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Chapter 4 Applications of the definite integral to rates, velocities and ...

Chapter 4 Applications of the definite integral to rates, velocities and ...

Math 103 Notes

Math 103 Notes Chapter 4Solution(b) Here, we do not know the temperature at any time, but we are given information about therate of change. (Carefully note the subtle difference in the wording.) The total change is foundby integrating the rate of change, f(t), from t = 1 to t = 5, i.e. by calculatingI =∫ 51f(t) dt =∫ 51∣ ∣∣∣58e −0.2t dt = −40e −0.2t = −40e −1 + 40e −0.2I = 40(e −0.2 − e −1 ) = 40(0.8187 − 0.3678) = Tree growth ratesGrowthrate210 1 2 34 yearFigure 4.3: Growth rates of two trees.The rate of growth in height for two species of trees (in feet per year) is shown in Figure 4.3. Ifthe trees start at the same height, which tree is taller after 1 year? After 4 years?SolutionWe recognize that the net change in height of each tree is of the formH i (T) − H i (0) =∫ T0g i (t)dt,where g i (t) is the growth rate as a function of time (shown for each tree in Figure 4.3) and H i (t)is the height of tree “i” at time t. But, by the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus, this definiteintegral corresponds to the area under the curve g i (t) from t = 0 to t = T. Thus we must interpretthe net change in height for each tree as the area under its growth curve. We see from Figure 4.3that at 1 year, the area under the curve for tree 1 is greater, so it has grown more. After 4 yearsthe area under the second curve is greatest so tree 2 has grown most by that time.v.2005.1 - January 5, 2009 8

Math 103 Notes Chapter 44.3.2 Radius of a tree trunk2.521.510.50 2 4 6 8 10 12 14tFigure 4.4: Rate of change of radius, f(t) for a growing tree.The trunk of a tree, assumed to have the shape of a cylinder, grows incrementally, so that itscross-section consists of “rings”. In years of plentiful rain and adequate nutrients, the tree growsfaster than in years of drought or poor soil conditions. Suppose the rainfall pattern has been cyclic,so that, over a period of 10 years, the growth rate of the radius of the tree trunk (in cm/year) isgiven by the functionf(t) = 1.5 + sin(πt/5),shown in Figure 4.4. Let the height of the tree (and its trunk) be approximately constant over thisten year period, and assume that the density of the trunk is approximately 1 gm/cm 3 .(a) If the radius was initially r 0 at time t = 0, what will the radius of the trunk be at time tlater?(b) What will be the ratio of its final and initial mass?Solution(a) The rate of change of the radius of the tree is given by the function f(t), and we are told thatat t = 0, R(0) = r 0 . A graph of this growth rate over the first fifteen years is shown in Figure 4.4.The net change in the radius isR(t) − R(0) =∫ t0f(s) ds =∫ t0(1.5 + sin(πs/5)) ds.v.2005.1 - January 5, 2009 9

4 Applications of Definite Integrals to rates, velocities, and densities
3 Applications of Definite Integrals to rates, velocities, and densities
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