation withthe Imperial Army and Navy had beenevacuated to a local village inOkayama. However, they were bestfriends and they could talk aboutanything through establishment of thenew art group in the era of turbulence.In 2004, I planned a specialexhibition of UCHIDA Iwao tocommemorate 50 years after hisdeath. This exhibition was organized incollaboration with Mr. FUJII Shigeki,curator of Niimi city museum. Thepeaceful town of Niimi was theevacuation area of UCHIDA in wartime.And at that time, I became acquaintedwith his daughter who told me thatthere were letters from KOISO.However, they did not come out in2004. Then after three years, theKOISO letters were found in the houseof the eldest daughter of UCHIDA.There were 38 pieces, and I discovereda very important letter among them.In this letter, dated 31 December1944, KOISO Ryohei wrote about thesufferings of Japanese artists duringthe war. He said,There is no evidence that warpainting have a good direction. Wemust consider this problem. I thinkJapanese war pictures and pure artsare sick. And I understand the feelingsof those who blame the warpaintings…Everyone doesn’t knowwhat to do. Even if they know theycan’t do anything…Encouragement todraw war images is completelymeaningless. It has no effect… TheJapanese are suffering. Suffer more! Iwill suffer more! You will suffermore… and It’s my true feelings!However, you may feel as I feel, oursituation is not good now..This unexpected discovery was bignews in Japan. Because it might beacknowledged that KOISO wasopposed to the policies of theJapanese military that were promotingthe production of war paintings. And itwas very dangerous at that time.However, I think he had only slightpolitical intentions. More than that,KOISO was tired of making warpaintings because the suffering wasreflected in his writings. So, I want toKOISO Ryohei(Left)and MIYAMOTOSaburo(Right)talk about his serious suffering later.Incidentally, after the war, UCHIDAIwao attacked war paintings as theforefront of liberal artists group and headvocated the democratization of theJapanese art world. He was a friend ofFujita, but he never allowed the warrecord art. Therefore, many peoplethink that UCHIDA cornered FOUJITATsuguharu, MIYAMOTO Saburo andother artists. The truth is a mystery.However, in the turmoil of post-warJapan, that artists were confused is aclear fact. In order to reveal it, I willclear up the truth of their wartime. Iwould like to discuss the details here,and I believe that it also lead to theelucidation of the suffering of KOISORyohei.28 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


ArticlesKOISO ’s war record pictures in theNetherlands East IndiesIn March 1942, KOISO Ryohei waselected as military-service painter.KOISO’s third military servicedestination was Indonesia. Accordingto Japanese Imperial Army’sdocuments at that time, 15 otherpainters were also dispatched to thebattlefields including FOUJITA andMIYAMOTO. KOISO stayed in Bataviaon Java Island from May to July.The theme given to KOISO Ryoheiwas the ceasefire meeting betweenthe Japanese Army and the RoyalNetherlands Indies Army. In order topaint the monumental war recordpainting, he drew many roughsketches. Among them, there is on oilsketch of IMAMURA Hitosi (SupremeCommander of the Imperial JapaneseArmy) holding a samurai sword in hishand. Furthermore, KOISO went to aprisoner of war camp and drew Dutchofficers and politicians. In these oilsketches, Hein ter Poorten(Commander of the Royal NetherlandsIndies Army) and Tjarda vanStarkenborgh Stachouwer (Governor-General of the Netherlands EastIndies) are drawn realistically. Theartistic excellence of KOISO is clear inthese portraits.After returning to Japan, hefinished drawing the meeting scene ofthe Dutch troops and the surrender atKarijati airport on the island of Java.This painting, Meeting at Karijati, Java(on indefinite loan to The NationalMuseum of Modern Art, Tokyo) isfamous and spectacular. This hugepainting is representative of his warpaintings. First of all, this painting hasexcellent composition, an orderlyatmosphere dominates the picture. Inthis scene many people are gathered,proper perspective has been usedmost effectively by KOISO. Second, theopen doors at the front intentionallycreat a theatrical effect. Meanwhile,the reporters on the right side werethe newspaper correspondents.Through recent research, it wasdiscoverd KOISO was referring to theMainichi Shimbun news photographs.KOISO, who wasn’t at the meeting,The realism of thispainting is wonderfuland his realisticbrushwork will remain inthe history of Japanesemodern art.painted this monumental war recordpicture based on his drawings andnews photos. The realism of thispainting is wonderful and his realisticbrushwork will remain in the history ofJapanese modern art.However, the quality of KOISO’swartime art went down after this work.Because of the severe war situation,production multiplied and adequatepreparation for artists becameimpossible. Of course, this adversecondition was not limited to him, butKOISO, who had a strong commitmentto realism, was especially damaged.After that, he only went once to Burmaand Thailand, therefore, the other warrecord paintings were painted withoutgoing to actual spots and sketchingofficers and soldiers directly. Suchpoor working conditions robbed him ofhis excellent realism, which annoyedhim greatly. This irritation lead to hisnotable letter criticizing war recordpaintings.OISO Ryohei , Meeting at Karijati, JavaISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 29


