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Ackerman--Girls-Education_FINAL

Ackerman--Girls-Education_FINAL

Figure 11. Out-of-School

Figure 11. Out-of-School Girls & Official Development Assistance to Education800India700Official Development Assistance to Education (2011, $ million)600500400300200BangladeshMozambiqueBurkina FasoIndonesiaEthiopiaPakistan10000MPhilippinesYemenSyriaNiger1MUganda2M3M4MNigeriaOut of School Girls, in millions (Primary & Lower Secondary, 2006-2014)5M6M7M8MData Source: UNESCO, 2014.Note: The countries in light blue were not top recipients of ODA, despite their large populations of girls without access to school.20 GLOBAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

was adapted for the purposes of this survey. 85 TheDFID literature review collected and reviewed a largebody of evidence on girls’ education, which is referredto later in this report.Finding 4.1: Survey responses show that amongrespondents, the least funding goes to developingand implementing policies and legislation. The mostfunding goes to activities that address constraintson resources and infrastructure, and the secondmost-fundedcategory addresses norms that affectgirls’ education and promote inclusion.Survey respondents were asked to state the percentageof institutional funding that goes to each of thethree categories mentioned above. On average, ofthe 14 institutions that responded to this question,respondents reported that that 45 percent of fundinggoes to resources and infrastructure. The averageamount of funding for norms and inclusion-relatedwork was 40 percent, and the average for policy andlegislation was 14 percent. The remaining 1 percentwas classified as “other.” See figure 12.Figure 12. Average Percent of TotalFunding to GirlsEducation by CategoryNorms &Inclusion40%Other1%Policy &Legislation14%Resources &Infrastructure45%Although less funding goes to policy and legislationwork, among respondents the majority of institutionsfund at least one program or project in this area.How Institutions Fund, by ActivityThis and the following subsections discuss survey respondents’activities in each of the three categoriesdescribed above. This information on funder trendsdraws on the survey responses about types of investmentsfrom 30 institutions, including 6 multilaterals, 6bilaterals, 9 foundations and 9 corporations.It should be noted that although more foundationsand corporations responded to these questions, multilateralsand bilaterals generally fund education in fargreater volumes. The information presented here refersto instances of investment in each type of activity,not the size of investments.The survey asked for responses in a number of activitycategories related to the quality of education that arespecific to girls, such as ensuring that the curriculumis gender sensitive and providing academic supportfor girls. Surveying all activities that aim to improvethe quality of education was outside the scope of thisstudy.Reducing Resource ConstraintsFinding 4.2: Over half of survey respondentsreported that they are funding programs or projectsfor textbook and school supplies or financialsupport for students. Many survey respondentsare also funding programs or projects that providehygiene and sanitation supplies or informationabout the economic return to education.Nineteen institutions provide textbooks or other learningsupplies, and this was the most common activityfunded by survey respondents. Sixteen respondentsINNOVATION AND ACTION IN FUNDING GIRLS’ EDUCATION 21

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