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KUMRAL - DOCUMENTO - Annals of Microbiology

KUMRAL - DOCUMENTO - Annals of Microbiology

TABLE 1 – Effects

TABLE 1 – Effects of some spices on pathogenic bacteria (Tube dilution method)Spices Minimum inhibitory concentration (mg ml -1 )S. typhimurium E. coli E. aerogenes L. monocytogenes Y. enterocolitica24 h 48 h 72 h 24 h 48 h 72 h 24 h 48 h 72 h 24 h 48 h 72 h 24 h 48 h 72 hGarlic 325 162.5 54.1 162.5 108.5 54.1 108.3 108.3 54.1 81.3 32.5 32.5 54.1 54.1 54.1Thyme * * * 52.5 52.5 52.5 70 42 42 17.5 17.5 7 * 70 35Mint * * * * * 70 42 42 42 42 42 35 * 70 23Mustard * * * * * * * 52.5 42 * 35 35 * 23 23Centaury * * * * * * 70 52.5 52.5 17.5 7 7 * * *Cayenne pepper * * * * * * 374 374 374 * * * * * 170C. pepper(dried) * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *Cumin * * * * * * * * * * * 70 * 70 35Fennel * * * * * * * * * * * * * 70 35Anais * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 23Onion * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ** Pure spice extract (without any dilution) didn’t inhibited the tested bacteria.430 A. KUMRAL et al.

TABLE 2 – Association between extending incubation time and minimum inhibitory concentrationMicroorganism Garlic Thyme Mint Mustard Centaury Cumin FennelS. typhimurium – 0,993 b b b b b bE. coli -1 * a b b b b bE. aerogenes – 0,866 – 0,866 a -1 * – 0,866 b bL. monocytogenes – 0,866 – 0,866 – 0,866 a – 0,866 b bY. enterocolitica a –1 * –1 * a b –1 * –1 ** Correlation coefficient significant at P = 0.01.a: minimum inhibitory concentration remained the same with extending incubation time.b: no inhibitory effect was observed.concentration and incubation time was observed (Table 2). Minimum inhibitoryconcentration of some spices decreased with extending incubation period (r = -1).Disc diffusion methodGarlic, mint and thyme formed clear inhibition zones on tested bacteria (Table 3).Garlic inhibited all of the tested bacteria. Y. enterocolitica was the most susceptibleone followed by E. coli, S. typhimurium, E. aerogenes and L. monocytogenesrespectively. Inhibitory effect of garlic extract generally started with 3.35 mg spiceconcentration but L. monocytogenes inhibition was first seen at 13.4 mg andremained same with increasing amounts (Fig. 1A). Mint inhibited all test microorganismsexcept E. coli (Fig. 1B). Thyme formed inhibition zones on E. aerogenes,Y. enterocolitica and S. typhimurium (Fig. 1C).Association between increasing spice concentrations and inhibition zones areshown in Table 4. Increasing garlic concentrations showed a positive association (r= 0.878 to 0.982) with increasing inhibition zones on all tested bacteria. The highestassociation between garlic concentrations and inhibition zones was observedwith S. typhimurium but increasing mint concentrations was not significantly associatedwith inhibition zones of S. typhimurium (p > 0.05). In addition increasingthyme concentrations showed a positive association with increasing inhibitionzones (r = 0.878 to 0.923) (Table 4).Results of the two methods demonstrated that garlic inhibited all of the testedpathogenic bacteria as reported by other researchers (Shelef, 1983; Davidson andBaren, 1993; Hefnawy et al., 1993; Arora and Kaur, 1999). But heat exposure andrefrigeration resulted in activity loss as Arora and Kaur (1999) reported.According to tube dilution method results, thyme and mint didn’t kill S.typhimurium, but in disc diffusion method both spices inhibited this bacteria at definiteconcentrations. On the other hand, no inhibition zones of mint (on E. coli) andthyme (on E. coli and L. monocytogenes) occurred. Contradictory results of twomethods were also reported by other authors (Kim et al, 1995; Sivropoulou et al.,1995; Halender et al., 1998; Baytop, 1999).Ann. Microbiol., 53 (4), 427-435 (2003) 431

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