Views
2 years ago

2.Literature Review 2.1 Spokes Character The definition of a spokes ...

2.Literature Review 2.1 Spokes Character The definition of a spokes ...

2.2.3 Promotional

2.2.3 Promotional ContinuitySpokes-characters can create promotional continuity across advertisingcampaigns, across brands in a product line, and over time. Advertising continuity isoccurred when spokes character keep showing on the advertising and representing forspecific brand, it brings product identification. Product line continuity means spokescharacters can provide continuity across brands in a product line. This can resultcumulative publicity and connecting products can help to sell each other (Strasser,1989). Spokes-characters can also provide continuity over time (Wright, Warner,andWinter, 1971). This make consumers have deeper impression of the link betweenspokes character and the brand.2.3 Gender and Spokes-CharacterBase on the target audiences’ gender, companies may need to use differentspokes-characters to attract consumers’ attention. Phillips and Gyoerick (1999) foundthat more realistic animal spokes-characters appear in men’s magazine whilespokes-characters appear in women’s magazines are more personified. Thespokes-characters that are less personified are used as symbols of product attributesand usually promote for high-involvement products, examples are the RCA dogs and17

Merrill Lynch Bull. Highly personified Spokes-characters are usually used for low-involvement products in women’s magazines. Spokes-characters ads target towarddifferent gender presented in different appearance to get better effect. Gender ofSpokes-characters can also be a factor to influence consumers’ attitude towardadvertising effectiveness. Male spokes-characters dominate the ads for a long time,the percentage of male spokes-characters is 45%, female 27%, and the rest are notapplicable (Phillips and Gyoerick, 1999). In men’s magazines, there is no femalespokes-character advertisement, while in women’s magazines there are about 30% ofthe spokes-characters are female. Why there are more male spokes-characters thanfemale spokes-characters? The answer might lies in the traditional notion that men arethe symbol of authority and since we were still kids we were exposed by thecommercials dominate by male characters and male voices. Male spokes-charactersappear in all kinds of product commercials except cosmetic and household products.(Courtney &Whipple, 1974; Dominick & Rauch, 1972; Doolittle & Pepper, 1974;Marecek et al., 1978; O’Donnell & O’Donnell, 1978) Research by Peirce stated thatgender and product type affect the likability of spokes-characters and perceptions oftarget audiences. That is male spokes-characters have more effective when used formale-oriented products. It was hypothesized that when spokes-character is the samegender as target audience, the advertising effectiveness will be better.18

2. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1 The Definition of Novel ...
11 Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Country ... - DSpace@UM
13 Chapter 2: Critical Literature Review 2.1 ... - Dissertation
Chapter 2 Literature Review 2.1 Introduction E ... - DSpace@UM
Chapter 2: Literature Reviews 2.1 Introduction Recently ... - DSpace
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Biological control Biological ...
9 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 ... - DSpace@UM
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Particle Swarm Optimization
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Phytic acid 2.1.1 ...
Celebrity Advertising: Literature Review and Propositions
2. DEFINITIONS 2.1 ACCEPTABLE Acceptable to the ... - PECO
The Cultural Industries Sector: its definition and character from ...
Celebrity Advertising: Literature Review and Propositions - Wbiaus.org
B. Zafer Erdogan^ Celebrity Endorsement A Literature Review
2-1 CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS AND CRITERIA 2.1 General. This ...
Algebra I Section 2: The System of Integers 2.1 Axiomatic definition ...
Page 1 2 The Definite Integral 2.1 Find the area under the function ...
Page 1 2 The Definite Integral 2.1 Find the area under the function ...
Literature Review: Documenting the Value of Paper - American ...
Chapter 2 Literature Review - Atomistic Simulation Group
7 Chapter 2 Literature Review: Markets, Intermediation and E ...
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 Market Share, Definition, Treatment, Symptoms, Causes, Pipeline Review, H1 2016
Aurora Kinase A (Aurora 2 or EC 2.7.11.1) Market Size, Definition, Treatment, Causes, Pipeline Review, H1 2016
Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2 Market Size, Definition, Treatment, Symptoms, Causes, Pipeline Review, H2 2016