Why marine and coastal biologicaldiversity is importantIt all started in the sea; the vast world ocean isthe origin of life on Earth. Moreover, to thisday, ‘new’ and sometimes apparently impossiblelife forms are discovered in the sea. Only,they are neither new nor impossible. ong>Theong>y justare, and they reflect the amazing diversity oflife on this blue planet. If anything, they demonstrateour still rather big lack of knowledgeof the ocean and the scope of its life.To date, an estimated 1.7 million specieshave been identified, but the exact number ofthe existing species is still unknown. Estimatesvary from a low of 5 million to a high of 100million. Seas cover over 70 per cent of the surfaceof Earth, but only about 15 per cent –some 250,000 – of the total number of knownplant and animal species are found there. Speciesliving on land, or in the ocean and thecoastal zone, are unique, have unique roles,and provide unique resources and services.Marine and coastal habitats cannot take theplace of forests or grasslands. Consequently,conservation and sustainable use of marineand coastal living organisms is just as crucialas conservation and use of species in a forestHumpback whales, majestic marine giants.or another terrestrialenvironment.Struggle tosurvideong>Theong> seas harbourall fromthe very smallestto the very largestof organisms;from single-cellalgae to60 metres longkelp plants;from microscopiczooplanktonto giant whales.Animals andplants living in Micro algae (diatoms), the marinemicrocosm and basis for marine life.the sea areamazingly adapted for surviving in their particularunderwater environment. That environmentcould be a warm tropical sea, theconstant coldness of the Polar regions, or thevariations of a northernbrackish-water sea or an estuaryanywhere in the world.It could be the depth of theocean abysses or the nearshoreshallows of a tidal sea.It could be the relatively barrenopen ocean or nutrientrichcoastal strips. Life isfound at depths of over11,000 metres and in thevery surface of the water inareas close to land. Actually,almost 60 per cent of theEarth’s surface are seabed1~
thematic areas and cross-cutting issues relevantto all areas – covered by the ong>Conventionong>.It is a multidisciplinary body, open toparticipation by all Parties, and comprisinggovernment representatives competent in allrelevant fields of expertise. Other subsidiarybodies established under the COP includethe Panel of Experts on Access and BenefitSharing, and the Intersessional Open-endedWorking Group on Article 8 j and RelatedProvision.• ong>Theong> ong>Conventionong> has established a FinancialMechanism to provide funds to helpdeveloping countries achieve its objectives.ong>Theong> mechanism is operated by the GlobalEnvironment Facility (GEF) under theguidance of the COP.• ong>Theong> ong>Conventionong> has also established a Secretariat.ong>Theong> role of the Secretariat of theong>Conventionong> is to arrange and service meetingsof the COP; assume duties assignedby potential protocols; prepare reports; andco-ordinate with other international relevantbodies. ong>Theong> main function of the Secretariatin relation to the ong>Jakartaong> ong>Mandateong>is to promote the implementation of identifiedspecific activities and to perform anoverall co-ordination role.• ong>Theong> ong>Conventionong> has a bottom-up approach,is needs-driven and nationallydriven. It should be constructed step bystep. It has national and Clearing-HouseMechanism (CHM) focal points, as well asfocal points in relevant organizations. Eachfocal point should develop its own supportingnetwork. ong>Theong> ong>Conventionong>’s BiodiversityCHM is a ’network of networks’.• ong>Theong> CHM is an open and decentralized informationand co-operation network inprogress. ong>Theong> objective of this network ofco-operating parties and partners is totranslate the goals of partnership and cooperationinto action. It aims to promoteand facilitate scientific and technical co-operationfor the implementation of the ong>Conventionong>by developing and strengtheningnational capabilities through human resourcedevelopment and institution-building;facilitating the transfer of technology;and promoting the establishment of jointresearch programmes and ventures for thedevelopment of relevant technologies.5~
