Phonological Patterns, continuedSpeech-Sound Acquisition, continuedWe reviewed several studies to determine the age by which at least 75% of childrenno longer use a given process.IndividualProcessDenasalizationAssimilationAffricationFinal consonantdeletionFronting of initialvelar singlesDeaffricationClusterreduction(without /s/)Depalatalizationof final singlesDepalatalizationof initial singlesAlveolarizationFinalconsonantdevoicingCluster reduction(with /s/)LabializationInitial voicingGliding ofinitial liquidsEpenthesisDescriptionchanging a nasal consonant toa nonnasalchanging a phoneme so it takeson a characteristic of anothersound in the wordsubstituting an affricate for anonaffricateomitting a singleton consonantat the end of a wordsubstituting a front sound for aback soundreplacing an affricate with acontinuant or stopomitting one or moreconsonants in a sequence ofconsonantssubstituting a nonpalatal for apalatal sound at the end of awordsubstituting a nonpalatal for apalatal sound at the beginningof a wordsubstituting an alveolar for anonalveolar soundsubstituting a voiceless finalconsonant for a voicedconsonantomitting /s/ in the initialposition of a clusterreplacing a nonlabial soundwith a labial soundsubstituting a voiced consonantfor a voiceless consonant beforea vowelsubstituting a /w/ or /j/ foranother consonantadding a sound, typically /ʌ/,between two consonantsExampleLikely Age ofDisappearancemat → /bæt/ 2.6cat → /tæt/ 3sheep → /tʃip/ 3cat → /kæ/ 3can → /tæn/ 4chip → /sɪp/ 4grape → /gep/ 4dish → /dɪt/ 4.6shy → /taɪ/ 5chew → /tu/ 5bag → /bæk/ 5step → /tɛp/ 5tan → /pæn/ 6sun → /zʌn/ 6run → /wʌn/ 7black → /bʌlæk/ 8Data from Peña-Brooks & Hegde (2007)LS Guide toCommunication Milestones 8 © 2008 LinguiSystems, Inc.
Speech-Sound Acquisition, continuedSpeech Intelligibility ExpectationsAgeIntelligibility Level19 – 24 months 25% – 50%2 – 3 years 50% – 75%4 – 5 years 75% – 90%5+ years 90% – 100%Data from Peña-Brooks & Hegde (2007)We’d like to thank the following sources from which we obtained information forthis chapter: Bauman-Wangler (1994), Bowen (www.speech-language-therapy.com/acquisition.html), Flahive & Hodson (in press), Locke (1983), Oller (1980), Peña-Brooks & Hegde (2007), and Sander (1972). For more information, please see thefull References, Websites, & Resources list on pages 22-24.PronounsThere is no clear-cut progression for the acquisition of pronouns. However, mostlinguists agree that I and it are the first pronouns to emerge, followed by you.Research also indicates that children use most subjective and objective pronouns bythree years of age and possessive pronouns by age five.Approximate Age12 – 26 months27 – 30 months31 – 34 months35 – 40 months41 – 46 months47+ monthsPronounsI, it (subjective and objective)my, me, mine, youyour, she, he, yours, wethey, us, hers, his, them, herits, our, him, myself, yourself, ours, their, theirsherself, himself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselvesWe’d like to thank Owens (1996) from whom we obtained information for thissection. For more information, please see the full References, Websites, &Resources list on pages 22-24.LS Guide toCommunication Milestones 9 © 2008 LinguiSystems, Inc.