ArticlesYOSHIOKA Kenji, MIYAMOTO Saburo,TSURUTA Goro, and other Japanesepainters’ war picturesYOSHIOKA Kenji (1906–90) waswith KOISO Ryohei most of the trip. Hewas a Japanese-style painter unlikeWestern-style painters. Usually,Japanese traditional painting was notsuitable for realistic representation,but YOSHIOKA had a superiordescriptive power. He did in-depthinvestigations into the Dutch militaryarmored vehicles and weapons and hedrew many sketches. One of them isshown as a picture panel in theexhibition at Museum Bronbeek. Aftersuch efforts, he completed Stillnessafter Bombing west of Karijati Airfield,Java (on indefinite loan to The NationalMuseum of Modern Art, Tokyo) thathas a realism equal to the westenstylepainter’s works.MIYAMOTO Saburo is, alongsideFOUIJITA and KOISO, a very importantJapanese war artist and they are, inmy opinion, the big three. FOUJITA,who stood at the top did not draw anypictures about the Netherlands EastIndies. Therefore, at this point,MIYAMOTO and KOISO are the top two.In response to the request of the Navy,MIYAMOTO went to Celebes,Indonesia. The theme imposed on himwas the occupation of the oil refineryby paratroops. After a number oftrials, he painted Surprise Attack onNaval Paratroopers at Menado (onindefinite loan to The NationalMuseum of Modern Art, Tokyo), one ofhis masterpieces, which is about threemetres long. The composition of thiswork is magnificent and he has putred flowers next to the corpse of theDutch soldier. It should be noted thatthe mental state of these wartimepainters are not well known.TSURUTA Goro (1890–1969), whobecame famous for his war paintings,went to Sumatra. In response to arequest from the Army, he alsopainted the activities of parachutetroops in his large-scale JapaneseParatroopers Descending onPalembang (on indefinite loan to TheNational Museum of Modern Art,Tokyo). This picture has a vivid bluesky which was rare at that time.However, the gestures of theparatroopers are a bit awkward eventhough he also drew many sketches.There is a struggle to representrealism here. In addition, KAWABATAMinoru (1911–2001) drew The BorneoCampaign (on indefinite loan to TheNational Museum of Modern Art,Tokyo), and ARIOKA Ichiro (1900–66)YOSHIOKA KenjiStillness after Bombingat west of Karijati Airfield, JavaTSURUTA Goro Japanese ParatroopsDescending on Palembangdrew Sea Battle of Java (on indefiniteloan to The National Museum ofModern Art, Tokyo). They met withpublic approval at the Greater EastAsia War Art Exhibition (Daitoa-Senso-Bijutsuten) in 1942 and 1943. However,considering things from a post-warpoint of view, it was a tragedy that theyreached their peak as painters duringWorld War II.30 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


ArticlesUntil now, many war paintingshave been missing. Some of them mayhave been burned in air raids whileothers were possibly hidden. Theclarification of these details and reevaluationof Japanese war picturesare expected. Because the subjectmatter doesn’t exceed the splendorand brilliance of excellent art. Ofcourse, this evaluation of art history isdifferent from praise of Japaneseaggressive war. Needless to say, inorder to promote the research and thestudy of art history, mutualunderstanding between Japan and theformer belligerent countries are veryimportant. At this point, the efforts ofthe staff at Museum Bronbeek andother collaborators (Drs. PauljacVerhoeven, Mrs. Dr. K. Maekawa, Drs.H. van den Akker and Drs. M.J.Lohnstein) are certainly worthy ofadmiration, even if this exhibitionsimply looks back on the history withJapanese war record pictures.Until now, many warpaintings have beenmissing. Some of themmay have been burnedin air raids while otherswere possibly hiddenARIOKA Ichiro Sea Battle of JavaInformation:Museum BronbeekVelperweg 1476824 MB Arnhem, The NetherlandsISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 31


