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Turbulent mixing of oil droplets in a round water jet

Turbulent mixing of oil droplets in a round water jet

ContentsSamenvattingSummaryviviii1 Introduction 11.1 Background and aim of the project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Theory 32.1 Single-phase jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.1.1 Boundary-layer equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42.1.2 Self-similarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52.1.3 Velocity profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72.1.4 Entrainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102.1.5 Macro scales of the turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112.1.6 Kolmogorov scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.2 Droplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.2.1 Response time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132.2.2 Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142.2.3 Break-up and coalescence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2.4 Concentration development in a turbulent jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Measurement technique 193.1 Flow facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.1.1 Jet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193.1.2 Oil-water mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203.2 Principles of PIV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223.2.1 Tracer particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223.2.2 Correlation technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233.3 PIV set-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.3.1 Light sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.3.2 Seeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.3.3 Camera and image acquisition system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253.3.4 Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.4 Mean velocity and turbulent statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.5 Mean concentration and turbulent statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.6 Turbulent transport of oil droplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Results 314.1 Initial experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.1.1 Laminar-turbulent transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.1.2 Generation of oil-water mixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32iii

4.1.3 Coflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334.1.4 Single-phase jet experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344.2 Velocity field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344.3 Concentration field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424.3.1 Light intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424.3.2 Counting droplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474.4 Turbulent transport of oil droplets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 Conclusion and recommendations 55A Single-phase jet experiment 59A.1 Seeded coflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59A.2 Seeded jet and coflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62B Peak-locking 71C Comparison with PIVWare 73List of Figures 81List of Symbols 82List of Tables 85References 86iv

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