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14. Is there an alternate assessment for the ITBS?There is no alternate assessment or portfolio for the norm referenced Iowa Test ofBasic Skills.15. How do I order Braille or large print test booklets for my students?Alternate format test booklets are available for both the benchmark exam and theITBS. These booklets can be ordered in large print editions or in Braille format.Orders for these materials should be made through the district test coordinator,who in turn will forward that to the Arkansas Department of Education StudentAssessment Unit for processing by the proper vendors. These orders should beplaced as early as possible to insure delivery by testing dates. Students usingeither of these formats for their instruction must have the proper test formatavailable to them for the assessment.16. May the allowed accommodations be used with regular education students?The accommodations allowed for students with disabilities are not to be used withregular education students. These accommodations have been permitted based onthe disability of the student and his/her need for the accommodation to access thetest. It is intended that these accommodations will “level the playing field” interms of accessing the test, and in no way will create an unfair advantage to anystudent.17. Who is responsible for conducting the alternate portfolio assessment for eligiblestudents?It is expected that the student’s IEP team will make the determination that thestudent meets the criteria for alternate portfolio assessment. Once thatdetermination has been made and it is decided that an alternate assessment withthe portfolio is necessary, then the special education/regular education teacherresponsible for the student’s instruction will be expected to select the appropriatestrands and materials for submission for the student’s portfolio. Parents and otherservice providers may assist in the preparation of the portfolio, but theinstructional personnel are responsible for its development and submission.18. Is the school required to keep a copy of the material submitted in the portfolio?There is no requirement that the school maintain a copy of the student’s portfolioto be submitted. However, it is strongly recommended that some form of theportfolio be retained as a part of the student’s record. These portfolios are notreturned after scoring, so it would be necessary to make any copies of thematerials before submission of the portfolio. Parents often ask for a copy of theportfolio; it is a local decision as to whether to provide the portfolio to the parent.


Structure of the AtomThere are two regionsThe nucleus• With protons and neutrons– Positive charge– Almost all the massElectron cloud– Most of the volume of an atom– The region where the electron can be found


Subatomic ParticlesATOMPROTONSPositiveChargeNEUTRONSNeutralChargeMost of the atoms mass.QUARKS Atomic Numberequals the # of... equal in aneutral atomELECTRONSNegative ChargeMost of the atoms volume


Subatomic Particles• Quarks– component ofprotons &neutrons– 6 types– 3 quarks = 1 proton or 1 neutron QUARKS He


Size of an atom• Atoms are incredibly tiny.• Measured in picometers (10 -12 meters)– Hydrogen atom, 32 pm radius• Nucleus tiny compared to atom– Radius of the nucleus near 10 -15 m.– Density near 10 14 g/cm 3• IF the atom was the size of a stadium,• the nucleus would be the size of a marble.


Basics of the Atom Par0cle Charge Loca0on in the Atom Mass proton 1+ in nucleus ~1 a.m.u. neutron 0 in nucleus ~1 a.m.u. electron 1– orbi5ng nucleus ~0 a.m.u. a.m.u.: unit used to measure mass of atoms


Counting the PiecesAtomic Number = number of protons# of protons determines kind of atom(determines the element!)Atomic Number = number of electronsin a neutral atom12C 6126 C14C 6Mass Number = AAtomic Number = ZMass Number = the number of protons + neutrons


Nuclear SymbolsContain the symbol of the element, the massnumber and the atomic number# protons+ # neutronsmass number# protonsMass number Atomic number X


168 OAtomic #8 = 8 p +Mass # = p + + n 0Oxygen-16• Hyphen notation: Themass number is writtenwith a hyphen after thename of the elementuranium-235• Nuclear symbol: Thesuperscript indicatesthe mass number andthe subscript indicatesthe atomic number.23592 U


• Find theSymbols– number of protons = 9+– number of neutrons = 10– number of electrons = 9– Atomic number = 919 F – Mass number 9 = 19


Symbols Find the – number of protons – number of neutrons – number of electrons – Atomic number – Mass number = 35= 80= 35= 45= 3580 Br 35


SymbolsFind the– number of protons– number of neutrons– number of electrons23 Na – Atomic number11 – Mass number= 11= 23= 11= 12= 11Sodium atom


