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Annotated Bibliography - Theodore Roosevelt Conservation ...

Annotated Bibliography - Theodore Roosevelt Conservation ...

Annotated BibliographyFWEWGwaters increase salinity and sodicity in the soils; 2) investigate growth and distribution patterns of native,invasive, and salt-tolerant plant species in relation to soil salinity and sodicity from CBM discharge waters;and 3) extrapolate the results of water chemistry analyses to soil analyses to determine the effect of CBMdischarge waters on local systems.Study plots were divided into two categories; (1) riparian areas upstream from CBM water discharge forreference sites and (2) riparian areas downstream from CBM water discharge for “affected” sites. Soil,sediment, water, and vegetation samples were collected from the study plots and taken to a lab for analysis.Results showed that coalbed methane co-produced waters had a significant impact on local soil andvegetation within the study area by elevating salts and sodium in soils and affecting vegetation compositionand density.It should be noted that any change in riparian vegetation can have significant negative impacts on aquaticecosystem health and diversity. The authors’ state that due to the large amounts of CBM co-producedwater, more serious problems can be expected in the next 5-10 years. It was also noted that there is acritical need for adequate monitoring and management of CBM discharge waters.Sweka, John A., and Kyle J. Hartman. 2001. Influence of turbidity on brook trout reactive distanceand foraging success. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 130: 138-146This study was designed to determine 1) the effects of turbidity on the reactive distance of brook trout(Salvelinus fontinalis), 2) how turbidity affects encounter rates between brook trout and their prey, and 3)how turbidity affects brook trout’s foraging success. The research was conducted in a controlledenvironment testing different groups of brook trout under increasing levels of turbidity to determinereactive responses to prey items.At turbidity levels ranging from 0 – 40 NTU brook trout were given prey items to test their ability to reactto prey. The results showed that increased turbidity (even at the lowest levels) decreased reactive distancesignificantly in both linear and quadratic model parameters. According to the results, prey density mustincrease exponentially – and faster than reactive distance decreases to maintain a constant encounter ratebetween brook trout and prey. As turbidity increased, the probability of reacting to an offered prey itemalso decreased linearly. What this study shows is that with an increase in turbidity brook trout feedingproductivity may be significantly decreased.This paper also cites many other studies relating different species of fish to their ability to detect and reactto prey items with increased turbidity. It should be noted that any activity that leads to increased runoff orsuspended sediments and thus turbidity has the potential to affect fish production.Sweka, John A., and Kyle J. Hartman. 2003. Reduction of reactive distance and foraging success insmallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, exposed to elevated turbidity levels. EnvironmentalBiology of Fishes 67:341-347.This study was conducted in order to determine the effect of turbidity on reactive distance and foragingsuccess of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu). Reactive distances were measured as fish were fedprey items in a controlled environment at increasing levels of turbidity from

Annotated BibliographyFWEWGTrombulak, S.C. and C.A. Frissell. 2000. Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial andaquatic communities. Conservation Biology 14(1) 18-30.The authors of this paper reviewed the scientific literature on the ecological effects of roads on terrestrialand aquatic communities. The work supported the general conclusion that roads are associated withnegative effects on biotic integrity in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Roads change soil density,temperature, soil water contact, light levels, surface waters, patterns of runoff, and sedimentation, as well asadding heavy metals to the environment.The authors explained and cited many sources on the effects that roads can have on aquatic communities.These factors included altered development of shorelines, stream channels, floodplains and wetlands.Roads can act as barriers to the movement of fishes and other aquatic organisms and contribute tofragmented populations. Finally, they serve as a source of fine sediments, nutrients, and contaminants toaquatic ecosystems.The authors’ note that road design, management, and restoration need to be carefully tailored to account forthe affected ecological processes and aquatic organisms. They continue that it is critical to retain roadlessor near-roadless portions of the landscape. It was determined that conservation efforts cannot depend uponunexamined assumptions about the capabilities of site- and species-specific mitigation and remediationmeasures to reduce the ecological consequences of existing and proposed roads.Warren Jr., M.L., and M.G. Pardew. 1998. Road crossings as barriers to small-stream fishmovement. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 127:637-644.This study examined the effects on fish movement of four road crossing types with different potentials toalter flows. Fish movement through crossings was determined at spring base and summer low flows insmall streams in forested watersheds. The authors asked four specific questions: 1) Does crossing typeaffect overall, directional, or seasonal fish movement? 2) Is crossing type associated with the diversity offishes or fish families able to traverse the crossing? 3) Are patterns of fish retention affected by crossings?4) Is there a relationship between fish movement and water depth and velocity through crossings?A total of nine crossings on eight streams were selected consisting of four different types of crossings(culvert, open-box, ford, and slab). The authors assessed movement for 21 fish species in seven familiesacross these stream crossings as well as through natural reaches. Results showed that movement of fisheswas significantly affected by crossing type. Culvert and slab crossings reduced overall fish movement, andmovement of fish families relative to natural reaches. In contrast, movement through open-box and fordcrossings generally was comparable with or higher than movement through natural reaches. For slabcrossings no movement was detected.The authors conclude by presenting evidence that increased water velocity through culverts is part of themechanism by which these crossings restrict fish passage. It is noted that given the importance of certainfishes to migrate across stream reaches, road crossings should be designed to minimize effects on fishmovement. Understanding water velocity levels in and among stream crossings may be vital to designingadequate corridors for movement of fishes.Wesche, T.A., C.M. Goertler, and C.B. Frye. 1987. Contribution of riparian vegetation to trout coverin small streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 7:151-153.This study quantitatively described by means of regression, the relative importance of three coverparameters (overhead bank cover, rubble-boulder-aquatic vegetation areas, and deepwater areas) and twocover models as indicators of trout standing stock in eight small streams in southeast Wyoming. Thispaper stressed the contribution of riparian vegetation to cover availability.Results were based on field investigations at 27 study sites on eight montane and foothill streams located inthe North Platte River Basin of southeast Wyoming. Brown trout (Salmo trutta) were the predominantgame fish species present at all sites in the study area. The findings agreed with previous studies that banks13

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