ong>Jakartaong> ong>Mandateong> – from consensus towork programmeong>Theong> pressure on coastal and marine environmentsworld-wide was highlighted in the comprehensiveGlobal Biodiversity Assessment,commissioned by UNEP, funded by the GlobalEnvironment Facility (GEF), and presentedto the COP meeting in Jarkarta in 1995.That meeting also comprised a meeting ofMinisters. In their Statement they referred tothe new global consensus on marine andcoastal biological diversity as the ong>Jakartaong>ong>Mandateong> on Marine and Coastal BiologicalDiversity.ong>Theong> Ministers reaffirmed that ‘there is acritical need for the COP to address the conservationand sustainable use of marine andcoastal biological diversity, and urge Parties toinitiate immediate action to implement the decisionsadopted on this issue.’ In that context,the Ministers welcomed ‘the declaration by theCOP of the new global consensus on the importanceof marine and coastal diversity’.In the decision taken by the COP at itsmeeting in Jarkarta, a work programme formarine and coastal biological diversity wascalled for. Following this decision (II/10), aRoster of Experts on Marine and CoastalBiological Diversity was established. On thebasis of their work and recommendations bythe experts, a work programme was subsequentlyelaborated.At the COP meeting in Bratislava in 1998,the Parties adopted a Decision (IV/5) on conservationand sustainable use of marine andcoastal biological diversity, including a MultiyearProgramme of Work on Marine andCoastal Biological Diversity. ong>Theong> work programmeis focused on five thematic issues,which reflect those identified in the ong>Jakartaong> Decisionand Ministerial Statement. In addition,this Decision also addresses coral reefs andSmall Island Developing States.ong>Theong> purpose of the work programme is tofacilitate the assist the implementation of theong>Jakartaong> ong>Mandateong>. It is to be promoted and coordinatedby the Secretariat of the ong>Conventionong>,and is founded on six basic principles:• ong>Theong> ecosystem approach;• ong>Theong> precautionary principle;• ong>Theong> importance of science;• That full use should be made of theroster of experts;• ong>Theong> involvement of local and indigenouscommunities (traditional knowledge); and• Three levels – national, regional andglobal – of programme implementation.ong>Theong> work also interacts with a number ofother programme activities within the Conven-~ 6
tion, the ones most relevant to the ong>Jakartaong>ong>Mandateong> being:• Biological diversity indicators;• Species, taxonomy and systematics;• Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI);• Incentive measures;• Environmental impact assessment;• Sustainable use;• Sustainable tourism.Implementation should primarily take place atnational and local levels. It should be integratedinto the national biodiversity strategies, plansand programmes in order to promote the conservationand sustainable use of marine and coastalbiological diversity.ong>Theong> global and regional levels are also important.International organizations and agreementsshould be encouraged to implement thework programme on marine and coastal biologicaldiversity within their own work. ong>Theong>seorganizations include, inter alia,• UN Environment Programme (UNEP),including the Global Programme of Actionfor the Protection of the Marine Environmentfrom Land-based Activities (GPA),and Global International Waters Assessment(GIWA);• UN Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO);• Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission(IOC) of UNESCO;• UN International Maritime Organization(IMO);• ong>Conventionong> on Wetlands (Ramsar ong>Conventionong>);• ong>Conventionong> on Migratory Species(Bonn ong>Conventionong>);• ong>Conventionong> on International Trade inEndangered Species of Wild Fauna andFlora, (CITES);• World Heritage ong>Conventionong>.Regional organizations, bodies and agreementsshould be invited to co-ordinate activitiesrelevant to the work programme. ong>Theong>seinclude, for example,• UNEP Regional Seas ong>Conventionong>s andAction Programmes (e.g., Mediterranean,Carribean, South East Pacific ActionPlans);• Other regional conventions and actionprogrammes (for the North-east Atlantic,the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea, etc.).7~Mangrove forest, Biak Island, Indonesia.