ArticlesAn Anglo-Portuguese souvenirRuth Rhynas BrownThe Museu Historico Nacional ofBrazil in Rio da Janeiro has a finecollection of historic artillery, displayedin a very picturesque courtyard in theheart of the building. Among theinteresting pieces is an intriguingbronze gun, cast in London forPortuguese service. It is a 24-pounderof 5½ feet in length, weighing 11hundredweight 3 quarters and 14pounds, 1330 pounds in all. It followsthe general pattern of contemporaryEnglish guns with the elevating screwunder the cascable. It has the arms ofthe Kingdom of Portugal in a ratherrococo surround on the reinforce,elaborately fishy dolphins with longtails and the arms of the Marquis ofPombal as Count of Oeiras on thechase. It has the inscription R.GILPINFECIT.1766 along the basering, withW.WHITTINGTON stamped underneath.Portugal has a long tradition ofgunfounding, both in the homelands,centred round the Lisbon, and itsoverseas territories in Asia, Africa andBrazil. There are several othercannons in the Museum which werecast in the Lisbon arsenal byBartolomeu Da Costa in the 1760s.However, by the 18th century, Portugalbegan looking abroad to fulfil all itsdemands for bronze artillery. TheMuseum in Rio has a number of suchguns, including three beautifulspecimens by the Genoese gunfounderRocca and a pair of guns cast in Dutchfoundries. The gunfounders werebadly affected by the great earthquakeof 1755 which devastated Lisbon andits buildings and institutions. Attemptswere made to reinvigorate Portugal’sgunfounding industry with newtechnologies and personnel. CharlesDumouriez, a French officer sent on adiplomatic mission to the Portuguesecourt, commented unflatteringly onthe state of the artillery, describing thecannon as ‘ill made and clumsy’. Hethen went on to describe how ‘twoexcellent founders, brought up underthe famous Maritz’ were engaged ;‘but the prevailing prejudice againstforeigners has got the better of actualwant, and, in consequence of illtreatment, they have been obliged todesert from the service.’ He went on todescribe the state of the artillery train:‘There are no field pieces, nor anysmall cannon, to accompany theinfantry; which would be of thegreatest use in such a country asPortugal, where there ls a post atevery step’. He also noted that two ofthe three commanding officers wereBritish (Dumouriez 1797: 106).In this period, the prime ministerof Portugal was the Count of Oeiras ,later Marquis of Pombal. As a youngman he had been the envoy to theCourt of St James in London and thissame position was, in 1766, held byanother member of the de Mellofamily. Portugal and England had longbeen allies, as recently as during theSeven Years War between 1756 and1763. In addition to such military ties,the two countries had long tradinglinks as well. A complete train ofartillery – bronze guns, howitzers andmortars, with their carriages andammunition – were ordered inEngland from the Southwarkgunfounder, Richard Gilpin.In the mid-1760s there were onlytwo active gunfounders of bronzeordnance in England. Andrew Schalchin Woolwich was refusing to co-operatewith the Ordnance Board, leaving justWilliam Bowen and Richard Gilpin.Richard Gilpin of Stoney Street,Southwark, had supplied brass guns,mortars and howitzers to the Board ofOrdnance and the East India Companysince 1751. Within a few years hewould also cast prestigious guns forthe Ordnance intended for gifts for theBey of Morocco, and the young Princeof Wales (Brown 2002; 2004; 2010).Many of his guns have survived andcan be found in collections all roundthe world.The guns for Portugal were castthrough 1765 and 1766. Although theywere not an official gift from theBritish government, the Board ofOrdnance gave them some help andassistance, such as allowing them tobe proofed at Woolwich: ‘By theSurveyor General Ordered that theBrass ordnance Cast by Mr Gilpin forthe King of Portugal be proved atWoolwich on Tuesday next, and thatthe Proof Masters do attend , and allthe Persons concerned have Notice’(WO 47/66, 70v ;WO 51/232, 104r; WO51/232, 114v-5r). As well as the guns,the shot and shells provided byStephen Remnant were proofed at theRoyal Laboratory in Woolwich (WO47/67, 131r).In January 1766, De Mello, thePortuguese envoy, asked permission32 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


