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Integrates pest management for the control of red palm ... - Pubhort.org

Integrates pest management for the control of red palm ... - Pubhort.org

Table .1: Number, angle,

Table .1: Number, angle, and depth of hole per palm and dose ofinsecticide used.Group Palm Dose per No. of Hole Chiseldiameter (m) palm (ml) holes per angle depthpalm (Degree) (cm)1 Less than 1 5 1 30 3-52 1.5 10 2 45 5-103 1.5-2 15 2-3 60 10-154 More than 2 20 3-4 60 202.1. Small Scale Experiments: four Centres where infestation ofRPW was high were chosen. Three infested palms per farm were injectedwith concentrated Rolfan. Doses were 5, 10, 15 or 20 ml/plant Clependingon the stem size and the degree of infestation.Efficiency of the insecticide on controlliing infestation wasevaluated after 30 days on external symptoms on scale where.A: No external infestation symptoms.B: Dryness of up to third-leaf row.C: Dryness of the heart of the palm tree.D: Presence of fruits.E: Development of new offshoots.F: Collapse death of the palm tree.2.2. Large Scale Survey: In the thirty Centres of the Department ofAgriculture & Livestock there are 6,177 farms with a total of 1,108,723date palm trees of different cutivars and age. During seasons 1994/95,1995/96 and 1996/97, the number of infested farms were counted. Allplam trees infested by RPW during the three seasons were injected withMarshal, Rogodial, Pirimicid or Rolfan. The percentages of infestedfarms and palm trees were calculated.3. AGGREGATION PHEROMONESAggregation pheromones have been reported as effective tools formonitoring and trapping of RPW in the field (Lepasme, 1974;Nirula,1956; Wygner, 1962; Mathen, 1967; Frohich 1970; Lakshmanan, 1972;272--- ---

Roa, 1973; Dean, 1976; El Hideri; 1980; Gunnawardena & Bandarge,1995b; El Garhy, 1996 and El Ezaby, 1997).3.1. Small Scale Experiment: An aggregation pheromone obtained.from Costa Rica under trade name: Lures + ferrolure or pheromone luresRhvunchophorus ferrugineus with chemical name: 4-methy 1-5-nonanol(9 parts)+4-methy 1-5 nonanone (l part)-99.9% purity + 0.1% colorantand 0.1% antioxidant, was evaluated for RPW catch in the field.Trap consists of 10 litre plastic bucket with a cover, with four2.5x6 cm openings for the entrance of the attracted adults. About 600 mgof the pheromone are contained in a bag 3.5x6 cm in dimension madefrom special plastic that allows the release of the pheromone slowly andat a constant rate. The pheromone lures are hanged from underneath ofthe bucket cover. Soft date fruits, treated with granular insecticideFuridan or Marshal 5G are put at lower part of the bucket as baits. Thebucket is covered from the outside by rought cloth to allow the adultsweevils to crawl up easily to the openings, rather than falling down fromthe smooth surface of the bucket.In Al Saad West and She Bin Ammar Centres, two fanns with highdegree of infestation were selected where ten traps were hanged on teninfested palms per farm. The pheromone lures and baits were changedregularly. Catches were collected up to December 1996.3.2. Large Scale Experiment: In eight Centres, ninety three farmswith continuous RPW infestation were selected and in each farm fivetraps were hanged on the infested palms 50 cm above the ground level.Pheromone lures were changed when necessary. Catches were collectedregularly over a period of twelve months.RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONLABORATORY EXPERIMENTS1. Larvae: Insecticide Rolfan and Marshal gave 100% kill of newlyhatched larvae (Table 2) and 97% and 87.2% kill of one-month-oldlavae, respectively (Table 3).273

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