Symbols If an element has an atomic number of 23 and a mass number of 51 what is the – number of protons – number of neutrons – number of electrons – Complete symbol = 23= 28= 2351 V 23


Symbols If an element has 60 protons and 84 neutrons what is the – Atomic number – Mass number – number of electrons – Complete symbol = 60= 144= 60144 Nd 60


Symbols If a neutral atom of an element has 78 electrons and 117 neutrons what is the – Atomic number – Mass number – number of protons – Complete symbol = 78= 195= 78195 Pt 78


6CCarbon12.011Atomic Number Element Symbol Element Name Avg. Atomic Mass


atomic number: -­‐-­‐ -­‐-­‐ # of p + the whole number on Periodic Table determines iden5ty of atom 10 Ne 20.1797 mass number: (# of p + ) + (# of n 0 ) (It is NOT on the Table.)


Mass Number• mass # = protons + neutrons• always a whole number • NOT on the Periodic Table! Nucleuse-Electronse-e-e-e-e-+ + + + + + NucleusCarbon-12Neutrons 6Protons 6Electrons 6NeutronProton


Mass NumberAtomic Mass p + n 0 e – Ca 20 40 20 20 20 Ar 18 40 18 22 18 Br 35 80 35 45 35 20Ca40.0818Ar39.94835Br79.904


ion: a charged atom anion: a (–) ion -­‐-­‐ -­‐-­‐ more e – than p + formed when atoms gain e – ca5on: a (+) ion -­‐-­‐ more p + than e – -­‐-­‐ formed when atoms lose e – To find net charge on an atom, consider ____ p + and ____. e –


Descrip0on Net Charge Atomic Number Mass Number Ion Symbol 15 p + 16 n 0 18 e – 38 p + 50 n 0 36 e – 52 p + 76 n 0 54 e – 19 p + 20 n 0 18 e – –3 15 31 +2 38 88 –2 52 128 +1 19 39 P -­‐3 Sr +2 Te -­‐2 K +1


q Complete Atomic Designation…gives precise info about an atomic particlemass # charge (if any)elementsymbolatomic #125I 53Goiter due tolack of iodineiodine is nowadded to salt


Protons921134271725Neutrons Electrons14612921045 3632 2420 1830 18CompleteAtomicDesignation23892 U2311793459273717NaSeCoCl1+2–+3–155 +7Mn25


Isotopes• Atoms that have the same number ofprotons but different number of neutronsare called isotopes.• Almost every element have isotopes,some isotopes are stable, some break upinto smaller bits and release energy, wecall these radioactive isotopes.• (Carbon-14 and both isotopes of uraniumare radioactive.)


C-12(6 protons 6 neutrons)C-14(6 protons 8 neutrons)Uranium-238(92 protons 146 neutrons)Uranium-235(92 protons 143 neutrons


Isotopes• Atoms of the same element with differentmass numbers.• Nuclear symbol:Mass #Atomic #126 C• Hyphen notation: carbon-12


IsotopesElectronsNucleus+++++ +NeutronProtonNucleusCarbon-14Neutrons 8Protons 6Electrons 6NucleusCarbon-12Neutrons 6Protons 6Electrons 6Proton++++++NeutronElectronsNucleus


• Chlorine-37– atomic #:– mass #:– # of protons:– # of electrons:– # of neutrons:Isotopes173717172037Cl 1717Cl37


Isotopes:different varieties of an elements atoms-- have diff. #s of n 0 ; thus, diff. masses--some are radioactive; others arentAll atoms of an element react the same, chemically.Isotope Mass p + n 0 Common NameH–1 1 1 0 protiumH–2 2 1 1 deuteriumH–3 3 1 2 tritiumC–12 atoms C–14 atoms6 p + 6 n 0stable6 p + 8 n 0radioactive


Atomic Structure• ATOMS– Differ by number of protons• IONS– Differ by number of electrons• ISOTOPES– Differ by number of neutronscarbon vs. oxygen6 protons 8 protonsC C +4 C -4-6 e - 2 e - 10 e-6 p+ 6 p + 6 p +C-12 vs. C-146 e - 6 e-6 p+ 6 p +6 n 0 8 n 0

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