ong>Theong> ong>Jakartaong> ong>Mandateong> Work Programmeong>Theong> five key programme elements of theong>Jakartaong> ong>Mandateong> Work Programme are:• Integrated marine and coastal areamanagement (IMCAM);• Marine and coastal living resources(MCLR);• Marine and coastal protected areas(MCPA);• Mariculture;• Alien species and genotypes.In addition, a general element was identifiedencompassing the coordinating role of the Secretariat,the collaborative linkages required,and the effective use of experts.Local fishermen collecting shellfish, Indonesia.Integrated marine and coastalarea management (IMCAM)Generally, we manage resources sector-by-sector. However,such sectoral approaches to the management ofmarine and coastal resources have generally not resultedin sustainable development in the areas and regions concerned.Consequently, taking measures sector-by-sectorhas not either enhanced the conservation and sustainableuse of marine and coastal biological diversity.New systems-oriented models that move plannersand decision-makers toward management systems builton multiple-use, and precautionary and ecosystems approaches,are urgently needed to reverse the negativetrends. It is needed to put development on an ecologicallysustainable path. A holistic management approach,focusing on ecosystem processes, is needed for propermanagement of marine and coastal biological diversity.For effective conservation and sustainable use of marineand coastal biological diversity, Integrated Marineand Coastal Area Management (IMCAM) needs to bewidely adopted and implemented.IMCAM involves comprehensive assessments, settingof objectives, planning and management of marine andcoastal areas for all relevant economic and social sectors.It is a participatory process of combining all aspectsof the physical, biological and human componentsof the marine and coastal areas within a single managementframework. It involves all stakeholders - decisionmakersin the public and private sectors; resourceowners and users; managers and users; non-governmentalorganisations and the general public.At the ong>Jakartaong> meeting, the COP decided to encouragethe use of IMCAM as the most suitable frameworkfor addressing the impact of human activities on marineand coastal biological diversity and for promoting conservationand sustainable use of these resources.Countries are recommended to establish and/orstrengthen institutions, administrations and legislationfor the development of integrated management ofmarine and coastal ecosystems. It was also pointed outthat activities like construction and mining in coastalareas, mariculture, mangrove management, tourism,recreation, fishing and other land-based activities, areparticularly important sectoral activities to be dealtwith within an IMCAM framework.~ 8
Urban livingon the coastof AcapulcoMexico.Objectives and activitiesObjective1:Review existing instruments relevant to IMCAM andtheir implication for the implementation of the ong>Conventionong>.Activities:• Identify existing mechanisms and instruments relevantto IMCAM;• Identify focal points for implementation of IMCAMat different levels;• Gather, compare and analyse information providedby the focal points;• Convene meetings involving representatives of stakeholdersat different levels.Objective 2:Promote the development and implementation of IM-CAM at the local, national and regional level.Activities:• Promote within the framework of IMCAM the integrationof biological diversity concerns in all socioeconomicsectors adversely impacting the marineand coastal environments;• Promote the identification or establishment of subregional,regional or global processes for developingadvice on the application of IMCAM and issues identifiedunder the operational objective;• Promote adequate protection of areas important forreproduction such as spawning and nursery areas andrestoration of such areas and other important habitatsfor marine living resources;• Promote action to reduce and control sea-basedsources of pollution;• Assist the development of national and regionalcapacity building;• Provide information on relevant legal and institutionalissues, having regard to UNCLOS and other internationaland regional agreements;• Assist in the development of appropriate educationand public awareness programmes at all levels;• Provide guidance on maintenance and wider applicationof local and traditional knowledge.9~
Objective 3:Develop guidelines for ecosystem evaluation andassessment (including indicators).Activities:• Promote the development of sets of indicators onwhich to base decision-making; and convene regionalworkshops to help select key indicators;• Identify existing organizations and initiatives;• Promote the identification of key habitats for marineliving resources on a regional basis, with a view tofurther develop policies for action to prevent physicalalteration and destruction of these habitats, andpursue restoration of degraded habitats, including,inter alia, coral reef systems;• Promote the establishment or strengthening ofmechanisms for research, monitoring and assessmentof marine and coastal ecosystems and their living resources;• Promote exchange of information and experienceusing the clearing-house mechanism and otherappropriate mechanisms;• Collaborate with relevant organisations in thepreparation of guidelines.Marine and coastal living