2 years ago



Finding 1.2: Among

Finding 1.2: Among survey respondents, 87percent of multilaterals and bilaterals mainstreamgender in their programs and projects. 32 More thanhalf of foundation and corporation respondentsreported that they mainstream gender.Mainstreaming gender:“The process of assessing the implications forwomen and men of any planned action, includinglegislation, policies or programmes. . . . It is a strategyfor making women’s as well as men’s concernsand experiences an integral dimension of the design,implementation, monitoring and evaluationof the policies and programmes in all political, economicand societal spheres so that women and menbenefit equally, and inequality is not perpetuated.” 33—United Nations Economic and Social CouncilFinding 1.3: Gender mainstreaming requiresexcellent analysis and coordination.Gender mainstreaming is the norm among multilateralsand bilaterals, institutions that provide the largestamounts of funding for education. Therefore, it isessential to ensure high-quality gender analysis andstrong coordination among these institutions in countrieswhere girls face severe disparities.With a shift to countries’ ownership of developmentaid, many gender advocates are emphasizing theimportance of gender mainstreaming. In 2005, morethan 100 representatives of donor agencies, developingcountry governments and international agenciesgathered to sign the Paris Declaration on AidEffectiveness. 34 Donors and partner countries agreedto a new international aid paradigm based on the principlesof countries’ ownership of development plans,alignment with countries’ priorities, and the harmonizationof donor governments’ policies.Separately, gender advocates had long been discussingthe importance of mainstreaming gender—that is, implementingpolicies to ensure that women’s and men’s,and girls’ and boys’, distinct concerns are addressedin all international and domestic work. 35 By the timeof the Paris Declaration and the shift away from fundingstand-alone projects, the United Nations and mostbilateral aid agencies had embraced gender mainstreamingas a critical analytical framework for mutualaccountability. 36 In 2007, following the development ofthe Gender Equity Marker within the Organization forEconomic Cooperation and Development’s (OECD’s)Development Assistance Committee (DAC) CreditorReporting System, financial tracking of gender mainstreamingwas institutionalized among the DAC’scountry members and EU institutions. 37Although the general trend among governments since2005 has been to draw back from funding stand-aloneprojects in favor of giving countries direct support fortheir budgets, some multilaterals and bilaterals havecomplemented budget support with selective projectaid, including for girls’ education. One of the largest-scaledonor-driven commitments to girls’ educationcame from the U.K. Department for InternationalDevelopment (DFID) in 2011, with the launch of itsGirlsEducation Challenge (GEC), a program with£355 million in funding and the goal of reaching 1 milliongirls. 38According to Sally Gear, former program lead for theGEC, whether or not gender mainstreaming works dependson careful analysis, but there is also a need fortargeted programs: “It’s about doing it well. . . . Girlshave additional challenges because they don’t getsupport, but in terms of quality, boys have challengesas well, including corporal punishment. So the mainstreamingphilosophy is looking at differential needsand knowing gender is one of the issues. . . . But youneed both [mainstreaming and targeted programs].” 398 GLOBAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Foundations and corporations often focus their relativelysmaller resources thematically on marginalizedgroups, including girls, to complement governmenteducation programs or in partnership with nonstate actors.Multilaterals and bilaterals funding governmentsalso target girls and other marginalized groups throughpolicy and dialogue. Given the different modalities thatinstitutions may employ in any one country, coordinationcan increase the overall girls’ education effort.Figure 5. Changes in Institutions’ Fundingfor GirlsEducation in the Past 10 YearsFluctuated4%StayedSame18%Unsure4%Finding 1.4: Over two-thirds of survey respondentsreported that funding for girls’ education hasincreased within their own institution over thepast 10 years. 40Decereased4%Increased70%The survey asked respondents whether funding forgirls’ education had increased in the past 10 years andfound that it has, for the majority of respondents. Thismajority included a wide range of institutions, suchas the Millennium Challenge Corporation, Australia’sDepartment of Foreign Affairs and Trade, StandardChartered Bank and the Caterpillar Foundation. Figure5 summarizes the responses from the 27 institutionsthat participated. 41Finding 1.5: Multilateral, bilateral and foundationsurvey respondents report that education made upa small fraction of their aid portfolio in 2013.Survey responses and additional research show thatamong multilateral, bilaterals and foundations, educationstill makes up only a small percentage of aidbudgets. Table 2 shows average development and humanitarianaid funding in 2013 by institution type, aswell as the share that goes to education.Table 2. Average 2013 Spending on Humanitarian/Development and EducationPrograms, by Institution TypeType of InstitutionTotal Aid(millions of dollars)Education Aid(millions of dollars)Percentage of Aid BudgetSpent on EducationMultilaterals 5,900 370 6Bilaterals 9,800 720 7Foundations 50 4.4 9Corporations 10 4.0 41Source: Data on the top 10 multilateral and bilateral donors overall and to education are from the OECD, “OECD CreditorReporting System,” 2013, AND ACTION IN FUNDING GIRLS’ EDUCATION 9

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