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Ackerman--Girls-Education_FINAL

Ackerman--Girls-Education_FINAL

Figure 18. Number of

Figure 18. Number of Institutions Investing in Advocacy and Social Norms18161412CorporationFoundationBilateralMultilateral1086420Raising awareness abouteducation and life trajectoriesChallenging social normsthat deter educationGetting girls inschool campaignsGirls’ and women’srights advocacyWorking withfaith communitiesOther or N/ATable 5. Funder Priority Countries, by Activity, Among Survey Respondents(Ranked by number of institutions funding programs)Resources andInfrastructurePolicy and LegislationNorms and InclusionIndia 17 Pakistan 11 India 29Pakistan 14 Afghanistan 7 Pakistan 17Afghanistan 12 India 5 Afghanistan 16Nepal 9 Ethiopia 5 Nigeria 12Fiji 7 Nigeria 5 Uganda 10Malawi 6 El Salvador 4 Guatemala 10Kenya 6 Kenya 3 Malawi 10Morocco 6 Burkina Faso 3 Vietnam 10Ethiopia 5 Niger 3Democratic Republic ofCongo8Laos 5 Georgia 3 Kenya 7Papua New Guinea 5 Uganda 3 Burkina Faso 7Niger 726 GLOBAL ECONOMY AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

Finding 4.9: Priority activities are generallybacked by evidence.The survey asked institutions to indicate which activitiesthey fund for girls’ education. Table 6 ranksthese activities according to the number of surveyrespondents that fund the activity. The table thencategorizes the evidence base for each activity inkeeping with the methods described in a literaturereview conducted by Unterhalter and colleaguesfor Britain’s DFID and drawing on supplementaryresearch. “Strong” indicates strong evidence of impactbased on quality studies that point to a causalrelationship. “Promising” indicates that the evidenceshows room for optimism, but did not meet the criteriafor “strong.” “Limited” indicates that there waslittle evidence of impact. (For more information onthe methodology, see Elaine Unterhalter et al., GirlsEducation and Gender Equality. 87 )A significant number of institutions fund sanitationand hygiene supplies. A rigorous study conductedin Nepal showed no significant impact on girls’ attendancewhen menstrual supplies were provided. 106Some evidence shows that menstruation contributesto absenteeism. For example, a study in Sierra Leonefound that 21 percent of girls miss school due to menstruation.107 The Nepali study, however, found thatgirls missed only 0.4 days per year, on average, dueto menstruation. The impact of menstruation on girls’schooling appears to be highly context-specific, andrigorous evidence on what interventions, if any, aremost effective has yet to be established.Campaigns to get girls in school are also funded bya number of institutions. One study showed that theimpact of campaigns that drive enrollment can bemixed, because quality can be compromised if notTable 6. Top Types of Investments, by InstitutionNo. ofInvestments19ActivityTextbooks andother schoolsuppliesEvidenceBaseCategoryStrongNotesStudies show a positive impact on enrollment,retention, 88 attendance and test scores, 89 sometimesdifferentially benefiting girls.17Life-skillsprograms(empowerment,career counseling,sexual andreproductivehealth)Promising*When sex education in and outside schools goes beyondbiology and broadly examines gender relations, it canhelp build confidence and strengthen girls’ agency inrelationships with males. 90 Life-skills programs canalso help retain girls in school and support learningoutcomes. 9116Financial support(scholarships, cashtransfers, loans)Strong*Financial support must be properly targeted to beeffective. 92 It may be more effective when conditional(e.g., on attendance), though conditionality must notprejudice marginalized groups. 9316Literacy andnumeracyprograms targetedto include girlsPromising*Studies on women’s literacy programs show, whenpaired with discussions of gender roles and norms,these can help women challenge unequal powerrelations. 94 Less evidence is available on programsfor girls, though one study found hiring local femaleteachers for remedial programs was a cost-effectiveway to increase children’s learning. 95INNOVATION AND ACTION IN FUNDING GIRLS’ EDUCATION 27

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