resourcesFish and shellfish provide 5-10 per cent of the world’sfood supply, and 10-20 per cent of the world’s protein.Commercial or large-scale fishing provides more than90 per cent of the global catch of living marine resources.Traditional and artisanal fisheries are widespreadalong the coasts in several regions of the worldand particularly in many developing countries. A greatvariety of species is harvested within these fisheries.ong>Theong>y provide between 40 and 100 per cent of the animalprotein in the food of people in tropical developingcountries. However, many of the world’s fishery resourcesare already over-exploited and others arefacing the danger of depletion. In addition, other livingresources – such as mangrove, corals and speciesamenable to bio-prospecting – are subject to or underthreat of over-exploitation.ong>Theong> COP and SBSTTA have repeatedly emphasizedthat the ecosystem approach should be the guidingprinciple and provide the primary framework for actionto achieve conservation and sustainable use of marineand coastal living resources. This augments the traditionalmono-species approach. In practice it meansthat the conservation and sustainable use of biologicaldiversity should be addressed in a holistic manner,including biological diversity considerations as well associo-economic and cultural factors.~ 10
Objectives and activitiesObjective 1:Promote ecosystem approaches to the sustainableuse of marine and coastal living resources.Activities:• Develop collaborative links with relevant organisationsand institutions;• Promote exchange of information and experienceusing appropriate mechanisms;• Promote identification and development of ecosystemapproaches compatible with the sustainableuse of marine and coastal living resources;• Promote identification both of components of ecosystemswhich are critical to the functioning of theecosystem and of key threats;• Promote capacity-building at local, national and regionallevels, including local and traditional knowledge;• Carry out a study on the effects of stock enhancementon marine and coastal biological diversity atthe species and genetic levels.Objective 2:Make information on marine and coastal genetic resources,including bio-prospecting, available to Parties.Activities:• Explore ways to expand the knowledge base onwhich to make informed and appropriate decisionsabout how this area might be managed in accordancewith the objectives of the ong>Conventionong>.Marine and coastal protectedareasNetworks of marine and coastal protected areas, aswell as other conservation areas such as BiosphereReserves, provide important tools for conservation,management and sustainable use of marine and coastalbiological diversity and resources. ong>Theong> establishment ofprotected marine and coastal areas is, however, significantlylagging behind similar efforts in the terrestrialenvironmentong>Theong> establishment of marine and coastal protectedareas is successful only if these areas are set up andmanaged as part of broader programs that provide forthe management of all uses of the marine and coastalarea and adjacent land. Thus, national and regional representativesystems of marine and coastal protectedMacro algae (kelp forest), California.11~
Tropical coast of the Island of La Digue, Seychelles.Objectives and activitiesareas should be established to comprise completeecosystems or habitats to as large an extent as possible.ong>Theong>se should, in turn, be integrated with nationalpolicies and mechanisms for IMCAM. ong>Theong> establishmentof large, multiple-use marine and coastal protectedareas are a major step towards achieving integratedmarine and coastal area management. Smaller, oftencommunity-based reserves also need to include managementof land-based activities that have an impact onthe viability of the protected area. To be effective, systemsfor IMCAM should include the establishment andmanagement of marine and coastal protected areas asan integral component. Regarding priority areas to beselected as protected areas, the COP has expressedthe view that critical habitats for living marine resourcesshould be an important criterion for the identificationof marine and coastal protected areas. It hasalso been emphasized that conservation measuresshould focus on the protection of ecosystem functioning,in addition to protecting specific stocks or species.Objective 1:Facilitate research and monitoring activities on thevalue and effects of marine and coastal protected areasor similar restricted management areas on sustainableuse of marine and coastal living resources.Activities:• Collaborate with relevant organizations in thepreparation of project proposals;• Work with relevant organizations to identify pilotprojects;• Conduct a desk study to gather and assimilateinformation;• Identify linkages between conservation and sustainableuse;• Facilitate for Parties, countries or international/regional organizations to conduct research on theeffects of marine and coastal protected or closedareas on population size and dynamics, subject tonational legislation.~ 12
