Views
3 years ago

Transnational Networks and Migration from Faryab to Iran

Transnational Networks and Migration from Faryab to Iran

Transnational Networks and Migration from Faryab to IranEven if the agricultural situation improves in the years to come, the need to findwork elsewhere will probably continue as a consequence of population growth. Thedescendents of the founder of the Pashtun hamlet have strategically stretched theirfamilies over a wide geographic space, and considering the unlikelihood that thefamilies in Pakistan will return in the current economic climate, the situation withstretched families and households moving along the lines of a triangle running fromFaryab to Quetta to Zindajan will be sustained.Of the Uzbek families, only two have close male relatives in Iran. In one case, fourbrothers have distributed themselves between Iran and the manteqa, while theirfamilies are in Shirin Tagab with a maternal uncle. Departure to Iran of one brothercan be prompted by the return of another for weddings and other social andlifecycle events. In this way, at least one brother has continued to provide labour tothe Arab landowner to secure this source of income, exemplifying the spread of risksand the use of migration as a social strategy. Because of the absence of horizontalredistribution mechanisms and the potential of reallocating resources to share risksand build obligations, the other Uzbek families continue to survive on the basis oftheir vertical linkages with the landlord, perpetuating this cycle of economicdependency. As one man explains:There is no donkey or car to carry me from one village to another to findwork – how can I go to find work elsewhere? Some can go to other places,but others cannot.Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit 19

Transnational Networks and Migration from Faryab to Iran4. The Route to Iran – Means and Ways4.1 Iranian policies and Afghan migrant flowsThe first refugee outflows in the eighties and nineties as a result of the communistledcoups and the Soviet occupation, along with the conflict between the Najibullahgovernment and the mujaheddin, received a warm welcome in Afghanistan’sneighbouring countries. The Iranian government took formal responsibility for theAfghans and allowed them to live where they found work. In addition, they hadaccess to healthcare, basic education and subsidised food, and were allowed to workin designated sectors. 30 The Iranian government took a certain pride in this offer ofassistance to the approximately two million Afghans that had fled the communist,infidel regime.When the Najibullah government fell in 1992, many Afghans repatriated to theircountry. This movement came to a halt because of further interfactional fightingand the advance of the Taliban from 1994 onwards, with mainly ethnic minoritiesfleeing from central and northern Afghanistan. 31 Since the mid nineties, the majorityof Afghans in Iran have remained undocumented, and it has become clear that theIranian government has withdrawn its original position on Afghan migrants.Since the perceived installation of peace in Afghanistan in late 2001, Iraniansgenerally feel that their country’s hospitality has lasted long enough and that it istime for Afghans to go home. 32 By early 2002, most starkly expressed by HomeOffices and the Bureau for Aliens and Foreign Immigrants Affairs (BAFIA), thegovernment was implementing policies to provide disincentives for Afghans to stay inIran. 33 The general view was that Afghan refugees posed a significant burden becauseof their sheer numbers and the relatively high levels of unemployment in Iran. InSeptember 2001 the government announced that there were 2,355,427 registeredAfghan aliens in Iran, of whom the majority (61 percent) were male. 34 Moreover, theissue of national security appears to be of primary importance, particularly inrelation to drugs trafficking still taking place along its border, and an uncontrollableflow of migrants that continue to cross the border into Iran. 35Iran’s policies to encourage the repatriation of Afghan refugees started with greaterregulation and control of the labour market, exemplified by an increase in raids onworking sites by Iranian security forces, 36 and penalties applied to employers hiringAfghan labourers. Other measures which have increased pressures on Afghans,especially families, have been the closure of informal Afghan schools 37 and therestriction of opportunities for higher education in 2003, 38 and the denial of access30 Strand et al, 2004: 231 UNHCR, 2004: 632 Afghan refugees themselves feel that they are no longer welcome in Iran because of the increasingdenial of basic human rights and both subtle and overt discrimination (Amnesty International, 2003: 4)33 Strand et. al, 2004: 434 UNHCR Iran. Annual Protection Report Iran – 2002. Confidential, unpublished report. Geneva:UNHCR, 2003: 2.35 Parallel to rising levels of trafficking, Afghanistan’s neighbouring countries are also affected bygrowing levels of abuse, resulting from a spill-over of trafficking, often a consequence of remunerationin kind. Expressed as a percentage of the population age 15 and above – up to 2.8 percent of thepeople in Iran consume opiates, a far higher percentage than in Western Europe. (UNODC, 2003: 15).36 UNHCR Iran, 2003: 737 Hoodfar, 2004: 2 (informal report on education in Iran)38Strand et al, 2004: 3Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit 20

Diaspora Networks and the International Migration of Skills
Glocal Migration and Transnational Politics - Center for Global ...
A Seamless Migration from WiMAX to LTE Using ... - Sonus Networks
Constructing Transnational Action Research Networks - DRC ...
Learning Network on Transnational Cooperation in ESF ...
Symposium Proceedings - Mekong Migration Network
Download the Transnational Ecological Network - South Norfolk ...
Data Center LAN Migration Guide - Juniper Networks
Growing-Cyberthreat-From-Iran-final
to read "Engaging Iran on Afghanistan." - The Stimson Center
Virtual Museum Transnational Network - LinkSCEEM
Current Migration Trends from Mexico: What Are the ... - ILW.com
Global Initiative - Migration from Africa to Europe - May 2014
Profiting from injustice - Transnational Institute
Transnational Families and the impact of Economic - COFACE
Organized Crime and Irregular Migration from Africa to Europe
Download File - European Migration Network
Rubiks agreements - TTN Transnational Taxation Network
Short-term Assignment - TTN Transnational Taxation Network
Conflicts and Migration - Mekong Migration Network
Labour Migration from Colombo Process Countries: Good Practices
Double non-taxation - TTN Transnational Taxation Network
chilean tax structure - TTN Transnational Taxation Network
p. 58 (PDF 3.4 MB) - Mekong Migration Network
oxford - TTN Transnational Taxation Network
The Haqqani Network: From Pakistan to Afghanistan