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a) Import Document.B/L(Bill of Lading)Bill of Lading (Transportation document)Documents for customs clearanceCommercial invoice, packing list, certificate of origin. For goods originating from countries witha preferential qualification, a preferential origin certificate should be included as it may reducethe customs duty.Import of goods that require import authorizationThe import of certain goods (e.g. clothing) may be subject to partially strictly regulatedprovisions. In many cases an import authorization is required. The documents required toobtain such an import authorization are governed by the respective country of origin or trade.As a general rule, an application for an import authorization may be applied for prior to thearrival of the shipment, provided that all essential documents from your suppliers are availablein a timely manner.Konnossement-ArtenThe transportation document (Bill of Lading or B/L Bill of Lading) is used as:Confirmation that the shipment was assumed by the carrierConfirmation regarding the sea freight contractNegotiable instrument (transfer document)Bill of Lading terms and conditionsThe terms and conditions of the carrier issuing the Bill of Lading are listed on the front side of thedocument. The reverse side of the document contains information regarding the shipper, consignee, adescription of goods, etc., in other words, all the information concerning the shipment to betransported. Typically, banks will require a "shipped on board” Bill of Lading in the letter of credit.A Bill of Lading must contain the following informationName of the carrierName of the shipper (can also be the freight forwarder)Name of the vesselName of the recipient (or an Order)Loading portPort of destinationLading informationPrepaid or collectPlace and date of issueDelivery agentNumber of issued originalsOn-Board-Notations
Port-Port Bill of LadingFrom the port of loading to the port of dischargeMultimodal Combined Transport Bill of LadingFrom the named place of receipt to the named place of delivery.FIATA-B/LIs a Multimodal Combined Transport Bill of Lading that is generally issued by shipping agents.EndorserIs someone who endorses an endorsable document and thus assigns his rights under a commercialinstrument over to another.EndorsementEndorsements of Bills of Lading, similar to those in other types of bill of exchange transactions, arerequired to transfer rights of a Bill of Lading to third parties and/or to assert a delivery claim against thecarrier. The recipient must render an additional endorsement in order release the cargo from thecarrier for delivery.Container - standardized steel box.Water navigation without containers has become unimaginable. The reason for this is standardization.The standardized containers can be used for many different means of transportation. The containercan also be used as a loading device.Variations of sea transportLCL (less than container load)In LCL-shipments (also known as a “less than container load”), the combined volume and/or weight ofall the individual deliveries is too low to fill up an entire container. As a result, in practice, multipleLCL-deliveries (which may be for different shippers with the same port of destination) will be combinedinto one container (=collective container) at the port of shipment.FCL(full container load)Exclusive containers will be loaded when:The volume and weight of the delivery is large enough to make transportation in an exclusivecontainer economical.The nature of the goods and/or the safety of the shipment requires the use of an exclusivecontainerLoading the goods in question together with other goods is prohibited.Break BulkThe term Break Bulk refers to the transport of shipments which, due to their dimensions, weight orother characteristics are not loadable into a container or for which the transport in a container wouldnot be deemed economical.