Objective 2:Develop criteria for the establishment and managementof marine and coastal protected areas.Activities:• Compile research findings on aspects of marine andcoastal protected areas relevant to their selection,design, establishment and management;• Assist in developing criteria for selection of marineand coastal protected areas, where critical habitatsfor marine living resources should be one importantcriterion;• Use the clearing-house mechanism to assist the exchangeof information on research, managementissues and problems (including incentive measures)between marine protected area managers, to facilitatecontinuous improvement in management effectivenessacross the global network of marine protectedareas.• Assist in the development of national and regionalcapacity-building, provide information on relevantlegal and institutional issues, assist the developmentof appropriate education and public awarenessprogrammes at all levels, and provide guidance onmaintenance and wider application of local and traditionalknowledge.MaricultureMariculture is the commercial farming of fish, shellfish,molluscs and plants in saltwater. It corresponds toabout 11 per cent of total marine production (11 milliontonnes in 1987), but in some countries up to 60per cent of the animal protein in food comes fromfarmed marine organisms. Production is growingannually at a rate of 5-7 per cent as more and morespecies are brought into cultivation.On the one hand, mariculture holds promises forsustainable production of protein-rich food productsand for sustainable economic development in manylocal communities.On the other hand, however, large-scale industrialmariculture poses a number of significant threats tomarine and coastal diversity. ong>Theong>se threats includelarge-scale destruction and deterioration of naturalhabitats; emissions of nutrients and organic materialcausing eutrophication and oxygen deficiency; leakageof antibiotics in wastes; releases of individuals whichmay interact genetically and ecologically with wildpopulations; accidental releases of alien or geneticallymodified organisms; transmission of diseases to wildstocks; and displacement of local and indigenouscommunities.Salmon farming, Norway.13~
In order to avoid or minimize negative impacts ofmariculture, COP has made a number of recommendations,including:• Assessments should be conducted and a monitoringprogramme established in any decision to go aheadwith an introduction;• Preference should be given to the use of localspecies;• ong>Theong> development of techniques, which ensure morecomplete containment, should be encouraged;• Owing to the difficulties of containment, any introductionof alien species or products of selectivebreeding should be conducted in accordance withthe precautionary principle.Oyster cultivation on the Atlantic coast of France.Objectives and activitiesObjective:Assess the consequences of mariculture for marineand coastal area biological diversity and promote techniquesto minimize adverse impacts.Activities:• Promote guidance on criteria, methods and techniquesto avoid the adverse effects of maricultureand also subsequent stock enhancement on marineand coastal biological diversity and enhance thepositive effects of mariculture on marine andcoastal productivity;• Collect and disseminate information, data, literatureand bibliography relevant to the operational objectiveand best practice of successful sustainablemariculture, including the use of local species whereappropriate;• Evaluate the current state of scientific and technologicalknowledge on effects of mariculture on marineand coastal biological diversity.Components of biological diversity, including species,genetic strains, and mixed genetic stocks that are notnative to an area, are known as ‘alien’ and may havesignificant irreversible and negative effects on marineand coastal biological diversity. ong>Theong>re are already examplesof serious direct and often irreversible negativeeffects of alien species on marine ecosystems, whichhinder the conservation and sustainable use of marineand coastal biological diversity.It is generally very difficult, in fact almost impossible,to eradicate or eliminate alien species once they havebeen established in a new environment. Consequently,the most effective strategy to limit the effects on biologicaldiversity is to prevent the introduction of alienspecies. Implementation of strict environmental impactassessments prior to all intentional introductions isone important tool for managementt.One must also distinguish between intentional andunintentional introductions. Sources of non-intentionalintroductions include discharges of ballast water fromships; escapees from mariculture; organisms associatedwith species introduced intentionally; and unauthorizedreleases by the public. Introductions resultingfrom the building of waterways connecting previouslyseparated water bodies (e.g. the Suez Canal) is a spe-~ 14 Alien species and genotypes