ArticlesPortugal has a longtradition of gunfounding,both in the homelands,centred round theLisbon, and its overseasterritories in Asia, Africaand Brazil.for carriages to be provided for brassguns, howitzers and mortar beds andpaid from Ordnance funds. ThomasHartwell the Ordnance modeller wentto visit the carpenter and made somecomments in March. He surveyed thecarriages and mortar beds beingmade by Thomas Peace – ‘timber forthe most part good, but some timbercondemned for defects. Feels thatPeace’s men not up to the moredifficult pieces’ – fixing the howitzersto their carriages, and suggested acarpenter and a smith from the Towerbe sent, to be charged to thePortuguese. He was also concernedthat the mortar beds should not befinished till the wood became‘something dryer, otherwise theTimber will shrink from the woodwork,and become loose’. It was agreed thatthe guns and mortars would be takento the Tower for fitting (WO 47/67,149v, 150r).Have got this arranged, De Mellothen asked that the, ‘Arms of Portugalmay be engraved upon the guns in thesame manner as on those for HisMajesty which he will pay for’. Thiswas also agreed and the arms can beseen today and are very nicelymodelled and chastened indeed.The Comptroller of the RoyalLaboratory still had some questions.He needed to know whether the shellsand shot were to be packed in boxesand the tin cases to be filled with shotfirst before packing (WO 47/67, 170v-1r). In March 1766 the Portugueseenvoy replied that he ‘desires the tincases filled with their shot and fixed totheir wooden bottoms, but to have noISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 33


Articlesflannel cartridges either spare or filledto accompany them. Also that the TinCases filled and fixed to their woodenbottoms may be packed upon thesame manner as they are for theservice of His Britannic Majesty butthe shot and shells need not bepacked in boxes’ (WO 47/67, 175v).Finally, in September, the gunswith their nicely engraved arms, theircarriages, and shot were ready to setoff on their journey.Why would Portugal need such anartillery train? In addition in the courseof the worldwide Seven Years War,Spain had taken advantage of theinternational turmoil to invadePortugal, capturing Almeida in 1762.In 1766 the Portuguese sent out amilitary expedition to help establishcontrol of the mines in the Rio Negroarea of Brazil. The gun may have beenout in connection with this or mayhave gone out later when thePortuguese royal family went intoexiled in Brazil in 1807. No otherexamples from the artillery train seemto have survived; perhaps they aresitting unrecognized. One finalmystery is the identity of W.Whittington whose name is stampedon the underneath of the gun. Thelikeliest contender is WilliamWhittington whitesmith of Wappingwho may have arranged the shippingof the train.BibliographyBrown R R 2002 ‘Protecting Gibraltar:George III’s presents to the Emperor ofMorocco’. Journal of the OrdnanceSociety 14: 65–72.Brown R R 2004 ‘Taming the Tigers:an East India Company gun fromMuseum Bronbeek, Arnhem. Journalof the Ordnance Society 16.Brown R R 2010 ‘”For the instructionand amusement”: guns for George,Prince of Wales’. ICOMAM Magazine 4:‘http://www.klmmra.be/icomam/icomam/magazine/issue04.pdfDumouriez Charles François duPérier 1797 Account of Portugal, as itAppeared in 1766. London34 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


ArticlesGunpowder makingin MaltaRobert D SmithOn a visit to the Palace Armoury inMalta some years ago I had theopportunity to visit one of the manysmall gunpowder-making factories onthe island. These small factories makethe gunpowder from which thefireworks are made that are such afeature of the island throughout thesummer months. The saltpetre andsulphur are bought in but the charcoalwas made on site from vine wood.Above: The entrance to the site.Below: The site.ISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 35


ArticlesAbove: The saltpetre is purchased ready,made as is the sulphur.Below: The small mill containing thewheel that grinds the powder.Above: Michael Stroud and the gunpowdermaker.Below: The mill wheel.The ingredients are mixed and groundup by a vertical wheel in a small millbefore being wetted and forcedthrough a sieve to make cornedpowder. Not long after my visit \ilearned that this small factory hadsuccumbed to the usual fate ofgunpowder factories and had beendestroyed by an explosion – luckily noonewas hurt. This small-scalemanufacture must have been verysimilar to gunpowder mills of the preindustrialperiod in Europe.36 MAGAZINE ISSUE 10


ArticlesAbove: The finely ground powder is wettedand made into corns..Above: A selection of sieves.This small-scalemanufacture must havebeen very similar togunpowder mills of thepre-industrial period inEurope.Above: A sieve through which the wettedpowder is pushed to form small corns.Above: The finished powder.ISSUE 10 MAGAZINE 37

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