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Annotated Bibliography - Theodore Roosevelt Conservation ...

Annotated Bibliography - Theodore Roosevelt Conservation ...

Annotated BibliographyFWEWGTable of ContentsIntroduction………………………………………………………………….…………...1Effects of Landscape Disturbances………………….…………………..………………3Effects of Industrial Pollutants and By-Products…………………………………….15Habitat and Species Management and Assessments………...……………………….262

Annotated BibliographyFWEWGIntroductionPublic lands in the Rocky Mountain west provide anglers with limitless fishing opportunities and areessential to the cultural, social, and economic framework of the region. According to the U.S. Fish andWildlife Service’s 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife-Associated Recreation, nearly2.5 million anglers each year benefit from the natural resources found in this region. Through license fees,equipment purchases, and other related expenditures, anglers contribute approximately $1.7 billion to theregion’s economy each year.This area is also abundantly rich in natural resources which are available for a variety of energydevelopment practices. Extracting these natural resources requires an extensive and pervasiveinfrastructure of roads, pipelines, well pads, and transmission corridors that significantly alter the landscapeof the region. In addition, the de-watering of coal seams and the disposal of wastewater as well as runoffand pollution from industry infrastructure and spills, places increased pressure and stress on sensitiveaquatic ecosystems. Without proper planning, the cumulative effects of ongoing development maydrastically alter the ability of the landscape to adapt to these processes.Oil and Gas Exploration and DevelopmentIn response to growing concerns of energy self-sufficiency and issues of national security, there has been adramatic increase of oil and gas exploration and development on public lands throughout the RockyMountain west. Energy resource development is taking place regardless of the impacts that anthropogenicdisturbances have on already susceptible aquatic resources throughout the region. However, there is anawareness that certain land-use activities have negative and lasting impacts on aquatic ecosystems. Athorough understanding of the effects that energy exploration and development has on the region’s aquaticresources should serve to improve the decision making process which will ultimately prevent, minimize, ormitigate the impacts on fishery resources while also balancing the need for proper and adequate energydevelopment processes.Due to the rapid pace of energy resource exploration and development, natural resource managers have nothad the opportunity to react as quickly as needed to the impacts on the environment and adequately addressall of the issues involved. Studies are currently underway to examine the potential long-term effectsassociated with different types of energy development, but the pace of development continues to increase.There are two managerial problems that arise from the rapid pace of energy development on ourpublic lands:• Before steps can be taken to prevent or minimize impacts, the burden of determining whatimpacts development will ultimately have on aquatic resources in the region rests entirely onresource managers.• In many cases impacts are not immediate, but rather are noted as the quality of fishery resourcesgradually diminishes over time.In order to prevent losses to both fisheries and the affected local economies in the region, it isimperative that managers are able to account for the integrity of the regions resources and providesuccessful methods of maintaining that integrity.Purpose of the BibliographyThe purpose of this bibliography is to provide a resource to assist fisheries managers making decisions inthe face of rapid energy development throughout the Rocky Mountain west. This document attempts toencompass the most recent and historically relevant literature that will serve as a foundation on which tobase management decisions, guidelines, and recommendations. There is very little case-specificinformation readily available on the effects of oil and gas development in the Rocky Mountains, howeverthere is a wealth of information that can be used to identify and prevent or minimize common potentialproblems before they occur.1

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