cial case. Intentional introductions occur through activitiessuch as mariculture, including marine ranching;release of hatchery-spawned organisms for the purposeof strengthening/enhancing wild populations; andindividuals resulting from the interbreeding of differentgenetic stocks.ong>Theong> potential problems caused by introductionswere recognized at an early stage and included in thetext of the ong>Conventionong> (paragraphs g and h of Article8). Contracting Parties should:• establish or maintain means to regulate, manage orcontrol the risks associated with the use and releaseof living modified organisms resulting frombiotechnology which are likely to have adverseenvironmental impacts that could affect the conservationand sustainable use of biological diversity,taking also into account the risks to human health;• prevent the introduction of, control or eradicatethose alien species which threaten ecosystems, habitatsor species.• Evaluate the information on the effectiveness ofefforts to prevent the introduction of, and to controland eradicate, those alien species which maythreaten ecosystems, habitats or species;• Identify means to support capacity-building in developingcountries to strengthen their ability to conductwork related to alien species.Objective 3:Establish an ‘incident list’ of introductions of alienspecies and genotypes through the national reportingprocess and any other appropriate means.Activities:• Distil references of incidents from the nationalreports and other appropriate sources;• Make information available through the clearinghousemechanism or other appropriate mechanisms.Objectives and activitiesObjective 1:Achieve better understanding of the causes and impactsof introductions of alien species and genotypesand the impact of such introductions on biologicaldiversity.Activities:• Analyse and disseminate information, data and casestudies;• Develop collaboration with relevant organisations;• Ensure exchange of information and experienceusing appropriate mechanisms.Objective 2:Identify gaps in existing and proposed legal instruments,guidelines and procedures; and collect informationon national and international actions addressingthe problem of alien species and genotypes.Activities:• Request views and information from Parties,countries and other bodies;• Analyse the information for the purpose of identifyinggaps in legal instruments, guidelines andprocedures;Americancomb jelly,an invasivespecies in e.g.the Black Sea.15~
Work programme tools ...... a roster of experts on marine andcoastal biological diversity. ong>Theong> expertson the roster will contribute tofurther development of scientific, technologicaland socio-economic issues, includingspecific elements of nationalpolicies on marine and coastal biologicaldiversity;... a database of initiatives on programmeelements, with special emphasison integrated marine andcoastal area management, will be establishedto inform on relevant initiatives,promote exchange of informationand experiences among Parties andstrengthen co-operation with relevantorganizations and bodies;... memoranda of co-operation will besigned to formally agree on commonoperational objectives at the Secretariatlevel, in order to promote synergy inthe implementation of the respectiveprogramme.... ad hoc technical expert groups will beestablished to review proposals on researchand monitoring projects on thevalue and effects of marine and coastalprotected areas. ong>Theong>y will identify thelinkages between conservation and sustainableuse; evaluate the current stateof scientific knowledge of the effects ofmariculture, and provide guidance criteria,methods and techniques to avoidadverse and promote positive effects ofmariculture and stock enhancement;... the ong>Jakartaong> ong>Mandateong> web site will bemaintained to promote the ong>Jakartaong> ong>Mandateong>and the programme of work for itsimplementation, and to disseminate relevantinformation;... the Clearing-House Mechanism willbe used for exchange of information andexpertise, as well as to promote scientificand technical co-operation.... and productsGuidelines for ...... integrated marine and coastal area management;... ecosystem evaluation and assessment,including indicators;... establishment and management of marineand coastal protected areas.Studies on ...... effects of stock enhancement;... genetic resources and bio-prospecting;... gap analysis of legal instruments, guidelinesand procedures for alien speciesand genotypes.Databases comprising ...... a roster of experts on marine and coastalbiological diversity;... an incident list of alien species and genotypes.Issue paper on ...... the coral bleaching phenomenon, includingpotential loss of diversity, and consequentsocio-economic effects.~ 16
THE PRODUCTION OF THIS PUBLICATION HAS BEEN SPONSORED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF SWEDEN.Conception, text and editing: Ardea Miljö, Sweden • Graphic design: Tryckfaktorn, SwedenCover photos: Front conver: Bonaire Island, the Netherlands Antilles (Superstock, GreatShots).Back cover and inside front cover: Coral reef biodiversity (Index Stock Imagery, GreatShots, and Kimmo Hagman, GreatShots).Inside back cover: Stonefish, a venomous tropical bottom-dwelling marine fish (Kimmo Hagman, GreatShots).Photos, pp. 1-16: National Geographics, GreatShots (pp. 1, 2-top, 10). Prisma Dia-Agentur, GreatShots (p.2-bottom).Göran Hansson (p. 3) and Åke Engman (p. 13), Naturfotograferna. Zainal Arifin, R&D Center for Oceanology, Indonesian Instituteof Science (LIPI) (pp. 6-7 and 8). Superstock, GreatShots (p. 9). Minden Pictures, GreatShots (p. 11). Chad EhlersITiofoto(p. 12). Björn Winsnes/Tiofoto (p.14).Richard Harbison, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (p. 15).Printing: Risbergs, Sweden. Printed in May 2000.
Secretariat of the ong>Conventionong> on Biological DiversityWorld Trade Centre,393 St Jacques Street, Office 300,Montréal, Québec, Canada H2Y 1N9Tel: +1-514-288-2220Fax: +1-514-288-6588E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgWeb site: www.biodiv.org